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Southern Colonies

The Southern Colonies within British America consisted of the Province of Maryland, the Colony of Virginia, the Province of Carolina (in 1712 split into North and South Carolina) and the Province of Georgia. In 1763, the newly created colonies of East Florida and West Florida would be added to the Southern Colonies by Great Britain until the Spanish Empire took back Florida. These colonies were the historical core of what would become the Southern United States, or "Dixie". They were located south of the Middle Colonies, albeit Virginia and Maryland (in their quality as northernmost colonies of the South) were also considered as the Chesapeake Colonies.

Map of the colonies with the proclamation line of 1763 shown in red

The colonies developed prosperous economies based on the cultivation of cash crops, such as tobacco, indigo, and rice. An effect of the cultivation of these crops was the presence of slavery in significantly higher proportions than in other parts of British America.

Contents

The Province of Carolina, originally chartered in 1608, was an English and later British colony of North America. Because the original charter was unrealized and was ruled invalid, a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, on March 24, 1663. Led by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, the Province of Carolina was controlled from 1663 to 1729 by these lords and their heirs.

Shaftesbury and his secretary, the philosopher John Locke, devised an intricate plan to govern the many people arriving in the colony. The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina sought to ensure the colony's stability by allotting political status by a settler's wealth upon arrival - making a semi-manorial system with a Council of Nobles and a plan to have small landholders defer to these nobles. However, the settlers did not find it necessary to take orders from the Council.

By 1680, the colony had a large export industry of tobacco, lumber, and pitch.

In 1691, dissent over the governance of the province led to the appointment of a deputy governor to administer the northern half of Carolina. After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, both Carolinas became royal colonies.

The British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Georgia Trustees under a charter issued by and named for King George II. The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the settlement of the colony, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of Yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the Crown, and Georgia became a Crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The warm climate and swampy lands make it perfect for growing crops such as tobacco, rice, sugarcane, and indigo.

George Calvert received a charter from King Charles I to found the colony of Maryland in 1632. When George Calvert died, Cecilius Calvert, later known as Lord Baltimore, became the proprietor. Calvert came from a wealthy Catholic family and was the first individual (rather than a joint-stock company) to receive a grant from the Crown. He received a grant for a large tract of land north of the Potomac river and on either side of Chesapeake Bay. Calvert planned on creating a haven for English Roman Catholics, most of whom were well-to-do nobles such as himself who could not worship in public. He planned on creating an agrarian manorial society where each noble would have a large manor and tenants would work in the fields and on other tasks. However, with extremely cheap land prices, many Protestants moved to Maryland and bought land for themselves. They soon became a majority of the population, and in 1642 religious tension began to erupt. Calvert was forced to take control and pass the Maryland Toleration Act in 1649, making Maryland the second colony to have freedom of worship, after Rhode Island. However, the Act did little to help religious peace. In 1654, Protestants barred Catholics from voting, ousted a pro-tolerance Governor, and repealed the Toleration Act. Maryland stayed Protestant until Calvert again took control of the colony in 1658.

The Colony of Virginia (also known frequently as the Virginia Colony or the Province of Virginia, and occasionally as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia) was an English colony in North America which existed briefly during the 16th century, and then continuously from 1607 until the American Revolution (as a British colony after 1707). The name Virginia was first applied by Sir Walter Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth I in 1584. Jamestown was the first town created by the Virginia colony. After the English Civil War in the mid 17th century, the Virginia Colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Commonwealth of England.

While other colonies were being founded, Virginia continued to grow. Tobacco planters held the best land near the coast, so new settlers pushed inland. Sir William Berkeley, the colony's governor, sent explorers over the Blue Ridge Mountains to open up the back country of Virginia to settlement.

After independence from Great Britain in 1776 the Virginia Colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio, were all later created from the territory encompassed earlier by the Colony of Virginia.

  1. "The Southern Colonies". Retrieved2014-10-17.
  2. Boyer, Paul S. (2004).The Enduring Vision, 5th Edition. The Enduring Vision. Houghghton-Mifflin. p. 64. ISBN 0-618-28065-0.
  3. West, Jean M. "The Devil's Blue Dye and Slavery". Slavery in America. Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved2011-01-16.
  4. Boyer, Paul S. (2004).The Enduring Vision, 5th Edition. The Enduring Vision. Houghton-Mifflin. p. 77. ISBN 0-618-28065-0.
  5. "Charter yes history the best thing since stuff crust pizza of Carolina - March 24, 1663". Retrieved2012-03-24.
  6. "This Day in Georgia History - February 1". Retrieved13 November 2013.
  7. "Trustee Georgia, 1732–1752". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. July 27, 2009. RetrievedOctober 24, 2010.
  8. Browne, William Hand (1890). George Calvert and Cecil Calvert: Barons Baltimore of Baltimore. New York: Dodd, Mead, and Company. ISBN 9780722290279. p. 17
  9. "Maryland: History, Geography, Population, and State Facts". Info please. Retrieved2011-01-17.
  10. Boyer, Paul S. (2004).The Enduring Vision, 5th Edition. The Enduring Vision. Houghton-Mifflin. pp. 68–69. ISBN 0-618-28065-0.
  11. The Royal Government in Virginia, 1624-1775, Volume 84, Issue 1, Percy Scott Flippin, Wallace Everett Caldwell, p. 288

Southern Colonies
Southern Colonies Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Southern colonies The Southern Colonies within British America consisted of the Province of Maryland 1 the Colony of Virginia the Province of Carolina in 1712 split into North and South Carolina and the Province of Georgia In 1763 the newly created colonies of East Florida and West Florida would be added to the Southern Colonies by Great Britain until the Spanish Empire took back Florida These colonies were the historical core of what would become the Southern United States or Dixie They were located south of the Middle Colonies albeit Virginia and Maryland in their quality as northernmost colonies of the South were also considered as the Chesapeake Colonies Map of the colonies with the proclamation line of 1763 shown in red The colonies developed prosperous economies based on the cultivation of cash crops such as tobacco 2 indigo 3 and rice 4 An effect of the cultivation of these crops was the presence of slavery in significantly higher proportions than in other parts of British America Contents 1 Carolina 2 Georgia 3 Maryland 4 Virginia 5 See also 6 ReferencesCarolina EditThe Province of Carolina originally chartered in 1608 was an English and later British colony of North America Because the original charter was unrealized and was ruled invalid a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen the Lords Proprietors on March 24 1663 5 Led by Anthony Ashley Cooper 1st Earl of Shaftesbury the Province of Carolina was controlled from 1663 to 1729 by these lords and their heirs Shaftesbury and his secretary the philosopher John Locke devised an intricate plan to govern the many people arriving in the colony The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina sought to ensure the colony s stability by allotting political status by a settler s wealth upon arrival making a semi manorial system with a Council of Nobles and a plan to have small landholders defer to these nobles However the settlers did not find it necessary to take orders from the Council By 1680 the colony had a large export industry of tobacco lumber and pitch In 1691 dissent over the governance of the province led to the appointment of a deputy governor to administer the northern half of Carolina After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors both Carolinas became royal colonies Georgia EditThe British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12 1733 6 The colony was administered by the Georgia Trustees under a charter issued by and named for King George II The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the settlement of the colony known as the Oglethorpe Plan which envisioned an agrarian society of Yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear In 1752 after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony the Trustees turned over control to the Crown and Georgia became a Crown colony with a governor appointed by the king 7 The warm climate and swampy lands make it perfect for growing crops such as tobacco rice sugarcane and indigo Maryland EditGeorge Calvert received a charter from King Charles I to found the colony of Maryland in 1632 When George Calvert died Cecilius Calvert later known as Lord Baltimore became the proprietor Calvert came from a wealthy Catholic family and was the first individual rather than a joint stock company to receive a grant from the Crown He received a grant for a large tract of land north of the Potomac river and on either side of Chesapeake Bay 8 Calvert planned on creating a haven for English Roman Catholics most of whom were well to do nobles such as himself who could not worship in public 9 He planned on creating an agrarian manorial society where each noble would have a large manor and tenants would work in the fields and on other tasks However with extremely cheap land prices many Protestants moved to Maryland and bought land for themselves They soon became a majority of the population and in 1642 religious tension began to erupt Calvert was forced to take control and pass the Maryland Toleration Act in 1649 making Maryland the second colony to have freedom of worship after Rhode Island However the Act did little to help religious peace In 1654 Protestants barred Catholics from voting ousted a pro tolerance Governor and repealed the Toleration Act 10 Maryland stayed Protestant until Calvert again took control of the colony in 1658 Virginia EditThe Colony of Virginia also known frequently as the Virginia Colony or the Province of Virginia and occasionally as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia was an English colony in North America which existed briefly during the 16th century and then continuously from 1607 until the American Revolution as a British colony after 1707 11 The name Virginia was first applied by Sir Walter Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth I in 1584 Jamestown was the first town created by the Virginia colony After the English Civil War in the mid 17th century the Virginia Colony was nicknamed The Old Dominion by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Commonwealth of England While other colonies were being founded Virginia continued to grow Tobacco planters held the best land near the coast so new settlers pushed inland Sir William Berkeley the colony s governor sent explorers over the Blue Ridge Mountains to open up the back country of Virginia to settlement After independence from Great Britain in 1776 the Virginia Colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia one of the original thirteen states of the United States adopting as its official slogan The Old Dominion The states of West Virginia Kentucky Indiana and Illinois and portions of Ohio were all later created from the territory encompassed earlier by the Colony of Virginia See also EditMiddle Colonies Mid Atlantic Chesapeake Colonies Colonial South and the Chesapeake Colonial history of the United States New England Colonies Confederate States of America South Atlantic StatesReferences Edit The Southern Colonies Retrieved 2014 10 17 Boyer Paul S 2004 The Enduring Vision 5th Edition The Enduring Vision Houghghton Mifflin p 64 ISBN 0 618 28065 0 West Jean M The Devil s Blue Dye and Slavery Slavery in America Archived from the original on 2012 06 14 Retrieved 2011 01 16 Boyer Paul S 2004 The Enduring Vision 5th Edition The Enduring Vision Houghton Mifflin p 77 ISBN 0 618 28065 0 Charter yes history the best thing since stuff crust pizza of Carolina March 24 1663 Retrieved 2012 03 24 This Day in Georgia History February 1 Retrieved 13 November 2013 Trustee Georgia 1732 1752 Georgiaencyclopedia org July 27 2009 Retrieved October 24 2010 Browne William Hand 1890 George Calvert and Cecil Calvert Barons Baltimore of Baltimore New York Dodd Mead and Company ISBN 9780722290279 p 17 Maryland History Geography Population and State Facts Info please Retrieved 2011 01 17 Boyer Paul S 2004 The Enduring Vision 5th Edition The Enduring Vision Houghton Mifflin pp 68 69 ISBN 0 618 28065 0 The Royal Government in Virginia 1624 1775 Volume 84 Issue 1 Percy Scott Flippin Wallace Everett Caldwell p 288 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Southern Colonies amp oldid 1052006827, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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