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Southwark

This article is about the district. For the wider borough, see London Borough of Southwark. For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation).
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Southwark (() ) is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark. The district, which is the oldest part of South London, developed due to its position at the southern end of the early versions of London Bridge, the only crossing point for many miles.

London’s historic core, the City of London lay north of the Bridge and for centuries the area of Southwark just south of the bridge was governed by the City. By the 12th century Southwark had been incorporated as an ancient borough, and this historic status is reflected in the alternative name of the area, as Borough. In the middle ages, not far from the bridge was the Liberty of the Clink, which was just beyond the City's jurisdiction, allowing for more relaxed governance and an area of sometimes disreputable entertainment, nightlife and theatre.

The urban area expanded over the years and Southwark was separated from the City in 1900. Local points of interest include Southwark Cathedral, Borough Market, Shakespeare's Globe theatre, The Shard, Tower Bridge, Butler's Wharf and the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority.

Contents

Toponymy

The name Suthriganaweorc or Suthringa geweorche is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage and means "fort of the men of Surrey" or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey". Southwark is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudweca. The name means "southern defensive work" and is formed from the Old English sūþ (south) and weorc (work). The southern location is in reference to the City of London to the north, Southwark being at the southern end of London Bridge. In Old English, Surrey means "southern district (or the men of the southern district)", so the change from "southern district work" to the latter "southern work" may be an evolution based on the elision of the single syllable ge element, meaning district.

For the toponymy of the area's street names, see Street names of Southwark.

Rome

London in 120 AD, showing the original high-tide waterline around Southwark, to the left (south)
Museum of London, inscription on a stele that mentions 'Londoners' for the first time

Southwark is sited on a once slightly marshy area south of the River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing, burial mounds and ritual activity. Much of the district was, in pre-Roman years, a series of tidal islands in the Thames, formalised into ditches such as the so-called River Neckinger.

It was at the lowest bridging point of the Thames in Roman Britain, providing a crossing from Londinium, and for centuries had the only Thames bridge in the area, until a bridge was built upstream more than 10 miles (16 km) to the west.

This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium, owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge. Two Roman roads, Stane Street and Watling Street, met at Southwark in what is now Borough High Street. Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to 'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. The settlement at Southwark, like the main settlement of London to the north of the bridge, had been more or less abandoned by the end of the fourth century.

Saxons and Vikings

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Southwark, the City, Westminster and neighbouring areas, before urbanisation

Southwark appears to recover only during the time of King Alfred and his successors. Sometime about 886, the burh of Southwark was created and the Roman city area reoccupied. It was probably fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging City of London to the north. This defensive role is highlighted by the role of the bridge in 1014, in the war between King Ethelred the Unready and his ally Olaf II Haraldsson (later King of Norway, and afterwards known as St Olaf) on one side, and Sweyn Forkbeard and his son Cnut (later King Cnut, on the other.

Southwark and in particular the Bridge, proved a formidable obstacle against William the Conqueror in 1066. He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England, but Southwark was devastated.

St Olaf's House, Southwark. Olaf, later St Olaf, helped the English retake London Bridge from his fellow Norsemen.

Medieval period

At Domesday, the area's assets were: Bishop Odo of Bayeux held the monastery (the site of modern Southwark Cathedral) and the tideway, which still exists as St Mary Overie dock; the King owned the church (probably St Olave's) and its tidal stream (St Olave's Dock); the dues of the waterway or mooring place were shared between King William I and Earl Godwin; the King also had the toll of the strand; and 'men of Southwark' had the right to 'a haw and its toll'. Southwark's value to the King was £16. Much of Southwark was originally owned by the church – the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral, originally the priory of St Mary Overie.

During the early Middle Ages, Southwark developed and was one of the four Surrey towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295. An important market occupied the High Street from some time in the 13th century, which was controlled by the city's officers—it was later removed in order to improve traffic to the Bridge, under a separate Trust by Act of Parliament of 1756 as the Borough Market on the present site. The area was renowned for its inns, especially The Tabard, from which Geoffrey Chaucer's pilgrims set off on their journey in The Canterbury Tales.

Old London Bridge

The continuing defensive importance of London Bridge was demonstrated by its important role in thwarting Jack Cade's Rebellion in 1450, and during the Siege of London by the Bastard of Fauconberg in 1471.

Post-medieval

Just west of the Bridge was the Liberty of the Clink manor, which was never controlled by the city, but was held under the Bishopric of Winchester's nominal authority. This area therefore became the entertainment district for London, with attractions such as bull and bear-baiting. It also hosted a concentration of brothels. In the 1580s, Reasonable Blackman worked as a silk weaver in Southwark, as one of the first people of African heritage to work as independent business owners in London in that era. In 1587, Southwark's first playhouse theatre, The Rose, opened. The Rose was set up by Philip Henslowe, and soon became a popular place of entertainment for all classes of Londoners. Both Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare, two of the finest writers of the Elizabethan age, worked at the Rose.

In 1599 the Globe Theatre, in which Shakespeare was a shareholder, was erected on the Bankside in the Liberty of the Clink. It burned down in 1613, and was rebuilt in 1614, only to be closed by the Puritans in 1642 and subsequently pulled down not long thereafter. A modern replica called Shakespeare's Globe, has been built near the original site. The impresario in the later Elizabethan period for these entertainments was Shakespeare's colleague Edward Alleyn, who left many local charitable endowments, most notably Dulwich College.

During the Second English Civil War, a force of Kentish Royalist Rebels approached London, hoping the lightly defended might fall to them, or that the citizens would rise in their favour, however their hopes were quashed when Philip Skippon, in charge of the defence swiftly fortified the bridge making it all but impregnable to the modest Royalist force.

On 26 May 1676, ten years after the Great Fire of London, a great fire broke out, which continued for 17 hours before houses were blown up to create fire breaks. King Charles II and his brother, James, Duke of York, oversaw the effort.

There was also a famous fair in Southwark which took place near the Church of St George the Martyr. William Hogarth depicted this fair in his engraving of Southwark Fair (1733).

Southwark was also the location of several prisons, including those of the Crown or Prerogative Courts, the Marshalsea and King's Bench prisons, those of the local manors' courts, e.g., Borough Compter, The Clink and the Surrey county gaol originally housed at the White Lion Inn (also informally called the Borough Gaol) and eventually at Horsemonger Lane Gaol.

One other local family is of note, the Harvards. John Harvard went to the local parish free school of St Saviour's and on to Cambridge University. He migrated to the Massachusetts Colony and left his library and the residue of his will to the new college there, named after him as its first benefactor. Harvard University maintains a link, having paid for a memorial chapel within Southwark Cathedral (his family's parish church), and where its UK-based alumni hold services. John Harvard's mother's house is in Stratford-upon-Avon.

Urbanisation

In 1836 the first railway in the London area was created, the London and Greenwich Railway, originally terminating at Spa Road and later extended west to London Bridge.

In 1861, another great fire in Southwark destroyed a large number of buildings between Tooley Street and the Thames, including those around Hays Wharf (later replaced by Hays Galleria) and blocks to the west almost as far as St Olave's Church.

The first deep-level underground tube line in London was the City and South London Railway, now the Bank branch of the Northern line, opened in 1890, running from King William Street south through Borough to Stockwell. Southwark, since 1999, is also now served by Southwark, Bermondsey and London Bridge stations on the Jubilee line.

The parishes of the ancient borough of Southwark, 1870
The Metropolitan Borough of Southwark was formed by merging western parts of Southwark with Newington.
160 Tooley Street, the headquarters of the London Borough of Southwark

Southwark is thought to have become a burh in 886. The area appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 within the hundred of Brixton as held by several Surrey manors.

The ancient borough of Southwark, enfranchised in 1295, initially consisted of the pre-existing Surrey parishes of St George the Martyr, St Olave, St Margaret and St Mary.

St Margaret and St Mary were abolished in 1541 and their former area combined to create Southwark St Saviour. Around 1555 Southwark St Thomas was split off from St Olave, and in 1733 Southwark St John Horsleydown was also split off.

In 1855 the parishes came into the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works. The large St George the Martyr parish was governed by its own administrative vestry, but the smaller St John Horsleydown, St Olave and St Thomas parishes were grouped together to form the St Olave District. St Saviour was combined with Southwark Christchurch (the former liberty of Paris Garden) to form the St Saviour's District. In 1889 the area became part of the new County of London. St Olave and St Thomas were combined as a single parish in 1896.

The ancient borough of Southwark, was traditionally known simply as The Borough—or Borough, to distinguish it from 'The City', and this name has persisted as an alternative name for the area. The medieval heart of Southwark was also, simultaneously, referred to as the ward of Bridge Without when administered by the city (from 1550 to 1900) and as an aldermanry until 1978.

The local government arrangements were reorganised in 1900 with the creation of the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark. It comprised the parishes of Southwark Christchurch, Southwark St Saviours, Southwark St George the Martyr and Newington. The Metropolitan Borough of Southwark was based at Walworth Town Hall. The eastern parishes that had formed the St Olave District instead became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey. In 1965 the two boroughs were combined with the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell to form the current London Borough of Southwark.

A new Diocese of Southwark was established in 1905 from parts of the Diocese of Rochester; the diocese serves large parts of south London and Surrey.

Relationship with the City of London

Southwark was outside of the control of the City of London and was a haven for criminals and free traders, who would sell goods and conduct trades outside the regulation of the city's Livery Companies. In 1327 the City obtained control from King Edward III of the manor next to the south side of London Bridge known as the Town of Southwark (called latterly the Guildable Manor—i.e., the place of taxes and tolls). The Livery Companies also ensured that they had jurisdiction over the area.

From the Norman period manorial organisation obtained through major lay and ecclesiastic magnates. Southwark still has vestiges of this because of the connection with the City of London. In 1327 the city acquired from Edward III the original vill of Southwark and this was also described as "the borough". In 1536 Henry VIII acquired the Bermondsey Priory properties and in 1538 that of the Archbishop. In 1550 these were sold to the city.

After many decades of petitioning, in 1550 Southwark was incorporated into the City of London as the ward of Bridge Without. However, the Alderman was appointed by the Court of Aldermen and no Common Councilmen were ever elected. This ward was constituted of the original Guildable Manor and the properties previously held by the church, under a charter of Edward VI, latterly called the King's Manor or Great Liberty. These manors are still constituted by the City under a Bailiff and Steward with their Courts Leet and View of Frankpledge Juries and Officers which still meet—their annual assembly being held in November under the present High Steward (the Recorder of London). The Ward and Aldermanry were effectively abolished in 1978, by merging it with the Ward of Bridge Within. These manorial courts were preserved under the Administration of Justice Act 1977. Therefore, between 1750 and 1978 Southwark had two persons (the Alderman and the Recorder) who were members of the city's Court of Aldermen and Common Council who were elected neither by the City freemen or by the Southwark electorate but appointed by the Court of Aldermen.

Contemporary governance and representation

The Borough and Bankside Community Council corresponds to the Southwark electoral wards of Cathedrals and Chaucer. They are part of the Bermondsey and Old Southwark Parliament constituency whose Member of Parliament is Neil Coyle. It is within the Lambeth and Southwark London Assembly constituency. Southwark is the location of City Hall, the administrative headquarters of the Greater London Authority and the meeting place of the London Assembly and Mayor of London. Since 2009, Southwark London Borough Council has its main offices at 160 Tooley Street, having moved administrative staff from the Camberwell Town Hall.

View from Tower Bridge towards Southwark: City Hall and the rest of More London development in the foreground, and the Shard London Bridge skyscraper (under construction at the time of the photo) in the background.

In common with much of the south bank of the Thames, the Borough has seen extensive regeneration in the last decade. Declining wharfage trade, light industry and factories have given way to residential development, shops, restaurants, galleries, bars and most notably major office developments housing international headquarters of accountancy, legal and other professional services consultancies, most notably along London Bridge City and More London between Tooley Street and the riverside. The area is in easy walking distance of the City and the West End. As such it has become a major business centre with many national and international corporations, professional practices and publishers locating to the area. London's tallest skyscraper, the Shard, is next to London Bridge Station.

To the north is the River Thames, London Bridge station and Southwark Cathedral. Borough Market is a well-developed visitor attraction and has grown in size. The adjacent units have been converted and form a gastronomic focus for London. Borough High Street runs roughly north to south from London Bridge towards Elephant and Castle. The Borough runs further to the south than realised; both St George's Cathedral and the Imperial War Museum are within the ancient boundaries, which border nearby Lambeth.

Its entertainment district, in its heyday at the time of Shakespeare's Globe Theatre (which stood 1599–1642) has revived in the form of the post-1997 reinvention of the original theatre, Shakespeare's Globe, incorporating other smaller theatre spaces, an exhibition about Shakespeare's life and work and which neighbours Vinopolis and the London Dungeon. The Southbank area, primarily in Lambeth but shared with Southwark also hosts many artistic venues.

At its heart is the area known as Borough, which has an eclectic covered and semi-covered market and numerous food and drink venues as well as the skyscraper The Shard. The Borough is generally an area of mixed development, with council estates, major office developments, social housing and high value residential gated communities side by side with each other.

Another landmark is Southwark Cathedral, a priory then parish church, created a cathedral in 1905, noted for its Merbecke Choir. The area at an advanced stage of regeneration and has the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority.

Transport

The area has three main tube stations: Borough, Southwark nearby and one close to the river which is combined with a major railway station above, London Bridge.

  1. Namely Kingston Bridge, London from at least 1190s until the building of closer bridges since, starting with Putney Bridge in 1729.
  1. "Southwark". The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. 1952.
  2. Mills, D. (2000). Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford University Press.
  3. Johnson, David J. (1969). Southwark and the City. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-19-711630-2.
  4. Concise Oxford Dictionary of Place Names, Eilert Erkwall, 4th edition
  5. Citadel of the Saxons, Rory Naismith p 35, 2019
  6. Citadel of the Saxons, p185, Rory Naismaith, ISBN 978 1 78831 222 6. In the book Naismith cites his source as Gesta Guillelmi, ed and translated by Davis and Chibnall, p146-7. He also refers Janet L Nelson 'The rites of the Conqueror' p117-32 and 210-21 cited from her book 'Politics and ritual in Early Medieval Europe' (1986), pp 373-401 and 375-6.
  7. Open Domesday Online: Southwark, accessed July 2018.
  8. Coke, Sir Edward (1644). Institutes of the Laws of England. Third Part. p. 205.
  9. Kaufmann, Miranda (2017). Black Tudors: The Untold Story. UK: OneWorld. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-78607-396-9.
  10. Bidisha (30 October 2017). "Tudor, English and black – and not a slave in sight". The Guardian. London, England. Retrieved29 July 2019.
  11. "The prosperous silk weaver". BBC History Magazine. 9 November 2017. Retrieved29 July 2019.
  12. Youngs, Frederic (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society. ISBN 0-901050-67-9.
  13. "London's Town Halls". Historic England. p. 171. Retrieved12 May 2020.
  14. C of E Diocese website https://southwark.anglican.org/about-us/who-we-are/brief-history-of-the-diocese/
  15. "Where's your community council". Southwark London Borough Council. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved4 September 2010.
  16. "Southwark Council begins move to Tooley Street offices". London SE1. 2 March 2009. Retrieved11 May 2020.

Southwark
Southwark Language Watch Edit This article is about the district For the wider borough see London Borough of Southwark For other places with the same name see Southwark disambiguation This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Southwark news newspapers books scholar JSTOR July 2011 Learn how and when to remove this template message Southwark ˈ s ʌ d er k listen SUDH erk 1 is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames forming the north western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark The district which is the oldest part of South London developed due to its position at the southern end of the early versions of London Bridge the only crossing point for many miles SouthwarkSouthwark CathedralSouthwarkLocation within Greater LondonOS grid referenceTQ325795 Charing Cross1 5 mi 2 4 km WLondon boroughSouthwarkCeremonial countyGreater LondonRegionLondonCountryEnglandSovereign stateUnited KingdomPost townLONDONPostcode districtSE1Dialling code020PoliceMetropolitanFireLondonAmbulanceLondonUK ParliamentBermondsey and Old SouthwarkLondon AssemblyLambeth and SouthwarkList of places UK England London51 29 56 N 0 05 24 W 51 4988 N 0 0901 W 51 4988 0 0901 Coordinates 51 29 56 N 0 05 24 W 51 4988 N 0 0901 W 51 4988 0 0901 London s historic core the City of London lay north of the Bridge and for centuries the area of Southwark just south of the bridge was governed by the City By the 12th century Southwark had been incorporated as an ancient borough and this historic status is reflected in the alternative name of the area as Borough In the middle ages not far from the bridge was the Liberty of the Clink which was just beyond the City s jurisdiction allowing for more relaxed governance and an area of sometimes disreputable entertainment nightlife and theatre The urban area expanded over the years and Southwark was separated from the City in 1900 Local points of interest include Southwark Cathedral Borough Market Shakespeare s Globe theatre The Shard Tower Bridge Butler s Wharf and the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority Contents 1 History 1 1 Toponymy 1 2 Rome 1 3 Saxons and Vikings 1 4 Medieval period 1 5 Post medieval 1 6 Urbanisation 2 Administrative history 2 1 Relationship with the City of London 2 2 Contemporary governance and representation 3 Geography and attractions 3 1 Transport 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory EditToponymy Edit The name Suthriganaweorc 2 or Suthringa geweorche 3 is recorded for the area in the 10th century Anglo Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage 3 and means fort of the men of Surrey 2 or the defensive work of the men of Surrey 3 Southwark is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudweca The name means southern defensive work and is formed from the Old English suth south and weorc work The southern location is in reference to the City of London to the north Southwark being at the southern end of London Bridge In Old English Surrey means southern district or the men of the southern district 4 so the change from southern district work to the latter southern work may be an evolution based on the elision of the single syllable ge element meaning district For the toponymy of the area s street names see Street names of Southwark Rome Edit London in 120 AD showing the original high tide waterline around Southwark to the left south Museum of London inscription on a stele that mentions Londoners for the first time Southwark is sited on a once slightly marshy area south of the River Thames Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing burial mounds and ritual activity Much of the district was in pre Roman years a series of tidal islands in the Thames formalised into ditches such as the so called River Neckinger It was at the lowest bridging point of the Thames in Roman Britain providing a crossing from Londinium and for centuries had the only Thames bridge in the area until a bridge was built upstream more than 10 miles 16 km to the west note 1 This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge Two Roman roads Stane Street and Watling Street met at Southwark in what is now Borough High Street Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to Londoners from the Roman period on it Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay The settlement at Southwark like the main settlement of London to the north of the bridge had been more or less abandoned by the end of the fourth century 5 Saxons and Vikings Edit annotations Southwark the City Westminster and neighbouring areas before urbanisation Southwark appears to recover only during the time of King Alfred and his successors Sometime about 886 the burh of Southwark was created and the Roman city area reoccupied It was probably fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging City of London to the north This defensive role is highlighted by the role of the bridge in 1014 in the war between King Ethelred the Unready and his ally Olaf II Haraldsson later King of Norway and afterwards known as St Olaf on one side and Sweyn Forkbeard and his son Cnut later King Cnut on the other Southwark and in particular the Bridge proved a formidable obstacle against William the Conqueror in 1066 He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England but Southwark was devastated 6 St Olaf s House Southwark Olaf later St Olaf helped the English retake London Bridge from his fellow Norsemen Medieval period Edit At Domesday the area s assets were Bishop Odo of Bayeux held the monastery 7 the site of modern Southwark Cathedral and the tideway which still exists as St Mary Overie dock the King owned the church probably St Olave s and its tidal stream St Olave s Dock the dues of the waterway or mooring place were shared between King William I and Earl Godwin the King also had the toll of the strand and men of Southwark had the right to a haw and its toll Southwark s value to the King was 16 7 Much of Southwark was originally owned by the church the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral originally the priory of St Mary Overie During the early Middle Ages Southwark developed and was one of the four Surrey towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295 An important market occupied the High Street from some time in the 13th century which was controlled by the city s officers it was later removed in order to improve traffic to the Bridge under a separate Trust by Act of Parliament of 1756 as the Borough Market on the present site The area was renowned for its inns especially The Tabard from which Geoffrey Chaucer s pilgrims set off on their journey in The Canterbury Tales Old London Bridge The continuing defensive importance of London Bridge was demonstrated by its important role in thwarting Jack Cade s Rebellion in 1450 and during the Siege of London by the Bastard of Fauconberg in 1471 Post medieval Edit Just west of the Bridge was the Liberty of the Clink manor which was never controlled by the city but was held under the Bishopric of Winchester s nominal authority This area therefore became the entertainment district for London with attractions such as bull and bear baiting It also hosted a concentration of brothels 8 In the 1580s Reasonable Blackman worked as a silk weaver in Southwark as one of the first people of African heritage to work as independent business owners in London in that era 9 10 11 In 1587 Southwark s first playhouse theatre The Rose opened The Rose was set up by Philip Henslowe and soon became a popular place of entertainment for all classes of Londoners Both Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare two of the finest writers of the Elizabethan age worked at the Rose In 1599 the Globe Theatre in which Shakespeare was a shareholder was erected on the Bankside in the Liberty of the Clink It burned down in 1613 and was rebuilt in 1614 only to be closed by the Puritans in 1642 and subsequently pulled down not long thereafter A modern replica called Shakespeare s Globe has been built near the original site The impresario in the later Elizabethan period for these entertainments was Shakespeare s colleague Edward Alleyn who left many local charitable endowments most notably Dulwich College During the Second English Civil War a force of Kentish Royalist Rebels approached London hoping the lightly defended might fall to them or that the citizens would rise in their favour however their hopes were quashed when Philip Skippon in charge of the defence swiftly fortified the bridge making it all but impregnable to the modest Royalist force On 26 May 1676 ten years after the Great Fire of London a great fire broke out which continued for 17 hours before houses were blown up to create fire breaks King Charles II and his brother James Duke of York oversaw the effort There was also a famous fair in Southwark which took place near the Church of St George the Martyr William Hogarth depicted this fair in his engraving of Southwark Fair 1733 Southwark was also the location of several prisons including those of the Crown or Prerogative Courts the Marshalsea and King s Bench prisons those of the local manors courts e g Borough Compter The Clink and the Surrey county gaol originally housed at the White Lion Inn also informally called the Borough Gaol and eventually at Horsemonger Lane Gaol One other local family is of note the Harvards John Harvard went to the local parish free school of St Saviour s and on to Cambridge University He migrated to the Massachusetts Colony and left his library and the residue of his will to the new college there named after him as its first benefactor Harvard University maintains a link having paid for a memorial chapel within Southwark Cathedral his family s parish church and where its UK based alumni hold services John Harvard s mother s house is in Stratford upon Avon Urbanisation Edit In 1836 the first railway in the London area was created the London and Greenwich Railway originally terminating at Spa Road and later extended west to London Bridge In 1861 another great fire in Southwark destroyed a large number of buildings between Tooley Street and the Thames including those around Hays Wharf later replaced by Hays Galleria and blocks to the west almost as far as St Olave s Church The first deep level underground tube line in London was the City and South London Railway now the Bank branch of the Northern line opened in 1890 running from King William Street south through Borough to Stockwell Southwark since 1999 is also now served by Southwark Bermondsey and London Bridge stations on the Jubilee line Administrative history Edit The parishes of the ancient borough of Southwark 1870 The Metropolitan Borough of Southwark was formed by merging western parts of Southwark with Newington 160 Tooley Street the headquarters of the London Borough of Southwark Southwark is thought to have become a burh in 886 The area appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 within the hundred of Brixton as held by several Surrey manors 7 The ancient borough of Southwark enfranchised in 1295 initially consisted of the pre existing Surrey parishes of St George the Martyr St Olave St Margaret and St Mary 12 St Margaret and St Mary were abolished in 1541 and their former area combined to create Southwark St Saviour Around 1555 Southwark St Thomas was split off from St Olave and in 1733 Southwark St John Horsleydown was also split off 12 In 1855 the parishes came into the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works The large St George the Martyr parish was governed by its own administrative vestry but the smaller St John Horsleydown St Olave and St Thomas parishes were grouped together to form the St Olave District St Saviour was combined with Southwark Christchurch the former liberty of Paris Garden to form the St Saviour s District In 1889 the area became part of the new County of London 12 St Olave and St Thomas were combined as a single parish in 1896 The ancient borough of Southwark was traditionally known simply as The Borough or Borough to distinguish it from The City and this name has persisted as an alternative name for the area The medieval heart of Southwark was also simultaneously referred to as the ward of Bridge Without when administered by the city from 1550 to 1900 and as an aldermanry until 1978 2 The local government arrangements were reorganised in 1900 with the creation of the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark It comprised the parishes of Southwark Christchurch Southwark St Saviours Southwark St George the Martyr and Newington The Metropolitan Borough of Southwark was based at Walworth Town Hall 13 The eastern parishes that had formed the St Olave District instead became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey In 1965 the two boroughs were combined with the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell to form the current London Borough of Southwark 12 A new Diocese of Southwark was established in 1905 from parts of the Diocese of Rochester the diocese serves large parts of south London and Surrey 14 Relationship with the City of London Edit Southwark was outside of the control of the City of London and was a haven for criminals and free traders who would sell goods and conduct trades outside the regulation of the city s Livery Companies In 1327 the City obtained control from King Edward III of the manor next to the south side of London Bridge known as the Town of Southwark called latterly the Guildable Manor i e the place of taxes and tolls The Livery Companies also ensured that they had jurisdiction over the area From the Norman period manorial organisation obtained through major lay and ecclesiastic magnates Southwark still has vestiges of this because of the connection with the City of London In 1327 the city acquired from Edward III the original vill of Southwark and this was also described as the borough In 1536 Henry VIII acquired the Bermondsey Priory properties and in 1538 that of the Archbishop In 1550 these were sold to the city After many decades of petitioning in 1550 Southwark was incorporated into the City of London as the ward of Bridge Without However the Alderman was appointed by the Court of Aldermen and no Common Councilmen were ever elected This ward was constituted of the original Guildable Manor and the properties previously held by the church under a charter of Edward VI latterly called the King s Manor or Great Liberty These manors are still constituted by the City under a Bailiff and Steward with their Courts Leet and View of Frankpledge Juries and Officers which still meet their annual assembly being held in November under the present High Steward the Recorder of London The Ward and Aldermanry were effectively abolished in 1978 by merging it with the Ward of Bridge Within These manorial courts were preserved under the Administration of Justice Act 1977 Therefore between 1750 and 1978 Southwark had two persons the Alderman and the Recorder who were members of the city s Court of Aldermen and Common Council who were elected neither by the City freemen or by the Southwark electorate but appointed by the Court of Aldermen Contemporary governance and representation Edit The Borough and Bankside Community Council corresponds to the Southwark electoral wards of Cathedrals and Chaucer 15 They are part of the Bermondsey and Old Southwark Parliament constituency whose Member of Parliament is Neil Coyle It is within the Lambeth and Southwark London Assembly constituency Southwark is the location of City Hall the administrative headquarters of the Greater London Authority and the meeting place of the London Assembly and Mayor of London Since 2009 Southwark London Borough Council has its main offices at 160 Tooley Street having moved administrative staff from the Camberwell Town Hall 16 Geography and attractions Edit View from Tower Bridge towards Southwark City Hall and the rest of More London development in the foreground and the Shard London Bridge skyscraper under construction at the time of the photo in the background In common with much of the south bank of the Thames the Borough has seen extensive regeneration in the last decade Declining wharfage trade light industry and factories have given way to residential development shops restaurants galleries bars and most notably major office developments housing international headquarters of accountancy legal and other professional services consultancies most notably along London Bridge City and More London between Tooley Street and the riverside The area is in easy walking distance of the City and the West End As such it has become a major business centre with many national and international corporations professional practices and publishers locating to the area London s tallest skyscraper the Shard is next to London Bridge Station To the north is the River Thames London Bridge station and Southwark Cathedral Borough Market is a well developed visitor attraction and has grown in size The adjacent units have been converted and form a gastronomic focus for London Borough High Street runs roughly north to south from London Bridge towards Elephant and Castle The Borough runs further to the south than realised both St George s Cathedral and the Imperial War Museum are within the ancient boundaries which border nearby Lambeth Its entertainment district in its heyday at the time of Shakespeare s Globe Theatre which stood 1599 1642 has revived in the form of the post 1997 reinvention of the original theatre Shakespeare s Globe incorporating other smaller theatre spaces an exhibition about Shakespeare s life and work and which neighbours Vinopolis and the London Dungeon The Southbank area primarily in Lambeth but shared with Southwark also hosts many artistic venues At its heart is the area known as Borough which has an eclectic covered and semi covered market and numerous food and drink venues as well as the skyscraper The Shard The Borough is generally an area of mixed development with council estates major office developments social housing and high value residential gated communities side by side with each other Another landmark is Southwark Cathedral a priory then parish church created a cathedral in 1905 noted for its Merbecke Choir The area at an advanced stage of regeneration and has the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority Transport Edit The area has three main tube stations Borough Southwark nearby and one close to the river which is combined with a major railway station above London Bridge See also EditSouthwark PhiladelphiaNotes Edit Namely Kingston Bridge London from at least 1190s until the building of closer bridges since starting with Putney Bridge in 1729 References Edit Southwark The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World New York NY Columbia University Press 1952 a b c Mills D 2000 Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names Oxford University Press a b c Johnson David J 1969 Southwark and the City Oxford University Press p 7 ISBN 978 0 19 711630 2 Concise Oxford Dictionary of Place Names Eilert Erkwall 4th edition Citadel of the Saxons Rory Naismith p 35 2019 Citadel of the Saxons p185 Rory Naismaith ISBN 978 1 78831 222 6 In the book Naismith cites his source as Gesta Guillelmi ed and translated by Davis and Chibnall p146 7 He also refers Janet L Nelson The rites of the Conqueror p117 32 and 210 21 cited from her book Politics and ritual in Early Medieval Europe 1986 pp 373 401 and 375 6 a b c Open Domesday Online Southwark accessed July 2018 Coke Sir Edward 1644 Institutes of the Laws of England Third Part p 205 Kaufmann Miranda 2017 Black Tudors The Untold Story UK OneWorld p 121 ISBN 978 1 78607 396 9 Bidisha 30 October 2017 Tudor English and black and not a slave in sight The Guardian London England Retrieved 29 July 2019 The prosperous silk weaver BBC History Magazine 9 November 2017 Retrieved 29 July 2019 a b c d Youngs Frederic 1979 Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England I Southern England London Royal Historical Society ISBN 0 901050 67 9 London s Town Halls Historic England p 171 Retrieved 12 May 2020 C of E Diocese website https southwark anglican org about us who we are brief history of the diocese Where s your community council Southwark London Borough Council Archived from the original on 4 March 2012 Retrieved 4 September 2010 Southwark Council begins move to Tooley Street offices London SE1 2 March 2009 Retrieved 11 May 2020 Further reading EditJohn Timbs 1867 Southwark Curiosities of London 2nd ed London J C Hotten OCLC 12878129 Findlay Muirhead ed 1922 Southwark London and its Environs 2nd ed London Macmillan amp Co OCLC 365061 External links EditSouthwark at Curlie Digital Public Library of America Works related to Southwark various dates Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Southwark amp oldid 1052837371, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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