fbpx
Wikipedia

Sovereignty

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. ()
This article may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The talk page may contain suggestions.(March 2018)
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: "Sovereignty"news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR
(March 2018) ()
()

Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate authority over other people in order to establish a law or change an existing law. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme legitimate authority over some polity. In international law, sovereignty is the exercise of power by a state. De jure sovereignty refers to the legal right to do so; de facto sovereignty refers to the factual ability to do so. This can become an issue of special concern upon the failure of the usual expectation that de jure and de facto sovereignty exist at the place and time of concern, and reside within the same organization.

The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan, depicting the Sovereign as a massive body wielding a sword and crosier and composed of many individual people

Contents

The term arises from the unattested Vulgar Latin's *superanus, (itself derived form of Latin super – "over") meaning "chief", "ruler". Its spelling, which varied from the word's first appearance in English in the fourteenth century, was influenced by the English reign.

The concepts of sovereignty have been discussed throughout history, and are still actively debated. Its definition, concept, and application has changed throughout history. The current notion of state sovereignty contains four aspects consisting of territory, population, authority and recognition. According to Stephen D. Krasner, the term could also be understood in four different ways:

  • Domestic sovereignty – actual control over a state exercised by an authority organized within this state,
  • Interdependence sovereignty – actual control of movement across state's borders
  • International legal sovereignty – formal recognition by other sovereign states
  • Westphalian sovereignty – lack of other authority over state other than the domestic authority (examples of such other authorities could be a political organization or any other external agent).

Often, these four aspects all appear together, but this is not necessarily the case – they are not affected by one another, and there are historical examples of states that were non-sovereign in one aspect while at the same time being sovereign in another of these aspects. According to Immanuel Wallerstein, another fundamental feature of sovereignty is that it is a claim that must be recognised if it is to have any meaning:

Sovereignty is more than anything else a matter of legitimacy [...that]. Sovereignty is a trade, in which two potentially conflicting sides, respecting de facto realities of exchange such recognitions ascostly strategy.

Classical

The Roman jurist Ulpian observed that:

  • The people transferred all their imperium and power to the Emperor. Cum lege regia, quae de imperio eius lata est, populus ei et in eum omne suum imperium et potestatem conferat (Digest I.4.1)
  • The emperor is not bound by the laws. Princeps legibus solutus est (Digest I.3.31)
  • A decision by the emperor has the force of law. Quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem. (Digest I.4.1)

Ulpian was expressing the idea that the Emperor exercised a rather absolute form of sovereignty that originated in the people, although he did not use the term expressly.

Medieval

Ulpian's statements were known in medieval Europe, but sovereignty was an important concept in medieval times. Medieval monarchs were not sovereign, at least not strongly so, because they were constrained by, and shared power with, their feudal aristocracy. Furthermore, both were strongly constrained by custom.

Sovereignty existed during the Medieval period as the de jure rights of nobility and royalty, and in the de facto capability of individuals to make their own choices in life.

Around 1380–1400, the issue of feminine sovereignty was addressed in Geoffrey Chaucer's Middle English collection of Canterbury Tales, specifically in The Wife of Bath's Tale.

A later English Arthurian romance, The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell (c. 1450), uses many of the same elements of the Wife of Bath's tale, yet changes the setting to the court of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. The story revolves around the knight Sir Gawain granting to Dame Ragnell, his new bride, what is purported to be wanted most by women: sovereignty.

We desire most from men,

From men both lund and poor,
To have sovereignty without lies.
For where we have sovereignty, all is ours,
Though a knight be ever so fierce,
And ever win mastery.
It is our desire to have master
Over such a sir.

Such is our purpose.

The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell (c. 1450),

Reformation

Sovereignty reemerged as a concept in the late 16th century, a time when civil wars had created a craving for a stronger central authority when monarchs had begun to gather power onto their own hands at the expense of the nobility, and the modern nation state was emerging. Jean Bodin, partly in reaction to the chaos of the French wars of religion, presented theories of sovereignty calling for a strong central authority in the form of absolute monarchy. In his 1576 treatise Les Six Livres de la République ("Six Books of the Republic") Bodin argued that it is inherent in the nature of the state that sovereignty must be:

  • Absolute: On this point he said that the sovereign must be hedged in with obligations and conditions, must be able to legislate without his (or its) subjects' consent, must not be bound by the laws of his predecessors, and could not, because it is illogical, be bound by his own laws.
  • Perpetual: Not temporarily delegated as to a strong leader in an emergency or a state employee such as a magistrate. He held that sovereignty must be perpetual because anyone with the power to enforce a time limit on the governing power must be above the governing power, which would be impossible if the governing power is absolute.

Bodin rejected the notion of transference of sovereignty from people to the ruler (also known as the sovereign); natural law and divine law confer upon the sovereign the right to rule. And the sovereign is not above divine law or natural law. He is above (ie. not bound by) only positive law, that is, laws made by humans. He emphasized that a sovereign is bound to observe certain basic rules derived from the divine law, the law of nature or reason, and the law that is common to all nations (jus gentium), as well as the fundamental laws of the state that determine who is the sovereign, who succeeds to sovereignty, and what limits the sovereign power. Thus, Bodin's sovereign was restricted by the constitutional law of the state and by the higher law that was considered as binding upon every human being. The fact that the sovereign must obey divine and natural law imposes ethical constraints on him. Bodin also held that the lois royales, the fundamental laws of the French monarchy which regulated matters such as succession, are natural laws and are binding on the French sovereign.

Despite his commitment to absolutism, Bodin held some moderate opinions on how government should in practice be carried out. He held that although the sovereign is not obliged to, it is advisable for him, as a practical expedient, to convene a senate from whom he can obtain advice, to delegate some power to magistrates for the practical administration of the law, and to use the Estates as a means of communicating with the people.[citation needed] Bodin believed that "the most divine, most excellent, and the state form most proper to royalty is governed partly aristocratically and partly democratically".

With his doctrine that sovereignty is conferred by divine law, Bodin predefined the scope of the divine right of kings.[citation needed]

Age of Enlightenment

During the Age of Enlightenment, the idea of sovereignty gained both legal and moral force as the main Western description of the meaning and power of a State. In particular, the "Social contract" as a mechanism for establishing sovereignty was suggested and, by 1800, widely accepted, especially in the new United States and France, though also in Great Britain to a lesser extent.

Thomas Hobbes, in Leviathan (1651) put forward a conception of sovereignty similar to Bodin's, which had just achieved legal status in the "Peace of Westphalia", but for different reasons. He created the first modern version of the social contract (or contractarian) theory, arguing that to overcome the "nasty, brutish and short" quality of life without the cooperation of other human beings, people must join in a "commonwealth" and submit to a "Soveraigne [sic] Power" that can compel them to act in the common good. This expediency argument attracted many of the early proponents of sovereignty. Hobbes strengthened the definition of sovereignty beyond either Westphalian or Bodin's, by saying that it must be:[citation needed]

  • Absolute: because conditions could only be imposed on a sovereign if there were some outside arbitrator to determine when he had violated them, in which case the sovereign would not be the final authority.
  • Indivisible: The sovereign is the only final authority in his territory; he does not share final authority with any other entity. Hobbes held this to be true because otherwise there would be no way of resolving a disagreement between the multiple authorities.

Hobbes' hypothesis—that the ruler's sovereignty is contracted to him by the people in return for his maintaining their physical safety—led him to conclude that if and when the ruler fails, the people recover their ability to protect themselves by forming a new contract.

Hobbes's theories decisively shape the concept of sovereignty through the medium of social contract theories. Jean-Jacques Rousseau's (1712–1778) definition of popular sovereignty (with early antecedents in Francisco Suárez's theory of the origin of power), provides that the people are the legitimate sovereign. Rousseau considered sovereignty to be inalienable; he condemned the distinction between the origin and the exercise of sovereignty, a distinction upon which constitutional monarchy or representative democracy is founded. John Locke, and Montesquieu are also key figures in the unfolding of the concept of sovereignty; their views differ with Rousseau and with Hobbes on this issue of alienability.

The second book of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Du Contrat Social, ou Principes du droit politique (1762) deals with sovereignty and its rights. Sovereignty, or the general will, is inalienable, for the will cannot be transmitted; it is indivisible since it is essentially general; it is infallible and always right, determined and limited in its power by the common interest; it acts through laws. Law is the decision of the general will regarding some object of common interest, but though the general will is always right and desires only good, its judgment is not always enlightened, and consequently does not always see wherein the common good lies; hence the necessity of the legislator. But the legislator has, of himself, no authority; he is only a guide who drafts and proposes laws, but the people alone (that is, the sovereign or general will) has authority to make and impose them.

Rousseau, in the Social Contract argued, "the growth of the State giving the trustees of public authority more and means to abuse their power, the more the Government has to have force to contain the people, the more force the Sovereign should have in turn to contain the Government," with the understanding that the Sovereign is "a collective being of wonder" (Book II, Chapter I) resulting from "the general will" of the people, and that "what any man, whoever he may be, orders on his own, is not a law" (Book II, Chapter VI) – and predicated on the assumption that the people have an unbiased means by which to ascertain the general will. Thus the legal maxim, "there is no law without a sovereign."

According to Hendrik Spruyt, the sovereign state emerged as a response to changes in international trade, which led to the formation of new coalitions that wanted sovereign states. He rejects that the emergence of the sovereign state was inevitable; "it arose because of a particular conjuncture of social and political interests in Europe."

There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty. It is an indisputable fact that this conception, from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day, has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon.

Lassa Oppenheim (30-03-1858 – 07-10-1919), an authority on international law

Absoluteness

An important factor of sovereignty is its degree of absoluteness. A sovereign power has absolute sovereignty when it is not restricted by a constitution, by the laws of its predecessors, or by custom, and no areas of law or policy are reserved as being outside its control. International law; policies and actions of neighboring states; cooperation and respect of the populace; means of enforcement; and resources to enact policy are factors that might limit sovereignty. For example, parents are not guaranteed the right to decide some matters in the upbringing of their children independent of societal regulation, and municipalities do not have unlimited jurisdiction in local matters, thus neither parents nor municipalities have absolute sovereignty. Theorists have diverged over the desirability of increased absoluteness.

Exclusivity

A key element of sovereignty in a legalistic sense is that of exclusivity of jurisdiction. Specifically, the degree to which decisions made by a sovereign entity might be contradicted by another authority. Along these lines, the German sociologist Max Weber proposed that sovereignty is a community's monopoly on the legitimate use of force; and thus any group claiming the same right must either be brought under the yoke of the sovereign, proven illegitimate or otherwise contested and defeated for sovereignty to be genuine. International law, competing branches of government, and authorities reserved for subordinate entities (such as federated states or republics) represent legal infringements on exclusivity. Social institutions such as religious bodies, corporations, and competing political parties might represent de facto infringements on exclusivity.

De jure and de facto

De jure, or legal, sovereignty concerns the expressed and institutionally recognised right to exercise control over a territory. De facto, or actual, sovereignty is concerned with whether control in fact exists. Cooperation and respect of the populace; control of resources in, or moved into, an area; means of enforcement and security; and ability to carry out various functions of state all represent measures of de facto sovereignty. When control is practiced predominantly by the military or police force it is considered coercive sovereignty.

Sovereignty and independence

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(July 2015) ()

State sovereignty is sometimes viewed synonymously with independence, however, sovereignty can be transferred as a legal right whereas independence cannot. A state can achieve de facto independence long after acquiring sovereignty, such as in the case of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Additionally, independence can also be suspended when an entire region becomes subject to an occupation such as when Iraq had been overrun by the forces to take part in the Iraq War of 2003, Iraq had not been annexed by any country, so its sovereignty during this period was not contested by any state including those present on the territory. Alternatively, independence can be lost completely when sovereignty itself becomes the subject of dispute. The pre-World War II administrations of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia maintained an exile existence (and considerable international recognition) whilst their territories were annexed by the Soviet Union and governed locally by their pro-Soviet functionaries. When in 1991 Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia re-enacted independence, it was done so on the basis of continuity directly from the pre-Soviet republics. Another complicated sovereignty scenario can arise when regime itself is the subject of dispute. In the case of Poland, the People's Republic of Poland which governed Poland from 1945 to 1989 is now seen to have been an illegal entity by the modern Polish administration. The post-1989 Polish state claims direct continuity from the Second Polish Republic which ended in 1939. For other reasons, however, Poland maintains its communist-era outline as opposed to its pre-World War II shape which included areas now in Belarus, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Slovakia and Ukraine but did not include some of its western regions that were then in Germany.

At the opposite end of the scale, there is no dispute regarding the self-governance of certain self-proclaimed states such as the Republic of Kosovo or Somaliland (see List of states with limited recognition, but most of them are puppet states) since their governments neither answer to a bigger state nor is their governance subjected to supervision. The sovereignty (i.e. legal right to govern) however, is disputed in all three cases as the first entity is claimed by Serbia and the second by Somalia.

Internal

Further information: Free state (polity)

Internal sovereignty is the relationship between sovereign power and the political community. A central concern is legitimacy: by what right does a government exercise authority? Claims of legitimacy might refer to the divine right of kings, or to a social contract (i.e. popular sovereignty).[citation needed] Max Weber offered a first categorization of political authority and legitimacy with the categories of traditional, charismatic and legal-rational.

With Sovereignty meaning holding supreme, independent authority over a region or state, Internal Sovereignty refers to the internal affairs of the state and the location of supreme power within it. A state that has internal sovereignty is one with a government that has been elected by the people and has the popular legitimacy. Internal sovereignty examines the internal affairs of a state and how it operates. It is important to have strong internal sovereignty to keeping order and peace. When you have weak internal sovereignty, organisations such as rebel groups will undermine the authority and disrupt the peace. The presence of a strong authority allows you to keep the agreement and enforce sanctions for the violation of laws. The ability for leadership to prevent these violations is a key variable in determining internal sovereignty. The lack of internal sovereignty can cause war in one of two ways: first, undermining the value of agreement by allowing costly violations; and second, requiring such large subsidies for implementation that they render war cheaper than peace. Leadership needs to be able to promise members, especially those like armies, police forces, or paramilitaries will abide by agreements. The presence of strong internal sovereignty allows a state to deter opposition groups in exchange for bargaining. It has been said that a more decentralized authority would be more efficient in keeping peace because the deal must please not only the leadership but also the opposition group. While the operations and affairs within a state are relative to the level of sovereignty within that state, there is still an argument over who should hold the authority in a sovereign state.

This argument between who should hold the authority within a sovereign state is called the traditional doctrine of public sovereignty. This discussion is between an internal sovereign or an authority of public sovereignty. An internal sovereign is a political body that possesses ultimate, final and independent authority; one whose decisions are binding upon all citizens, groups and institutions in society. Early thinkers believe sovereignty should be vested in the hands of a single person, a monarch. They believed the overriding merit of vesting sovereignty in a single individual was that sovereignty would therefore be indivisible; it would be expressed in a single voice that could claim final authority. An example of an internal sovereign or monarch is Louis XIV of France during the seventeenth century; Louis XIV claimed that he was the state. Jean-Jacques Rousseau rejected monarchical rule in favor of the other type of authority within a sovereign state, public sovereignty. Public Sovereignty is the belief that ultimate authority is vested in the people themselves, expressed in the idea of the general will. This means that the power is elected and supported by its members, the authority has a central goal of the good of the people in mind. The idea of public sovereignty has often been the basis for modern democratic theory.

Modern internal sovereignty

Further information: Tribal sovereignty and States of Mexico

Within the modern governmental system, internal sovereignty is usually found in states that have public sovereignty and is rarely found within a state controlled by an internal sovereign. A form of government that is a little different from both is the UK parliament system. John Austin argued that sovereignty in the UK was vested neither in the Crown nor in the people but in the "Queen-in-Parliament". This is the origin of the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty and is usually seen as the fundamental principle of the British constitution. With these principles of parliamentary sovereignty, majority control can gain access to unlimited constitutional authority, creating what has been called "elective dictatorship" or "modern autocracy". Public sovereignty in modern governments is a lot more common with examples like the US, Canada, Australia and India where the government is divided into different levels.

External

External sovereignty concerns the relationship between sovereign power and other states. For example, the United Kingdom uses the following criterion when deciding under what conditions other states recognise a political entity as having sovereignty over some territory;

"Sovereignty." A government which exercises de facto administrative control over a country and is not subordinate to any other government in that country or a foreign sovereign state.

(The Arantzazu Mendi, [1939] A.C. 256), Stroud's Judicial Dictionary

External sovereignty is connected with questions of international law – such as when, if ever, is intervention by one country into another's territory permissible?

Following the Thirty Years' War, a European religious conflict that embroiled much of the continent, the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 established the notion of territorial sovereignty as a norm of noninterference in the affairs of other states, so-called Westphalian sovereignty, even though the actual treaty itself reaffirmed the multiple levels of the sovereignty of the Holy Roman Empire. This resulted as a natural extension of the older principle of cuius regio, eius religio (Whose realm, his religion), leaving the Roman Catholic Church with little ability to interfere with the internal affairs of many European states. It is a myth, however, that the Treaties of Westphalia created a new European order of equal sovereign states.

In international law, sovereignty means that a government possesses full control over affairs within a territorial or geographical area or limit. Determining whether a specific entity is sovereign is not an exact science, but often a matter of diplomatic dispute. There is usually an expectation that both de jure and de facto sovereignty rest in the same organisation at the place and time of concern. Foreign governments use varied criteria and political considerations when deciding whether or not to recognise the sovereignty of a state over a territory.[citation needed] Membership in the United Nations requires that "[t]he admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be affected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council."

Sovereignty may be recognized even when the sovereign body possesses no territory or its territory is under partial or total occupation by another power. The Holy See was in this position between the annexation in 1870 of the Papal States by Italy and the signing of the Lateran Treaties in 1929, a 59-year period during which it was recognised as sovereign by many (mostly Roman Catholic) states despite possessing no territory – a situation resolved when the Lateran Treaties granted the Holy See sovereignty over the Vatican City. Another case, sui generis,though often contested,[citation needed] is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the third sovereign entity inside Italian territory (after San Marino and the Vatican City State) and the second inside the Italian capital (since in 1869 the Palazzo di Malta and the Villa Malta receive extraterritorial rights, in this way becoming the only "sovereign" territorial possessions of the modern Order), which is the last existing heir to one of several once militarily significant, crusader states of sovereign military orders. In 1607 its Grand masters were also made Reichsfürst (princes of the Holy Roman Empire) by the Holy Roman Emperor, granting them seats in the Reichstag, at the time the closest permanent equivalent to an UN-type general assembly; confirmed 1620). These sovereign rights were never deposed, only the territories were lost. 100 modern states still maintain full diplomatic relations with the order (now de facto "the most prestigious service club"[citation needed]), and the UN awarded it observer status.

The governments-in-exile of many European states (for instance, Norway, Netherlands or Czechoslovakia) during the Second World War were regarded as sovereign despite their territories being under foreign occupation; their governance resumed as soon as the occupation had ended. The government of Kuwait was in a similar situation vis-à-vis the Iraqi occupation of its country during 1990–1991. The government of Republic of China was recognized as sovereign over China from 1911 to 1971 despite that its mainland China territory became occupied by Communist Chinese forces since 1949. In 1971 it lost UN recognition to Chinese Communist-led People's Republic of China and its sovereign and political status as a state became disputed; therefore, it lost its ability to use "China" as its name and therefore became commonly known as Taiwan.

The International Committee of the Red Cross is commonly mistaken to be sovereign. It has been granted various degrees of special privileges and legal immunities in many countries, including Belgium, France, Switzerland and soon in Ireland. Similarly for Australia, Russia, South Korea, South Africa and the US.[which?] that in cases like Switzerland are considerable, The Committee is a private organisation governed by Swiss law.

Shared and pooled

Just as the office of head of state can be vested jointly in several persons within a state, the sovereign jurisdiction over a single political territory can be shared jointly by two or more consenting powers, notably in the form of a condominium.[citation needed]

Likewise the member states of international organizations may voluntarily bind themselves by treaty to a supranational organization, such as a continental union. In the case of the European Union member-states, this is called "pooled sovereignty".

Another example of shared and pooled sovereignty is the Acts of Union 1707 which created the unitary state now known as the United Kingdom. It was a full economic union, meaning the Scottish and English systems of currency, taxation and laws regulating trade were aligned. Nonetheless, Scotland and England never fully surrendered or pooled all of their governance sovereignty; they retained many of their previous national institutional features and characteristics, particularly relating to their legal, religious and educational systems. In 2012, the Scottish Government, created in 1998 through devolution in the United Kingdom, negotiated terms with the Government of the United Kingdom for the 2014 Scottish independence referendum which resulted in the people of Scotland deciding to continue the pooling of its sovereignty with the rest of the United Kingdom.

Nation-states

A community of people who claim the right of self-determination based on a common ethnicity, history and culture might seek to establish sovereignty over a region, thus creating a nation-state. Such nations are sometimes recognised as autonomous areas rather than as fully sovereign, independent states.

Federations

In a federal system of government, sovereignty also refers to powers which a constituent state or republic possesses independently of the national government. In a confederation, constituent entities retain the right to withdraw from the national body and the union is often more temporary than a federation.

Different interpretations of state sovereignty in the United States of America, as it related to the expansion of slavery and fugitive slave laws, led to the outbreak of the American Civil War. Depending on the particular issue, sometimes both northern and southern states justified their political positions by appealing to state sovereignty. Fearing that slavery would be threatened by results of the 1860 presidential election, eleven slave states declared their independence from the federal Union and formed a new confederation. The United States government rejected the secessions as rebellion, declaring that secession from the Union by an individual state was unconstitutional, as the states were part of an indissolvable federation.

Modern features

The modern world includes some features of state sovereignty. In the opinion of public law scientists, the sovereignty of a state includes tax sovereignty. Yevhen Marynchak argues that "fiscal sovereignty is a potential opportunity for a sovereign formation to generate tax relations, create public funds and allocate them to certain areas of state and social development."

Sovereignty vs. Military Occupation

In situations related to war, or which have arisen as the result of war, most modern scholars still commonly fail to distinguish between holding sovereignty and exercising military occupation.

In regard to military occupation, international law prescribes the limits of the occupant's power. Occupation does not displace the sovereignty of the occupied state, though for the time being the occupant may exercise supreme governing authority. Nor does occupation effect any annexation or incorporation of the occupied territory into the territory or political structure of the occupant, and the occupant's constitution and laws do not extend of their own force to the occupied territory.

To a large extent, the original academic foundation for the concept of "military occupation" arose from On the Law of War and Peace (1625) by Hugo Grotius and The Law of Nations (1758) by Emmerich de Vattel. Binding international rules regarding the conduct of military occupation were more carefully codified in the 1907 Hague Convention (and accompanying Hague Regulations).

In 1946 the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal stated with regard to the Hague Convention on Land Warfare of 1907: "The rules of land warfare expressed in the Convention undoubtedly represented an advance over existing International Law at the time of their adoption . . . but by 1939 these rules . . . were recognized by all civilized nations and were regarded as being declaratory of the laws and customs of war."

A number of modes for acquisition of sovereignty are presently or have historically been recognized in international law as lawful methods by which a state may acquire sovereignty over external territory. The classification of these modes originally derived from Roman property law and from the 15th and 16th century with the development of international law. The modes are:

  • Cession is the transfer of territory from one state to another usually by means of treaty;
  • Occupation is the acquisition of territory that belongs to no state (or terra nullius);
  • Prescription is the effective control of territory of another acquiescing state;
  • Operations of nature is the acquisition of territory through natural processes like river accretion or volcanism;
  • Creation is the process by which new land is (re)claimed from the sea such as in the Netherlands.
  • Adjudication and
  • Conquest
Limits of national jurisdiction and sovereignty
Outer space (including Earth orbits; the Moon and other celestial bodies, and their orbits)
national airspace territorial waters airspace contiguous zone airspace[citation needed] international airspace
land territory surface internal waters surface territorial waters surface contiguous zone surface Exclusive Economic Zone surface international waters surface
internal waters territorial waters Exclusive economic zone international waters
land territory underground Continental shelf surface extended continental shelf surface international seabed surface
Continental shelf underground extended continental shelf underground international seabed underground
full national jurisdiction and sovereignty
restrictions on national jurisdiction and sovereignty
international jurisdiction per common heritage of mankind

There exist vastly differing views on the moral basis of sovereignty. A fundamental polarity is between theories that assert that sovereignty is vested directly in the sovereigns by divine or natural right and theories that assert it originates from the people. In the latter case there is a further division into those that assert that the people transfer their sovereignty to the sovereign (Hobbes), and those that assert that the people retain their sovereignty (Rousseau).[citation needed]

During the brief period of absolute monarchies in Europe, the divine right of kings was an important competing justification for the exercise of sovereignty. The Mandate of Heaven had some similar implications in China.

A republic is a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, retain sovereignty over the government and where offices of state are not granted through heritage. A common modern definition of a republic is a government having a head of state who is not a monarch.

Democracy is based on the concept of popular sovereignty. In a direct democracy the public plays an active role in shaping and deciding policy. Representative democracy permits a transfer of the exercise of sovereignty from the people to a legislative body or an executive (or to some combination of the legislature, executive and Judiciary). Many representative democracies provide limited direct democracy through referendum, initiative, and recall.

Parliamentary sovereignty refers to a representative democracy where the parliament is ultimately sovereign and not the executive power nor the judiciary.

  • Classical liberals such as John Stuart Mill consider every individual as sovereign.
  • Realists view sovereignty as being untouchable and as guaranteed to legitimate nation-states.[citation needed]
  • Rationalists see sovereignty similarly to realists. However, rationalism states that the sovereignty of a nation-state may be violated in extreme circumstances, such as human rights abuses.[citation needed]
  • Internationalists believe that sovereignty is outdated and an unnecessary obstacle to achieving peace, in line with their belief in a 'global community'. In the light of the abuse of power by sovereign states such as Hitler's Germany or Stalin's Soviet Union, they argue that human beings are not necessarily protected by the state whose citizens they are and that the respect for state sovereignty on which the UN Charter is founded is an obstacle to humanitarian intervention.
  • Anarchists and some libertarians deny the sovereignty of states and governments. Anarchists often argue for a specific individual kind of sovereignty, such as the Anarch as a sovereign individual. Salvador Dalí, for instance, talked of "anarcho-monarchist" (as usual for him, tongue in cheek); Antonin Artaud of Heliogabalus: Or, The Crowned Anarchist; Max Stirner of The Ego and Its Own; Georges Bataille and Jacques Derrida of a kind of "antisovereignty". Therefore, anarchists join a classical conception of the individual as sovereign of himself, which forms the basis of political consciousness. The unified consciousness is sovereignty over one's own body, as Nietzsche demonstrated (see also Pierre Klossowski's book on Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle). See also sovereignty of the individual and self-ownership.
  • Imperialists hold a view of sovereignty where power rightfully exists with those states that hold the greatest ability to impose the will of said state, by force or threat of force, over the populace of other states with weaker military or political will. They effectively deny the sovereignty of the individual in deference to either the 'good' of the whole or to divine right.[citation needed]

According to Matteo Laruffa "sovereignty resides in every public action and policy as the exercise of executive powers by institutions open to the participation of citizens to the decision-making processes"

Another topic is whether the law is held to be sovereign, that is, whether it is above political or other interference. Sovereign law constitutes a true state of law, meaning the letter of the law (if constitutionally correct) is applicable and enforceable, even when against the political will of the nation, as long as not formally changed following the constitutional procedure. Strictly speaking, any deviation from this principle constitutes a revolution or a coup d'état, regardless of the intentions.[citation needed]

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.Missing or empty |title= ()
  1. Philpott, Daniel (2020), "Sovereignty", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2020 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved15 January 2021
  2. "Sovereignty". A Dictonary of Law. Oxford University Press. 21 June 2018. ISBN 978-0-19-880252-5.
  3. Spruyt, Hendrik (1994). The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change. 176. Princeton University Press. pp. 3–7. ISBN 978-0-691-03356-3. JSTOR j.ctvzxx91t.
  4. "sovereignty (politics)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved5 August 2010.
  5. "Collins' Dictionary, "Sovereign"".
  6. "Sovereign". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.
  7. "Sovereignty". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press.(Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  8. Núñez, Jorge Emilio (2014). "About the Absolute State Sovereignty". International Journal for Law. 27 (4): 645–664. doi:10.1007/s11196-013-9333-x. S2CID 150817547.
  9. Núñez, Jorge Emilio (2015). "of Absolute State Sovereignty: The Middle Ages". International Journal for the Law. 28 (2): 235–250. doi:10.1007/s11196-014-9379-4. S2CID 153788601.
  10. Biersteker, Thomas; Weber, Cynthia (1996). State Sovereignty as Social Construct. Cambridge Studies in International Relations. 46. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521565998.
  11. Krasner, Professor Stephen D. (2001). Problematic Sovereignty: Contested Rules and Political Possibilities. pp. 6–12. ISBN 9780231121798.
  12. Wallerstein, Immanuel (2004).World-Systems Analysis. Duke University Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780822334422.
  13. Hinsley, F. H. (20 November 1986). Sovereignty. ISBN 9780521339889.
  14. "Sovereignty". www.tititudorancea.com. Retrieved26 November 2018.
  15. "Chaucer's tale of 333the Wife of Bath". Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved10 January 2009.
  16. "The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell". Retrieved10 January 2009.
  17. Bodin, Six livres, 6:254 (VI:vi).
  18. Cole, G.D.H.; Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (2018) [1762]. The Social Contract and Discourses. Project Gutenberg – via Internet Archive.
  19. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (2017) [1762]. The Social Contract(PDF). earlymoderntexts.com. Jonathan Bennett.
  20. Social Contract, Book II, Chapter III.
  21. Stallybrass, William Teulon Swan (1918). "A society of states: Or, Sovereignty, independence, and equality in a league of nations". G. Routledge & sons, Limited: 80. there is no law without a sovereign Seydel.Cite journal requires |journal= ()
  22. Spruyt, Hendrik (1994). The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change. 176. Princeton University Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-0-691-03356-3. JSTOR j.ctvzxx91t.
  23. Lassa Oppenheim, International Law 66 (Sir Arnold D. McNair ed., 4th ed. 1928)
  24. Newton, Kenneth. Foundations of comparative politics: democracies of the modern world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  25. Talmon, Stefan (1998). Recognition of Governments in International Law. Oxford Monographs in International Law Series. Oxford University Press. p. 50. ISBN 9780198265733.
  26. Mälksoo, Lauri (2003). Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. M. Nijhoff Publishers. p. 193. ISBN 978-9041121776.
  27. Heywood, Andrew. "Political Theory". pg. 92. Palgrave Macmillan. Archived from the original on 24 December 2011. Retrieved25 June 2011.
  28. Wolford, Rider, Scott, Toby. "War, Peace, and Internal Sovereignty"(PDF). pg.1. Retrieved19 June 2011.[permanent dead link]
  29. Wolford, Rider, Scott, Toby. "War, Peace, and Internal Sovereignty"(PDF). pg.3. Retrieved19 June 2011.[permanent dead link]
  30. Heywood, Andrew. "Political Theory". pg. 93. Palgrave Macmillan. Archived from the original on 24 December 2011. Retrieved21 June 2011.
  31. Heywood, Andrew. "Political Theory". pgs. 94–95. Palgrave Macmillan.Missing or empty |url= ()
  32. Andreas Osiander, "Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth", International Organization Vol. 55 No. 2 (Spring 2001), pp. 251–287.
  33. "UN Chart, Article 2". Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved4 October 2011.
  34. Bilateral diplomatic relations of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Archived 3 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  35. United Nations General Assembly Session 48 Resolution 265. Observer status for the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in the General Assembly A/RES/48/265 Retrieved 10 September 2007.
  36. Nolan, Cathal J. (2002). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations. Volume 4. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1559. ISBN 9780313323836.|volume= has extra text ()
  37. By formal agreement between the Swiss government and the ICRC, Switzerland grants full sanctity of all ICRC property in Switzerland including its headquarters and archive, grants members and staff legal immunity, exempts the ICRC from all taxes and fees, guarantees the protected and duty-free transfer of goods, services, and money, provides the ICRC with secure communication privileges at the same level as foreign embassies, and simplifies Committee travel in and out of Switzerland.
    On the other hand Switzerland does not recognize ICRC issued passports Archived 10 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  38. "About the International Committee of the Red Cross". 29 October 2010.
  39. Peterson, John (1997). "The European Union: Pooled Sovereignty, Divided Accountability". Political Studies. 45 (3): 559–578. doi:10.1111/1467-9248.00096. S2CID 144362061.
  40. McNaughton, Neil (2003). Understanding British and European political issues : a guide for A2 politics studies. Manchester University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0719062452.
  41. Mannin, Michael L. (2010). British government and politics balancing Europeanization and independence. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 134. ISBN 9780742567771.
  42. Rawlings, edited by Richard; Leyland, Peter; Young, Alison L (2013). Sovereignty and the law : domestic, European, and international perspectives. Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0199684069.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  43. Jesse, Neal G.; Williams, Kristen P. (2005).Identity and institutions: conflict reduction in divided societies. State Univ. of New York Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0791464519.
  44. R. Mitchison, A History of Scotland (London: Routledge, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0415278805, p. 314.
  45. McCann, Philip (2016). The UK Regional–National Economic Problem: Geography, globalisation and governance. Routledge. p. 372. ISBN 9781317237174.
  46. "Confederation". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved17 June 2020.
  47. McPherson, James, Battle Cry of Freedom, (1988) pp. 40, 195, 214, 241
  48. "Lincoln on Secession". National Park Service. 10 April 2015. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved31 October 2020. The secessionists claimed that according to the Constitution every state had the right to leave the Union. Lincoln claimed that they did not have that right.
  49. Marynchak, Yevhen (2019). "THE FINANCIAL NEXUS BETWEEN AN INDIVIDUAL AND A STATE". PUBLIC FINANCE: LEGAL ASPECTS. Riga: Izdevnieciba “Baltija Publishing”. p. 130. ISBN 978-9934-571-82-4.
  50. United States Court of Berlin (14 March 1979), U.S. v. Tiede, United Settlement (Canada)., retrieved26 October 2021
  51. Malanczuk, Peter (1997).Akehurst's Modern Introduction to International Law. International politics/Public international law. Routledge. pp. 147–152. ISBN 9780415111201.
  52. "Republic". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  53. Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), Bk. II, ch. 1.
  54. "republic". WordNet 3.0. Retrieved20 March 2009.
  55. "Republic". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved14 August 2010.
  56. Beatrice Heuser: "Sovereignty, self-determination and security: new world orders in the 20th century", in Sohail Hashmi (ed.): State Sovereignty: Change and Persistence in International Relations (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 1997).
  57. Matteo Laruffa, "The European Integration and National Interests: from an intergovernmental model to a Constitutional Agreement"(Hungarian Academy of Social Sciences, Budapest, 3 July 2014)
Look up sovereignty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Sovereignty


Sovereignty
Sovereignty Language Watch Edit This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia s quality standards You can help The talk page may contain suggestions March 2018 This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Sovereignty news newspapers books scholar JSTOR March 2018 Learn how and when to remove this template message Learn how and when to remove this template message Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory 1 2 Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state as well as external autonomy for states 3 In any state sovereignty is assigned to the person body or institution that has the ultimate authority over other people in order to establish a law or change an existing law 2 In political theory sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme legitimate authority over some polity 4 In international law sovereignty is the exercise of power by a state De jure sovereignty refers to the legal right to do so de facto sovereignty refers to the factual ability to do so This can become an issue of special concern upon the failure of the usual expectation that de jure and de facto sovereignty exist at the place and time of concern and reside within the same organization The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes Leviathan depicting the Sovereign as a massive body wielding a sword and crosier and composed of many individual people Contents 1 Etymology 2 Concepts 3 History 3 1 Classical 3 2 Medieval 3 3 Reformation 3 4 Age of Enlightenment 4 Definition and types 4 1 Absoluteness 4 2 Exclusivity 4 3 De jure and de facto 4 3 1 Sovereignty and independence 4 4 Internal 4 4 1 Modern internal sovereignty 4 5 External 4 6 Shared and pooled 4 7 Nation states 4 8 Federations 4 9 Modern features 4 10 Sovereignty vs Military Occupation 5 Acquisition 6 Justifications 7 Views 8 Relation to rule of law 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksEtymology EditThe term arises from the unattested Vulgar Latin s superanus itself derived form of Latin super over meaning chief ruler 5 Its spelling which varied from the word s first appearance in English in the fourteenth century was influenced by the English reign 6 7 Concepts EditThe concepts of sovereignty have been discussed throughout history and are still actively debated 8 9 Its definition concept and application has changed throughout history The current notion of state sovereignty contains four aspects consisting of territory population authority and recognition 10 According to Stephen D Krasner the term could also be understood in four different ways Domestic sovereignty actual control over a state exercised by an authority organized within this state 11 Interdependence sovereignty actual control of movement across state s borders International legal sovereignty formal recognition by other sovereign states Westphalian sovereignty lack of other authority over state other than the domestic authority examples of such other authorities could be a political organization or any other external agent 11 Often these four aspects all appear together but this is not necessarily the case they are not affected by one another and there are historical examples of states that were non sovereign in one aspect while at the same time being sovereign in another of these aspects 11 According to Immanuel Wallerstein another fundamental feature of sovereignty is that it is a claim that must be recognised if it is to have any meaning Sovereignty is more than anything else a matter of legitimacy that Sovereignty is a trade in which two potentially conflicting sides respecting de facto realities of exchange such recognitions ascostly strategy 12 History EditClassical Edit The Roman jurist Ulpian observed that 13 The people transferred all their imperium and power to the Emperor Cum lege regia quae de imperio eius lata est populus ei et in eum omne suum imperium et potestatem conferat Digest I 4 1 The emperor is not bound by the laws Princeps legibus solutus est Digest I 3 31 A decision by the emperor has the force of law Quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem Digest I 4 1 Ulpian was expressing the idea that the Emperor exercised a rather absolute form of sovereignty that originated in the people although he did not use the term expressly Medieval Edit Ulpian s statements were known in medieval Europe but sovereignty was an important concept in medieval times 4 Medieval monarchs were not sovereign at least not strongly so because they were constrained by and shared power with their feudal aristocracy 4 Furthermore both were strongly constrained by custom 4 Sovereignty existed during the Medieval period as the de jure rights of nobility and royalty and in the de facto capability of individuals to make their own choices in life 14 Around 1380 1400 the issue of feminine sovereignty was addressed in Geoffrey Chaucer s Middle English collection of Canterbury Tales specifically in The Wife of Bath s Tale 15 A later English Arthurian romance The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell c 1450 16 uses many of the same elements of the Wife of Bath s tale yet changes the setting to the court of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table The story revolves around the knight Sir Gawain granting to Dame Ragnell his new bride what is purported to be wanted most by women sovereignty We desire most from men From men both lund and poor To have sovereignty without lies For where we have sovereignty all is ours Though a knight be ever so fierce And ever win mastery It is our desire to have master Over such a sir Such is our purpose The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell c 1450 16 Reformation Edit Sovereignty reemerged as a concept in the late 16th century a time when civil wars had created a craving for a stronger central authority when monarchs had begun to gather power onto their own hands at the expense of the nobility and the modern nation state was emerging Jean Bodin partly in reaction to the chaos of the French wars of religion presented theories of sovereignty calling for a strong central authority in the form of absolute monarchy In his 1576 treatise Les Six Livres de la Republique Six Books of the Republic Bodin argued that it is inherent in the nature of the state that sovereignty must be 4 Absolute On this point he said that the sovereign must be hedged in with obligations and conditions must be able to legislate without his or its subjects consent must not be bound by the laws of his predecessors and could not because it is illogical be bound by his own laws Perpetual Not temporarily delegated as to a strong leader in an emergency or a state employee such as a magistrate He held that sovereignty must be perpetual because anyone with the power to enforce a time limit on the governing power must be above the governing power which would be impossible if the governing power is absolute Bodin rejected the notion of transference of sovereignty from people to the ruler also known as the sovereign natural law and divine law confer upon the sovereign the right to rule And the sovereign is not above divine law or natural law He is above ie not bound by only positive law that is laws made by humans He emphasized that a sovereign is bound to observe certain basic rules derived from the divine law the law of nature or reason and the law that is common to all nations jus gentium as well as the fundamental laws of the state that determine who is the sovereign who succeeds to sovereignty and what limits the sovereign power Thus Bodin s sovereign was restricted by the constitutional law of the state and by the higher law that was considered as binding upon every human being 4 The fact that the sovereign must obey divine and natural law imposes ethical constraints on him Bodin also held that the lois royales the fundamental laws of the French monarchy which regulated matters such as succession are natural laws and are binding on the French sovereign Despite his commitment to absolutism Bodin held some moderate opinions on how government should in practice be carried out He held that although the sovereign is not obliged to it is advisable for him as a practical expedient to convene a senate from whom he can obtain advice to delegate some power to magistrates for the practical administration of the law and to use the Estates as a means of communicating with the people citation needed Bodin believed that the most divine most excellent and the state form most proper to royalty is governed partly aristocratically and partly democratically 17 With his doctrine that sovereignty is conferred by divine law Bodin predefined the scope of the divine right of kings citation needed Age of Enlightenment Edit During the Age of Enlightenment the idea of sovereignty gained both legal and moral force as the main Western description of the meaning and power of a State In particular the Social contract as a mechanism for establishing sovereignty was suggested and by 1800 widely accepted especially in the new United States and France though also in Great Britain to a lesser extent Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan 1651 put forward a conception of sovereignty similar to Bodin s which had just achieved legal status in the Peace of Westphalia but for different reasons He created the first modern version of the social contract or contractarian theory arguing that to overcome the nasty brutish and short quality of life without the cooperation of other human beings people must join in a commonwealth and submit to a Soveraigne sic Power that can compel them to act in the common good This expediency argument attracted many of the early proponents of sovereignty Hobbes strengthened the definition of sovereignty beyond either Westphalian or Bodin s by saying that it must be citation needed Absolute because conditions could only be imposed on a sovereign if there were some outside arbitrator to determine when he had violated them in which case the sovereign would not be the final authority Indivisible The sovereign is the only final authority in his territory he does not share final authority with any other entity Hobbes held this to be true because otherwise there would be no way of resolving a disagreement between the multiple authorities Hobbes hypothesis that the ruler s sovereignty is contracted to him by the people in return for his maintaining their physical safety led him to conclude that if and when the ruler fails the people recover their ability to protect themselves by forming a new contract Hobbes s theories decisively shape the concept of sovereignty through the medium of social contract theories Jean Jacques Rousseau s 1712 1778 definition of popular sovereignty with early antecedents in Francisco Suarez s theory of the origin of power provides that the people are the legitimate sovereign Rousseau considered sovereignty to be inalienable he condemned the distinction between the origin and the exercise of sovereignty a distinction upon which constitutional monarchy or representative democracy is founded John Locke and Montesquieu are also key figures in the unfolding of the concept of sovereignty their views differ with Rousseau and with Hobbes on this issue of alienability The second book of Jean Jacques Rousseau s Du Contrat Social ou Principes du droit politique 1762 deals with sovereignty and its rights Sovereignty or the general will is inalienable for the will cannot be transmitted it is indivisible since it is essentially general it is infallible and always right determined and limited in its power by the common interest it acts through laws Law is the decision of the general will regarding some object of common interest but though the general will is always right and desires only good its judgment is not always enlightened and consequently does not always see wherein the common good lies hence the necessity of the legislator But the legislator has of himself no authority he is only a guide who drafts and proposes laws but the people alone that is the sovereign or general will has authority to make and impose them 18 19 Rousseau in the Social Contract 20 argued the growth of the State giving the trustees of public authority more and means to abuse their power the more the Government has to have force to contain the people the more force the Sovereign should have in turn to contain the Government with the understanding that the Sovereign is a collective being of wonder Book II Chapter I resulting from the general will of the people and that what any man whoever he may be orders on his own is not a law Book II Chapter VI and predicated on the assumption that the people have an unbiased means by which to ascertain the general will Thus the legal maxim there is no law without a sovereign 21 According to Hendrik Spruyt the sovereign state emerged as a response to changes in international trade which led to the formation of new coalitions that wanted sovereign states 3 He rejects that the emergence of the sovereign state was inevitable it arose because of a particular conjuncture of social and political interests in Europe 22 Definition and types EditThere exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty It is an indisputable fact that this conception from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon Lassa Oppenheim 30 03 1858 07 10 1919 an authority on international law 23 Absoluteness Edit An important factor of sovereignty is its degree of absoluteness 8 9 A sovereign power has absolute sovereignty when it is not restricted by a constitution by the laws of its predecessors or by custom and no areas of law or policy are reserved as being outside its control International law policies and actions of neighboring states cooperation and respect of the populace means of enforcement and resources to enact policy are factors that might limit sovereignty For example parents are not guaranteed the right to decide some matters in the upbringing of their children independent of societal regulation and municipalities do not have unlimited jurisdiction in local matters thus neither parents nor municipalities have absolute sovereignty Theorists have diverged over the desirability of increased absoluteness Exclusivity Edit A key element of sovereignty in a legalistic sense is that of exclusivity of jurisdiction Specifically the degree to which decisions made by a sovereign entity might be contradicted by another authority Along these lines the German sociologist Max Weber proposed that sovereignty is a community s monopoly on the legitimate use of force and thus any group claiming the same right must either be brought under the yoke of the sovereign proven illegitimate or otherwise contested and defeated for sovereignty to be genuine 24 International law competing branches of government and authorities reserved for subordinate entities such as federated states or republics represent legal infringements on exclusivity Social institutions such as religious bodies corporations and competing political parties might represent de facto infringements on exclusivity De jure and de facto Edit De jure or legal sovereignty concerns the expressed and institutionally recognised right to exercise control over a territory De facto or actual sovereignty is concerned with whether control in fact exists Cooperation and respect of the populace control of resources in or moved into an area means of enforcement and security and ability to carry out various functions of state all represent measures of de facto sovereignty When control is practiced predominantly by the military or police force it is considered coercive sovereignty Sovereignty and independence Edit This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed July 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message State sovereignty is sometimes viewed synonymously with independence however sovereignty can be transferred as a legal right whereas independence cannot 25 A state can achieve de facto independence long after acquiring sovereignty such as in the case of Cambodia Laos and Vietnam 25 Additionally independence can also be suspended when an entire region becomes subject to an occupation such as when Iraq had been overrun by the forces to take part in the Iraq War of 2003 Iraq had not been annexed by any country so its sovereignty during this period was not contested by any state including those present on the territory Alternatively independence can be lost completely when sovereignty itself becomes the subject of dispute The pre World War II administrations of Latvia Lithuania and Estonia maintained an exile existence and considerable international recognition whilst their territories were annexed by the Soviet Union and governed locally by their pro Soviet functionaries When in 1991 Latvia Lithuania and Estonia re enacted independence it was done so on the basis of continuity directly from the pre Soviet republics 25 26 Another complicated sovereignty scenario can arise when regime itself is the subject of dispute In the case of Poland the People s Republic of Poland which governed Poland from 1945 to 1989 is now seen to have been an illegal entity by the modern Polish administration The post 1989 Polish state claims direct continuity from the Second Polish Republic which ended in 1939 For other reasons however Poland maintains its communist era outline as opposed to its pre World War II shape which included areas now in Belarus Czech Republic Lithuania Slovakia and Ukraine but did not include some of its western regions that were then in Germany At the opposite end of the scale there is no dispute regarding the self governance of certain self proclaimed states such as the Republic of Kosovo or Somaliland see List of states with limited recognition but most of them are puppet states since their governments neither answer to a bigger state nor is their governance subjected to supervision The sovereignty i e legal right to govern however is disputed in all three cases as the first entity is claimed by Serbia and the second by Somalia Internal Edit Further information Free state polity Internal sovereignty is the relationship between sovereign power and the political community A central concern is legitimacy by what right does a government exercise authority Claims of legitimacy might refer to the divine right of kings or to a social contract i e popular sovereignty citation needed Max Weber offered a first categorization of political authority and legitimacy with the categories of traditional charismatic and legal rational With Sovereignty meaning holding supreme independent authority over a region or state Internal Sovereignty refers to the internal affairs of the state and the location of supreme power within it 27 A state that has internal sovereignty is one with a government that has been elected by the people and has the popular legitimacy Internal sovereignty examines the internal affairs of a state and how it operates It is important to have strong internal sovereignty to keeping order and peace When you have weak internal sovereignty organisations such as rebel groups will undermine the authority and disrupt the peace The presence of a strong authority allows you to keep the agreement and enforce sanctions for the violation of laws The ability for leadership to prevent these violations is a key variable in determining internal sovereignty 28 The lack of internal sovereignty can cause war in one of two ways first undermining the value of agreement by allowing costly violations and second requiring such large subsidies for implementation that they render war cheaper than peace 29 Leadership needs to be able to promise members especially those like armies police forces or paramilitaries will abide by agreements The presence of strong internal sovereignty allows a state to deter opposition groups in exchange for bargaining It has been said that a more decentralized authority would be more efficient in keeping peace because the deal must please not only the leadership but also the opposition group While the operations and affairs within a state are relative to the level of sovereignty within that state there is still an argument over who should hold the authority in a sovereign state This argument between who should hold the authority within a sovereign state is called the traditional doctrine of public sovereignty This discussion is between an internal sovereign or an authority of public sovereignty An internal sovereign is a political body that possesses ultimate final and independent authority one whose decisions are binding upon all citizens groups and institutions in society Early thinkers believe sovereignty should be vested in the hands of a single person a monarch They believed the overriding merit of vesting sovereignty in a single individual was that sovereignty would therefore be indivisible it would be expressed in a single voice that could claim final authority An example of an internal sovereign or monarch is Louis XIV of France during the seventeenth century Louis XIV claimed that he was the state Jean Jacques Rousseau rejected monarchical rule in favor of the other type of authority within a sovereign state public sovereignty Public Sovereignty is the belief that ultimate authority is vested in the people themselves expressed in the idea of the general will This means that the power is elected and supported by its members the authority has a central goal of the good of the people in mind The idea of public sovereignty has often been the basis for modern democratic theory 30 Modern internal sovereignty Edit Further information Tribal sovereignty and States of Mexico Within the modern governmental system internal sovereignty is usually found in states that have public sovereignty and is rarely found within a state controlled by an internal sovereign A form of government that is a little different from both is the UK parliament system John Austin argued that sovereignty in the UK was vested neither in the Crown nor in the people but in the Queen in Parliament 4 This is the origin of the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty and is usually seen as the fundamental principle of the British constitution With these principles of parliamentary sovereignty majority control can gain access to unlimited constitutional authority creating what has been called elective dictatorship or modern autocracy Public sovereignty in modern governments is a lot more common with examples like the US Canada Australia and India where the government is divided into different levels 31 External Edit See also Sovereign state Recognition External sovereignty concerns the relationship between sovereign power and other states For example the United Kingdom uses the following criterion when deciding under what conditions other states recognise a political entity as having sovereignty over some territory Sovereignty A government which exercises de facto administrative control over a country and is not subordinate to any other government in that country or a foreign sovereign state The Arantzazu Mendi 1939 A C 256 Stroud s Judicial Dictionary External sovereignty is connected with questions of international law such as when if ever is intervention by one country into another s territory permissible Following the Thirty Years War a European religious conflict that embroiled much of the continent the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 established the notion of territorial sovereignty as a norm of noninterference in the affairs of other states so called Westphalian sovereignty even though the actual treaty itself reaffirmed the multiple levels of the sovereignty of the Holy Roman Empire This resulted as a natural extension of the older principle of cuius regio eius religio Whose realm his religion leaving the Roman Catholic Church with little ability to interfere with the internal affairs of many European states It is a myth however that the Treaties of Westphalia created a new European order of equal sovereign states 32 In international law sovereignty means that a government possesses full control over affairs within a territorial or geographical area or limit Determining whether a specific entity is sovereign is not an exact science but often a matter of diplomatic dispute There is usually an expectation that both de jure and de facto sovereignty rest in the same organisation at the place and time of concern Foreign governments use varied criteria and political considerations when deciding whether or not to recognise the sovereignty of a state over a territory citation needed Membership in the United Nations requires that t he admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be affected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council 33 Sovereignty may be recognized even when the sovereign body possesses no territory or its territory is under partial or total occupation by another power The Holy See was in this position between the annexation in 1870 of the Papal States by Italy and the signing of the Lateran Treaties in 1929 a 59 year period during which it was recognised as sovereign by many mostly Roman Catholic states despite possessing no territory a situation resolved when the Lateran Treaties granted the Holy See sovereignty over the Vatican City Another case sui generis though often contested citation needed is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta the third sovereign entity inside Italian territory after San Marino and the Vatican City State and the second inside the Italian capital since in 1869 the Palazzo di Malta and the Villa Malta receive extraterritorial rights in this way becoming the only sovereign territorial possessions of the modern Order which is the last existing heir to one of several once militarily significant crusader states of sovereign military orders In 1607 its Grand masters were also made Reichsfurst princes of the Holy Roman Empire by the Holy Roman Emperor granting them seats in the Reichstag at the time the closest permanent equivalent to an UN type general assembly confirmed 1620 These sovereign rights were never deposed only the territories were lost 100 modern states still maintain full diplomatic relations with the order 34 now de facto the most prestigious service club citation needed and the UN awarded it observer status 35 The governments in exile of many European states for instance Norway Netherlands or Czechoslovakia during the Second World War were regarded as sovereign despite their territories being under foreign occupation their governance resumed as soon as the occupation had ended The government of Kuwait was in a similar situation vis a vis the Iraqi occupation of its country during 1990 1991 36 The government of Republic of China was recognized as sovereign over China from 1911 to 1971 despite that its mainland China territory became occupied by Communist Chinese forces since 1949 In 1971 it lost UN recognition to Chinese Communist led People s Republic of China and its sovereign and political status as a state became disputed therefore it lost its ability to use China as its name and therefore became commonly known as Taiwan The International Committee of the Red Cross is commonly mistaken to be sovereign It has been granted various degrees of special privileges and legal immunities in many countries including Belgium France Switzerland and soon in Ireland Similarly for Australia Russia South Korea South Africa and the US which that in cases like Switzerland are considerable 37 The Committee is a private organisation governed by Swiss law 38 Shared and pooled Edit Just as the office of head of state can be vested jointly in several persons within a state the sovereign jurisdiction over a single political territory can be shared jointly by two or more consenting powers notably in the form of a condominium citation needed Likewise the member states of international organizations may voluntarily bind themselves by treaty to a supranational organization such as a continental union In the case of the European Union member states this is called pooled sovereignty 39 40 Another example of shared and pooled sovereignty is the Acts of Union 1707 which created the unitary state now known as the United Kingdom 41 42 43 It was a full economic union meaning the Scottish and English systems of currency taxation and laws regulating trade were aligned 44 Nonetheless Scotland and England never fully surrendered or pooled all of their governance sovereignty they retained many of their previous national institutional features and characteristics particularly relating to their legal religious and educational systems 45 In 2012 the Scottish Government created in 1998 through devolution in the United Kingdom negotiated terms with the Government of the United Kingdom for the 2014 Scottish independence referendum which resulted in the people of Scotland deciding to continue the pooling of its sovereignty with the rest of the United Kingdom Nation states Edit A community of people who claim the right of self determination based on a common ethnicity history and culture might seek to establish sovereignty over a region thus creating a nation state Such nations are sometimes recognised as autonomous areas rather than as fully sovereign independent states Federations Edit In a federal system of government sovereignty also refers to powers which a constituent state or republic possesses independently of the national government In a confederation constituent entities retain the right to withdraw from the national body and the union is often more temporary than a federation 46 Different interpretations of state sovereignty in the United States of America as it related to the expansion of slavery and fugitive slave laws led to the outbreak of the American Civil War Depending on the particular issue sometimes both northern and southern states justified their political positions by appealing to state sovereignty Fearing that slavery would be threatened by results of the 1860 presidential election eleven slave states declared their independence from the federal Union and formed a new confederation 47 The United States government rejected the secessions as rebellion declaring that secession from the Union by an individual state was unconstitutional as the states were part of an indissolvable federation 48 Modern features Edit The modern world includes some features of state sovereignty In the opinion of public law scientists the sovereignty of a state includes tax sovereignty Yevhen Marynchak argues that fiscal sovereignty is a potential opportunity for a sovereign formation to generate tax relations create public funds and allocate them to certain areas of state and social development 49 Sovereignty vs Military Occupation Edit In situations related to war or which have arisen as the result of war most modern scholars still commonly fail to distinguish between holding sovereignty and exercising military occupation In regard to military occupation international law prescribes the limits of the occupant s power Occupation does not displace the sovereignty of the occupied state though for the time being the occupant may exercise supreme governing authority Nor does occupation effect any annexation or incorporation of the occupied territory into the territory or political structure of the occupant and the occupant s constitution and laws do not extend of their own force to the occupied territory 50 To a large extent the original academic foundation for the concept of military occupation arose from On the Law of War and Peace 1625 by Hugo Grotius and The Law of Nations 1758 by Emmerich de Vattel Binding international rules regarding the conduct of military occupation were more carefully codified in the 1907 Hague Convention and accompanying Hague Regulations In 1946 the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal stated with regard to the Hague Convention on Land Warfare of 1907 The rules of land warfare expressed in the Convention undoubtedly represented an advance over existing International Law at the time of their adoption but by 1939 these rules were recognized by all civilized nations and were regarded as being declaratory of the laws and customs of war Acquisition EditMain article Acquisition of sovereignty A number of modes for acquisition of sovereignty are presently or have historically been recognized in international law as lawful methods by which a state may acquire sovereignty over external territory The classification of these modes originally derived from Roman property law and from the 15th and 16th century with the development of international law The modes are 51 Cession is the transfer of territory from one state to another usually by means of treaty Occupation is the acquisition of territory that belongs to no state or terra nullius Prescription is the effective control of territory of another acquiescing state Operations of nature is the acquisition of territory through natural processes like river accretion or volcanism Creation is the process by which new land is re claimed from the sea such as in the Netherlands Adjudication and ConquestLimits of national jurisdiction and sovereignty Outer space including Earth orbits the Moon and other celestial bodies and their orbits national airspace territorial waters airspace contiguous zone airspace citation needed international airspaceland territory surface internal waters surface territorial waters surface contiguous zone surface Exclusive Economic Zone surface international waters surfaceinternal waters territorial waters Exclusive economic zone international watersland territory underground Continental shelf surface extended continental shelf surface international seabed surfaceContinental shelf underground extended continental shelf underground international seabed underground full national jurisdiction and sovereignty restrictions on national jurisdiction and sovereignty international jurisdiction per common heritage of mankindJustifications EditThere exist vastly differing views on the moral basis of sovereignty A fundamental polarity is between theories that assert that sovereignty is vested directly in the sovereigns by divine or natural right and theories that assert it originates from the people In the latter case there is a further division into those that assert that the people transfer their sovereignty to the sovereign Hobbes and those that assert that the people retain their sovereignty Rousseau citation needed During the brief period of absolute monarchies in Europe the divine right of kings was an important competing justification for the exercise of sovereignty The Mandate of Heaven had some similar implications in China A republic is a form of government in which the people or some significant portion of them retain sovereignty over the government and where offices of state are not granted through heritage 52 53 A common modern definition of a republic is a government having a head of state who is not a monarch 54 55 Democracy is based on the concept of popular sovereignty In a direct democracy the public plays an active role in shaping and deciding policy Representative democracy permits a transfer of the exercise of sovereignty from the people to a legislative body or an executive or to some combination of the legislature executive and Judiciary Many representative democracies provide limited direct democracy through referendum initiative and recall Parliamentary sovereignty refers to a representative democracy where the parliament is ultimately sovereign and not the executive power nor the judiciary Views EditClassical liberals such as John Stuart Mill consider every individual as sovereign Realists view sovereignty as being untouchable and as guaranteed to legitimate nation states citation needed Rationalists see sovereignty similarly to realists However rationalism states that the sovereignty of a nation state may be violated in extreme circumstances such as human rights abuses citation needed Internationalists believe that sovereignty is outdated and an unnecessary obstacle to achieving peace in line with their belief in a global community In the light of the abuse of power by sovereign states such as Hitler s Germany or Stalin s Soviet Union they argue that human beings are not necessarily protected by the state whose citizens they are and that the respect for state sovereignty on which the UN Charter is founded is an obstacle to humanitarian intervention 56 Anarchists and some libertarians deny the sovereignty of states and governments Anarchists often argue for a specific individual kind of sovereignty such as the Anarch as a sovereign individual Salvador Dali for instance talked of anarcho monarchist as usual for him tongue in cheek Antonin Artaud of Heliogabalus Or The Crowned Anarchist Max Stirner of The Ego and Its Own Georges Bataille and Jacques Derrida of a kind of antisovereignty Therefore anarchists join a classical conception of the individual as sovereign of himself which forms the basis of political consciousness The unified consciousness is sovereignty over one s own body as Nietzsche demonstrated see also Pierre Klossowski s book on Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle See also sovereignty of the individual and self ownership Imperialists hold a view of sovereignty where power rightfully exists with those states that hold the greatest ability to impose the will of said state by force or threat of force over the populace of other states with weaker military or political will They effectively deny the sovereignty of the individual in deference to either the good of the whole or to divine right citation needed According to Matteo Laruffa sovereignty resides in every public action and policy as the exercise of executive powers by institutions open to the participation of citizens to the decision making processes 57 Relation to rule of law EditAnother topic is whether the law is held to be sovereign that is whether it is above political or other interference Sovereign law constitutes a true state of law meaning the letter of the law if constitutionally correct is applicable and enforceable even when against the political will of the nation as long as not formally changed following the constitutional procedure Strictly speaking any deviation from this principle constitutes a revolution or a coup d etat regardless of the intentions citation needed See also Edit Philosophy portal Air sovereignty Autonomous area Basileus Electronic leviathan Mandate of Heaven National sovereignty Plenary authority Self sovereign identity Sovereignty of the individual Souverainism SuzeraintyReferences Edit This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Herbermann Charles ed 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia New York Robert Appleton Company Missing or empty title help Philpott Daniel 2020 Sovereignty in Zalta Edward N ed The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Fall 2020 ed Metaphysics Research Lab Stanford University retrieved 15 January 2021 a b Sovereignty A Dictonary of Law Oxford University Press 21 June 2018 ISBN 978 0 19 880252 5 a b Spruyt Hendrik 1994 The Sovereign State and Its Competitors An Analysis of Systems Change 176 Princeton University Press pp 3 7 ISBN 978 0 691 03356 3 JSTOR j ctvzxx91t a b c d e f g sovereignty politics Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved 5 August 2010 Collins Dictionary Sovereign Sovereign Dictionary com Unabridged Random House Sovereignty Oxford English Dictionary Online ed Oxford University Press Subscription or participating institution membership required a b Nunez Jorge Emilio 2014 About the Absolute State Sovereignty International Journal for Law 27 4 645 664 doi 10 1007 s11196 013 9333 x S2CID 150817547 a b Nunez Jorge Emilio 2015 of Absolute State Sovereignty The Middle Ages International Journal for the Law 28 2 235 250 doi 10 1007 s11196 014 9379 4 S2CID 153788601 Biersteker Thomas Weber Cynthia 1996 State Sovereignty as Social Construct Cambridge Studies in International Relations 46 Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521565998 a b c Krasner Professor Stephen D 2001 Problematic Sovereignty Contested Rules and Political Possibilities pp 6 12 ISBN 9780231121798 Wallerstein Immanuel 2004 World Systems Analysis Duke University Press p 44 ISBN 9780822334422 Hinsley F H 20 November 1986 Sovereignty ISBN 9780521339889 Sovereignty www tititudorancea com Retrieved 26 November 2018 Chaucer s tale of 333the Wife of Bath Archived from the original on 21 February 2009 Retrieved 10 January 2009 a b The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell Retrieved 10 January 2009 Bodin Six livres 6 254 VI vi Cole G D H Rousseau Jean Jacques 2018 1762 The Social Contract and Discourses Project Gutenberg via Internet Archive Rousseau Jean Jacques 2017 1762 The Social Contract PDF earlymoderntexts com Jonathan Bennett Social Contract Book II Chapter III Stallybrass William Teulon Swan 1918 A society of states Or Sovereignty independence and equality in a league of nations G Routledge amp sons Limited 80 there is no law without a sovereign Seydel Cite journal requires journal help Spruyt Hendrik 1994 The Sovereign State and Its Competitors An Analysis of Systems Change 176 Princeton University Press pp 18 19 ISBN 978 0 691 03356 3 JSTOR j ctvzxx91t Lassa Oppenheim International Law 66 Sir Arnold D McNair ed 4th ed 1928 Newton Kenneth Foundations of comparative politics democracies of the modern world Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2005 a b c Talmon Stefan 1998 Recognition of Governments in International Law Oxford Monographs in International Law Series Oxford University Press p 50 ISBN 9780198265733 Malksoo Lauri 2003 Illegal Annexation and State Continuity The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR M Nijhoff Publishers p 193 ISBN 978 9041121776 Heywood Andrew Political Theory pg 92 Palgrave Macmillan Archived from the original on 24 December 2011 Retrieved 25 June 2011 Wolford Rider Scott Toby War Peace and Internal Sovereignty PDF pg 1 Retrieved 19 June 2011 permanent dead link Wolford Rider Scott Toby War Peace and Internal Sovereignty PDF pg 3 Retrieved 19 June 2011 permanent dead link Heywood Andrew Political Theory pg 93 Palgrave Macmillan Archived from the original on 24 December 2011 Retrieved 21 June 2011 Heywood Andrew Political Theory pgs 94 95 Palgrave Macmillan Missing or empty url help Andreas Osiander Sovereignty International Relations and the Westphalian Myth International Organization Vol 55 No 2 Spring 2001 pp 251 287 UN Chart Article 2 Archived from the original on 8 December 2013 Retrieved 4 October 2011 Bilateral diplomatic relations of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Archived 3 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine United Nations General Assembly Session 48 Resolution 265 Observer status for the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in the General Assembly A RES 48 265 Retrieved 10 September 2007 Nolan Cathal J 2002 The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations Volume 4 Greenwood Publishing Group p 1559 ISBN 9780313323836 volume has extra text help By formal agreement between the Swiss government and the ICRC Switzerland grants full sanctity of all ICRC property in Switzerland including its headquarters and archive grants members and staff legal immunity exempts the ICRC from all taxes and fees guarantees the protected and duty free transfer of goods services and money provides the ICRC with secure communication privileges at the same level as foreign embassies and simplifies Committee travel in and out of Switzerland On the other hand Switzerland does not recognize ICRC issued passports Archived 10 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine About the International Committee of the Red Cross 29 October 2010 Peterson John 1997 The European Union Pooled Sovereignty Divided Accountability Political Studies 45 3 559 578 doi 10 1111 1467 9248 00096 S2CID 144362061 McNaughton Neil 2003 Understanding British and European political issues a guide for A2 politics studies Manchester University Press p 207 ISBN 978 0719062452 Mannin Michael L 2010 British government and politics balancing Europeanization and independence Rowman amp Littlefield Publishers p 134 ISBN 9780742567771 Rawlings edited by Richard Leyland Peter Young Alison L 2013 Sovereignty and the law domestic European and international perspectives Oxford University Press p 28 ISBN 978 0199684069 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Jesse Neal G Williams Kristen P 2005 Identity and institutions conflict reduction in divided societies State Univ of New York Press p 120 ISBN 978 0791464519 R Mitchison A History of Scotland London Routledge 3rd edn 2002 ISBN 0415278805 p 314 McCann Philip 2016 The UK Regional National Economic Problem Geography globalisation and governance Routledge p 372 ISBN 9781317237174 Confederation Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved 17 June 2020 McPherson James Battle Cry of Freedom 1988 pp 40 195 214 241 Lincoln on Secession National Park Service 10 April 2015 Archived from the original on 16 September 2020 Retrieved 31 October 2020 The secessionists claimed that according to the Constitution every state had the right to leave the Union Lincoln claimed that they did not have that right Marynchak Yevhen 2019 THE FINANCIAL NEXUS BETWEEN AN INDIVIDUAL AND A STATE PUBLIC FINANCE LEGAL ASPECTS Riga Izdevnieciba Baltija Publishing p 130 ISBN 978 9934 571 82 4 United States Court of Berlin 14 March 1979 U S v Tiede United Settlement Canada retrieved 26 October 2021 Malanczuk Peter 1997 Akehurst s Modern Introduction to International Law International politics Public international law Routledge pp 147 152 ISBN 9780415111201 Republic Encyclopaedia Britannica Montesquieu The Spirit of the Laws 1748 Bk II ch 1 republic WordNet 3 0 Retrieved 20 March 2009 Republic Merriam Webster Retrieved 14 August 2010 Beatrice Heuser Sovereignty self determination and security new world orders in the 20th century in Sohail Hashmi ed State Sovereignty Change and Persistence in International Relations Philadelphia Pennsylvania University Press 1997 Matteo Laruffa The European Integration and National Interests from an intergovernmental model to a Constitutional Agreement Hungarian Academy of Social Sciences Budapest 3 July 2014 Further reading EditBenton Lauren 2010 A Search for Sovereignty Law and Geography in European Empires 1400 1900 Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 88105 0 Paris R 2020 The Right to Dominate How Old Ideas About Sovereignty Pose New Challenges for World Order International Organization Philpott Dan 2016 Sovereignty Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Metaphysics Research Lab Stanford University Prokhovnik Raia 2007 Sovereignties contemporary theory and practice Houndmills Basingstoke Hampshire New York N Y Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 9781403913234 Prokhovnik Raia 2008 Sovereignty history and theory Exeter UK Charlottesville VA Imprint Academic ISBN 9781845401412 Thomson Janice E 1996 Mercenaries pirates and sovereigns state building and extraterritorial violence in early modern Europe Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0 691 02571 1 External links EditLook up sovereignty in Wiktionary the free dictionary Wikiquote has quotations related to Sovereignty Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sovereignty amp oldid 1053405726, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.