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Southern Min

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Not to be confused with Southern Ming.

Southern Min (simplified Chinese:闽南语; traditional Chinese:閩南語; pinyin: Mǐnnányǔ; lit. 'Southern Fujian language'), Minnan (Mandarin pronunciation:) or Banlam (Southern Min pronunciation: ), is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages that form a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Fujian (especially the Minnan region), most of Taiwan (many citizens are descendants of settlers from Fujian), Eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and Southern Zhejiang. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, San Francisco, Los Angeles and New York City. It is the most populous branch of Min Chinese, spoken by an estimated 48 million people in ca. 2017–2018.

Southern Min
閩南語 /闽南语
Bàn-lâm-gú
EthnicityHoklo people
Teochew people
Geographic
distribution
Fujian Province; the Chaozhou-Shantou (Chaoshan) area and Leizhou Peninsula in Guangdong Province; extreme south of Zhejiang Province; much of Hainan Province (if Hainanese or Qiongwen is included) and most of Taiwan as well as Penang, Melaka, Singapore and Sumatra
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
ISO 639-3nan
Linguasphere79-AAA-j
Glottologminn1241
Southern Min in Mainland China and Taiwan

Subgroups of Southern Min in Mainland China and Taiwan
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese闽南语
Traditional Chinese閩南語
Literal meaning"Language of Southern Min [Fujian]"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinMǐnnányǔ
Wade–GilesMin3-nan23
Gan
RomanizationMîn-lōm-ngî
Hakka
RomanizationMîn-nàm-ngî
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationMáhn-nàahm yúh
JyutpingMan5-naam4 jyu5
Southern Min
Hokkien POJBân-lâm-gí/Bân-lâm-gú
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCMìng-nàng-ngṳ̄
Northern Min
Jian'ou RomanizedMâing-nâng-ngṳ̌

In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min originating from Southern Fujian in Mainland China. This is spoken mainly in Fujian, Taiwan, as well as certain parts of Southeast Asia. The Quanzhang variety is often called simply "Minnan Proper" (simplified Chinese:闽南语; traditional Chinese:閩南語). It is considered the mainstream Southern Min Chinese Language.

In the wider scope, Southern Min also includes other Min Chinese varieties that are linguistically related to Minnan proper (Quanzhang). Most variants of Southern Min have significant differences from the Quanzhang variety, some having limited mutual intelligibility with it, others almost none. Teochew, Longyan, and Zhenan may be said to have limited mutual intelligibility with Minnan Proper, sharing similar phonology and vocabulary to a small extent. On the other hand, variants such as Datian, Zhongshan, and Qiong-Lei have historical linguistic roots with Minnan Proper, but are significantly divergent from it in terms of phonology and vocabulary, and thus have almost no mutual intelligibility with the Quanzhang variety. Linguists tend to classify them as separate Min languages.

Southern Min is not mutually intelligible with other branches of Min Chinese nor with non-Min varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin, and the principal varieties of Southern Min are not intelligible with each other.

Contents

Mainland China

Southern Min dialects are spoken in Fujian, three southeastern counties of Zhejiang, the Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo in Zhejiang and the Chaoshan (Teo-swa) region in Guangdong. The variant spoken in Leizhou, Guangdong as well as Hainan is Hainanese and is not mutually intelligible with mainstream Southern Min or Teochew.[citation needed] Hainanese is classified in some schemes as part of Southern Min and in other schemes as separate.[example needed][citation needed] Puxian Min was originally based on the Quanzhou dialect, but over time became heavily influenced by Eastern Min, eventually losing intelligibility with Minnan.

Taiwan

The Southern Min dialects spoken in Taiwan, collectively known as Taiwanese, is a first language for most of the Hoklo people, the main ethnicity of Taiwan. The correspondence between language and ethnicity is not absolute, as some Hoklo have very limited proficiency in Southern Min while some non-Hoklo speak Southern Min fluently.

Southeast Asia

There are many Southern Min speakers among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia. Many ethnic Chinese immigrants to the region were Hoklo from southern Fujian and brought the language to what is now Burma, Indonesia (the former Dutch East Indies) and present-day Malaysia and Singapore (formerly British Malaya and the Straits Settlements). In general, Southern Min from southern Fujian is known as Hokkien, Hokkienese, Fukien or Fookien in Southeast Asia and is mostly mutually intelligible with Hokkien spoken elsewhere. Many Southeast Asian ethnic Chinese also originated in the Chaoshan region of Guangdong and speak Teochew language, the variant of Southern Min from that region. Philippine Hokkien is reportedly the native language of up to 98.5% of the Chinese Filipino community in the Philippines, among whom it is also known as Lan-nang or Lán-lâng-oē (咱儂話), literally "our people's language".

Southern Min speakers form the majority of Chinese in Singapore, with Hokkien being the largest group and the second largest being Teochew. Despite the similarities, the two groups are rarely seen as part of the same "Minnan" Chinese subgroups.

The variants of Southern Min spoken in Zhejiang province are most akin to that spoken in Quanzhou. The variants spoken in Taiwan are similar to the three Fujian variants and are collectively known as Taiwanese.

Those Southern Min variants that are collectively known as "Hokkien" in Southeast Asia also originate from these variants. The variants of Southern Min in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong province are collectively known as Teo-Swa or Chaoshan. Chaoshan Min is of great importance in the Southeast Asian Chinese diaspora, particularly in Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, and West Kalimantan. The Philippines variant is mostly from the Quanzhou area as most of their forefathers are from the aforementioned area.

The Southern Min language variant spoken around Shanwei and Haifeng differs markedly from Teochew and may represent a later migration from Zhangzhou. Linguistically, it lies between Teochew and Amoy. In southwestern Fujian, the local variants in Longyan and Zhangping form a separate division of Minnan on their own. Among ethnic Chinese inhabitants of Penang, Malaysia and Medan, Indonesia, a distinct form based on the Zhangzhou dialect has developed. In Penang, it is called Penang Hokkien while across the Malacca Strait in Medan, an almost identical variant[citation needed] is known as Medan Hokkien.

There are two or three divisions of Southern Min, depending on the criteria for Hainanese inclusion :

More recently, Kwok (2018: 157) has classified the Southern Min dialects the Central and Southern branches grouped together, as well as a separate divergent Northern branch.

Southern Min

Quanzhang (Hokkien)

Main article: Hokkien

The group of mutually intelligible Quanzhang (泉漳片) dialects, spoken around the areas of Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou in Southern Fujian, collectively called Minnan Proper (闽南语/闽南话) or Hokkien-Taiwanese, is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is also the widely spoken non-official regional language in Taiwan. There are two types of standard Minnan. They are classified as Traditional Standard Minnan and Modern Standard Minnan. Traditional Standard Minnan is based on the Quanzhou dialect. It is the dialect used in Liyuan Opera (梨园戏) and Nanying music (南音). The modern standard forms of Minnan Proper are based on Amoy dialect, spoken in the city of Xiamen, and Taiwanese dialect, spoken around the city of Tainan in Taiwan. Both modern standard forms of Minnan are a combination of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou speech. Nowadays, Modern Standard Minnan is the dialect of Minnan that is popular in Minnan dialect television programming, radio programming and Minnan songs. Most Minnan language books and Minnan dictionaries are mostly based on the pronunciation of the Modern Standard Minnan. Taiwanese in northern Taiwan tends to be based on Quanzhou dialect, whereas the Taiwanese spoken in southern Taiwan tends to be based on Zhangzhou dialect. There are minor variations in pronunciation and vocabulary between Quanzhou and Zhangzhou speech. The grammar is basically the same. Additionally, in Taiwanese Minnan, extensive contact with the Japanese language has left a legacy of Japanese loanwords. This language is also spoken in Singapore, as Singaporean Hokkien, which has English and Malay loanwords.

Chaoshan (Teo-Swa)

Main article: Chaoshan Min

Teo-Swa or Chaoshan speech (潮汕片) is a closely related variant of Minnan that includes the Teochew and Swatow dialects. It has limited mutual intelligibility with Quanzhang speech, though they share some cognates with each other. Chaoshan Min is significantly different from Quanzhang in both pronunciation and vocabulary. It had its origins from the Proto-Putian dialect (闽南语古莆田话), a sub-dialect of Proto-Minnan, which is closely related to the Quanzhou dialect. As the Proto-Putian dialect speaking Chinese emigrants from Putian prefecture settled in the Chaoshan region, it later received influence from the Zhangzhou dialect. It follows the same grammar pattern as Minnan Proper. It is marginally understood by Minnan Proper speakers.

Southern Min has one of the most diverse phonologies of Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Mandarin or Cantonese. Vowels, on the other hand, are more-or-less similar to those of Mandarin. In general, Southern Min dialects have five to six tones, and tone sandhi is extensive. There are minor variations within Hokkien, and the Teochew system differs somewhat more.

Southern Min's nasal finals consist of/m/,/n/,/ŋ/, and/~/.

Both Hokkien and Chaoshan (Teochew and Shantou dialects) have romanized writing systems. Hokkien is also written in modified Chinese characters.

The Min homeland of Fujian was opened to Han Chinese settlement by the defeat of the Minyue state by the armies of Emperor Wu of Han in 110 BC. The area features rugged mountainous terrain, with short rivers that flow into the South China Sea. Most subsequent migration from north to south China passed through the valleys of the Xiang and Gan rivers to the west, so that Min varieties have experienced less northern influence than other southern groups. As a result, whereas most varieties of Chinese can be treated as derived from Middle Chinese, the language described by rhyme dictionaries such as the Qieyun (601 AD), Min varieties contain traces of older distinctions. Linguists estimate that the oldest layers of Min dialects diverged from the rest of Chinese around the time of the Han dynasty. However, significant waves of migration from the North China Plain occurred. These include:

Jerry Norman identifies four main layers in the vocabulary of modern Min varieties:

  1. A non-Chinese substratum from the original languages of Minyue, which Norman and Mei Tsu-lin believe were Austroasiatic.
  2. The earliest Chinese layer, brought to Fujian by settlers from Zhejiang to the north during the Han dynasty.
  3. A layer from the Northern and Southern Dynasties period, which is largely consistent with the phonology of the Qieyun dictionary.
  4. A literary layer based on the koiné of Chang'an, the capital of the Tang dynasty.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(November 2020) ()

Minnan (or Hokkien) can trace its origins through the Tang Dynasty, and it also has roots from earlier periods. Minnan (Hokkien) people call themselves "Tang people", (唐人, pronounced as "唐儂" Tn̂g-lâng) which is synonymous to "Chinese people". Because of the widespread influence of the Tang culture during the great Tang dynasty, there are today still many Minnan pronunciations of words shared by the Sino-xenic pronunciations of Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese languages.

English Han characters Mandarin Chinese Minnan Teochew Cantonese Korean Vietnamese Japanese
Book Chhek/Chheh cêh4 caak3 Chaek () Sách Saku/Satsu/Shaku
Bridge qiáo Kiâu/Kiô giê5/gio5 kiu4 Gyo () Kiều Kyō
Dangerous 危險 wēixiǎn/wéixiǎn Guî-hiám guîn5/nguín5 hiem2 ngai4 him2 Wiheom (위험) Nguy hiểm Kiken
Embassy 大使館 Dàshǐguǎn Tāi-sài-koán dai6 sái2 guêng2 daai6 si3 gun2 Daesagwan (대사관) Đại Sứ Quán Taishikan
Flag kî5 kei4 Gi () Ki
Insurance 保險 Bǎoxiǎn Pó-hiám Bó2-hiém bou2 him2 Boheom (보험) Bảo hiểm Hoken
News 新聞 Xīnwén Sin-bûn sing1 bhung6 san1 man4 Shinmun (신문) Tân văn Shinbun
Student 學生 Xuéshēng Ha̍k-seng Hak8 sêng1 hok6 saang1 Haksaeng (학생) Học sinh Gakusei
University 大學 Dàxué Tāi-ha̍k/Tōa-o̍h dai6 hag8/dua7 oh8 daai6 hok6 Daehak (대학) Đại học Daigaku

Related languages

  1. CAI ZHU, HUANG GUO (1 October 2015). Chinese language. Xiamen: Fujian Education Publishing House. ISBN 978-7533469511.
  2. Southern Min at Ethnologue (23rd ed., 2020)
  3. "The politics of language names in Taiwan". www.ksc.kwansei.ac.jp. Retrieved2020-06-15.
  4. Kwok, Bit-Chee (2018). Southern Min: comparative phonology and subgrouping. Routledge studies in East Asian linguistics. 2. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-94365-0.
  5. Minnan/ Southern Min at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  6. Norman (1991), pp. 328. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFNorman1991 (help)
  7. Norman (1988), pp. 210, 228. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFNorman1988 (help)
  8. Norman (1988), pp. 228–229. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFNorman1988 (help)
  9. Ting (1983), pp. 9–10. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFTing1983 (help)
  10. Baxter & Sagart (2014), pp. 33, 79. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFBaxterSagart2014 (help)
  11. Yan (2006), p. 120. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFYan2006 (help)
  12. Norman & Mei (1976). sfnp error: no target: CITEREFNormanMei1976 (help)
  13. Norman (1991), pp. 331–332. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFNorman1991 (help)
  14. Norman (1991), pp. 334–336. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFNorman1991 (help)
  15. Norman (1991), p. 336. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFNorman1991 (help)
  16. Norman (1991), p. 337. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFNorman1991 (help)
  17. Iûⁿ, Ún-giân. "Tâi-bûn/Hôa-bûn Sòaⁿ-téng Sû-tián" 台文/華文線頂辭典 [Taiwanese/Chinese Online Dictionary]. Retrieved1 October 2014.
Min Nan Chinese edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Minnan
Look up Minnan, Appendix:Amoy Minnan Swadesh list, or Appendix:Sino-Tibetan Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Minnan.

Southern Min
Southern Min Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article contains weasel words vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information Such statements should be clarified or removed August 2016 This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Southern Min news newspapers books scholar JSTOR August 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message Learn how and when to remove this template message Not to be confused with Southern Ming Southern Min simplified Chinese 闽南语 traditional Chinese 閩南語 pinyin Mǐnnanyǔ lit Southern Fujian language Minnan Mandarin pronunciation mi n na n or Banlam Southern Min pronunciation ban ɾam is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages that form a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Fujian especially the Minnan region most of Taiwan many citizens are descendants of settlers from Fujian Eastern Guangdong Hainan and Southern Zhejiang 1 The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora most notably the Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Singapore San Francisco Los Angeles and New York City It is the most populous branch of Min Chinese spoken by an estimated 48 million people in ca 2017 2018 2 Southern Min閩南語 闽南语 Ban lam guEthnicityHoklo people Teochew peopleGeographic distributionFujian Province the Chaozhou Shantou Chaoshan area and Leizhou Peninsula in Guangdong Province extreme south of Zhejiang Province much of Hainan Province if Hainanese or Qiongwen is included and most of Taiwan as well as Penang Melaka Singapore and SumatraLinguistic classificationSino TibetanSiniticMinCoastal MinSouthern MinSubdivisionsHokkien Quanzhang Tsuan Tsiang e g Amoy Taiwanese Chaoshan Teo Swa e g Teochew Swatow Longyan Liongna Zhenan Datian transitional Sanxiang Sahiu Hailufeng Haklau ISO 639 3nanLinguasphere79 AAA jGlottologminn1241 Southern Min in Mainland China and TaiwanSubgroups of Southern Min in Mainland China and TaiwanChinese nameSimplified Chinese闽南语Traditional Chinese閩南語Literal meaning Language of Southern Min Fujian TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinMǐnnanyǔWade GilesMin3 nan2 yu3IPA mi nna n y GanRomanizationMin lōm ngiHakkaRomanizationMin nam ngiYue CantoneseYale RomanizationMahn naahm yuhJyutpingMan5 naam4 jyu5Southern MinHokkien POJBan lam gi Ban lam guEastern MinFuzhou BUCMing nang ngṳ Northern MinJian ou RomanizedMaing nang ngṳ In common parlance and in the narrower sense Southern Min refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien Taiwanese variety of Southern Min originating from Southern Fujian in Mainland China This is spoken mainly in Fujian Taiwan as well as certain parts of Southeast Asia The Quanzhang variety is often called simply Minnan Proper simplified Chinese 闽南语 traditional Chinese 閩南語 It is considered the mainstream Southern Min Chinese Language In the wider scope Southern Min also includes other Min Chinese varieties that are linguistically related to Minnan proper Quanzhang Most variants of Southern Min have significant differences from the Quanzhang variety some having limited mutual intelligibility with it others almost none Teochew Longyan and Zhenan may be said to have limited mutual intelligibility with Minnan Proper sharing similar phonology and vocabulary to a small extent On the other hand variants such as Datian Zhongshan and Qiong Lei have historical linguistic roots with Minnan Proper but are significantly divergent from it in terms of phonology and vocabulary and thus have almost no mutual intelligibility with the Quanzhang variety Linguists tend to classify them as separate Min languages Southern Min is not mutually intelligible with other branches of Min Chinese nor with non Min varieties of Chinese such as Mandarin and the principal varieties of Southern Min are not intelligible with each other Contents 1 Geographic distribution 1 1 Mainland China 1 2 Taiwan 1 3 Southeast Asia 2 Classification 3 Varieties 3 1 Quanzhang Hokkien 3 2 Chaoshan Teo Swa 4 Phonology 5 Writing systems 6 History 7 Comparisons with Sino Xenic character pronunciations 8 See also 8 1 Related languages 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksGeographic distribution EditMainland China Edit Southern Min dialects are spoken in Fujian three southeastern counties of Zhejiang the Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo in Zhejiang and the Chaoshan Teo swa region in Guangdong The variant spoken in Leizhou Guangdong as well as Hainan is Hainanese and is not mutually intelligible with mainstream Southern Min or Teochew citation needed Hainanese is classified in some schemes as part of Southern Min and in other schemes as separate example needed citation needed Puxian Min was originally based on the Quanzhou dialect but over time became heavily influenced by Eastern Min eventually losing intelligibility with Minnan Taiwan Edit The Southern Min dialects spoken in Taiwan collectively known as Taiwanese is a first language for most of the Hoklo people the main ethnicity of Taiwan The correspondence between language and ethnicity is not absolute as some Hoklo have very limited proficiency in Southern Min while some non Hoklo speak Southern Min fluently 3 Southeast Asia Edit There are many Southern Min speakers among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia Many ethnic Chinese immigrants to the region were Hoklo from southern Fujian and brought the language to what is now Burma Indonesia the former Dutch East Indies and present day Malaysia and Singapore formerly British Malaya and the Straits Settlements In general Southern Min from southern Fujian is known as Hokkien Hokkienese Fukien or Fookien in Southeast Asia and is mostly mutually intelligible with Hokkien spoken elsewhere Many Southeast Asian ethnic Chinese also originated in the Chaoshan region of Guangdong and speak Teochew language the variant of Southern Min from that region Philippine Hokkien is reportedly the native language of up to 98 5 of the Chinese Filipino community in the Philippines among whom it is also known as Lan nang or Lan lang oe 咱儂話 literally our people s language Southern Min speakers form the majority of Chinese in Singapore with Hokkien being the largest group and the second largest being Teochew Despite the similarities the two groups are rarely seen as part of the same Minnan Chinese subgroups Classification EditThe variants of Southern Min spoken in Zhejiang province are most akin to that spoken in Quanzhou The variants spoken in Taiwan are similar to the three Fujian variants and are collectively known as Taiwanese Those Southern Min variants that are collectively known as Hokkien in Southeast Asia also originate from these variants The variants of Southern Min in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong province are collectively known as Teo Swa or Chaoshan Chaoshan Min is of great importance in the Southeast Asian Chinese diaspora particularly in Malaysia Thailand Cambodia Vietnam Sumatra and West Kalimantan The Philippines variant is mostly from the Quanzhou area as most of their forefathers are from the aforementioned area The Southern Min language variant spoken around Shanwei and Haifeng differs markedly from Teochew and may represent a later migration from Zhangzhou Linguistically it lies between Teochew and Amoy In southwestern Fujian the local variants in Longyan and Zhangping form a separate division of Minnan on their own Among ethnic Chinese inhabitants of Penang Malaysia and Medan Indonesia a distinct form based on the Zhangzhou dialect has developed In Penang it is called Penang Hokkien while across the Malacca Strait in Medan an almost identical variant citation needed is known as Medan Hokkien Varieties EditThere are two or three divisions of Southern Min depending on the criteria for Hainanese inclusion Minnan Proper Hokkien Taiwanese under the Quanzhang division 泉漳片 Teochew under the Chaoshan division 潮汕片 Leizhou and Hainanese dialects under the Qiong Lei division 琼雷片 More recently Kwok 2018 157 4 has classified the Southern Min dialects the Central and Southern branches grouped together as well as a separate divergent Northern branch Southern MinNorthern Cangnan Quanzhou Zihu Lukang Central Southern Central Zhangzhou Longyan Datian Southern Guangdong Haifeng Jieyang Chaoyang Hainan Leizhou HaikouQuanzhang Hokkien Edit Main article Hokkien The group of mutually intelligible Quanzhang 泉漳片 dialects spoken around the areas of Xiamen Quanzhou and Zhangzhou in Southern Fujian collectively called Minnan Proper 闽南语 闽南话 or Hokkien Taiwanese is the mainstream form of Southern Min It is also the widely spoken non official regional language in Taiwan There are two types of standard Minnan They are classified as Traditional Standard Minnan and Modern Standard Minnan Traditional Standard Minnan is based on the Quanzhou dialect It is the dialect used in Liyuan Opera 梨园戏 and Nanying music 南音 The modern standard forms of Minnan Proper are based on Amoy dialect spoken in the city of Xiamen and Taiwanese dialect spoken around the city of Tainan in Taiwan Both modern standard forms of Minnan are a combination of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou speech Nowadays Modern Standard Minnan is the dialect of Minnan that is popular in Minnan dialect television programming radio programming and Minnan songs Most Minnan language books and Minnan dictionaries are mostly based on the pronunciation of the Modern Standard Minnan Taiwanese in northern Taiwan tends to be based on Quanzhou dialect whereas the Taiwanese spoken in southern Taiwan tends to be based on Zhangzhou dialect There are minor variations in pronunciation and vocabulary between Quanzhou and Zhangzhou speech The grammar is basically the same Additionally in Taiwanese Minnan extensive contact with the Japanese language has left a legacy of Japanese loanwords This language is also spoken in Singapore as Singaporean Hokkien which has English and Malay loanwords Chaoshan Teo Swa Edit Main article Chaoshan Min Teo Swa or Chaoshan speech 潮汕片 is a closely related variant of Minnan that includes the Teochew and Swatow dialects It has limited mutual intelligibility with Quanzhang speech though they share some cognates with each other Chaoshan Min is significantly different from Quanzhang in both pronunciation and vocabulary It had its origins from the Proto Putian dialect 闽南语古莆田话 a sub dialect of Proto Minnan which is closely related to the Quanzhou dialect As the Proto Putian dialect speaking Chinese emigrants from Putian prefecture settled in the Chaoshan region it later received influence from the Zhangzhou dialect It follows the same grammar pattern as Minnan Proper It is marginally understood by Minnan Proper speakers 5 Phonology EditMain articles Hokkien Phonology and Teochew dialect Phonetics and phonology Southern Min has one of the most diverse phonologies of Chinese varieties with more consonants than Mandarin or Cantonese Vowels on the other hand are more or less similar to those of Mandarin In general Southern Min dialects have five to six tones and tone sandhi is extensive There are minor variations within Hokkien and the Teochew system differs somewhat more Southern Min s nasal finals consist of m n ŋ and Writing systems EditSee also Written Hokkien Pe h ōe ji and Peng im Both Hokkien and Chaoshan Teochew and Shantou dialects have romanized writing systems Hokkien is also written in modified Chinese characters History EditThe Min homeland of Fujian was opened to Han Chinese settlement by the defeat of the Minyue state by the armies of Emperor Wu of Han in 110 BC 6 The area features rugged mountainous terrain with short rivers that flow into the South China Sea Most subsequent migration from north to south China passed through the valleys of the Xiang and Gan rivers to the west so that Min varieties have experienced less northern influence than other southern groups 7 As a result whereas most varieties of Chinese can be treated as derived from Middle Chinese the language described by rhyme dictionaries such as the Qieyun 601 AD Min varieties contain traces of older distinctions 8 Linguists estimate that the oldest layers of Min dialects diverged from the rest of Chinese around the time of the Han dynasty 9 10 However significant waves of migration from the North China Plain occurred 11 These include The Uprising of the Five Barbarians during the Jin dynasty particularly the Disaster of Yongjia in 311 AD caused a tide of immigration to the south In 669 Chen Zheng and his son Chen Yuanguang from Gushi County in Henan set up a regional administration in Fujian to suppress an insurrection by the She people Wang Chao also from Gushi moved south to Fujian and was appointed its governor in 893 near the end of the Tang dynasty and brought tens of thousands of troops from Henan In 909 following the fall of the Tang dynasty his younger brother Wang Shenzhi founded the Min Kingdom one of the Ten Kingdoms in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period Jerry Norman identifies four main layers in the vocabulary of modern Min varieties A non Chinese substratum from the original languages of Minyue which Norman and Mei Tsu lin believe were Austroasiatic 12 13 The earliest Chinese layer brought to Fujian by settlers from Zhejiang to the north during the Han dynasty 14 A layer from the Northern and Southern Dynasties period which is largely consistent with the phonology of the Qieyun dictionary 15 A literary layer based on the koine of Chang an the capital of the Tang dynasty 16 Comparisons with Sino Xenic character pronunciations EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed November 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Minnan or Hokkien can trace its origins through the Tang Dynasty and it also has roots from earlier periods Minnan Hokkien people call themselves Tang people 唐人 pronounced as 唐儂 Tn g lang which is synonymous to Chinese people Because of the widespread influence of the Tang culture during the great Tang dynasty there are today still many Minnan pronunciations of words shared by the Sino xenic pronunciations of Vietnamese Korean and Japanese languages English Han characters Mandarin Chinese Minnan 17 Teochew Cantonese Korean Vietnamese JapaneseBook 冊 ce Chhek Chheh ceh4 caak3 Chaek 책 Sach Saku Satsu ShakuBridge 橋 qiao Kiau Kio gie5 gio5 kiu4 Gyo 교 Kiều KyōDangerous 危險 weixiǎn weixiǎn Gui hiam guin5 nguin5 hiem2 ngai4 him2 Wiheom 위험 Nguy hiểm KikenEmbassy 大使館 Dashǐguǎn Tai sai koan dai6 sai2 gueng2 daai6 si3 gun2 Daesagwan 대사관 Đại Sứ Quan TaishikanFlag 旗 Qi Ki ki5 kei4 Gi 기 Ki KiInsurance 保險 Bǎoxiǎn Po hiam Bo2 hiem bou2 him2 Boheom 보험 Bảo hiểm HokenNews 新聞 Xinwen Sin bun sing1 bhung6 san1 man4 Shinmun 신문 Tan văn ShinbunStudent 學生 Xuesheng Ha k seng Hak8 seng1 hok6 saang1 Haksaeng 학생 Học sinh GakuseiUniversity 大學 Daxue Tai ha k Tōa o h dai6 hag8 dua7 oh8 daai6 hok6 Daehak 대학 Đại học DaigakuSee also Edit Language portal China portal Chinese in Singapore Languages of China Languages of Taiwan Languages of Thailand Malaysian Chinese Protection of the Varieties of ChineseRelated languages Edit Fuzhou dialect Min Dong branch Lan nang Philippine dialect of Minnan Medan Hokkien North Sumatra Indonesia dialect of Minnan Penang Hokkien Singaporean Hokkien Southern Malaysia Hokkien Taiwanese MinnanNotes EditReferences Edit CAI ZHU HUANG GUO 1 October 2015 Chinese language Xiamen Fujian Education Publishing House ISBN 978 7533469511 Southern Min at Ethnologue 23rd ed 2020 The politics of language names in Taiwan www ksc kwansei ac jp Retrieved 2020 06 15 Kwok Bit Chee 2018 Southern Min comparative phonology and subgrouping Routledge studies in East Asian linguistics 2 New York Routledge ISBN 978 1 138 94365 0 Minnan Southern Min at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Norman 1991 pp 328 sfnp error no target CITEREFNorman1991 help Norman 1988 pp 210 228 sfnp error no target CITEREFNorman1988 help Norman 1988 pp 228 229 sfnp error no target CITEREFNorman1988 help Ting 1983 pp 9 10 sfnp error no target CITEREFTing1983 help Baxter amp Sagart 2014 pp 33 79 sfnp error no target CITEREFBaxterSagart2014 help Yan 2006 p 120 sfnp error no target CITEREFYan2006 help Norman amp Mei 1976 sfnp error no target CITEREFNormanMei1976 help Norman 1991 pp 331 332 sfnp error no target CITEREFNorman1991 help Norman 1991 pp 334 336 sfnp error no target CITEREFNorman1991 help Norman 1991 p 336 sfnp error no target CITEREFNorman1991 help Norman 1991 p 337 sfnp error no target CITEREFNorman1991 help Iuⁿ Un gian Tai bun Hoa bun Soaⁿ teng Su tian 台文 華文線頂辭典 Taiwanese Chinese Online Dictionary Retrieved 1 October 2014 Further reading EditBranner David Prager 2000 Problems in Comparative Chinese Dialectology the Classification of Miin and Hakka Trends in Linguistics series no 123 Berlin Mouton de Gruyter ISBN 3 11 015831 0 Chung Raung fu 1996 The segmental phonology of Southern Min in Taiwan Taipei Crane Pub Co ISBN 957 9463 46 8 DeBernardi Jean 1991 Linguistic nationalism the case of Southern Min Sino Platonic Papers Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania 25 OCLC 24810816 Chappell Hilary ed 2001 Sinitic Grammar Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 829977 X Part V Southern Min Grammar 3 articles External links EditMin Nan Chinese edition of Wikipedia the free encyclopediaSouthern Min test of Wikibooks at Wikimedia IncubatorWikibooks has a book on the topic of MinnanLook up Minnan Appendix Amoy Minnan Swadesh list or Appendix Sino Tibetan Swadesh lists in Wiktionary the free dictionary Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Minnan 當代泉州音字彙 a dictionary of Quanzhou speech Iuⁿ Un gian 2006 Tai gi Hoa gi Soaⁿ teng Su tian 台文 華文線頂辭典 On line Taiwanese Mandarin Dictionary in Chinese and Min Nan Chinese Iuⁿ Un gian 台語線頂字典 Taiwanese Hokkien Online Character Dictionary in Min Nan Chinese and Chinese 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 Dictionary of Frequently Used Taiwan Minnan by the Ministry of Education Republic of China Taiwan 臺灣本土語言互譯及語音合成系統 Taiwanese Hakka Mandarin online conversion Voyager Spacecraft Golden Record Greetings from Earth Amoy The voyager clip says Thai khong peng iu lin ho Lin chia h pa be u eng to h lai gun chia che o 太空朋友 恁好 恁食飽未 有閒著來阮遮坐哦 台語詞典 Taiwanese English Mandarin Dictionary How to Forget Your Mother Tongue and Remember Your National Language by Victor H Mair University of Pennsylvania ISO 639 3 Change Request Documentation 2008 083 requesting to replace code nan Minnan Chinese with dzu Chaozhou and xim Xiamen rejected because it did not include codes to cover the rest of the group ISO 639 3 Change Request Documentation 2021 045 requesting to replace code nan with 11 new codes Reclassifying ISO 639 3 nan An Empirical Approach to Mutual Intelligibility and Ethnolinguistic Distinctions supporting documentation Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Southern Min amp oldid 1048123705, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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