fbpx
Wikipedia

Southern tamandua

The southern tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla), also called the collared anteater or lesser anteater, is a species of anteater from South America and the island of Trinidad in the Caribbean. It is a solitary animal found in many habitats, from mature to highly disturbed secondary forests and arid savannas. It feeds on ants, termites, and bees. Its very strong foreclaws can be used to break insect nests or to defend itself.

Southern tamandua
In defensive posture
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Pilosa
Family: Myrmecophagidae
Genus: Tamandua
Species:
T. tetradactyla
Binomial name
Tamandua tetradactyla
Southern tamandua range
Synonyms

Myrmecophaga tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758

Contents

The southern tamandua is found in Trinidad and throughout South America from Venezuela to northern Argentina, southern Brazil, and Uruguay at elevations up to 1,600 m (5,200 ft). It inhabits both wet and dry forests, including tropical rainforest, savanna, and thorn scrub. It seems to be most common in habitats near streams and rivers, especially those thick with vines and epiphytes (presumably because its prey is common in these areas).[citation needed]

The oldest fossil tamanduas date from the Pleistocene of South America, although genetic evidence suggests they may have diverged from their closest relative, the giant anteater, in the late Miocene, 12.9 million years ago.

Subspecies

The four recognised subspecies of Tamandua tetradactyla are:

Skull
Tamandua by C. Wendt after Gustav Mützel, for Brehms Tierleben, 1887

The southern tamandua is a medium-sized anteater, though it can vary considerably in size based on environmental conditions. It has a head and body length ranging from 34 to 88 cm (13 to 35 in), and a prehensile tail 37 to 67 cm (15 to 26 in) long. Adults weigh from 1.5 to 8.4 kg (3.3 to 18.5 lb), with no significant difference in size between males and females. Like their close relative, the northern tamandua, they have four-clawed digits on the forefeet and five on the hind feet and walk on the outer surfaces of their forefeet to avoid puncturing their palms with their sharp claws. The underside and the tip of the tail are hairless. The snout is long and decurved with an opening only as wide as the diameter of a stick, from which the tongue is protruded. Although some differences in the shape of the skull are seen, they can most easily be distinguished from the northern tamandua by their slightly longer ears, which average around 5 cm (2.0 in) instead of 4 cm (1.6 in), as in the northern species.

The individual and geographic variation observed in the southern tamandua have made the taxonomic description of these animals a difficult task. Animals from the southeastern part of the range are "strongly vested", meaning they have black markings from shoulder to rump; the black patch widens near the shoulders and encircles the forelimbs. The rest of the body can be blonde, tan, or brown. Animals from northern Brazil and Venezuela to west of the Andes are solid blonde, brown, or black, or are only lightly vested. Individuals from Trinidad are almost always solid blonde.[citation needed]

Females are polyestrous; mating generally takes place in the fall. The estrous cycle will last approximately about 42 days. Gestation ranges from 130 to 190 days. The female gives birth to one offspring per year. At birth, the young anteater does not resemble its parents; its coat varies from white to black. It rides on the mother's back for several months up to a year and is sometimes deposited on a safe branch while the mother forages.

The tamandua is mainly nocturnal but is occasionally active during the day. The animals nest in hollow tree trunks or in the burrows of other animals, such as armadillos. They are solitary, occupying home ranges that average from 100 to 375 ha (250 to 930 acres), depending on the local environment.

They may communicate when aggravated by hissing and releasing an unpleasant scent from their anal glands. They spend much of their time foraging arboreally; a study in various habitats in Venezuela[citation needed] showed this anteater spends 13 to 64% of its time in trees. The southern tamandua is quite clumsy on the ground and ambles along, incapable of the gallop its relative, the giant anteater, can achieve.

The southern tamandua uses its powerful forearms in self-defense. If it is threatened in a tree it grasps a branch with its hindfeet and tail, leaving its arms and long, curved claws free for combat. If attacked on the ground, this anteater backs up against a rock or a tree and grabs the opponent with its forearms. In the rainforest, the southern tamandua is surrounded during the day by a cloud of flies and mosquitoes and is often seen wiping these insects from its eyes.[citation needed] This animal has small eyes and poor vision, but its large, upright ears indicate that hearing is an important sense.

The southern tamandua is a host of the acanthocephalan intestinal parasites Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus, Gigantorhynchus lopezneyrai, and Gigantorhynchus ungriai.

Diet

Southern tamanduas eat ants and termites in roughly equal proportions, although they may also eat a small quantity of fruit. They locate their food by scent, and prey on a wide range of species, including army ants, carpenter ants, and Nasutitermes. They avoid eating ants armed with strong chemical defenses, such as leafcutter ants.[citation needed] Tamanduas are also thought[by whom?] to eat honey and bees and in captivity, have been known to eat fruit and meat. Anteaters extract their prey by using their extremely strong fore limbs to rip open nests and their elongated snouts and rounded tongues (up to 40 cm (16 in) in length) to lick up the insects.

Although it has the same diet as the giant anteater, both animals are able to live alongside one another, perhaps because the southern tamandua is able to reach nests in trees, while its larger relative cannot.

The southern tamandua is listed as CITES Appendix II in southeastern Brazil. Although widespread, they are uncommon. They are killed by hunters, who claim the tamanduas kill dogs. They are also killed for the thick tendons in their tails, from which rope is made. Tamanduas are sometimes used by Amazonian Indians to rid their homes of ants and termites.[citation needed]

  1. Gardner, A.L. (2005). "Order Pilosa". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. Miranda, F.; Fallabrino, A.; Arteaga, M.; Tirira, D.G.; Meritt, D.A.; Superina, M. (2014). "Tamandua tetradactyla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T21350A47442916. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T21350A47442916.en. Retrieved12 November 2021.
  3. Linnæus, Carl (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (in Latin) (10th ed.). Holmiæ: Laurentius Salvius. p. 35. Retrieved23 November 2012.
  4. Hayssen, V. (2011). "Tamandua tetradactyla (Pilosa: Myrmecophagidae)". Mammalian Species. 43 (1): 64–74. doi:10.1644/875.1.
  5. Barros, M.C.; et al. (2003). "Phylogenetic analysis of 16S mitochondrial DNA data in sloths and anteaters". Genetics and Molecular Biology. 26 (1): 5–11. doi:10.1590/S1415-47572003000100002.
  6. Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645
  7. Bernegossi, Agda Maria (February 8, 2018). "Evaluation of collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) presented in a wildlife health reference center of Sao Paulo state, Brazil"(PDF).
  8. Nascimento Gomes, Ana Paula; Cesário, Clarice Silva; Olifiers, Natalie; de Cassia Bianchi, Rita; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Vilela, Roberto do Val (December 2019). "New morphological and genetic data of Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus (Diesing, 1851) (Acanthocephala: Archiacanthocephala) in the giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (Pilosa: Myrmecophagidae)". International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. 10: 281–288. doi:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2019.09.008. PMC6906829. PMID 31867208.

Southern tamandua
Southern tamandua Language Watch Edit The southern tamandua Tamandua tetradactyla also called the collared anteater or lesser anteater is a species of anteater from South America and the island of Trinidad in the Caribbean It is a solitary animal found in many habitats from mature to highly disturbed secondary forests and arid savannas It feeds on ants termites and bees Its very strong foreclaws can be used to break insect nests or to defend itself Southern tamandua 1 In defensive postureConservation statusLeast Concern IUCN 3 1 2 Scientific classificationKingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass MammaliaOrder PilosaFamily MyrmecophagidaeGenus TamanduaSpecies T tetradactylaBinomial nameTamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus 1758 3 Southern tamandua rangeSynonymsMyrmecophaga tetradactyla Linnaeus 1758 Contents 1 Distribution and habitat 1 1 Subspecies 2 Physical description 3 Reproduction 4 Behavior 4 1 Diet 5 Conservation 6 Citations 7 General sources 8 External linksDistribution and habitat EditThe southern tamandua is found in Trinidad and throughout South America from Venezuela to northern Argentina southern Brazil and Uruguay at elevations up to 1 600 m 5 200 ft It inhabits both wet and dry forests including tropical rainforest savanna and thorn scrub 4 It seems to be most common in habitats near streams and rivers especially those thick with vines and epiphytes presumably because its prey is common in these areas citation needed The oldest fossil tamanduas date from the Pleistocene of South America although genetic evidence suggests they may have diverged from their closest relative the giant anteater in the late Miocene 12 9 million years ago 5 Subspecies Edit The four recognised subspecies of Tamandua tetradactyla are T t tetradactyla Linnaeus 1758 southern and eastern Brazil Uruguay T t nigra Geoffroy 1803 northern Brazil Colombia Venezuela Trinidad the Guianas T t quichua Thomas 1927 Peru Ecuador extreme western Brazil T t straminea Cope 1889 southern Brazil Paraguay Bolivia ArgentinaPhysical description Edit Skull Tamandua by C Wendt after Gustav Mutzel for Brehms Tierleben 1887 The southern tamandua is a medium sized anteater though it can vary considerably in size based on environmental conditions It has a head and body length ranging from 34 to 88 cm 13 to 35 in and a prehensile tail 37 to 67 cm 15 to 26 in long Adults weigh from 1 5 to 8 4 kg 3 3 to 18 5 lb with no significant difference in size between males and females 4 6 Like their close relative the northern tamandua they have four clawed digits on the forefeet and five on the hind feet and walk on the outer surfaces of their forefeet to avoid puncturing their palms with their sharp claws The underside and the tip of the tail are hairless The snout is long and decurved with an opening only as wide as the diameter of a stick from which the tongue is protruded Although some differences in the shape of the skull are seen they can most easily be distinguished from the northern tamandua by their slightly longer ears which average around 5 cm 2 0 in instead of 4 cm 1 6 in as in the northern species 4 The individual and geographic variation observed in the southern tamandua have made the taxonomic description of these animals a difficult task Animals from the southeastern part of the range are strongly vested meaning they have black markings from shoulder to rump the black patch widens near the shoulders and encircles the forelimbs The rest of the body can be blonde tan or brown Animals from northern Brazil and Venezuela to west of the Andes are solid blonde brown or black or are only lightly vested Individuals from Trinidad are almost always solid blonde citation needed Reproduction EditFemales are polyestrous mating generally takes place in the fall The estrous cycle will last approximately about 42 days Gestation ranges from 130 to 190 days 4 The female gives birth to one offspring per year 7 At birth the young anteater does not resemble its parents its coat varies from white to black It rides on the mother s back for several months up to a year and is sometimes deposited on a safe branch while the mother forages Behavior EditThe tamandua is mainly nocturnal but is occasionally active during the day The animals nest in hollow tree trunks or in the burrows of other animals such as armadillos They are solitary occupying home ranges that average from 100 to 375 ha 250 to 930 acres depending on the local environment 4 They may communicate when aggravated by hissing and releasing an unpleasant scent from their anal glands They spend much of their time foraging arboreally a study in various habitats in Venezuela citation needed showed this anteater spends 13 to 64 of its time in trees The southern tamandua is quite clumsy on the ground and ambles along incapable of the gallop its relative the giant anteater can achieve The southern tamandua uses its powerful forearms in self defense If it is threatened in a tree it grasps a branch with its hindfeet and tail leaving its arms and long curved claws free for combat If attacked on the ground this anteater backs up against a rock or a tree and grabs the opponent with its forearms In the rainforest the southern tamandua is surrounded during the day by a cloud of flies and mosquitoes and is often seen wiping these insects from its eyes citation needed This animal has small eyes and poor vision but its large upright ears indicate that hearing is an important sense The southern tamandua is a host of the acanthocephalan intestinal parasites Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus Gigantorhynchus lopezneyrai and Gigantorhynchus ungriai 8 Diet Edit Southern tamanduas eat ants and termites in roughly equal proportions although they may also eat a small quantity of fruit They locate their food by scent and prey on a wide range of species including army ants carpenter ants and Nasutitermes 4 They avoid eating ants armed with strong chemical defenses such as leafcutter ants citation needed Tamanduas are also thought by whom to eat honey and bees and in captivity have been known to eat fruit and meat Anteaters extract their prey by using their extremely strong fore limbs to rip open nests and their elongated snouts and rounded tongues up to 40 cm 16 in in length to lick up the insects Although it has the same diet as the giant anteater both animals are able to live alongside one another perhaps because the southern tamandua is able to reach nests in trees while its larger relative cannot 4 Conservation EditThe southern tamandua is listed as CITES Appendix II in southeastern Brazil Although widespread they are uncommon They are killed by hunters who claim the tamanduas kill dogs They are also killed for the thick tendons in their tails from which rope is made Tamanduas are sometimes used by Amazonian Indians to rid their homes of ants and termites citation needed Citations Edit Gardner A L 2005 Order Pilosa In Wilson D E Reeder D M eds Mammal Species of the World A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed Johns Hopkins University Press p 103 ISBN 978 0 8018 8221 0 OCLC 62265494 Miranda F Fallabrino A Arteaga M Tirira D G Meritt D A Superina M 2014 Tamandua tetradactyla IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014 e T21350A47442916 doi 10 2305 IUCN UK 2014 1 RLTS T21350A47442916 en Retrieved 12 November 2021 Linnaeus Carl 1758 Systema naturae per regna tria naturae secundum classes ordines genera species cum characteribus differentiis synonymis locis Tomus I in Latin 10th ed Holmiae Laurentius Salvius p 35 Retrieved 23 November 2012 a b c d e f g Hayssen V 2011 Tamandua tetradactyla Pilosa Myrmecophagidae Mammalian Species 43 1 64 74 doi 10 1644 875 1 Barros M C et al 2003 Phylogenetic analysis of 16S mitochondrial DNA data in sloths and anteaters Genetics and Molecular Biology 26 1 5 11 doi 10 1590 S1415 47572003000100002 Burnie D and Wilson DE Eds Animal The Definitive Visual Guide to the World s Wildlife DK Adult 2005 ISBN 0789477645 Bernegossi Agda Maria February 8 2018 Evaluation of collared anteaters Tamandua tetradactyla presented in a wildlife health reference center of Sao Paulo state Brazil PDF Nascimento Gomes Ana Paula Cesario Clarice Silva Olifiers Natalie de Cassia Bianchi Rita Maldonado Arnaldo Vilela Roberto do Val December 2019 New morphological and genetic data of Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus Diesing 1851 Acanthocephala Archiacanthocephala in the giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus 1758 Pilosa Myrmecophagidae International Journal for Parasitology Parasites and Wildlife 10 281 288 doi 10 1016 j ijppaw 2019 09 008 PMC 6906829 PMID 31867208 General sources EditEmmons Louise H Feer Francois 1997 09 02 Neotropical Rainforest Mammals A Field Guide 2nd ed Chicago University of Chicago Press pp 39 41 ISBN 978 0 226 20721 6 OCLC 44179508 Gorog A 1999 Tamandua tetradactyla from Animal Diversity Web External links Edit Data related to Tamandua tetradactyla at Wikispecies Media related to Tamandua tetradactyla at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Southern tamandua amp oldid 1054797041, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.