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Wikipedia

Soweto

For the area in Nairobi, Kenya, see Kibera. For the village in Peru, see Saweto, Peru.

Soweto () is a township of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality in Gauteng, South Africa, bordering the city's mining belt in the south. Its name is an English syllabic abbreviation for South Western Townships. Formerly a separate municipality, it is now incorporated in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, Suburbs of Johannesburg.

Soweto
South Western Township
Orlando Towers in the Orlando suburb of Soweto
Soweto
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Soweto
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Soweto
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Coordinates:26°16′04″S27°51′31″E /26.26781°S 27.85849°E /-26.26781; 27.85849Coordinates: 26°16′04″S27°51′31″E /26.26781°S 27.85849°E /-26.26781; 27.85849
CountrySouth Africa
ProvinceGauteng
MunicipalityCity of Johannesburg
Main PlaceJohannesburg
Area
• Total200.03 km2 (77.23 sq mi)
Elevation
1,632 m (5,354 ft)
Population
(2011)
• Total1,271,628
• Density6,400/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)
Black African98.5%
Coloured1.0%
Indian/Asian0.1%
White0.1%
• Other0.2%
First languages (2011)
Zulu37.1%
Sotho15.5%
Tswana12.9%
Tsonga8.9%
• Other25.7%
Time zoneUTC+2 (SAST)
Postal code (street)
1808
Area code011

Contents

George Harrison and George Walker are today credited as the men who discovered an outcrop of the Main Reef of gold on the farm Langlaagte in February 1886. The fledgling town of Johannesburg was laid out on a triangular wedge of "uitvalgrond" (area excluded when the farms were surveyed) named Randjeslaagte, situated between the farms Doornfontein to the east, Braamfontein to the west and Turffontein to the south.

Within a decade of the discovery of gold in Johannesburg, 100,000 people flocked to this part of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek in search of riches. They were of many races and nationalities. In October 1887, the government of the South African Republic (ZAR) bought the south-eastern portion of the farm Braamfontein. There were large quantities of clay, suitable for brickmaking, along the stream. The government decided that more money was to be made from issuing brick maker's licences at five shillings per month. The result was that many landless Dutch-speaking burghers (citizens) of the ZAR settled on the property and started making bricks. They also erected their shacks there. Soon, the area was known either Brickfields or Veldschoendorp. Soon other working poor, Coloureds, Indians and Africans also settled there. The government, who sought to differentiate the white working class from the black, laid out new suburbs for the Burghers (Whites), Coolies (Indians), Malays (Coloureds) and Black Africans (Africans), but the whole area simply stayed multiracial.

Soweto was created in the 1930s when the White government started separating Blacks from Whites, creating black "townships". Blacks were moved away from Johannesburg, to an area separated from White suburbs by a so-called cordon sanitaire (or sanitary corridor) which was usually a river, railway track, industrial area or highway. This was carried out using the infamous Urban Areas Act of 1923.

William Carr, chair of non-European affairs, initiated the naming of Soweto in 1959. He called for a competition to give a collective name to townships dotted around the South-west of Johannesburg. People responded to this competition with great enthusiasm. Among the names suggested to the City Council was KwaMpanza, meaning Mpanza's place, invoking the name of Mpanza and his role in bringing the plight of Orlando sub tenants to the attention of the City Council. The City Council settled for the acronym SOWETO (South West Townships). The name Soweto was first used in 1963 and within a short period of time, following the 1976 uprising of students in the township, the name became internationally known.

Soweto became the largest Black city in South Africa, but until 1976, its population could have status only as temporary residents, serving as a workforce for Johannesburg. It experienced civil unrest during the Apartheid regime. There were serious riots in 1976, sparked by a ruling that Afrikaans be used in African schools there; the riots were violently suppressed, with 176 striking students killed and more than 1,000 injured. Reforms followed, but riots flared up again in 1985 and continued until the first non-racial elections were held in April 1994. In 2010, South Africa's oldest township hosted the FIFA World Cup Final and the attention of more than a billion soccer spectators from all over the world was focused on Soweto.

Kliptown and Pimville

Klipspruit and Diepkloof, South-west of Johannesburg, laid out on Randjeslaagte

In April 1904, there was a bubonic plague scare in the shanty town area of Brickfields. The town council decided to condemn the area and burn it down. Beforehand, most of the Africans living there were moved far out of town to the farm Klipspruit (later called Pimville), south-west of Johannesburg, where the council had erected iron barracks and a few triangular hutments. The rest of them had to build their own shacks. The fire brigade then set the 1600 shacks and shops in Brickfields alight. Thereafter, the area was redeveloped as Newtown. Pimville was next to Kliptown, the oldest Black residential district of Johannesburg and first laid out in 1891, on land which formed part of Klipspruit farm. The future Soweto was to be laid out on Klipspruit and the adjoining farm called Diepkloof.

In the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek and the subsequent Transvaal Colony, it was lawful for people of colour to own fixed property. Consequently, the township of Sophiatown was laid out in 1903 and Blacks were encouraged to buy property there. For the same reasons, Alexandra, Gauteng was planned for Black ownership in 1912. The subsequent Natives Land Act of 1913 did not change the situation because it did not apply to land situated within municipal boundaries.

Orlando, Moroka and Jabavu

In 1923, the Parliament of the Union of South Africa passed the Natives (Urban Areas) Act (Act No. 21 of 1923). The purpose of the Act was to provide for improved conditions of residence for natives in urban areas, to control their ingress into such areas and to restrict their access to intoxicating liquor. The Act required local authorities to provide accommodation for Natives (then the polite term for Africans or Blacks) lawfully employed and resident within the area of their jurisdiction. Pursuant to this Act, the Johannesburg town council formed a Municipal Native Affairs Department in 1927. It bought 1 300 morgen of land on the farm Klipspruit No. 8 and the first houses in what was to become Orlando Location were built there in the latter half of 1930. The township was named after the chairman of the Native Affairs committee, Mr. Edwin Orlando Leake. In the end, some 10,311 houses were built there by the municipality. In addition, it built 4,045 temporary single-room shelters.

In about 1934, James Sofasonke Mpanza moved to 957 Pheele Street, Orlando, and lived there for the rest of his life. A year after his arrival in Orlando, he formed his own political party, the Sofasonke Party. He also became very active in the affairs of the Advisory Board for Orlando. Towards the end of World War II, there was an acute shortage of housing for Blacks in Johannesburg. By the end of 1943, the Sofasonke Party advised its members to put up their own squatters' shacks on municipal property. On Saturday 25 March 1944, the squat began. Hundreds of homeless people from Orlando and elsewhere joined Mpanza in marching to a vacant lot in Orlando West and starting a squatters camp. The City Council's resistance crumbled. After feverish consultations with the relevant government department, it was agreed that an emergency camp, which could house 991 families, be erected. It was to be called Central Western Jabavu. The next wave of land invasions took place in September 1946. Some 30,000 squatters congregated west of Orlando. Early the next year, the City Council proclaimed a new emergency camp. It was called Moroka. 10,000 sites were made available immediately. Moroka became Johannesburg's worst slum area. Residents erected their shanties on plots measuring six metres by six metres. There were only communal bucket-system toilets and very few taps. The camps were meant to be used for a maximum of five years, but when they were eventually demolished in 1955, Moroka and Jabavu housed 89,000 people.

Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital

In 1941, the British Government built a military hospital next to the road between Johannesburg and Potchefstroom. The exact place was to be at the 8th milestone near the old Wayside Inn, owned by a Cornishman called John Albert Baragwanath. It was called The Imperial Military Hospital, Baragwanath. After the war, the Transvaal Provincial Administration bought the hospital for £1 million. On 1 April 1948, the Black section of Johannesburg Hospital (known as Non-European Hospital or NEH) was transferred to Baragwanath Hospital. In 1997, the facility was renamed Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital after former General Secretary of the South African Communist Party, Chris Hani.

Apartheid

The National Party won the general election of 1948 and formed a new government. The party's policy was called apartheid, the Afrikaans word meaning separateness. They thought they could separate the various racial groups in South Africa. In those days, the Johannesburg City Council did not support the National Party. The City Council and the central government competed to control the Black townships of Johannesburg.

1948 to 1976

Following the election of the new government, some 7,000 new houses were built in the first two or three years, but very little was done thereafter. In 1952, there was a breakthrough. Firstly, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research came up with a standard design for low-cost, four-roomed, forty-square-metre houses. In 1951, the Parliament passed the Building Workers Act, which permitted Blacks to be trained as artisans in the building trade. In 1952, it passed the Bantu Services Levy Act, which imposed a levy on employers of African workers and the levy was used to finance basic services in Black townships. In 1954, the City Council built 5,100 houses in Jabavu and 1,450 in Mofolo.

The City Council's pride and joy was its economic scheme known as Dube Village. It was intended "primarily for the thoroughly urbanised and economically advanced Native". Stands, varying in size from fifty by hundred feet to forty by 70 feet, were made available on a thirty-year leasehold tenure. Tenants could erect their own dwellings in conformity with approved plans.

In June 1955, Kliptown was the home of an unprecedented Congress of the People, which adopted the Freedom Charter.

According to wiredspace, the name Soweto was officially endorsed by the municipalities’ authorities only in 1963 after a special committee had considered various names. Apartheid governments’ intention was for Soweto to house the accommodate black people that were working for Johannesburg. “Incidentally, the name Soweto was officially endorsed by the municipal authorities only in 1963 after a special committee had sat for a long time, considering various names, including apartheid Townships and Verwoerdstad" (Gorodnov 1998:58). From the onset, the Apartheid government purposed Soweto to house the bulk of the labour force which was needed by Johannesburg (1998:58). Africans used to live in areas surrounding the city, so the authorities felt it would be more expedient to concentrate black workers in one district that could be easily controlled (1998:58).

The new sub-economic townships took off in 1956, when Tladi, Zondi, Dhlamini, Chiawelo and Senoane were laid out providing 28,888 people with accommodation. Jabulani, Phiri and Naledi followed the next year. Sir Ernest Oppenheimer arranged a loan of £3 million from the mining industry, which allowed an additional 14,000 houses to be built. It was decided to divide Soweto into various language groups. Naledi, Mapetla, Tladi, Moletsane and Phiri were for Sotho- and Tswana-speaking people. Chiawelo for Tsonga and Venda. Dlamini Senaoane, Zola, Zondi, Jabulani, Emdeni and White City were for Zulus and Xhosas.

The central government was busy with its own agenda. The presence of Blacks with freehold title to land among Johannesburg's White suburbs irked them. In 1954, Parliament passed the Native Resettlement Act, which permitted the government to remove Blacks from suburbs like Sophiatown, Martindale, Newclare and Western Native Township. Between 1956 and 1960, they built 23,695 houses in Meadowlands and Diepkloof to accommodate the evicted persons. By 1960, the removals were more-or-less complete.

In 1959, the City Council launched a competition to find a collective name for all the townships south-west of the city's centre. It was only in 1963 that the City Council decided to adopt the name Soweto as the collective name.

In 1971, Parliament passed the Black Affairs Administration Act, No. 45 of 1971. In terms of this Act, the central government appointed the West Rand Administration Board to take over the powers and obligations of the Johannesburg City Council in respect of Soweto. As chairman of the board it appointed Manie Mulder, a political appointment of a person who had no experience of the administration of native affairs. Manie Mulder's most famous quote was given to the Rand Daily Mail in May 1976: "The broad masses of Soweto are perfectly content, perfectly happy. Black-White relationships at present are as healthy as can be. There is no danger whatever of a blow-up in Soweto."

Soweto housing (about 2009)

Soweto uprising

Main article: Soweto uprising

Soweto came to the world's attention on 16 June 1976 with the Soweto uprising, when mass protests erupted over the government's policy to enforce education in Afrikaans rather than their native language. Police opened fire in Orlando West on 10,000 students marching from Naledi High School to Orlando Stadium. The rioting continued and 23 people died on the first day in Soweto, 21 of whom were black, including the minor Hector Pieterson, as well as two white people, including Dr Melville Edelstein, a lifelong humanitarian.

The impact of the Soweto protests reverberated through the country and across the world. In their aftermath, economic and cultural sanctions were introduced from abroad. Political activists left the country to train for guerrilla resistance. Soweto and other townships became the stage for violent state repression. Since 1991, this date and the schoolchildren have been commemorated by the International Day of the African Child.

Aftermath

Diepmeadow Town Council, Greater Soweto

In response, the apartheid state started providing electricity to more Soweto homes, yet phased out financial support for building additional housing. Soweto became an independent municipality with elected black councilors in 1983, in line with the Black Local Authorities Act.[page needed] Previously, the townships were governed by the Johannesburg council, but from the 1970s, the state took control.

A man takes a nap while riding in the bed of a pickup truck in Soweto, South Africa, Freedom Day, 2006.

Black African councilors were not provided by the apartheid state with the finances to address housing and infrastructural problems. Township residents opposed the black councilors as puppet collaborators who personally benefited financially from an oppressive regime. Resistance was spurred by the exclusion of blacks from the newly formed tricameral Parliament (which did include Whites, Indians and Coloreds). Municipal elections in black, coloured, and Indian areas were subsequently widely boycotted, returning extremely low voting figures for years. Popular resistance to state structures dates back to the Advisory Boards (1950) that co-opted black residents to advise whites who managed the townships.

Further popular resistance: incorporation into the City

In Soweto, popular resistance to apartheid emerged in various forms during the 1980s. Educational and economic boycotts were initiated, and student bodies were organized. Street committees were formed, and civic organizations were established as alternatives to state-imposed structures. One of the most well-known "civics" was Soweto's Committee of Ten, started in 1978 in the offices of The Bantu World newspaper. Such actions were strengthened by the call issued by African National Congress's 1985 Kabwe congress in Zambia to make South Africa ungovernable. As the state forbade public gatherings, church buildings like Regina Mundi were sometimes used for political gatherings.

In 1995, Soweto became part of the Southern Metropolitan Transitional Local Council, and in 2002, was incorporated into the City of Johannesburg. A series of bomb explosions rocked Soweto in October 2002. The explosions, believed to be the work of the Boeremag, a right-wing extremist group, damaged buildings and railway lines, and killed one person.

Soweto's population is predominantly black and the most common first language is Zulu.

Census 2011

  • Area: 200.03 square kilometres (77.23 sq mi)
  • Population: 1,271,628: 6,357.29 inhabitants per square kilometre (16,465.3/sq mi)
  • Households: 355,331: 1,776.42 per square kilometre (4,600.9/sq mi)
Gender Population %
Female 640,588 50.38
Male 631,040 49.62
Race Population %
Black 1,253,037 98.54
White 1,421 0.11
Coloured 13,079 1.03
Asian 1,418 0.11
Other 2,674 0.21
First language Population %
IsiZulu 350,940 40.87
IsiXhosa 88,474 10.3
Afrikaans 5,639 0.66
Sesotho sa Leboa 41,179 4.8
Setswana 106,419 12.39
English 3,047 0.35
Sesotho sa Borwa 157,263 18.32
Xitsonga 62,157 7.24
SiSwati 8,696 1.01
Tshivenda 29,498 3.44
IsiNdebele 2,801 0.33
Other 2,531 0.29

Census 2001

  • Area: 106.44 square kilometres (41.10 sq mi)
  • Population: 858,644: 8,066.81 inhabitants per square kilometre (20,892.9/sq mi)
  • Households: 237,567: 2,231.9 per square kilometre (5,781/sq mi)
Gender Population %
Female 437,268 50.93
Male 421,376 49.07
Race Population %
Black 852,649 99.3
White 325 0.04
Coloured 5,472 0.64
Asian 198 0.02
First language Population %
IsiZulu 469,873 37.07
IsiXhosa 109,977 8.68
Afrikaans 16,567 1.31
Sepedi 65,215 5.14
Setswana 163,083 12.87
English 29,602 2.34
Sesotho 196,816 15.53
Xitsonga 112,346 8.86
SiSwati 9,292 0.73
Tshivenda 29,498 3.44
IsiNdebele 56,737 4.48
Other 14,334 1.13
Orlando Power Station Cooling Towers

Landmarks

Soweto landmarks include:

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as subtropical highland (Cwb).

Climate data for Soweto
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26.4
(79.5)
25.8
(78.4)
24.7
(76.5)
22.1
(71.8)
19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
17.3
(63.1)
20.3
(68.5)
23.4
(74.1)
25
(77)
25.3
(77.5)
26.1
(79.0)
22.7
(72.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
19.8
(67.6)
18.5
(65.3)
15.5
(59.9)
12.1
(53.8)
9
(48)
9.2
(48.6)
12.1
(53.8)
15.7
(60.3)
18
(64)
19
(66)
19.9
(67.8)
15.8
(60.3)
Average low °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
13.9
(57.0)
12.3
(54.1)
8.9
(48.0)
4.6
(40.3)
1.2
(34.2)
1.2
(34.2)
4
(39)
8
(46)
11
(52)
12.7
(54.9)
13.7
(56.7)
8.8
(47.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 136
(5.4)
101
(4.0)
84
(3.3)
63
(2.5)
20
(0.8)
8
(0.3)
7
(0.3)
7
(0.3)
24
(0.9)
73
(2.9)
112
(4.4)
115
(4.5)
750
(29.6)
Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 1667m
The N1 next to Soweto
The Soweto Highway with dedicated taxiways

The suburb was not historically allowed to create employment centres within the area, so almost all of its residents are commuters to other parts of the city.

Rail

Metrorail operates commuter trains between Soweto and central Johannesburg. Soweto train stations are at Naledi, Merafe, Inhlazane, Ikwezi, Dube, Phefeni, Phomolong, Mzimhlophe, New Canada, Mlamlankunzi, Orlando, Nancefield, Kliptown, Tshiawelo and Midway.

Road

The N1 Western Bypass skirts the eastern boundary of Soweto. There is efficient road access for many parts of the region along busy highways to the CBD and Roodepoort, but commuters are largely reliant on trains and taxis.

The N12 forms the southern border of Soweto.

A new section of the N17 road (South Africa) is under construction that will provide Soweto with a 4 lane highway link to Nasrec.

The M70, also known as the Soweto Highway, links Soweto with central Johannesburg via Nasrec and Booysens. This road is multi lane, has dedicated taxiways and passes next to Soccer City in Nasrec.

A major thoroughfare through Soweto is the Golden Highway. It provides access to both the N1 as well as the M1 highways.

Minibus taxis are a popular form of transport. In 2000 it was estimated that around 2000 minibus taxis operated from the Baragwanath taxi rank alone.

A Bus rapid transit system, Rea Vaya, provides transport for around 16 000 commuters daily.

PUTCO has for many years provided bus commuter services to Soweto residents.

The area is mostly composed of old "matchbox" houses, or four-room houses built by the government, that were built to provide cheap accommodation for black workers during apartheid. However, there are a few smaller areas where prosperous Sowetans have built houses that are similar in stature to those in more affluent suburbs. Many people who still live in matchbox houses have improved and expanded their homes, and the City Council has enabled the planting of more trees and the improving of parks and green spaces in the area.

Hostels are another prominent physical feature of Soweto. Originally built to house male migrant workers, many have been improved as dwellings for couples and families.

In 1996, the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality awarded tenders to Conrad Penny and his company Penny Brothers Brokers & Valuers (Pty) Ltd. for the valuation of the whole of Soweto (which at the time consisted of over 325 000 properties) for rating and taxing purpose. This was the single largest valuation ever undertaken in Africa.

Media

Being part of the urban agglomerations of Gauteng, Soweto shares much of the same media as the rest of Gauteng province. There are however some media sources dedicated to Soweto itself:

  • Soweto Online is a geographical-based information-sharing portal.
  • Soweto Internet Radio is a digital media network company established in 2008.
  • Soweto TV is a community television channel, available on DStv channel 251. The channel is free-to-air in Gauteng province and it also broadcast to South African subscribers on the DStv pay TV service on channel 251. The channel studios are situated on Vilakazi Street, known for being the only street in the world to have the historical residences of two Nobel Prize winners, namely Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Soweto TV programming is mostly Sowetan content as per ICASA's regulations of over 60% local content.
  • The Sowetan newspaper has a readership of around 1.6 million.
  • Kasibiz Mahala is a free community magazine that promotes local small businesses established in 2012.

Museums, monuments and memorials

Music

The Soweto Marimba Youth League during a public performance

Soweto is credited as one of the founding places for Kwaito and Kasi rap, which is a style of hip hop specific to South Africa. This form of music, which combined many elements of house music, American hip-hop, and traditional African music, became a strong force amongst black South Africans.

Early Career

The experiences of other developing nations were examined at the Soweto entrepreneurship conference, which looked for ways to help turn the economic tide in townships. SOWETO'S entrepreneurs gathered at the University of Johannesburg Soweto Campus on 13 and 14 April to engage with experts from all over the globe about how to enhance skills and value-add in township economies. The restrictions on economic activities were lifted in 1977, spurring the growth of the taxi industry as an alternative to Soweto's inadequate bus and train transport systems. In 1994 Sowetans earned on average almost six and a half times less than their counterparts in wealthier areas of Johannesburg (1994 estimates). Sowetans contribute less than 2% to Johannesburg's rates Some Sowetans remain impoverished, and others live in shanty towns with little or no services. About 85% of Kliptown comprises informal housing. The Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee argues that Soweto's poor are unable to pay for electricity. The committee believes that the South African government's privatization drives will worsen the situation. Research showed that 62% of residents in Orlando East and Pimville were unemployed or pensioners. There have been signs recently indicating economic improvement. The Johannesburg City Council began to provide more street lights and to pave roads. Private initiatives to tap Sowetans' combined spending power of R4.3 billion were also planned, including the construction of Protea Mall, Jabulani Mall, and the development of Maponya Mall, an upmarket hotel in Kliptown, and the Orlando Ekhaya entertainment center. Soweto has also become a Centre for nightlife and culture.

Well-known artists from Soweto, besides those mentioned above, include:

Sport

Festivals

The Soweto Wine Festival 2009

The Soweto Wine Festival was started in 2004. The three-night festival is hosted at the University of Johannesburg's Soweto Campus on Chris Hani Road in the first weekend of September. Organised by the Cape Wine Academy, the festival attracts over 6000 wine enthusiasts, over 100 of South Africa's finest wineries and well over 900 fine wines.

Stadiums

Awards

The Soweto Awards, which will become an annual event, honours those who have their roots in Soweto. Former president Nelson Mandela received the Life Time Award from the first Soweto Awards in Johannesburg on 25 February 2001. The Legends Awards went to Gibson Kente, the "godfather" of township theatre, Felicia Mabuza-Suttle, a talk show host, Aggrey Klaaste, editor of the Sowetan newspaper and Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, MP and African National Congress Women's League president.

By 2003, the Greater Soweto area consisted of 87 townships grouped together into Administrative Regions 6 and 10 of Johannesburg.

Estimates of how many residential areas make up Soweto itself vary widely. Some counts say that Soweto comprises 29 townships, whilst others find 34. The differences may be due to confusion arising from the merger of adjoining townships (such as Lenasia and Eldorado Park) with those of Soweto into Regions 6 and 10. The total number also depends on whether the various "extensions" and "zones" are counted separately, or as part of one main suburb. The 2003 Regional Spatial Development Framework arrived at 87 names by counting various extensions (e.g. Chiawelo's 5) and zones (e.g. Pimville's 7) separately. The City of Johannesburg's website groups the zones and extensions together to arrive at 32, but omits Noordgesig and Mmesi Park.[citation needed]

The list below provides the dates when some of Soweto's townships were established, along with the probable origins or meanings of their names, where available:

Suburbs of Soweto
Name Established Origin of name
Braamfischerville
Tshiawelo 1956 "Place of Rest" (Venda)
Diepkloof
Dlamini 1956 Unknown, Nguni family name. Michael Mabaso also comes from here. This is a township with a working class population who travel by train to work.
Dobsonville including Dobsonville Gardens
Doornkop "Hill of Thorns" (Afrikaans)
Dube 1948 Named for John Langalibalele Dube (1871–1946), educator, newspaper founder, and the first ANC president (1912–17)
Emdeni 1958 "A border, last township before Mogale City (then Krugersdorp Municipality)" (Xhosa), including extensions
Greenvillage
Jabavu 1948 Named for Davidson Don Tengo Jabavu (1885–1959), educator and author
Jabulani 1956 "Rejoice" (Zulu)
Klipspruit 1904 "Rocky Stream" (Afrikaans), originally a farm.
Kliptown "Rocky Town", constructed from Afrikaans for rock (klip), and the English word "town".
Lakeside
Mapetla 1956 Someone who is angry (Setswana)
Meadowlands Also nicknamed "Ndofaya"
Mmesi Park Sesotho name for somebody who burns things on fire
Mofolo 1954 Named for Thomas Mofolo (1876–1948), Sesotho author, translator, and educator
Molapo 1956 Name of a Basotho tribe, Sesotho name for a small ravine/stream
Moletsane 1956 Name of a Bataung chief, (Bataung is a Basotho clan named after the lion, 'tau')
Moroka 1946 Named for Dr James Sebe Moroka (1891–1985), later ANC president (1949–52) during the 1952 Defiance Campaign
Naledi 1956 "Star" (Sotho/Pedi/Tswana), originally Mkizi
Noordgesig "North View" (Afrikaans)
Orlando 1932 Named for Edwin Orlando Leake (1860–1935), chairman of the Non-European Affairs Department (1930–31), Johannesburg mayor (1925–26)
Phefeni
Phiri 1956 "Hyena" (Sotho/Tswana)
Pimville 1934 Named for James Howard Pim, councillor (1903–07), Quaker[citation needed], philanthropist, and patron of Fort Hare Native College[citation needed]; originally part of Klipspruit
Power Park In the vicinity of the power station
Protea Glen Unknown (The protea is South Africa's national flower)
Protea North
Protea South
Senaoane 1958 Named for Solomon G Senaoane (−1942), first sports organiser in the Non-European Affairs Department
Tladi 1956 "Lightning" (Northern Sotho)
Zola 1956 "Calm" (Zulu/Xhosa)
Zondi 1956 Unknown family name (Zulu)

Other Soweto townships include Phomolong and Snake Park[citation needed]

Slums, Soweto

Many parts of Soweto rank among the poorest in Johannesburg, although individual townships tend to have a mix of wealthier and poorer residents. In general, households in the outlying areas to the northwest and southeast have lower incomes, while those in southwestern areas tend to have higher incomes.

The economic development of Soweto was severely curtailed by the apartheid state, which provided very limited infrastructure and prevented residents from creating their own businesses. Roads remained unpaved, and many residents had to share one tap between four houses, for example. Soweto was meant to exist only as a dormitory town for black Africans who worked in white houses, factories, and industries. The 1957 Natives (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act and its predecessors restricted residents between 1923 and 1976 to seven self-employment categories in Soweto itself. Sowetans could operate general shops, butcheries, eating houses, sell milk or vegetables, or hawk goods. The overall number of such enterprises at any time were strictly controlled. As a result, informal trading developed outside the legally-recognized activities.

By 1976, Soweto had only two cinemas and two hotels, and 83% of houses had electricity. Up to 93% of residents had no running water. Using fire for cooking and heating resulted in respiratory problems that contributed to high infant mortality rates (54 per 1,000 compared to 18 for whites, 1976 figures.

The restrictions on economic activities were lifted in 1977, spurring the growth of the taxi industry as an alternative to Soweto's inadequate bus and train transport systems.

Housing development project, Kliptown

In 1994, Sowetans earned on average almost six and a half times less than their counterparts in wealthier areas of Johannesburg (1994 estimates). Sowetans contribute less than 2% to Johannesburg's rates.[citation needed] Some Sowetans remain impoverished, and others live in shanty towns with little or no services. About 85% of Kliptown comprises informal housing.[citation needed] The Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee argues that Soweto's poor are unable to pay for electricity. The committee believes that the South African government's privatization drives will worsen the situation. Research showed that 62% of residents in Orlando East and Pimville were unemployed or pensioners.

There have been signs recently indicating economic improvement. The Johannesburg City Council began to provide more street lights and to pave roads. Private initiatives to tap Sowetans' combined spending power of R4.3 billion were also planned[citation needed], including the construction of Protea Mall, Jabulani Mall, the development of Maponya Mall, an upmarket hotel in Kliptown, and the Orlando Ekhaya entertainment centre. Soweto has also become a centre for nightlife and culture.

Films

The 1976 uprising is depicted in the film A Dry White Season (1989), starring Donald Sutherland, Marlon Brando, and Susan Sarandon, who portray white South Africans pursuing justice for the deaths of black Soweto residents which followed the demonstrations.

The American film Stander (2003) portrays the story of Andre Stander, a rogue police captain who sympathised with the state of apartheid and its corruption by becoming a bank thief. The Soweto uprising riots provided Stander's breaking point in the film.

Sara Blecher and Rimi Raphoto's popular documentary, Surfing Soweto (2006), addresses the phenomenon of young kids "surfing" on the roofs of Soweto trains and the social problem this represents.

The film District 9 (2009) was shot in Tshiawelo, Soweto. The plot involves a species of aliens who arrive on Earth in a starving and helpless condition, seeking aid. The originally benign attempts to aid them turn increasingly oppressive due to the overwhelming numbers of aliens and the cost of maintaining them, and to increasing xenophobia on the part of humans who treat the intelligent and sophisticated aliens like animals while taking advantage of them for personal and corporate gain. The aliens are housed in shacks in a slum-like concentration camp called "District 9", which is in fact modern-day Soweto; an attempt to relocate the aliens to another camp leads to violence and a wholesale slaughter by South African mercenary security forces (a reference to historical events in "District Six", Cape Town, a mostly Coloured neighborhood subjected to forced segregation during the apartheid years). The parallels to apartheid South Africa are obvious but not explicitly remarked on in the film.

Films that include Soweto scenes:

Literature

The marches by students in Soweto are briefly mentioned in Linzi Glass' novel, Ruby Red, which was nominated for the Carnegie Medal in 2008.

Soweto is also mentioned in Sheila Gordon's novel, Waiting for the Rain.

The main protagonist from the Jonas Jonasson novel The Girl Who Saved the King of Sweden, Nombeko Mayeki was born in 1961 in Soweto. In his first Anthology of Poems titled "In Quiet Realm" South African Soweto Born poet Lawrence Mduduzi Ndlovu dedicated a poem called "Soweto My Everything" to honour the place of his birth.

Trevor Noah, in his autobiographical comedy Born a Crime, describes his early childhood and growing up in Soweto.

Music

Clarence Carter has a song called "The Girl From Soweto" or "Where did the girl go, from Soweto".

Soweto is mentioned in the song "Burden of Shame" by the British band UB40, on their album Signing off (1980).

Singer–songwriter Joe Strummer, formerly of The Clash, referenced Soweto in his solo album Streetcore (song: "Arms Aloft"), as well as in The Clash's track, "Where You Gonna Go (Soweto)", found on the album London Calling (Legacy Edition).

The UK music duo Mattafix have a song called "Memories Of Soweto" on their album Rhythm & Hymns (2007).

Soweto is mentioned in the anti-apartheid song "Gimme Hope Jo'anna" by Eddy Grant. The line, "While every mother in a black Soweto fears the killing of another son", refers to police brutality during apartheid.

Miriam Makeba has the song: "Soweto Blues".

Dr. Alban's song "Free Up Soweto" was included in the album Look Who's Talking (1994).

The Mexican group Tijuana No! recorded the song "Soweto" for their first album No, in reference to the city and the movements.

"Soweto" is the name of a song by the rap group Hieroglyphics.

The American band Vampire Weekend refers to its own musical style, a blend of indie rock and pop with African influences, as "Upper West Side Soweto", based on the same description of Paul Simon's album Graceland.

"Soweto" is the title of the opening track of the album Joined at the Hip, by Bob James and Kirk Whalum.

Brazilian singer-songwriter Djavan, in his 1987 album Não É Azul, mas É Mar, recorded a song called Soweto. Also this song inspired the naming of Brazilian pagode group Soweto.

Native Sowetans

Soweto is the birthplace of:

Other residents

Mandela's House in Orlando
  • James Mpanza (1889–1970), civic leader, founder of Orlando Pirates F.C., known as 'the father of Soweto'
  • Winnie Mandela (1936–2018), anti-apartheid activist and politician, ex-wife of Nelson Mandela
  • Gibson Kente (1932–2004), playwright
  • Irvin Khoza (b. 27 January 1948), South African football administrator, Chairman of Orlando Pirates
  • Aggrey Klaaste (1940–2004), newspaper journalist and editor
  • Nelson Mandela (1918–2013), President of South Africa, anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader and peace activist, spent many years living in Soweto; his Soweto home in Orlando is currently a major tourist attraction
  • Hastings Ndlovu (1961–1976), another student to be killed during the 1976 Soweto uprising
  • Lilian Ngoyi (1911–1980), anti-apartheid activist, who spent 18 years under house arrest in Mzimhlope
  • Joe Mafela (1942–2017), Actor, writer, producer, director, singer, and businessman
  • Mzwakhe Mbuli (b. 1959), Poet known as "The People's Poet, musician and actor
  • Terry Pheto (b. 1981), actress best known for her leading role as Miriam in the 2005 Oscar-winning feature film Tsotsi
  • Pallance Dladla (b. 1992), Actor
  • Steven Pienaar (b. 1982), footballer with national team and Everton F.C.
  • Hector Pieterson (1963–1976), the first student to be killed during the 1976 Soweto uprising who features in an iconic press photograph of the event; has a memorial and museum named after him in Orlando West
  • Percy Qoboza (1938–1988), newspaper journalist and editor
  • Gerard Sekoto (1913–1993), artist, lived in Kliptown before emigrating to France in 1947
  • Desmond Tutu (b. 1931), cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s through his opposition to apartheid
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Bibliography

  • Philip Bonner & Lauren Segal (1998). Soweto: A History. South Africa: Maskew Miller Longman. ISBN 0-636-03033-4.
  • Dumesani Ntshangase; Gandhi Malungane; Steve Lebelo; Elsabe Brink; Sue Krige (2001). Soweto, 16 June 1976. South Africa: Kwela Books. ISBN 978-0-7957-0132-0.
  • Glaser, Clive (2000). Bo Tsotsi – The Youth Gangs of Soweto. United Kingdom: James Currey. ISBN 978-0-85255-640-5.
  • Grinker, David (2014). Gorelik, Boris (ed.). Inside Soweto: Memoir of an Official, 1960s-80s. Johannesburg: Eastern Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-29186-599-8.
  • Harrison, Philip, and Kirsten Harrison (2014) "Soweto: A Study in Socio-Spatial Differentiation.” In Philip Harrison, Graeme Gotz, Alison Todes, and Chris Wray (eds) Changing Space, Changing City: Johannesburg after Apartheid, Johannesburg: Wits University Press, pp 293–318. https://doi.org/10.18772/22014107656.19
  • Holland, Heidi (1995). Born in Soweto – Inside the Heart of South Africa. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-024446-5.
  • Hopkins, Pat (1999). The Rocky Rioter Teargas Show. Cape Town: Zebra. ISBN 1-86872-342-9.
  • Stephen Laufer; Matada Tsedu (2007). Soweto – A South African Legend. Germany: Arnoldsche. ISBN 978-3-89790-013-4.
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  • French, Kevin John, James Mpanza and the Sofasonke Party in the development of local politic in Soweto, unpublished M.A. dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 1983.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSoweto.

Soweto
Soweto Language Watch Edit For the area in Nairobi Kenya see Kibera For the village in Peru see Saweto Peru Soweto s e ˈ w ɛ t oʊ ˈ w eɪ t ˈ w iː t 3 4 is a township of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality in Gauteng South Africa bordering the city s mining belt in the south Its name is an English syllabic abbreviation for South Western Townships 5 Formerly a separate municipality it is now incorporated in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality Suburbs of Johannesburg Soweto South Western TownshipOrlando Towers in the Orlando suburb of SowetoSowetoShow map of GautengSowetoShow map of South AfricaSowetoShow map of AfricaCoordinates 26 16 04 S 27 51 31 E 26 26781 S 27 85849 E 26 26781 27 85849 Coordinates 26 16 04 S 27 51 31 E 26 26781 S 27 85849 E 26 26781 27 85849 1 CountrySouth AfricaProvinceGautengMunicipalityCity of JohannesburgMain PlaceJohannesburgArea 2 Total200 03 km2 77 23 sq mi Elevation 1 1 632 m 5 354 ft Population 2011 2 Total1 271 628 Density6 400 km2 16 000 sq mi Racial makeup 2011 2 Black African98 5 Coloured1 0 Indian Asian0 1 White0 1 Other0 2 First languages 2011 2 Zulu37 1 Sotho15 5 Tswana12 9 Tsonga8 9 Other25 7 Time zoneUTC 2 SAST Postal code street 1808Area code011 Contents 1 History 1 1 Kliptown and Pimville 1 2 Orlando Moroka and Jabavu 1 3 Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital 1 4 Apartheid 1 4 1 1948 to 1976 1 4 2 Soweto uprising 1 4 3 Aftermath 1 5 Further popular resistance incorporation into the City 2 Demographics 2 1 Census 2011 2 2 Census 2001 3 Cityscape 3 1 Landmarks 4 Climate 5 Transport 5 1 Rail 5 2 Road 6 Housing 7 Society and culture 7 1 Media 7 2 Museums monuments and memorials 7 3 Music 7 4 Sport 7 5 Festivals 7 6 Stadiums 7 7 Awards 8 Suburbs 9 Economy 10 In popular culture 10 1 Films 10 2 Literature 10 3 Music 11 Notable people 11 1 Native Sowetans 11 2 Other residents 12 See also 13 References 13 1 Bibliography 14 External linksHistory EditGeorge Harrison and George Walker are today credited as the men who discovered an outcrop of the Main Reef of gold on the farm Langlaagte in February 1886 6 The fledgling town of Johannesburg was laid out on a triangular wedge of uitvalgrond area excluded when the farms were surveyed named Randjeslaagte situated between the farms Doornfontein to the east Braamfontein to the west and Turffontein to the south 7 Within a decade of the discovery of gold in Johannesburg 100 000 people flocked to this part of the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek in search of riches They were of many races and nationalities 8 In October 1887 the government of the South African Republic ZAR bought the south eastern portion of the farm Braamfontein There were large quantities of clay suitable for brickmaking along the stream The government decided that more money was to be made from issuing brick maker s licences at five shillings per month 9 The result was that many landless Dutch speaking burghers citizens of the ZAR settled on the property and started making bricks They also erected their shacks there Soon the area was known either Brickfields or Veldschoendorp 10 Soon other working poor Coloureds Indians and Africans also settled there The government who sought to differentiate the white working class from the black laid out new suburbs for the Burghers Whites Coolies Indians Malays Coloureds and Black Africans Africans but the whole area simply stayed multiracial 11 Soweto was created in the 1930s when the White government started separating Blacks from Whites creating black townships Blacks were moved away from Johannesburg to an area separated from White suburbs by a so called cordon sanitaire or sanitary corridor which was usually a river railway track industrial area or highway This was carried out using the infamous Urban Areas Act of 1923 William Carr chair of non European affairs initiated the naming of Soweto in 1959 He called for a competition to give a collective name to townships dotted around the South west of Johannesburg People responded to this competition with great enthusiasm Among the names suggested to the City Council was KwaMpanza meaning Mpanza s place invoking the name of Mpanza and his role in bringing the plight of Orlando sub tenants to the attention of the City Council The City Council settled for the acronym SOWETO South West Townships The name Soweto was first used in 1963 and within a short period of time following the 1976 uprising of students in the township the name became internationally known 12 Soweto became the largest Black city in South Africa but until 1976 its population could have status only as temporary residents serving as a workforce for Johannesburg It experienced civil unrest during the Apartheid regime There were serious riots in 1976 sparked by a ruling that Afrikaans be used in African schools there the riots were violently suppressed with 176 striking students killed and more than 1 000 injured Reforms followed but riots flared up again in 1985 and continued until the first non racial elections were held in April 1994 In 2010 South Africa s oldest township hosted the FIFA World Cup Final and the attention of more than a billion soccer spectators from all over the world was focused on Soweto Kliptown and Pimville Edit Klipspruit and Diepkloof South west of Johannesburg laid out on Randjeslaagte In April 1904 there was a bubonic plague scare in the shanty town area of Brickfields The town council decided to condemn the area and burn it down Beforehand most of the Africans living there were moved far out of town to the farm Klipspruit later called Pimville south west of Johannesburg where the council had erected iron barracks and a few triangular hutments The rest of them had to build their own shacks The fire brigade then set the 1600 shacks and shops in Brickfields alight Thereafter the area was redeveloped as Newtown 13 Pimville was next to Kliptown the oldest Black residential district of Johannesburg and first laid out in 1891 on land which formed part of Klipspruit farm The future Soweto was to be laid out on Klipspruit and the adjoining farm called Diepkloof In the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek and the subsequent Transvaal Colony it was lawful for people of colour to own fixed property 14 Consequently the township of Sophiatown was laid out in 1903 and Blacks were encouraged to buy property there For the same reasons Alexandra Gauteng was planned for Black ownership in 1912 The subsequent Natives Land Act of 1913 did not change the situation because it did not apply to land situated within municipal boundaries 15 Orlando Moroka and Jabavu Edit In 1923 the Parliament of the Union of South Africa passed the Natives Urban Areas Act Act No 21 of 1923 The purpose of the Act was to provide for improved conditions of residence for natives in urban areas to control their ingress into such areas and to restrict their access to intoxicating liquor The Act required local authorities to provide accommodation for Natives then the polite term for Africans or Blacks lawfully employed and resident within the area of their jurisdiction Pursuant to this Act the Johannesburg town council formed a Municipal Native Affairs Department in 1927 It bought 1 300 morgen of land on the farm Klipspruit No 8 and the first houses in what was to become Orlando Location were built there in the latter half of 1930 The township was named after the chairman of the Native Affairs committee Mr Edwin Orlando Leake 16 In the end some 10 311 houses were built there by the municipality In addition it built 4 045 temporary single room shelters 17 James Mpanza House in Orlando In about 1934 James Sofasonke Mpanza moved to 957 Pheele Street Orlando and lived there for the rest of his life 18 A year after his arrival in Orlando he formed his own political party the Sofasonke Party He also became very active in the affairs of the Advisory Board for Orlando 19 Towards the end of World War II there was an acute shortage of housing for Blacks in Johannesburg By the end of 1943 the Sofasonke Party advised its members to put up their own squatters shacks on municipal property 20 On Saturday 25 March 1944 the squat began Hundreds of homeless people from Orlando and elsewhere joined Mpanza in marching to a vacant lot in Orlando West and starting a squatters camp 21 The City Council s resistance crumbled After feverish consultations with the relevant government department it was agreed that an emergency camp which could house 991 families be erected It was to be called Central Western Jabavu The next wave of land invasions took place in September 1946 Some 30 000 squatters congregated west of Orlando Early the next year the City Council proclaimed a new emergency camp It was called Moroka 10 000 sites were made available immediately 22 Moroka became Johannesburg s worst slum area Residents erected their shanties on plots measuring six metres by six metres There were only communal bucket system toilets and very few taps The camps were meant to be used for a maximum of five years but when they were eventually demolished in 1955 Moroka and Jabavu housed 89 000 people 23 Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital Edit In 1941 the British Government built a military hospital next to the road between Johannesburg and Potchefstroom The exact place was to be at the 8th milestone near the old Wayside Inn owned by a Cornishman called John Albert Baragwanath It was called The Imperial Military Hospital Baragwanath After the war the Transvaal Provincial Administration bought the hospital for 1 million On 1 April 1948 the Black section of Johannesburg Hospital known as Non European Hospital or NEH was transferred to Baragwanath Hospital 24 In 1997 the facility was renamed Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital after former General Secretary of the South African Communist Party Chris Hani 24 Apartheid Edit The National Party won the general election of 1948 and formed a new government The party s policy was called apartheid the Afrikaans word meaning separateness They thought they could separate the various racial groups in South Africa In those days the Johannesburg City Council did not support the National Party The City Council and the central government competed to control the Black townships of Johannesburg 1948 to 1976 Edit Following the election of the new government some 7 000 new houses were built in the first two or three years but very little was done thereafter In 1952 there was a breakthrough Firstly the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research came up with a standard design for low cost four roomed forty square metre houses In 1951 the Parliament passed the Building Workers Act which permitted Blacks to be trained as artisans in the building trade In 1952 it passed the Bantu Services Levy Act which imposed a levy on employers of African workers and the levy was used to finance basic services in Black townships 25 In 1954 the City Council built 5 100 houses in Jabavu and 1 450 in Mofolo 26 The City Council s pride and joy was its economic scheme known as Dube Village It was intended primarily for the thoroughly urbanised and economically advanced Native 26 Stands varying in size from fifty by hundred feet to forty by 70 feet were made available on a thirty year leasehold tenure Tenants could erect their own dwellings in conformity with approved plans In June 1955 Kliptown was the home of an unprecedented Congress of the People which adopted the Freedom Charter According to wiredspace the name Soweto was officially endorsed by the municipalities authorities only in 1963 after a special committee had considered various names Apartheid governments intention was for Soweto to house the accommodate black people that were working for Johannesburg Incidentally the name Soweto was officially endorsed by the municipal authorities only in 1963 after a special committee had sat for a long time considering various names including apartheid Townships and Verwoerdstad Gorodnov 1998 58 From the onset the Apartheid government purposed Soweto to house the bulk of the labour force which was needed by Johannesburg 1998 58 Africans used to live in areas surrounding the city so the authorities felt it would be more expedient to concentrate black workers in one district that could be easily controlled 1998 58 27 The new sub economic townships took off in 1956 when Tladi Zondi Dhlamini Chiawelo and Senoane were laid out providing 28 888 people with accommodation Jabulani Phiri and Naledi followed the next year Sir Ernest Oppenheimer arranged a loan of 3 million from the mining industry which allowed an additional 14 000 houses to be built 28 It was decided to divide Soweto into various language groups Naledi Mapetla Tladi Moletsane and Phiri were for Sotho and Tswana speaking people Chiawelo for Tsonga and Venda Dlamini Senaoane Zola Zondi Jabulani Emdeni and White City were for Zulus and Xhosas 29 The central government was busy with its own agenda The presence of Blacks with freehold title to land among Johannesburg s White suburbs irked them In 1954 Parliament passed the Native Resettlement Act which permitted the government to remove Blacks from suburbs like Sophiatown Martindale Newclare and Western Native Township Between 1956 and 1960 they built 23 695 houses in Meadowlands and Diepkloof to accommodate the evicted persons By 1960 the removals were more or less complete 30 In 1959 the City Council launched a competition to find a collective name for all the townships south west of the city s centre It was only in 1963 that the City Council decided to adopt the name Soweto as the collective name 31 In 1971 Parliament passed the Black Affairs Administration Act No 45 of 1971 In terms of this Act the central government appointed the West Rand Administration Board to take over the powers and obligations of the Johannesburg City Council in respect of Soweto 32 As chairman of the board it appointed Manie Mulder a political appointment of a person who had no experience of the administration of native affairs 33 Manie Mulder s most famous quote was given to the Rand Daily Mail in May 1976 The broad masses of Soweto are perfectly content perfectly happy Black White relationships at present are as healthy as can be There is no danger whatever of a blow up in Soweto 34 Soweto housing about 2009 Soweto uprising Edit Main article Soweto uprising Soweto came to the world s attention on 16 June 1976 with the Soweto uprising when mass protests erupted over the government s policy to enforce education in Afrikaans rather than their native language Police opened fire in Orlando West on 10 000 35 students marching from Naledi High School to Orlando Stadium The rioting continued and 23 people died on the first day in Soweto 21 of whom were black including the minor Hector Pieterson as well as two white people including Dr Melville Edelstein a lifelong humanitarian The impact of the Soweto protests reverberated through the country and across the world In their aftermath economic and cultural sanctions were introduced from abroad Political activists left the country to train for guerrilla resistance Soweto and other townships became the stage for violent state repression Since 1991 this date and the schoolchildren have been commemorated by the International Day of the African Child Aftermath Edit Diepmeadow Town Council Greater Soweto In response the apartheid state started providing electricity to more Soweto homes yet phased out financial support for building additional housing 36 Soweto became an independent municipality with elected black councilors in 1983 in line with the Black Local Authorities Act 37 page needed Previously the townships were governed by the Johannesburg council but from the 1970s the state took control 36 A man takes a nap while riding in the bed of a pickup truck in Soweto South Africa Freedom Day 2006 Black African councilors were not provided by the apartheid state with the finances to address housing and infrastructural problems Township residents opposed the black councilors as puppet collaborators who personally benefited financially from an oppressive regime Resistance was spurred by the exclusion of blacks from the newly formed tricameral Parliament which did include Whites Indians and Coloreds Municipal elections in black coloured and Indian areas were subsequently widely boycotted returning extremely low voting figures for years Popular resistance to state structures dates back to the Advisory Boards 1950 that co opted black residents to advise whites who managed the townships Further popular resistance incorporation into the City Edit In Soweto popular resistance to apartheid emerged in various forms during the 1980s Educational and economic boycotts were initiated and student bodies were organized Street committees were formed and civic organizations were established as alternatives to state imposed structures One of the most well known civics was Soweto s Committee of Ten started in 1978 in the offices of The Bantu World newspaper Such actions were strengthened by the call issued by African National Congress s 1985 Kabwe congress in Zambia to make South Africa ungovernable As the state forbade public gatherings church buildings like Regina Mundi were sometimes used for political gatherings In 1995 Soweto became part of the Southern Metropolitan Transitional Local Council 38 and in 2002 was incorporated into the City of Johannesburg 39 A series of bomb explosions rocked Soweto in October 2002 The explosions believed to be the work of the Boeremag a right wing extremist group damaged buildings and railway lines and killed one person Demographics EditSoweto s population is predominantly black and the most common first language is Zulu Census 2011 Edit Area 200 03 square kilometres 77 23 sq mi Population 1 271 628 6 357 29 inhabitants per square kilometre 16 465 3 sq mi Households 355 331 1 776 42 per square kilometre 4 600 9 sq mi Gender Population Female 640 588 50 38Male 631 040 49 62Race Population Black 1 253 037 98 54White 1 421 0 11Coloured 13 079 1 03Asian 1 418 0 11Other 2 674 0 21First language Population IsiZulu 350 940 40 87IsiXhosa 88 474 10 3Afrikaans 5 639 0 66Sesotho sa Leboa 41 179 4 8Setswana 106 419 12 39English 3 047 0 35Sesotho sa Borwa 157 263 18 32Xitsonga 62 157 7 24SiSwati 8 696 1 01Tshivenda 29 498 3 44IsiNdebele 2 801 0 33Other 2 531 0 29Census 2001 Edit Area 106 44 square kilometres 41 10 sq mi Population 858 644 8 066 81 inhabitants per square kilometre 20 892 9 sq mi Households 237 567 2 231 9 per square kilometre 5 781 sq mi 40 Gender Population Female 437 268 50 93Male 421 376 49 07Race Population Black 852 649 99 3White 325 0 04Coloured 5 472 0 64Asian 198 0 02First language Population IsiZulu 469 873 37 07IsiXhosa 109 977 8 68Afrikaans 16 567 1 31Sepedi 65 215 5 14Setswana 163 083 12 87English 29 602 2 34Sesotho 196 816 15 53Xitsonga 112 346 8 86SiSwati 9 292 0 73Tshivenda 29 498 3 44IsiNdebele 56 737 4 48Other 14 334 1 13Cityscape Edit Orlando Power Station Cooling Towers Landmarks Edit Soweto landmarks include Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital Diepkloof Freedom Towers Mandela House Orlando Towers Regina Mundi Rockville SAAF 1723 a decommissioned Avro Shackleton of the South African Air Force is on static display on the roof of Vic s Viking Garage a service station on the Golden Highway Soweto Wall of Fame Tutu House Vilakazi Street Walter Sisulu Square KliptownClimate EditKoppen Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as subtropical highland Cwb 41 Climate data for SowetoMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearAverage high C F 26 4 79 5 25 8 78 4 24 7 76 5 22 1 71 8 19 6 67 3 16 9 62 4 17 3 63 1 20 3 68 5 23 4 74 1 25 77 25 3 77 5 26 1 79 0 22 7 72 9 Daily mean C F 20 4 68 7 19 8 67 6 18 5 65 3 15 5 59 9 12 1 53 8 9 48 9 2 48 6 12 1 53 8 15 7 60 3 18 64 19 66 19 9 67 8 15 8 60 3 Average low C F 14 4 57 9 13 9 57 0 12 3 54 1 8 9 48 0 4 6 40 3 1 2 34 2 1 2 34 2 4 39 8 46 11 52 12 7 54 9 13 7 56 7 8 8 47 9 Average precipitation mm inches 136 5 4 101 4 0 84 3 3 63 2 5 20 0 8 8 0 3 7 0 3 7 0 3 24 0 9 73 2 9 112 4 4 115 4 5 750 29 6 Source Climate Data org altitude 1667m 41 Transport Edit The N1 next to Soweto The Soweto Highway with dedicated taxiways The suburb was not historically allowed to create employment centres within the area so almost all of its residents are commuters to other parts of the city 42 Rail Edit Metrorail operates commuter trains between Soweto and central Johannesburg Soweto train stations are at Naledi Merafe Inhlazane Ikwezi Dube Phefeni Phomolong Mzimhlophe New Canada Mlamlankunzi Orlando Nancefield Kliptown Tshiawelo and Midway 43 Road Edit The N1 Western Bypass skirts the eastern boundary of Soweto There is efficient road access for many parts of the region along busy highways to the CBD and Roodepoort but commuters are largely reliant on trains and taxis The N12 forms the southern border of Soweto A new section of the N17 road South Africa is under construction that will provide Soweto with a 4 lane highway link to Nasrec 44 The M70 also known as the Soweto Highway links Soweto with central Johannesburg via Nasrec and Booysens This road is multi lane has dedicated taxiways and passes next to Soccer City in Nasrec A major thoroughfare through Soweto is the Golden Highway It provides access to both the N1 as well as the M1 highways Minibus taxis are a popular form of transport In 2000 it was estimated that around 2000 minibus taxis operated from the Baragwanath taxi rank alone 45 A Bus rapid transit system Rea Vaya provides transport for around 16 000 commuters daily 46 PUTCO has for many years provided bus commuter services to Soweto residents Housing EditThe area is mostly composed of old matchbox houses or four room houses built by the government that were built to provide cheap accommodation for black workers during apartheid However there are a few smaller areas where prosperous Sowetans have built houses that are similar in stature to those in more affluent suburbs Many people who still live in matchbox houses have improved and expanded their homes and the City Council has enabled the planting of more trees and the improving of parks and green spaces in the area Hostels are another prominent physical feature of Soweto 47 Originally built to house male migrant workers many have been improved as dwellings for couples and families In 1996 the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality awarded tenders to Conrad Penny and his company Penny Brothers Brokers amp Valuers Pty Ltd for the valuation of the whole of Soweto which at the time consisted of over 325 000 properties for rating and taxing purpose This was the single largest valuation ever undertaken in Africa 48 Society and culture EditMedia Edit Being part of the urban agglomerations of Gauteng Soweto shares much of the same media as the rest of Gauteng province There are however some media sources dedicated to Soweto itself Soweto Online is a geographical based information sharing portal 49 Soweto Internet Radio is a digital media network company established in 2008 Soweto TV is a community television channel available on DStv channel 251 The channel is free to air in Gauteng province and it also broadcast to South African subscribers on the DStv pay TV service on channel 251 The channel studios are situated on Vilakazi Street known for being the only street in the world to have the historical residences of two Nobel Prize winners namely Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu Soweto TV programming is mostly Sowetan content as per ICASA s regulations of over 60 local content The Sowetan newspaper has a readership of around 1 6 million 50 Kasibiz Mahala is a free community magazine that promotes local small businesses established in 2012 Nelson Mandela National Museum Museums monuments and memorials Edit Hector Pieterson Museum Orlando West Nelson Mandela National Museum Orlando West Regina Mundi church RockvilleMusic Edit The Soweto Marimba Youth League during a public performance Soweto is credited as one of the founding places for Kwaito and Kasi rap which is a style of hip hop specific to South Africa 51 52 This form of music which combined many elements of house music American hip hop and traditional African music became a strong force amongst black South Africans Early Career The experiences of other developing nations were examined at the Soweto entrepreneurship conference which looked for ways to help turn the economic tide in townships SOWETO S entrepreneurs gathered at the University of Johannesburg Soweto Campus on 13 and 14 April to engage with experts from all over the globe about how to enhance skills and value add in township economies The restrictions on economic activities were lifted in 1977 spurring the growth of the taxi industry as an alternative to Soweto s inadequate bus and train transport systems In 1994 Sowetans earned on average almost six and a half times less than their counterparts in wealthier areas of Johannesburg 1994 estimates Sowetans contribute less than 2 to Johannesburg s rates Some Sowetans remain impoverished and others live in shanty towns with little or no services About 85 of Kliptown comprises informal housing The Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee argues that Soweto s poor are unable to pay for electricity The committee believes that the South African government s privatization drives will worsen the situation Research showed that 62 of residents in Orlando East and Pimville were unemployed or pensioners There have been signs recently indicating economic improvement The Johannesburg City Council began to provide more street lights and to pave roads Private initiatives to tap Sowetans combined spending power of R4 3 billion were also planned including the construction of Protea Mall Jabulani Mall and the development of Maponya Mall an upmarket hotel in Kliptown and the Orlando Ekhaya entertainment center Soweto has also become a Centre for nightlife and culture 53 Well known artists from Soweto besides those mentioned above include The Soweto Gospel Choir Songs and interview from NPR s All Things Considered Soweto Gospel Choir Voices from Heaven 4 February 2005 Soweto String Quartet Soweto Melodic Voices the youth choir selected to sing at the 2009 Confederations Cup It has built its name in UK on Fringe festival in Edinburgh Scotland Sport Edit Soweto is home to two football teams that play for the top South African football league the Kaizer Chiefs and the Moroka Swallows The Orlando Pirates originated from Soweto but moved to Parktown The Chiefs and the Pirates feud in the rivalry known as the Soweto derby The Soweto Open tennis tournament part of the Challenger Tour is annually hosted in Soweto The annual Soweto marathon is run over a 42 2 kilometre 26 2 mi course through Soweto Festivals Edit The Soweto Wine Festival 2009 The Soweto Wine Festival was started in 2004 The three night festival is hosted at the University of Johannesburg s Soweto Campus on Chris Hani Road in the first weekend of September Organised by the Cape Wine Academy the festival attracts over 6000 wine enthusiasts over 100 of South Africa s finest wineries and well over 900 fine wines Stadiums Edit FNB Stadium South Africa s largest stadium home ground of both the national team and the Kaizer Chiefs Eldorado Park Stadium Dobsonville Stadium home ground of Moroka Swallows Jabavu Stadium Noordgesig Stadium Orlando Stadium home ground of Orlando Pirates Meadowlands StadiumAwards Edit The Soweto Awards which will become an annual event honours those who have their roots in Soweto Former president Nelson Mandela received the Life Time Award from the first Soweto Awards in Johannesburg on 25 February 2001 The Legends Awards went to Gibson Kente the godfather of township theatre Felicia Mabuza Suttle a talk show host Aggrey Klaaste editor of the Sowetan newspaper and Winnie Madikizela Mandela MP and African National Congress Women s League president 54 Suburbs EditBy 2003 the Greater Soweto area consisted of 87 townships grouped together into Administrative Regions 6 and 10 of Johannesburg 55 Estimates of how many residential areas make up Soweto itself vary widely Some counts say that Soweto comprises 29 townships 56 whilst others find 34 57 The differences may be due to confusion arising from the merger of adjoining townships such as Lenasia and Eldorado Park with those of Soweto into Regions 6 and 10 The total number also depends on whether the various extensions and zones are counted separately or as part of one main suburb The 2003 Regional Spatial Development Framework arrived at 87 names by counting various extensions e g Chiawelo s 5 and zones e g Pimville s 7 separately The City of Johannesburg s website groups the zones and extensions together to arrive at 32 but omits Noordgesig and Mmesi Park citation needed The list below provides the dates when some of Soweto s townships were established along with the probable origins or meanings of their names where available Suburbs of Soweto Name Established Origin of nameBraamfischervilleTshiawelo 1956 Place of Rest Venda DiepkloofDlamini 1956 Unknown Nguni family name Michael Mabaso also comes from here This is a township with a working class population who travel by train to work Dobsonville including Dobsonville GardensDoornkop Hill of Thorns Afrikaans Dube 1948 Named for John Langalibalele Dube 1871 1946 educator 58 newspaper founder and the first ANC president 1912 17 59 Emdeni 1958 A border last township before Mogale City then Krugersdorp Municipality Xhosa including extensionsGreenvillageJabavu 1948 Named for Davidson Don Tengo Jabavu 1885 1959 educator and authorJabulani 1956 Rejoice Zulu Klipspruit 1904 Rocky Stream Afrikaans originally a farm Kliptown Rocky Town constructed from Afrikaans for rock klip and the English word town LakesideMapetla 1956 Someone who is angry Setswana Meadowlands Also nicknamed Ndofaya Mmesi Park Sesotho name for somebody who burns things on fireMofolo 1954 Named for Thomas Mofolo 1876 1948 Sesotho author translator and educatorMolapo 1956 Name of a Basotho tribe Sesotho name for a small ravine streamMoletsane 1956 Name of a Bataung chief Bataung is a Basotho clan named after the lion tau Moroka 1946 Named for Dr James Sebe Moroka 1891 1985 60 later ANC president 1949 52 during the 1952 Defiance CampaignNaledi 1956 Star Sotho Pedi Tswana originally MkiziNoordgesig North View Afrikaans Orlando 1932 Named for Edwin Orlando Leake 1860 1935 chairman of the Non European Affairs Department 1930 31 Johannesburg mayor 1925 26 PhefeniPhiri 1956 Hyena Sotho Tswana Pimville 1934 Named for James Howard Pim councillor 1903 07 Quaker citation needed philanthropist and patron of Fort Hare Native College citation needed originally part of KlipspruitPower Park In the vicinity of the power stationProtea Glen Unknown The protea is South Africa s national flower Protea NorthProtea SouthSenaoane 1958 Named for Solomon G Senaoane 1942 first sports organiser in the Non European Affairs DepartmentTladi 1956 Lightning Northern Sotho Zola 1956 Calm Zulu Xhosa Zondi 1956 Unknown family name Zulu Other Soweto townships include Phomolong and Snake Park citation needed Economy Edit Slums Soweto Many parts of Soweto rank among the poorest in Johannesburg although individual townships tend to have a mix of wealthier and poorer residents In general households in the outlying areas to the northwest and southeast have lower incomes while those in southwestern areas tend to have higher incomes The economic development of Soweto was severely curtailed by the apartheid state which provided very limited infrastructure and prevented residents from creating their own businesses Roads remained unpaved and many residents had to share one tap between four houses for example Soweto was meant to exist only as a dormitory town for black Africans who worked in white houses factories and industries The 1957 Natives Urban Areas Consolidation Act and its predecessors restricted residents between 1923 and 1976 to seven self employment categories in Soweto itself Sowetans could operate general shops butcheries eating houses sell milk or vegetables or hawk goods The overall number of such enterprises at any time were strictly controlled As a result informal trading developed outside the legally recognized activities 36 By 1976 Soweto had only two cinemas and two hotels and 83 of houses had electricity Up to 93 of residents had no running water Using fire for cooking and heating resulted in respiratory problems that contributed to high infant mortality rates 54 per 1 000 compared to 18 for whites 1976 figures 36 The restrictions on economic activities were lifted in 1977 spurring the growth of the taxi industry as an alternative to Soweto s inadequate bus and train transport systems 36 Housing development project Kliptown In 1994 Sowetans earned on average almost six and a half times less than their counterparts in wealthier areas of Johannesburg 1994 estimates Sowetans contribute less than 2 to Johannesburg s rates citation needed Some Sowetans remain impoverished and others live in shanty towns with little or no services About 85 of Kliptown comprises informal housing citation needed The Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee argues that Soweto s poor are unable to pay for electricity The committee believes that the South African government s privatization drives will worsen the situation Research showed that 62 of residents in Orlando East and Pimville were unemployed or pensioners 61 There have been signs recently indicating economic improvement The Johannesburg City Council began to provide more street lights and to pave roads Private initiatives to tap Sowetans combined spending power of R4 3 billion were also planned citation needed including the construction of Protea Mall Jabulani Mall the development of Maponya Mall an upmarket hotel in Kliptown and the Orlando Ekhaya entertainment centre Soweto has also become a centre for nightlife and culture In popular culture EditFilms Edit The 1976 uprising is depicted in the film A Dry White Season 1989 starring Donald Sutherland Marlon Brando and Susan Sarandon who portray white South Africans pursuing justice for the deaths of black Soweto residents which followed the demonstrations The American film Stander 2003 portrays the story of Andre Stander a rogue police captain who sympathised with the state of apartheid and its corruption by becoming a bank thief The Soweto uprising riots provided Stander s breaking point in the film Sara Blecher and Rimi Raphoto s popular documentary Surfing Soweto 2006 addresses the phenomenon of young kids surfing on the roofs of Soweto trains and the social problem this represents The film District 9 2009 was shot in Tshiawelo Soweto 62 The plot involves a species of aliens who arrive on Earth in a starving and helpless condition seeking aid The originally benign attempts to aid them turn increasingly oppressive due to the overwhelming numbers of aliens and the cost of maintaining them and to increasing xenophobia on the part of humans who treat the intelligent and sophisticated aliens like animals while taking advantage of them for personal and corporate gain The aliens are housed in shacks in a slum like concentration camp called District 9 which is in fact modern day Soweto an attempt to relocate the aliens to another camp leads to violence and a wholesale slaughter by South African mercenary security forces a reference to historical events in District Six Cape Town a mostly Coloured neighborhood subjected to forced segregation during the apartheid years The parallels to apartheid South Africa are obvious but not explicitly remarked on in the film Films that include Soweto scenes Tau ya Soweto 2005 Sarafina 1992 Hijack Stories 2000 Literature Edit The marches by students in Soweto are briefly mentioned in Linzi Glass novel Ruby Red which was nominated for the Carnegie Medal in 2008 Soweto is also mentioned in Sheila Gordon s novel Waiting for the Rain The main protagonist from the Jonas Jonasson novel The Girl Who Saved the King of Sweden Nombeko Mayeki was born in 1961 in Soweto In his first Anthology of Poems titled In Quiet Realm South African Soweto Born poet Lawrence Mduduzi Ndlovu dedicated a poem called Soweto My Everything to honour the place of his birth 63 Trevor Noah in his autobiographical comedy Born a Crime describes his early childhood and growing up in Soweto 64 Music Edit Clarence Carter has a song called The Girl From Soweto or Where did the girl go from Soweto Soweto is mentioned in the song Burden of Shame by the British band UB40 on their album Signing off 1980 Singer songwriter Joe Strummer formerly of The Clash referenced Soweto in his solo album Streetcore song Arms Aloft as well as in The Clash s track Where You Gonna Go Soweto found on the album London Calling Legacy Edition 65 The UK music duo Mattafix have a song called Memories Of Soweto on their album Rhythm amp Hymns 2007 Soweto is mentioned in the anti apartheid song Gimme Hope Jo anna by Eddy Grant The line While every mother in a black Soweto fears the killing of another son refers to police brutality during apartheid Miriam Makeba has the song Soweto Blues Dr Alban s song Free Up Soweto was included in the album Look Who s Talking 1994 The Mexican group Tijuana No recorded the song Soweto for their first album No in reference to the city and the movements Soweto is the name of a song by the rap group Hieroglyphics The American band Vampire Weekend refers to its own musical style a blend of indie rock and pop with African influences as Upper West Side Soweto based on the same description of Paul Simon s album Graceland Soweto is the title of the opening track of the album Joined at the Hip by Bob James and Kirk Whalum Brazilian singer songwriter Djavan in his 1987 album Nao E Azul mas E Mar recorded a song called Soweto 66 Also this song inspired the naming of Brazilian pagode group Soweto Notable people EditNative Sowetans Edit Soweto is the birthplace of Yvonne Chaka Chaka b 1965 singer songwriter actress entrepreneur humanitarian and teacher Frank Chikane b 1951 anti apartheid activist and lifelong resident Lasizwe Dambuza b 1998 television personality Bonginkosi Dlamini b 1977 aka Zola poet actor and musician Lillian Dube b 1945 actress TV presenter Morgan Gould b 1983 Association footballer playing for Supersport United F C Thulani Hlatshwayo b 1989 captain of Orlando Pirates F C amp the South Africa national football team Howza b 1983 rapper songwriter and actor Jabu Khanyile 1957 2006 musician and lead vocalist from the band Bayete Abigail Kubeka b 1941 singer songwriter and actress Basetsana Kumalo b 1974 1994 Miss South Africa amp 1994 Miss World 1st runner up television personality businesswoman and philanthropist Doctor Khumalo b 1967 footballer player Bakithi Kumalo b 1956 bass guitar player Jack Lerole c 1940 2003 musician famous for penny whistle performance Kgosi Letlape b 1959 South Africa s first black ophthalmologist Lebo M b 1964 composer Kabelo Mabalane b 1976 kwaito musician songwriter and actor Sipho Mabuse b 1950 aka Hotstix musician Thuli Madonsela b 1962 former Public Protector of South Africa advocate amp law professor Arthur Mafokate b 1962 kwaito musician and producer Teboho MacDonald Mashinini 1957 1990 primary student leader of the June 1976 Soweto uprising that spread across South Africa Mandla Mandela b 1974 tribal chief of the Mvezo Traditional Council and the grandson of icon anti apartheid activist Nelson Mandela Zindzi Mandela 1960 2020 South African diplomat and poet and the daughter of anti apartheid activists and politicians Nelson Mandela and Winnie Madikizela Mandela Mandoza 1978 2016 kwaito musician Mike Mangena b 1960 former football player Soccer analyst Richard Maponya 1920 2020 businessman and anti apartheid activist Ephraim Mashaba b 1950 football manager and former player Khanyi Mbau b 1985 actress and television personality raised in Mofolo Bonnie Mbuli b 1979 actress Letta Mbulu b 1942 jazz singer songwriter Somizi Mhlongo b 1972 television presenter radio personality choreographer actor and singer Andrew Mlangeni 1925 2020 political activist and anti apartheid campaigner who along with Nelson Mandela and others was imprisoned after the Rivonia Trial Portia Modise b 1983 footballer Teko Modise b 1982 footballer Refilwe Modiselle b 1986 model and entertainer Jerry Mofokeng b 1956 stage and screen actor Khotso Motau b 1981 boxer 2004 Olympian Kaizer Motaung b 16 October 1944 founder and chairman of Kaizer Chiefs Football Club Kamo Mphela b 1999 singer amp dancer Sophie Ndaba b 1973 actress Themba Ndaba b 1965 actor Duma Ndlovu b 1954 poet filmmaker producer journalist and playwright Trevor Noah b 1984 comedian television and radio host and actor host of The Daily Show Nandi Nyembe b 1950 actress Khabonina Qubeka born 1981 actress TV presenter dancer Lucas Radebe b 1969 footballer Leeds United and national team captain Cyril Ramaphosa b 1952 lawyer trade union leader activist politician and businessman President of South Africa Manaka Ranaka b 1979 Actress known for playing her starring role as Lucy Diale for long standing soap opera Generations The Legacy Dineo Ranaka b 1983 radio and television presenter actress DJ and TV Producer Thulani Serero b 1990 footballer Tokyo Sexwale b 1953 businessman and former politician anti apartheid activist and political prisoner Jomo Sono b 1955 star football player later club owner and coach Samthing Soweto b 1988 musician Siphiwe Tshabalala b 1984 footballer playing for Kaizer Chiefs Football Club Dingaan Thobela b 1966 former professional boxer a former two time lightweight world champion amp a former super middleweight world champion known as the Rose of Soweto Mary Twala c 1939 2020 actress mother of Somizi Mhlongo Sello Chicco Twala b 1963 musician and producer Zodwa Wabantu b 1985 socialite and dancer Benedict Vilakazi footballer b 1982 footballer Arthur Zwane b 1973 former football player football coachOther residents Edit Mandela s House in Orlando James Mpanza 1889 1970 civic leader founder of Orlando Pirates F C known as the father of Soweto Winnie Mandela 1936 2018 anti apartheid activist and politician ex wife of Nelson Mandela Gibson Kente 1932 2004 playwright Irvin Khoza b 27 January 1948 South African football administrator Chairman of Orlando Pirates Aggrey Klaaste 1940 2004 newspaper journalist and editor Nelson Mandela 1918 2013 President of South Africa anti apartheid revolutionary political leader and peace activist spent many years living in Soweto his Soweto home in Orlando is currently a major tourist attraction Hastings Ndlovu 1961 1976 another student to be killed during the 1976 Soweto uprising Lilian Ngoyi 1911 1980 anti apartheid activist who spent 18 years under house arrest in Mzimhlope Joe Mafela 1942 2017 Actor writer producer director singer and businessman Mzwakhe Mbuli b 1959 Poet known as The People s Poet musician and actor Terry Pheto b 1981 actress best known for her leading role as Miriam in the 2005 Oscar winning feature film Tsotsi Pallance Dladla b 1992 Actor Steven Pienaar b 1982 footballer with national team and Everton F C Hector Pieterson 1963 1976 the first student to be killed during the 1976 Soweto uprising who features in an iconic press photograph of the event has a memorial and museum named after him in Orlando West Percy Qoboza 1938 1988 newspaper journalist and editor Gerard Sekoto 1913 1993 artist lived in Kliptown before emigrating to France in 1947 67 Desmond Tutu b 1931 cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s through his opposition to apartheidSee also Edit South Africa portal Tembisa Katlehong The World South African newspaper Region 6 Johannesburg Soweto riots Norweto Stompie MoeketsiReferences Edit a b Soweto in Geonames org cc by a b c d Main Place Soweto Census 2011 Jones Daniel 2003 1917 Peter Roach James Hartmann Jane Setter eds English Pronouncing Dictionary Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 3 12 539683 2 Soweto Dictionary com Unabridged Random House Pirie G H Letters words worlds the naming of Soweto African Studies 43 1984 43 51 MJ Viljoen amp WU Reimold An Introduction to South Africa s Geological and Mining Heritage Mintek Randburg 1999 p 33 Viljoen amp Reimold supra p 34 Cammack D The Rand at War University of Natal Press 1990 p 1 E L P Stals editor Afrikaners in die Goudstad Hollandsche Afrikaansche Uitgevers Pretoria 1978 p 51 Stals supra p 52 Cammack supra p 9 Terms used then are now regarded as offensive Tshwane Anthony Soweto South African History Online South African History Online Retrieved 31 October 2018 John R Shorten The Saga of Johannesburg John R Shorten Pty Limited Johannesburg 1970 p 240 Tshewu v Registrar of Deeds 1905 T S 130 Natives Land Act No 27 of 1913 section 8 1 g amp i French Kevin John James Mpanza and the Sofasonke Party in the development of local politics in Soweto unpublished M A dissertation University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg 1983 p 28 Stark Felix Seventy Golden Years 1886 1956 Municipal Public Relations Bureau 1956 p 525 French supra p 37 French supra p 45 French supra p 67 French supra p 78 Bonner Philip amp Segal Lauren Soweto A History Maskew Miller Longman 1998 p 27 Bonner amp Segal supra p 27 a b The Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital South Africa The World s 3rd Biggest Hospital in South Africa Contact Details Address Phone Numbers Email Address and Map Chrishanibaragwanathhospital co za Retrieved 14 January 2019 Bonner amp Segal supra p 28 a b Stark supra p 527 Tshwane Anthony An African Village PDF Wiredspace wits ac za Retrieved 1 November 2018 Bonner amp Segal supra p 29 Bonner amp Segal supra p 41 Bonner amp Segal supra p 30 Bonner amp Segal supra p 31 Mngomezulu amp Others v City Council of Soweto 1988 ZASCA 163 Grinker 2014 p xii Bonner amp Segal supra p 56 Soweto Uprising africanhistory about com a b c d e Beavon Keith S O 1997 Part II The mega cities of Africa Chapter 5 Johannesburg A city and metropolitan area in transformation In Rakodi Carole ed The Urban Challenge in Africa Growth and Management of Its Large Cities Tokyo United Nations University Press pp 150 191 ISBN 92 808 0952 0 Retrieved 16 November 2009 Grinker 2014 Cartwright Anton Marrengane Ntombini 2016 Urban Governance and Turning African Cities Around City of Johannesburg PDF Partnership for African Social and Governance Research Working Paper No 017 6 de Kadt Julia van Heerden Alastair Richter Linda Alvanides Seraphim 2019 Correlates of children s travel to school in Johannesburg Soweto Evidence from the Birth to Twenty Plus Bt20 study South Africa International Journal of Educational Development 68 59 doi 10 1016 j ijedudev 2019 04 007 via Elsevier Science Direct Census 2011 Main Place Soweto Census2011 adrianfrith com Retrieved 14 January 2019 a b Climate Soweto Climate graph Temperature graph Climate table Climate data org Retrieved 25 September 2013 About Region D City of Johannesburg West Wits Metrorail Retrieved 16 November 2009 R360m Nasweto highway to be completed by year end Engineering News Creamer Media 26 June 2009 Retrieved 16 November 2009 Bara taxi rank set for major upgrade City of Johannesburg 19 February 2003 Retrieved 16 November 2009 16 000 commuters use Rea Vaya daily SABC 16 September 2009 Retrieved 16 November 2009 da Silva M amp Pirie G H Hostels for African migrants in greater Johannesburg GeoJournal 12 1986 173 182 1 Archived 26 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine Visit the Soweto Online Portal Sowe2online com Sowetan introduces jobs online Bizcommunity com 17 January 2006 Retrieved 17 November 2009 Magubane Zine Globalization and Gangster Rap Hip Hop in the Post Apartheid City in Basu Dipannita amp Lemelle Sidney J eds 2006 The Vinyl Ain t Final Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture London Pluto Press pp 208 29 Basu Dipannita The Vinyl Ain t Final Retrieved 13 August 2009 Tswane Anthony SOWETO ENTREPRENEURS TARGETED Joburg org za City of Joburg Retrieved 1 November 2018 Tshwane Anthony Mandela gets Soweto Award News24 com Retrieved 1 November 2018 Regional Spatial Development Framework PDF City of Johannesburg June 2003 Archived from the original PDF on 4 January 2006 Retrieved 16 November 2009 Soweto Saweb co za Retrieved 16 November 2009 Background to the study area Soweto PDF University of Pretoria 2004 Retrieved 16 November 2009 Millard J A 1999 Dube John Langalibalele Mafukuzela UNISA Archived from the original on 21 December 2009 Retrieved 16 November 2009 John Langalibalele Dube African National Congress Archived from the original on 19 April 2009 Retrieved 16 November 2009 Dr James Sebe Moroka SAHistory Retrieved 16 November 2009 The Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee PDF University of KwaZulu Natal 2004 Retrieved 16 November 2009 The real District 9 Mail amp Guardian 5 September 2009 Retrieved 10 March 2011 Lawrence Mduduzi Ndlovu In Quiet Realm South Africa Write On Publishing 2018 ISBN 978 0 6399359 5 9 Born a Crime Trevor Noah charts his rise from South Africa s townships The Guardian 25 November 2016 Retrieved 13 November 2020 London Calling Legacy Edition Retrieved 16 November 2009 Soweto Djavan Letras mus br Retrieved 14 January 2019 Davie Lucille 1 November 2004 Gerard Sekoto s illustrious album Southafrica info Retrieved 16 November 2009 Bibliography Edit Philip Bonner amp Lauren Segal 1998 Soweto A History South Africa Maskew Miller Longman ISBN 0 636 03033 4 Dumesani Ntshangase Gandhi Malungane Steve Lebelo Elsabe Brink Sue Krige 2001 Soweto 16 June 1976 South Africa Kwela Books ISBN 978 0 7957 0132 0 Glaser Clive 2000 Bo Tsotsi The Youth Gangs of Soweto United Kingdom James Currey ISBN 978 0 85255 640 5 Grinker David 2014 Gorelik Boris ed Inside Soweto Memoir of an Official 1960s 80s Johannesburg Eastern Enterprises ISBN 978 1 29186 599 8 Harrison Philip and Kirsten Harrison 2014 Soweto A Study in Socio Spatial Differentiation In Philip Harrison Graeme Gotz Alison Todes and Chris Wray eds Changing Space Changing City Johannesburg after Apartheid Johannesburg Wits University Press pp 293 318 https doi org 10 18772 22014107656 19 Holland Heidi 1995 Born in Soweto Inside the Heart of South Africa Penguin ISBN 978 0 14 024446 5 Hopkins Pat 1999 The Rocky Rioter Teargas Show Cape Town Zebra ISBN 1 86872 342 9 Stephen Laufer Matada Tsedu 2007 Soweto A South African Legend Germany Arnoldsche ISBN 978 3 89790 013 4 Tessendorf 1989 Along the Road to Soweto A Racial History of South Africa Atheneum ISBN 0 689 31401 9 French Kevin John James Mpanza and the Sofasonke Party in the development of local politic in Soweto unpublished M A dissertation University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg 1983 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Soweto Soweto travel guide from Wikivoyage Soweto uprisings com an extensive map mashup with info on the events on 16External mediaImages Senator for Illinois Barack Obama at the Hector Pieterson Museum in August 2006Audio Guardian Unlimited audio recording of Antoinette Sithole on the Soweto uprisingVideo Soweto Uprising 2007 at the Internet Archive BBC video of the Soweto uprisings Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Soweto amp oldid 1045285444, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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