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Southwestern Mandarin

Southwestern Mandarin (simplified Chinese:西南官话; traditional Chinese:西南官話; pinyin: Xīnán Guānhuà), also known as Upper Yangtze Mandarin (simplified Chinese:上江官话; traditional Chinese:上江官話; pinyin: Shàngjiāng Guānhuà), is a Mandarin Chinese language spoken in much of Southwest China, including in Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Guizhou, most parts of Hubei, the northwestern part of Hunan, the northern part of Guangxi and some southern parts of Shaanxi and Gansu. Southwest Mandarin is about 50% mutually intelligible with Standard Chinese.

Southwestern Mandarin
Upper Yangtze Mandarin
RegionSichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hong Kong, others
Native speakers
260 million (2012)
Sino-Tibetan
Official status
Official language in
Myanmar (Wa State, Kokang Self-Administered Zone)
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
ISO 639-6xghu
Glottologxina1239
Linguasphere79-AAA-bh
Two Southwest Mandarin speakers, recorded in Canada.

Southwestern Mandarin is spoken by roughly 260 million people. If considered a language distinct from central Mandarin, it would have the eighth-most native speakers in the world, behind Mandarin itself, Spanish, English, Hindi, Portuguese, Arabic and Bengali.

Contents

Two speakers of the Guiyang variant of Southwestern Mandarin speak in the dialect

Modern Southwestern Mandarin was formed by the waves of immigrants brought to the regions during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Because of the comparatively recent move, such dialects show more similarity to modern Standard Mandarin than to other varieties of Chinese like Cantonese or Hokkien. For example, like most Southern Chinese dialects, Southwestern Mandarin does not possess the retroflex consonants (zh, ch, sh, r) of Standard Mandarin, but most varieties of it also fail to retain the checked tone that all southern dialects have. The Chengdu-Chongqing and Hubei dialects are believed to reflect aspects of the Mandarin lingua franca that was spoken during the Ming. However, some scholars believe its origins may be more similar to Lower Yangtze Mandarin. Though part of the Mandarin group, Southwestern Mandarin has many striking and pronounced differences with Standard Mandarin such that until 1955, it was generally categorized alongside Cantonese and Wu Chinese as a branch of Chinese varieties.

Southwestern Mandarin is commonly spoken in Kokang district in Northern Myanmar, where the population is largely Kokang. Southwestern Mandarin is also one of two official languages of the Wa State, an unrecognized autonomous state within Myanmar, alongside the Wa language. Because Wa has no written form, Chinese is the official working language of the Wa State government. Some of its speakers, known as the Chin Haw, live in Thailand. It is also spoken in parts of Northern Vietnam. Ethnic minorities in Vietnam's Lào Cai Province used to speak Southwestern Mandarin to each other when their languages were not mutually intelligible. Southwestern Mandarin is also used between different ethnic minorities in Yunnan, Guizhou: 31 and Guangxi.

Tones

Most Southwestern Mandarin dialects have, like Standard Mandarin, retained only four of the eight tones of Late Middle Chinese. However, the entering tone has completely merged with the light-level tone in most Southwestern dialects, but in Standard Mandarin, it is seemingly randomly dispersed among the remaining tones.

Tones of Southwestern Mandarin Dialects
Name Dark-Level Light-Level Rising tone Dark-
Departing
Light-
Departing
Entering tone Geographic Distribution
Sichuan (Chengdu dialect) ˥ (55) ˨˩ (21) ˦˨ (42) ˨˩˧ (213) light-level merge Main Sichuan Basin, parts of Guizhou
Luzhou dialect ˥ (55) ˨˩ (21) ˦˨ (42) ˩˧ (13) ˧ (33) Southwest Sichuan Basin
Luding County dialect ˥ (55) ˨˩ (21) ˥˧ (53) ˨˦ (24) dark-level merge Ya'an vicinity
Neijiang dialect ˥ (55) ˨˩ (21) ˦˨ (42) ˨˩˧ (213) departing merge Lower Tuo River area
Hanzhong dialect ˥ (55) ˨˩ (21) ˨˦ (24) ˨˩˨ (212) level tone merge Southern Shaanxi
Kunming dialect ˦ (44) ˧˩ (31) ˥˧ (53) ˨˩˨ (212) light-level merge Central Yunnan
Gejiu dialect ˥ (55) ˦˨ (42) ˧ (33) ˩˨ (12) light-level merge Southern Yunnan
Baoshan dialect ˧˨ (32) ˦ (44) ˥˧ (53) ˨˥ (25) light-level merge Western Yunnan
Huguang (Wuhan dialect) ˥ (55) ˨˩˧ (213) ˦˨ (42) ˧˥ (35) light-level merge Central Hubei
Shishou dialect ˦˥ (45) ˩˧ (13) ˦˩ (41) ˧ (33) ˨˩˦ (214) ˨˥ (25) Southern Hubei (Jingzhou)
Hanshou dialect ˥ (55) ˨˩˧ (213) ˦˨ (42) ˧ (33) ˧˥ (35) ˥ (55) Northwestern Hunan (Changde)
Li County dialect ˥ (55) ˩˧ (13) ˨˩ (21) ˧ (33) ˨˩˧ (213) (light)˧˥ (35) Northwestern Hunan (Changde)
Xiangfan dialect ˧˦ (34) ˥˨ (52) ˥ (55) ˨˩˨ (212) light-level Northern Hubei
Guilin dialect ˧ (33) ˨˩ (21) ˥ (55) ˧˥ (35) light-level Northern Guangxi, Southern Guizhou, parts of Southern Hunan
New Xiang (Changsha dialect) ˧ (33) ˩˧ (13) ˦˩ (41) ˦˥ (45) ~˥ (55) ˨˩ (21) ~˩ (11) ˨˦ (24) Northeastern Hunan

Syllables

Southwestern Mandarin dialects do not possess the retroflex consonants of Standard Mandarin but share most other Mandarin phonological features. Most dialects have lost the distinction between the nasal consonant/n/ and the lateral consonant/l/ and the nasal finals/-n/ and/-ŋ/. For example, the sounds "la" and "na" are generally indistinguishable, and the same is true for the sounds "fen" and "feng". Some varieties also lack a distinction between the labiodental/f/ and the glottal/h/.

Chengyu and Guanchi subgroups in Sichuan and Chongqing

Southwestern Mandarin was classified into twelve dialect groups in the Language Atlas of China:

  • Cheng–Yu 成渝: Chengdu and Chongqing
  • Dianxi 滇西 (western Yunnan): Yao–Li 姚里 and Bao–Lu 保潞 clusters
  • Qianbei 黔北 (northern Guizhou)
  • Kun–Gui 昆貴: Kunming and Guiyang
  • Guan–Chi 灌赤 (central Sichuan from Guan County to the Chishui River and part of northern Yunnan): Minjiang 岷江, Ren–Fu 仁富, Ya–Mian 雅棉, and Li–Chuan 丽川 clusters
  • Ebei 鄂北 (northern Hubei)
  • Wu–Tian 武天: Wuhan and Tianmen (Hubei)
  • Cen–Jiang 岑江 (eastern Guizhou)
  • Qiannan 黔南 (southern Guizhou)
  • Xiangnan 湘南 (southern Hunan): Yongzhou and Chenzhou
  • Gui–Liu 桂柳 (northern Guangxi): Guilin and Liuzhou
  • Chang–He 常鹤: Changde and Zhangjiajie (northwestern Hunan) and Hefeng County (southwestern Hubei)
  1. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012). Zhōngguó yǔyán dìtú jí (dì 2 bǎn): Hànyǔ fāngyán juǎn 中国语言地图集(第2版):汉语方言卷 [Language Atlas of China (2nd edition): Chinese dialect volume]. Beijing: The Commercial Press. p. 3.
  2. Cheng, Chin-Chuan. "Extra-Linguistic Data for Understanding Dialect Mutual Intelligibility".
  3. Holm, David (2013). Mapping the Old Zhuang Character Script: A Vernacular Writing System from Southern China. BRILL. p. 42. ISBN 978-90-04-24216-6.
  4. Tsung, Linda (2014). Language Power and Hierarchy: Multilingual Education in China. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 239. ISBN 978-1-4411-5574-0.
  5. Chew, Phyllis Ghim-Lian (2013). Emergent Lingua Francas and World Orders: The Politics and Place of English as a World Language. Routledge. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-135-23557-4.
  6. Zhou and Xu 周及徐, 2005. "The pronunciation and historical evolution of '虽遂'-class characters in Ba-Shu dialects" 《巴蜀方言中“虽遂”等字的读音及历史演变》, Zhonghua Wenhua Luntan 中华文化论坛.
  7. Wang Qing 王庆, 2007. "Consonants in Ming Dynasty Repopulation Area Dialects and Southern Mandarin" 《明代人口重建地区方言的知照系声母与南系官话》, Chongqing Normal University Journal 重庆师范大学学报.
  8. Liu Xiaomei 刘晓梅 and Li Rulong 李如龙, 2003. "Special Vocabulary Research in Mandarin Dialects" 《官话方言特征词研究》, Yuwen Yanjiu 语文研究.
  9. Interactive Myanmar Map, The Stimson Center
  10. Wa, Infomekong
  11. Clyne, Michael G. (1992). Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Nations. Walter de Gruyter. p. 306. ISBN 978-3-11-012855-0.
  12. Ito, Masako. Politics of Ethnic Classification in Vietnam.
  13. Ito, Masako (2013). Politics of Ethnic Classification in Vietnam. Kyoto University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-920901-72-1.
  14. Volker, Craig Alan; Anderson, Fred E. (2015). Education in Languages of Lesser Power: Asia-Pacific Perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 68. ISBN 978-90-272-6958-4.
  15. Pelkey, Jamin R. (2011). Dialectology as Dialectic: Interpreting Phula Variation. Walter de Gruyter. p. 154. ISBN 978-3-11-024585-1.
  16. Holm, David (2003). Killing a buffalo for the ancestors: a Zhuang cosmological text from Southwest China. Southeast Asia Publications, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University. ISBN 978-1-891134-25-8.
  17. Harper, Damian (2007). China's Southwest. Lonely Planet. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-74104-185-9.
  18. Li Lan 李蓝, 2009, Southwestern Mandarin Areas (Draft)
  19. Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2.

Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Southwest Mandarin Southwestern Mandarin simplified Chinese 西南官话 traditional Chinese 西南官話 pinyin Xinan Guanhua also known as Upper Yangtze Mandarin simplified Chinese 上江官话 traditional Chinese 上江官話 pinyin Shangjiang Guanhua is a Mandarin Chinese language spoken in much of Southwest China including in Sichuan Yunnan Chongqing Guizhou most parts of Hubei the northwestern part of Hunan the northern part of Guangxi and some southern parts of Shaanxi and Gansu Southwest Mandarin is about 50 mutually intelligible with Standard Chinese 2 Southwestern MandarinUpper Yangtze MandarinRegionSichuan Yunnan Guangxi Guizhou Hubei Hong Kong othersNative speakers260 million 2012 1 Language familySino Tibetan SiniticMandarinSouthwestern MandarinOfficial statusOfficial language in Myanmar Wa State Kokang Self Administered Zone Language codesISO 639 3None mis ISO 639 6xghuGlottolog a rel nofollow class external text href http glottolog org resource languoid id xina1239 xina1239 a Linguasphere79 AAA bhPlay media Two Southwest Mandarin speakers recorded in Canada Southwestern Mandarin is spoken by roughly 260 million people 1 If considered a language distinct from central Mandarin it would have the eighth most native speakers in the world behind Mandarin itself Spanish English Hindi Portuguese Arabic and Bengali Contents 1 Overview 2 Phonology 2 1 Tones 2 2 Syllables 3 Subdivisions 4 See also 5 ReferencesOverview Edit source source Two speakers of the Guiyang variant of Southwestern Mandarin speak in the dialect Modern Southwestern Mandarin was formed by the waves of immigrants brought to the regions during the Ming 3 4 and Qing Dynasties 5 Because of the comparatively recent move such dialects show more similarity to modern Standard Mandarin than to other varieties of Chinese like Cantonese or Hokkien For example like most Southern Chinese dialects Southwestern Mandarin does not possess the retroflex consonants zh ch sh r of Standard Mandarin but most varieties of it also fail to retain the checked tone that all southern dialects have The Chengdu Chongqing and Hubei dialects are believed to reflect aspects of the Mandarin lingua franca that was spoken during the Ming 6 However some scholars believe its origins may be more similar to Lower Yangtze Mandarin 7 Though part of the Mandarin group Southwestern Mandarin has many striking and pronounced differences with Standard Mandarin such that until 1955 it was generally categorized alongside Cantonese and Wu Chinese as a branch of Chinese varieties 8 Southwestern Mandarin is commonly spoken in Kokang district in Northern Myanmar where the population is largely Kokang Southwestern Mandarin is also one of two official languages of the Wa State an unrecognized autonomous state within Myanmar alongside the Wa language Because Wa has no written form Chinese is the official working language of the Wa State government 9 10 Some of its speakers known as the Chin Haw live in Thailand 11 It is also spoken in parts of Northern Vietnam 12 Ethnic minorities in Vietnam s Lao Cai Province used to speak Southwestern Mandarin to each other when their languages were not mutually intelligible 13 Southwestern Mandarin is also used between different ethnic minorities in Yunnan 14 15 Guizhou 4 31 and Guangxi 4 16 17 Phonology EditTones Edit Most Southwestern Mandarin dialects have like Standard Mandarin retained only four of the eight tones of Late Middle Chinese However the entering tone has completely merged with the light level tone in most Southwestern dialects but in Standard Mandarin it is seemingly randomly dispersed among the remaining tones Tones of Southwestern Mandarin Dialects 18 Name Dark Level Light Level Rising tone Dark Departing Light Departing Entering tone Geographic DistributionSichuan Chengdu dialect 55 21 42 213 light level merge Main Sichuan Basin parts of GuizhouLuzhou dialect 55 21 42 13 33 Southwest Sichuan BasinLuding County dialect 55 21 53 24 dark level merge Ya an vicinityNeijiang dialect 55 21 42 213 departing merge Lower Tuo River areaHanzhong dialect 55 21 24 212 level tone merge Southern ShaanxiKunming dialect 44 31 53 212 light level merge Central YunnanGejiu dialect 55 42 33 12 light level merge Southern YunnanBaoshan dialect 32 44 53 25 light level merge Western YunnanHuguang Wuhan dialect 55 213 42 35 light level merge Central HubeiShishou dialect 45 13 41 33 214 25 Southern Hubei Jingzhou Hanshou dialect 55 213 42 33 35 55 Northwestern Hunan Changde Li County dialect 55 13 21 33 213 light 35 Northwestern Hunan Changde Xiangfan dialect 34 52 55 212 light level Northern HubeiGuilin dialect 33 21 55 35 light level Northern Guangxi Southern Guizhou parts of Southern HunanNew Xiang Changsha dialect 33 13 41 45 55 21 11 24 Northeastern HunanSyllables Edit Southwestern Mandarin dialects do not possess the retroflex consonants of Standard Mandarin but share most other Mandarin phonological features Most dialects have lost the distinction between the nasal consonant n and the lateral consonant l and the nasal finals n and ŋ For example the sounds la and na are generally indistinguishable and the same is true for the sounds fen and feng Some varieties also lack a distinction between the labiodental f and the glottal h Subdivisions Edit Chengyu and Guanchi subgroups in Sichuan and Chongqing Southwestern Mandarin was classified into twelve dialect groups in the Language Atlas of China 19 Cheng Yu 成渝 Chengdu and Chongqing Dianxi 滇西 western Yunnan Yao Li 姚里 and Bao Lu 保潞 clusters Qianbei 黔北 northern Guizhou Kun Gui 昆貴 Kunming and Guiyang Guan Chi 灌赤 central Sichuan from Guan County to the Chishui River and part of northern Yunnan Minjiang 岷江 Ren Fu 仁富 Ya Mian 雅棉 and Li Chuan 丽川 clusters Ebei 鄂北 northern Hubei Wu Tian 武天 Wuhan and Tianmen Hubei Cen Jiang 岑江 eastern Guizhou Qiannan 黔南 southern Guizhou Xiangnan 湘南 southern Hunan Yongzhou and Chenzhou Gui Liu 桂柳 northern Guangxi Guilin and Liuzhou Chang He 常鹤 Changde and Zhangjiajie northwestern Hunan and Hefeng County southwestern Hubei See also EditSichuanese dialectsReferences Edit a b Chinese Academy of Social Sciences 2012 Zhōngguo yǔyan ditu ji di 2 bǎn Hanyǔ fangyan juǎn 中国语言地图集 第2版 汉语方言卷 Language Atlas of China 2nd edition Chinese dialect volume Beijing The Commercial Press p 3 Cheng Chin Chuan Extra Linguistic Data for Understanding Dialect Mutual Intelligibility Holm David 2013 Mapping the Old Zhuang Character Script A Vernacular Writing System from Southern China BRILL p 42 ISBN 978 90 04 24216 6 a b c Tsung Linda 2014 Language Power and Hierarchy Multilingual Education in China Bloomsbury Publishing p 239 ISBN 978 1 4411 5574 0 Chew Phyllis Ghim Lian 2013 Emergent Lingua Francas and World Orders The Politics and Place of English as a World Language Routledge p 162 ISBN 978 1 135 23557 4 Zhou and Xu 周及徐 2005 The pronunciation and historical evolution of 虽遂 class characters in Ba Shu dialects 巴蜀方言中 虽遂 等字的读音及历史演变 Zhonghua Wenhua Luntan 中华文化论坛 Wang Qing 王庆 2007 Consonants in Ming Dynasty Repopulation Area Dialects and Southern Mandarin 明代人口重建地区方言的知照系声母与南系官话 Chongqing Normal University Journal 重庆师范大学学报 Liu Xiaomei 刘晓梅 and Li Rulong 李如龙 2003 Special Vocabulary Research in Mandarin Dialects 官话方言特征词研究 Yuwen Yanjiu 语文研究 Interactive Myanmar Map The Stimson Center Wa Infomekong Clyne Michael G 1992 Pluricentric Languages Differing Norms in Different Nations Walter de Gruyter p 306 ISBN 978 3 11 012855 0 Ito Masako Politics of Ethnic Classification in Vietnam Ito Masako 2013 Politics of Ethnic Classification in Vietnam Kyoto University Press p 137 ISBN 978 1 920901 72 1 Volker Craig Alan Anderson Fred E 2015 Education in Languages of Lesser Power Asia Pacific Perspectives John Benjamins Publishing Company p 68 ISBN 978 90 272 6958 4 Pelkey Jamin R 2011 Dialectology as Dialectic Interpreting Phula Variation Walter de Gruyter p 154 ISBN 978 3 11 024585 1 Holm David 2003 Killing a buffalo for the ancestors a Zhuang cosmological text from Southwest China Southeast Asia Publications Center for Southeast Asian Studies Northern Illinois University ISBN 978 1 891134 25 8 Harper Damian 2007 China s Southwest Lonely Planet p 151 ISBN 978 1 74104 185 9 Li Lan 李蓝 2009 Southwestern Mandarin Areas Draft Kurpaska Maria 2010 Chinese Language s A Look Through the Prism ofThe Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects Walter de Gruyter pp 66 67 ISBN 978 3 11 021914 2 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Southwestern Mandarin amp oldid 999615809, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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