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Wikipedia

Soy sauce

Soy sauce (also called simply soy in American English and sometimes soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, traditionally made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds. It is considered to contain a strong umami flavor.

Soy sauce
A bowl of soy sauce
Alternative namesSoya sauce, Shoyu
TypeCondiment
Region or stateEast Asia and Southeast Asia
Main ingredientsSoybeans

Soy sauce in its current form was created about 2,200 years ago during the Western Han dynasty of ancient China, and spread throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment.

Contents

Soy sauce can be added directly to food, and is used as a dip or salt flavor in cooking. It is often eaten with rice, noodles, and sushi or sashimi, or can also be mixed with ground wasabi for dipping. Bottles of soy sauce for salty seasoning of various foods are common on restaurant tables in many countries. Soy sauce can be stored at room temperature.

East Asia

China

Soy sauce
Mandarin Chinese name
Traditional Chinese醬油
Simplified Chinese酱油
Literal meaning"sauce oil"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyinjiàngyóu
Wade–Gileschiang4-yu2
Cantonese and Teochew name
Chinese豉油
Literal meaning"fermented bean oil"
Hokkien name
Chinese豆油
Literal meaning"bean oil"
Transcriptions
Southern Min
Hokkien POJtāu-iû
Tâi-lôtāu-iû
Burmese name
Burmeseပဲငံပြာရည်
IPA
Vietnamese name
Vietnamesexì dầu or nước tương
Thai name
Thaiซีอิ๊ว (RTGS: si-io)
Korean name
Hangul간장
Literal meaning"seasoning sauce"
Transcriptions
Revised Romanizationganjang
McCune–Reischauerkanjang
Japanese name
Kanji醤油
Kanaしょうゆ
Transcriptions
Revised Hepburnshōyu
Malay name
Malaykicap
Indonesian name
Indonesiankecap
Filipino name
Tagalogtoyo

Soy sauce (醬油, jiàngyóu) is considered almost as old as soy paste—a type of fermented paste (Jiang, ) obtained from soybeans—which had appeared during the Western Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) and was listed in the bamboo slips found in the archaeological site Mawangdui (馬王堆). There are several precursors of soy sauce that are associated products with soy paste. Among them the earliest one is Qingjiang (清醬) that had appeared in AD 40 and was listed in Simin Yueling (四民月令). Others are Jiangqing (醬清), Chizhi (豉汁) and Chiqing (豉清) which are recorded in Qimin Yaoshu (齊民要術) in AD 540. By the time of the Song dynasty (960–1279 AD), the term soy sauce (醬油) had become the accepted name for the liquid condiment, which are documented in two books: Shanjia Qinggong (山家清供) and Pujiang Wushi Zhongkuilu (浦江吳氏中饋錄) during the Song dynasty (960–1279 AD).

Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was originally a way to stretch salt, historically an expensive commodity. During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans were included during the fermentation process. By the time of the Han dynasty, this had been replaced with the recipe for soy paste and its by-product soy sauce, by using soybeans as the principal ingredient, with fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into fish sauce.

The 19th century Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams wrote that in China, the best soy sauce is "made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley, and leaving the mass to ferment; a portion of salt and three times as much water are afterwards put in, and the whole compound left for two or three months when the liquid is pressed and strained".

Japan

Shoyu ramen

Originally, a common Japanese condiment was gyoshō (魚醤), which was fish based. When Buddhism came to Japan from China in the 7th century, they introduced vegetarianism and brought many soy-based products with them, such as soy sauce, which is known as shōyu (醤油) in Japan. Shoyu exportation began in 1647 by the Dutch East India Company.

Korea

The earliest soy sauce brewing in Korea seems to have begun prior to the era of the Three Kingdoms c. 57 BCE. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, a Chinese historical text written and published in the 3rd century, mentions that "Goguryeo people are good at brewing fermented soy beans." in the section named Dongyi (Eastern foreigners), in the Book of Wei. Jangdoks used for soy sauce brewing are found in the mural paintings of Anak Tomb No.3 from the 4th century Goguryeo.

In Samguk Sagi, a historical record of the Three Kingdoms era, it is written that ganjang (soy sauce) and doenjang (soybean paste) along with meju (soybean block) and jeotgal (salted seafood) were prepared for the wedding ceremony of the King Sinmun in February 683. Sikhwaji, a section from Goryeosa (History of Goryeo), recorded that ganjang and doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018, after a Khitan invasion, and in 1052, when a famine occurred. Joseon texts such as Guhwangchwaryo and Jeungbo sallim gyeongje contain the detailed procedures on how to brew good quality ganjang and doenjang. Gyuhap chongseo explains how to pick a date for brewing, what to forbear, and how to keep and preserve ganjang and doenjang.

Europe

Records of the Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737, when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima, Japan, to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were then shipped to the Netherlands. In the 18th century, diplomat and scholar Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce. Although earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West, his was among the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. By the mid-19th century, Japanese soy sauce gradually disappeared from the European market, and the condiment became synonymous with the Chinese product. Europeans were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of Aspergillus oryzae, the fungus used in its brewing. Soy sauce made from ingredients such as Portobello mushrooms were disseminated in European cookbooks during the late 18th century. A Swedish recipe for "Soija" was published in the 1770 edition of Cajsa Warg's Hjelpreda i Hushållningen för Unga Fruentimber and was flavored with allspice and mace.

United States

The first soy sauce production in the United States began in the Territory of Hawaii in 1908 by the Hawaiian Yamajo Soy Company. La Choy started selling hydrolyzed vegetable protein based soy sauce in 1933.

Soy sauce is made from soybeans

Soy sauce is made either by fermentation or by hydrolysis. Some commercial sauces have both fermented and chemical sauces.

Flavor, color, and aroma developments during production are attributed to non-enzymatic Maillard browning.

Variation is usually achieved as the result of different methods and durations of fermentation, different ratios of water, salt, and fermented soy, or through the addition of other ingredients.

Traditional

Further information: Soup soy sauce § Production

Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as Aspergillus oryzae and other related microorganisms and yeasts (the resulting mixture is called "koji" in Japan; the term "koji" is used both for the mixture of soybeans, wheat, and mold as well as for the mold itself). Historically, the mixture was fermented naturally in large urns and under the sun, which was believed to contribute extra flavors. Today, the mixture is placed in a temperature and humidity controlled incubation chamber.

Traditional soy sauces take months to make:

  1. Soaking and cooking: The soybeans are soaked in water and boiled until cooked. Wheat is roasted, crushed.
  2. Koji culturing: Equal amounts of boiled soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed to form a grain mixture. A culture of Aspergillus spore is added to the grain mixture and mixed or the mixture is allowed to gather spores from the environment itself. The cultures include:
    • Aspergillus: a genus of fungus that is used for fermenting various ingredients (the cultures are called koji in Japanese). Three species are used for brewing soy sauce:
      • A. oryzae: Strains with high proteolytic capacity are used for brewing soy sauce.
      • A. sojae: This fungus also has a high proteolytic capacity.
      • A. tamarii: This fungus is used for brewing tamari, a variety of soy sauce.
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the yeasts in the culture convert some of the sugars to ethanol which can undergo secondary reactions to make other flavor compounds
    • Other microbes contained in the culture:
      • Bacillus spp. (genus): This organism is likely to grow in soy sauce ingredients, and to generate odors and ammonia.
      • Lactobacillus species: This organism makes a lactic acid that increases the acidity in the feed.
  3. Brewing: The cultured grain mixture is mixed into a specific amount of salt brine for wet fermentation or with coarse salt for dry fermentation and left to brew. Over time, the Aspergillus mold on the soy and wheat break down the grain proteins into free amino acid and protein fragments and starches into simple sugars. This amino-glycosidic reaction gives soy sauce its dark brown color. Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid and yeast makes ethanol, which through aging and secondary fermentation makes numerous flavor compounds typical of soy sauce.
  4. Pressing: The fully fermented grain slurry is placed into cloth-lined containers and pressed to separate the solids from the liquid soy sauce. The isolated solids are used as fertilizer or fed to animals while the liquid soy sauce is processed further.
  5. Pasteurization: The raw soy sauce is heated to eliminate any active yeasts and molds remaining in the soy sauce and can be filtered to remove any fine particulates
  6. Storage: The soy sauce can be aged or directly bottled and sold.
Soy and wheat with Aspergillus sojae cultures to brew soy sauce

Acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein

Some brands of soy sauce are made from acid-hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed with a traditional culture. This takes about three days. Although they have a different flavor, aroma, and texture when compared to brewed soy sauces, they can be produced more quickly and cheaply, and also have a longer shelf life and are usually made for these reasons. The clear plastic packets of dark sauce common with Chinese-style take-out food typically use a hydrolyzed vegetable protein formula. Some higher-priced hydrolyzed vegetable protein products with no added sugar or colorings are sold as low-sodium soy sauce alternatives called "liquid aminos" in health food stores, similar to the way salt substitutes are used. These products are, however, not necessarily low in sodium.

High-salt liquid-state fermented soy sauce

High-salt liquid-state fermentation (HLF) of soybeans depends heavily on microbial activity, metabolism and enzymatic hydrolysis of macro-nutrients.

  • During HLF, koji infused soybeans are exposed to air so that hydrolytic enzymes of the mold can continuously break down macro-nutrients within the soybean.
  • Ample water, usually about 2 to 2.5 times the weight of the feed, is required to support sufficient microbial growth.
  • High amount of salt concentration (17–20%) is required to selectively inhibit microbial activity.
  • HLF is generally carried out under 15–30 °C, and requires long ageing period, usually from 90 –180 days. In the aging period, constant stirring of moromi is required for distributing nutrients, as well as flavoring compounds evenly. In some cases, moromi is exposed to direct sunlight to facilitate the decomposition of macro-nutrients.
  • Due to the high salinity of HLF moromi, only anaerobic halophile can survive in the medium. Beside the 15–30 °C temperature range narrows down the growth condition to allow only the growth of mesophiles. Similar to the fermentation of pickle, the primary lactic acid fermentation of sugars by halophiles reduces the pH of moromi down to acidic range. Lowered pH further limited the growth of undesirable microbes, but favors the growth of fermentative yeast which contributes to secondary fermentation that generate various flavoring compounds and odorants.

Low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce

LSF, also referred as rapid fermenting, is a modern fermentation method invented in response to high market demand.

  • Compared to HLF, LSF employs pure cultures at a relatively higher temperature (40–55 °C) and lower brine solution concentrations (13–15%). In LSF, koji is mixed with the equivalent weight of brine to form solid moromi.
  • The elevated temperature accelerates the fermentation process significantly. Due to the short aging (15–30 days) period of LSF, and low production cost, LSF soy sauce accounts for more share of the Chinese soy sauce market.

The chemical composition of soy sauce can be affected easily by raw materials, fermentation methodologies, fermenting molds and strains, and post-fermentation treatments. Although the formation mechanism of chemical composition in soy sauce is complex, it has been widely accepted that free amino acids, water-soluble peptides and Maillard reaction products in soy sauce are considered as essential chemical composition and to provide core sensory effects. The primary fermentation of lactic-acid-fermenting halophiles lowers the pH of the moromi, and this directly results in the acidic pH range (4.4–5.4) of soy sauce products. The secondary fermentation conducted by heterofermentative microbes provides soy sauce with a wide range of flavor and odorant compounds by breaking down macro-nutrients. Soy proteins and grain proteins are hydrolyzed into short peptide chains and free amino acids, which adds umami to the product. Based on the result of free amino acid analysis, the most abundant amino acids in Chinese soy sauce product are glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine and leucine.

Starch is hydrolyzed into simple sugars which contribute to the sweet flavor in soy sauce. Legume fats may also be decomposed into short chain fatty acids, and the interactions among lipids and other macronutrients also result in a richer flavor in the final product. Non-enzymatic browning also contributes significantly to the development of the properties of soy sauce. The hydrolysis of proteins and large carbohydrates also provides free amino acids and simple sugars as reagents for the Maillard reaction.

Soy sauce may contain more than 1% alcohol and may run afoul of liquor control legislation.

The taste of soy sauce is predominated by saltiness, followed by moderate umami, sweet taste, and finally slight bitterness, which is hard to perceive due to the masking effect of other tastes. The overall flavor of soy sauce is a result of the balance and interaction among different taste components. The saltiness is largely attributed to the presence of NaCl (common salt) in brine. The sugars hydrolyzed from starch add sweetness into soy sauce. Umami is largely caused by the presence of free amino acids. Additionally, the interaction between glutamine and sodium cation may have given rise to sodium glutamate (MSG), which can further contribute to the umami flavor. Basic tastes can also be attributed to amino acid groups arranged in specific sequence. In soy sauce, it was found that "amino acids were grouped as MSG-like (monosodium glutamate-like) (Asp+Glu), sweet (Ala+Gly+Ser+Thr), bitter (Arg+His+Ile+Leu+Met+Phe+Trp+Try+Val), and tasteless (Cys+Lys+Pro)".

Despite a large variety of volatile and odorant compounds that have been identified in soy sauce, the food product per se does not present a strong aroma. Alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, alkynes and benzenes have been identified in Chinese soy sauces. An explanation for this observation is that the aroma of soy sauce does not depend largely on the aroma-active compounds. The subtle aroma is a result of a "critical balance" achieved among all volatile and odorant compounds, whose respective concentrations are relatively low.

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Soy sauce is widely used as an important flavoring and has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Despite their rather similar appearance, soy sauces made in different cultures and regions are different in taste, consistency, fragrance and saltiness. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight.

Burmese

Burmese soy sauce production is dated back to the Bagan Era in the 9th and 10th century. Scripts written in praise of pe ngan byar yay (ပဲငံပြာရည်, literally "bean fish sauce") were found.[citation needed] Thick soy sauce is called kya nyo (ကြာညို့, from Chinese jiàngyóu).[citation needed]

Chinese

Chinese soy sauces (Chinese:; pinyin: jiàng yóu; Jyutping: zoeng3 jau4; Cantonese Yale: jeungyàuh; or alternatively,豉油; pinyin: chǐyóu; Jyutping: si6jau4; Cantonese Yale: sihyàuh) are primarily made from soybeans, with relatively low amounts of other grains. Chinese soy sauce can be roughly split into two classes: brewed or blended. Chinese soy sauces can also be classified into Low-Salt Solid-State fermented soy sauce (LSF), and High-Salt Liquid-State fermented soy sauce (HLF).

Brewed

A bottle of commercially made light soy sauce

Soy sauce that has been brewed directly from a fermentation process using wheat, soybeans, salt, and water without additional additives.

  • Light or fresh soy sauce (; pinyin: shēng chōu; Jyutping: saang1 cau1; Cantonese Yale: sāangchāu or; pinyin: jiàng qīng; Jyutping: zoeng3 cing1; Cantonese Yale: jeungchīng): is a thin (low viscosity), opaque, lighter brown soy sauce, brewed by first culturing steamed wheat and soybeans with Aspergillus, and then letting the mixture ferment in brine. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning, since it is saltier, has less noticeable color, and also adds a distinct flavor.
    • Tóu chōu (): A light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans, this can be loosely translated as "first soy sauce" or referred to as premium light soy sauce. Tóu chōu is sold at a premium because, like extra virgin olive oil, the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Due to its delicate flavor it is used primarily for seasoning light dishes and for dipping.
    • Shuāng huáng (): A light soy sauce that is double-fermented by using the light soy sauce from another batch to take the place of brine for a second brewing. This adds further complexity to the flavor of the light soy sauce. Due to its complex flavor this soy sauce is used primarily for dipping.
  • Yìn yóu (): A darker soy sauce brewed primarily in Taiwan by culturing only steamed soybeans with Aspergillus and mixing the cultured soybeans with coarse rock salt before undergoing prolonged dry fermentation. The flavor of this soy sauce is complex and rich and is used for dipping or in red cooking. For the former use, yìn yóu can be thickened with starch to make a thick soy sauce.

Blended

Additives with sweet or umami tastes are sometimes added to a finished brewed soy sauce to modify its taste and texture.

  • Dark and old soy sauce (; pinyin: lǎo chōu; Jyutping: lou5 cau1; Cantonese Yale: lóuhchāu), a darker and slightly thicker soy sauce made from light soy sauce. This soy sauce is made through prolonged aging and may contain added caramel color and/or molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. It has a richer, slightly sweeter, and less salty flavor than light soy sauce. This variety is mainly used during cooking, since its flavor develops during heating. Dark soy sauce is mainly used to add color and flavor to a dish after cooking. One of the strongest varieties is known as "double black" (双老头抽)
    • Mushroom dark soy ( cǎogū lǎochōu): In the finishing and aging process of making dark soy sauce, the broth of Volvariella volvacea (straw mushroom) is mixed into the soy sauce and is then exposed to the sun to make this type of dark soy. The added broth gives this soy sauce a richer flavor than plain dark soy sauce.
    • Thick soy sauce ( jiàng yóu gāo), is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with heat and sugar, occasionally a starch thickener and MSG are used. This sauce is often used as a dipping sauce or finishing sauce and poured on food as a flavorful addition. However, due to its sweetness and caramelized flavors from its production process the sauce is also used in red cooking.
  • Shrimp soy sauce ( Xiā zǐ jiàngyóu): Fresh soy sauce is simmered with fresh shrimp and finished with sugar, baijiu (type of distilled liquor, 白酒), and spices. A specialty of Suzhou.

Filipino

Toyomansi, a typical Filipino dipping sauce composed of soy sauce and calamansi spiced with siling labuyo

In the Philippines, soy sauce is called toyo in the native languages, derived from tau-yu in Philippine Hokkien. Philippine soy sauce is usually a combination of soybeans, wheat, salt, and caramel color. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste than its Southeast Asian counterparts. It is most similar to the Japanese koikuchi shōyu in terms of consistency and the use of wheat, though toyo is a bit saltier and darker in color.

Toyo is used as a marinade, an ingredient in cooked dishes, and most often as a table condiment, usually alongside other sauces such as fish sauce (patís) and sugar cane vinegar (sukà). It is often mixed and served with the juice of the calamansi (× Citrofortunella microcarpa; also called calamondin, limonsito). The combination is known as toyomansî, which can be comparable to the Japanese ponzu sauce (soy sauce with yuzu). Toyo is also a main ingredient in Philippine adobo, one of the more famous dishes of Filipino cuisine.

Hawaiian

Soy sauce is a very popular condiment and marinade for many dishes in the Hawaiian cuisine. Aloha shoyu is soy sauce made on the Islands. Soy sauce is known by its Japanese name shoyu (less commonly shōyu), in Hawaii.

Indonesian

Main article: Sweet soy sauce
Left, ABC brand Kecap manis sweet Indonesian soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses; right, Kecap asin

In Indonesia, soy sauce is known as kecap (old spelling: ketjap), which is a catch-all term for fermented sauces, and cognate to the English word "ketchup". The most popular type of soy sauce in Indonesian cuisine is kecap manis or sweet soy sauce. The term kecap is also used to describe other non-soy-based sauces, such as kecap ikan (fish sauce) and kecap Inggris (worcestershire sauce; lit. "English sauce", due to Worcestershire sauce originating in England). Three common varieties of soy-based kecap exist in Indonesian cuisine, used either as ingredients or condiments:

  • Kecap manis: Sweetened soy sauce, which has a thick syrupy consistency and a unique, pronounced, sweet somewhat treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. Regular soy with brown sugar and a trace of molasses added can substitute. It is by far the most popular type of soy sauce employed in Indonesian cuisine, accounts for an estimated 90 percent of the nation's total soy sauce production. Kecap manis is an important sauce in Indonesian signature dishes, such as nasi goreng, mie goreng, satay, tongseng and semur. Sambal kecap for example is type of sambal dipping sauce of kecap manis with sliced chili, tomato and shallot, a popular dipping sauce for sate kambing (goat meat satay) and ikan bakar (grilled fish/seafood). Since soy sauce is of Chinese origin, kecap asin is also an important seasoning in Chinese Indonesian cuisine.
  • Kecap manis sedang: Medium sweet soy sauce, which has a less thick consistency, is less sweet and has a saltier taste than kecap manis.
  • Kecap asin: Regular soy sauce derived from the Japanese shoyu, but are usually more concentrated, thicker, darker color and stronger flavor; it can be replaced by Chinese light soy sauce in some recipes. Salty soy sauce was first introduced into Indonesia by Hokkien people so its taste resembles that of Chinese soy sauce. Hakka soy sauce made from black beans is very salty and large productions are mainly made in Bangka Island.

Japanese

Japanese supermarket soy sauce corner

Shōyu is traditionally divided into five main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production.[citation needed] Most, but not all, Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient, which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts.[citation needed] They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor, sometimes enhanced by the addition of small amounts of alcohol as a natural preservative.[citation needed] The widely varying flavors of these soy sauces are not always interchangeable, some recipes only call for one type or the other, much as a white wine cannot replace a red's flavor or beef stock does not make the same results as fish stock.

Some soy sauces made in the Japanese way or styled after them contain about 50% wheat.

Varieties

  • Koikuchi (濃口, 'thick taste'): Originating in the Kantō region, its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi, and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. It is made from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized.
  • Usukuchi (薄口, 'thin taste'): Almost 14% of soy sauce production is usukuchi shoyu. It is particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan. It matures for less time than koichuchi and is both saltier and lighter in color. It is paler due to the use in its production of amazake, a sweet liquid made from fermented rice. Usukuchi is commonly used in cooking as it does not alter the color and taste of the ingredients.
  • Tamari (たまり): Made mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan, tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavor than koikuchi. It contains little or no wheat. Wheat-free tamari can be used by people with gluten intolerance. Tamari is more viscous than koikuchi shoyu. Of soy sauce produced in Japan, 1.5% is tamari. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce, as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Technically, this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り), as this is the liquid that runs off miso (a soybean-based seasoning and soup base) as it matures. The Japanese word tamari is derived from the verb tamaru (溜る, 'to accumulate'), referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally a liquid byproduct made during the fermentation of miso. Japan remains the leading producer of tamari,[citation needed] though it has also become popular in the United States. Tamari shoyu is often used for sashimi. Oftentimes, other varieties of soy sauce for sashimi are inaccurately referred to as tamari shoyu. The back label in Japan, by law, will clarify whether or not it is actually tamari.
  • Shiro (, 'white'): In contrast to tamari soy sauce, shiro uses mostly wheat and very little soybean, lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food, for example sashimi. Shiro shoyu used to be used a lot in high-class cookery and is generally not available abroad. Its main use is for pickles. Of soy sauce production in Japan, 0.7% is shiro.
  • Saishikomi (再仕込, 'twice-brewed'): This variety substitutes previously made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Consequently, it is much darker and more strongly flavored. This type is also known as kanro shōyu (甘露醤油, 'sweet soy sauce'). Of soy sauce production in Japan, 0.8% is saishikomi.
  • Kanro shoyu is a variety of soy sauce made exclusively in Yanai, a city in Yamaguchi Prefecture. It is handmade and is less salty and less sweet than saishikomi shoyu.

Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:

  • Gen'en (, 'reduced salt'): This version contains 50% less salt than regular soy sauce for consumers concerned about heart disease.
  • Usujio (, 'light salt'): This version contains 20% less salt than regular soy sauce.

All of these varieties are sold in three different grades according to how they were made:

  • Honjōzō (本醸造, 'genuine fermented'): Contains 100% genuine fermented product
  • Kongō-jōzō (混合醸造, 'mixed fermented'): Contains genuine fermented shōyu mash mixed with 30–50% of chemical or enzymatic hydrolysate of plant protein
  • Kongō (混合, 'mixed'): Contains honjōzō or Kongō-jōzō shōyu mixed with 30–50% of chemical or enzymatic hydrolysate of plant protein

All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:

  • Hyōjun (標準): standard grade, contains more than 1.2% total nitrogen
  • Jōkyū (上級): upper grade, contains more than 1.35% of total nitrogen
  • Tokkyū (特級): special grade, contains more than 1.5% of total nitrogen

Korean

In South Korea, soy sauces or ganjang (간장, "seasoning sauce") can be roughly split into two categories: hansik ganjang ('Korean-style soy sauce') and gaeryang ganjang ('modernized soy sauce'). The term ganjang can also refer to non-soy-based salty condiments, such as eo-ganjang fish sauce.

Traditional Korean soy sauce

Hansik ganjang

Main article: soup soy sauce

Hansik ganjang (한식간장, 'Korean-style soy sauce') is made entirely of fermented soybean (meju) and brine. It is a byproduct of doenjang (fermented soybean paste) production, and has a unique fermented soybean flavour. Both lighter in colour and saltier than other Korean ganjang varieties, hansik ganjang is used mainly in guk (soup) and namul (seasoned vegetable dish) in modern Korean cuisine. Common names for hansik ganjang include jaeraesik ganjang (재래식 간장, "traditional soy sauce"), Joseon-ganjang (조선간장, "Joseon soy sauce"), and guk-ganjang (국간장, "soup soy sauce"). The homebrewed variety is also called jip-ganjang (집간장, "home soy sauce").

Depending on the length of aging, hansik ganjang can be divided into three main varieties: clear, middle, and dark.

  • Haet-ganjang (햇간장, "new soy sauce") – soy sauce aged for a year. Also called cheongjang (청장, "clear soy sauce").
  • Jung-ganjang (중간장, "middle soy sauce") – soy sauce aged for three to four years.
  • Jin-ganjang (진간장, "dark soy sauce") – soy sauce aged for more than five years. Also called jinjang (진장, "aged soy sauce"), nongjang (농장, "thick soy sauce"), or jingamjang (진감장, "aged mature soy sauce").

Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety's Food Code classifies hansik-ganjang into two categories by their ingredients.

  • Jaerae-hansik-ganjang (재래한식간장, "traditional Korean-style soy sauce") – made with traditional style meju and brine.
  • Gaeryang-hansik-ganjang (개량한식간장, "modernized Korean-style soy sauce") – made with nontraditional meju (which can be made of regular soybean, rice, barley, wheat, or soybean meal, and ripened using traditional method or Aspergillus) and brine.

Gaeryang ganjang

Gaeryang-ganjang (개량간장, "modernized soy sauce"), referring to varieties of soy sauces not made of meju, is now the most widely used type of soy sauce in modern Korean cuisine. The word ganjang without modifiers in bokkeum (stir-fry), jorim (braised or simmered dishes), and jjim (steamed dishes) recipes usually mean gaeryang-ganjang. Another common name of gaeryang-ganjang is jin-ganjang (진간장, "dark soy sauce"), because gaeryang-ganjang varieties are usually darker in appearance compared to traditional hansik ganjang. Having been introduced to Korea during the era of Japanese forced occupation, garyang ganjang is also called Wae-ganjang (왜간장, "Wae soy sauce").

Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety's Food Code classifies gaeryang-ganjang into four categories by their method of production.

  • Brewed soy sauce (양조간장, yangjo-ganjang) – made by fermenting soybean, soybean meal, or other grains with saline solution.
  • Acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (산분해간장) – made by hydrolyzing raw materials containing protein with acid.
  • Enzyme-hydrolyzed soy sauce (효소분해간장) – made by hydrolyzing raw materials containing protein with enzyme.
  • Blended soy sauce (혼합간장) – Also called mixed soy sauce, blended soy sauce can be made by blending hansik-ganjang (Korean-style soy sauce) or yangjo-ganjang (brewed soy sauce) with acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce or enzyme-hydrolyzed soy sauce.

Other

Malaysian and Singaporean

Malays from Malaysia, using the Malay dialect similar to Indonesian, use the word kicap for soy sauce. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak (lit "fat/rich soy sauce") and kicap cair. Kicap lemak is similar to Indonesian kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.

Sri Lankan

Soy sauce (Sinhala:සෝයා සෝස්) is a popular food product used in Sri Lanka and is a major ingredient used in the nationally popular street food dish, Kottu. Soy sauce has largely been produced by the Sri Lankan Chinese community but its production has also spread to other communities in Sri Lanka. Soy sauce production in Sri Lanka is the same as the production of soy sauce in Indonesia. Fermentation occurs over a period of three months. The soy beans which are steeped in brine are then pressed to obtain a liquid sauce.

Taiwanese

The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China, in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Taiwanese soy sauce is known for its black bean variant, known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油), which takes longer to make (about 6 months). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan make soy sauce from soybeans and wheat, and are widely popular, and are available in many Oriental Foods and Grocery Stores. Some make black bean soy sauce, which is very widely used in Chinese and Oriental cooking as an excellent flavor enhancer.

Thai

Soft serve usually topped with Thai sweet soy sauce served at Yaowarat, Bangkok, Thailand

In Thailand, soy sauce is called sii-íu (Thai:ซีอิ๊ว). Sii-íu kǎao (Thai:ซีอิ๊วขาว, 'white soy sauce') is used as regular soy sauce in Thai cuisine, while sii-íu dam (Thai:ซีอิ๊วดำ, 'black soy sauce') is used primarily for colour. Another darker-coloured variety, sii-íu wǎan (Thai:ซีอิ๊วหวาน, 'sweet soy sauce') is used for dipping sauces. Sɔ́ɔt prung rót (Thai:ซอสปรุงรส, 'seasoning sauce') is also commonly used in modern Thai cuisine.

Vietnamese

In Vietnam, Chinese-style soy sauce is called xì dầu (derived from the Cantonese name 豉油) or nước tương. The term "soy sauce" could also imply other condiments and soy bean paste with thick consistency known as tương. Both are used mostly as a seasoning or dipping sauce for a number of dishes. Vietnamese cuisine itself favors fish sauce in cooking but nước tương has a clear presence in vegetarian cuisine.

A study by the National University of Singapore showed that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine, and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Unpasteurized soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.

Soy sauce does not contain the level of isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame. It can also be very salty, having a salt content between 14–18%. Low-sodium soy sauces are made, but it is difficult to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt as an antimicrobial agent.

A serving of 100 millilitres (3.5 imp fl oz; 3.4 US fl oz) of soy sauce contains, according to the USDA:

  • Energy : 60 kcal
  • Fat: 0.1 g
  • Carbohydrates: 5.57 g
  • Fibers: 0.8 g
  • Protein: 10.51 g
  • Sodium: 6 g

Carcinogens

Soy sauce may contain ethyl carbamate, a Group 2A carcinogen.

In 2001, the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in testing various soy sauces manufactured in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Thailand (made from hydrolyzed soy protein, rather than being naturally fermented) that 22% of tested samples contained a chemical carcinogen named 3-MCPD (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the EU. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second carcinogenic chemical named 1,3-DCP (1,3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer, and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. The same carcinogens were found in soy sauces manufactured in Vietnam, causing a food scare in 2007.

In Canada, the Canadian Cancer Society writes,

Health Canada has concluded that there is no health risk to Canadians from use of available soy and oyster sauces. Because continuous lifetime exposure to high levels of 3-MCPD could pose a health risk, Health Canada has established 1.0 part per million (ppm) as a guideline for importers of these sauces, in order to reduce Canadians' long-term exposure to this chemical. This is considered to be a very safe level.

Allergies

Further information: Soy allergy

Soy sauce allergy not caused by soy or wheat allergy is rare. Most varieties of soy sauce contain wheat, to which some people have a medical intolerance. However, some naturally brewed soy sauces made with wheat may be tolerated by people with a specific intolerance to gluten because gluten is not detectable in the finished product. Japanese tamari soy sauce is traditionally wheat-free, and some tamari available commercially today is wheat- and gluten-free.

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Soy sauce
Soy sauce Language Watch Edit Soy sauce also called simply soy in American English 1 and sometimes soya sauce in British English 2 is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin traditionally made from a fermented paste of soybeans roasted grain brine and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds 3 It is considered to contain a strong umami flavor Soy sauceA bowl of soy sauceAlternative namesSoya sauce ShoyuTypeCondimentRegion or stateEast Asia and Southeast AsiaMain ingredientsSoybeansCookbook Soy sauce Media Soy sauce Soy sauce in its current form was created about 2 200 years ago during the Western Han dynasty of ancient China 4 5 6 7 and spread throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment 8 Contents 1 Use and storage 2 History 2 1 East Asia 2 1 1 China 2 1 2 Japan 2 1 3 Korea 2 2 Europe 2 3 United States 3 Production 3 1 Traditional 3 2 Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein 3 3 High salt liquid state fermented soy sauce 3 4 Low salt solid state fermented soy sauce 4 Chemical composition 5 Sensory profile 6 Variations by country 6 1 Burmese 6 2 Chinese 6 2 1 Brewed 6 2 2 Blended 6 3 Filipino 6 4 Hawaiian 6 5 Indonesian 6 6 Japanese 6 6 1 Varieties 6 7 Korean 6 7 1 Hansik ganjang 6 7 2 Gaeryang ganjang 6 7 3 Other 6 8 Malaysian and Singaporean 6 9 Sri Lankan 6 10 Taiwanese 6 11 Thai 6 12 Vietnamese 7 Nutrition 7 1 Carcinogens 7 2 Allergies 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksUse and storage EditSoy sauce can be added directly to food and is used as a dip or salt flavor in cooking 9 It is often eaten with rice noodles and sushi or sashimi or can also be mixed with ground wasabi for dipping 9 Bottles of soy sauce for salty seasoning of various foods are common on restaurant tables in many countries 9 Soy sauce can be stored at room temperature 9 History EditEast Asia Edit China Edit Soy sauceMandarin Chinese nameTraditional Chinese醬油Simplified Chinese酱油Literal meaning sauce oil TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinjiangyouWade Gileschiang4 yu2IPA tɕja ŋ jo u Cantonese and Teochew nameChinese豉油Literal meaning fermented bean oil TranscriptionsYue CantoneseYale RomanizationsihyauhJyutpingsi6jau4IPA si ː jɐ u Southern MinTeochew Peng imsi7 iu5Hokkien nameChinese豆油Literal meaning bean oil TranscriptionsSouthern MinHokkien POJtau iuTai lotau iuBurmese nameBurmeseပ င ပ ရည IPA pɛ ŋaɰ bja je Vietnamese nameVietnamesexi dầu or nước tươngThai nameThaisixiw RTGS si io Korean nameHangul간장Literal meaning seasoning sauce TranscriptionsRevised RomanizationganjangMcCune ReischauerkanjangJapanese nameKanji醤油KanaしょうゆTranscriptionsRevised HepburnshōyuMalay nameMalaykicapIndonesian nameIndonesiankecapFilipino nameTagalogtoyo Soy sauce 醬油 jiangyou is considered almost as old as soy paste a type of fermented paste Jiang 醬 obtained from soybeans which had appeared during the Western Han dynasty 206 BC 220 AD and was listed in the bamboo slips found in the archaeological site Mawangdui 馬王堆 6 5 There are several precursors of soy sauce that are associated products with soy paste Among them the earliest one is Qingjiang 清醬 that had appeared in AD 40 and was listed in Simin Yueling 四民月令 7 Others are Jiangqing 醬清 Chizhi 豉汁 and Chiqing 豉清 which are recorded in Qimin Yaoshu 齊民要術 in AD 540 7 By the time of the Song dynasty 960 1279 AD the term soy sauce 醬油 had become the accepted name for the liquid condiment 7 which are documented in two books Shanjia Qinggong 山家清供 10 and Pujiang Wushi Zhongkuilu 浦江吳氏中饋錄 11 during the Song dynasty 960 1279 AD Like many salty condiments soy sauce was originally a way to stretch salt historically an expensive commodity During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans were included during the fermentation process 5 12 By the time of the Han dynasty this had been replaced with the recipe for soy paste and its by product soy sauce by using soybeans as the principal ingredient 6 7 with fermented fish based sauces developing separately into fish sauce 13 The 19th century Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams wrote that in China the best soy sauce is made by boiling beans soft adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley and leaving the mass to ferment a portion of salt and three times as much water are afterwards put in and the whole compound left for two or three months when the liquid is pressed and strained 14 Japan Edit Shoyu ramen Originally a common Japanese condiment was gyoshō 魚醤 which was fish based 15 When Buddhism came to Japan from China in the 7th century 16 they introduced vegetarianism and brought many soy based products with them such as soy sauce 15 which is known as shōyu 醤油 17 9 in Japan Shoyu exportation began in 1647 by the Dutch East India Company 9 Korea Edit The earliest soy sauce brewing in Korea seems to have begun prior to the era of the Three Kingdoms c 57 BCE 18 The Records of the Three Kingdoms a Chinese historical text written and published in the 3rd century mentions that Goguryeo people are good at brewing fermented soy beans in the section named Dongyi Eastern foreigners in the Book of Wei 19 20 Jangdoks used for soy sauce brewing are found in the mural paintings of Anak Tomb No 3 from the 4th century Goguryeo 21 In Samguk Sagi a historical record of the Three Kingdoms era it is written that ganjang soy sauce and doenjang soybean paste along with meju soybean block and jeotgal salted seafood were prepared for the wedding ceremony of the King Sinmun in February 683 22 Sikhwaji a section from Goryeosa History of Goryeo recorded that ganjang and doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018 after a Khitan invasion and in 1052 when a famine occurred 23 Joseon texts such as Guhwangchwaryo and Jeungbo sallim gyeongje contain the detailed procedures on how to brew good quality ganjang and doenjang 18 Gyuhap chongseo explains how to pick a date for brewing what to forbear and how to keep and preserve ganjang and doenjang 22 Europe Edit Records of the Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737 when seventy five large barrels were shipped from Dejima Japan to Batavia present day Jakarta on the island of Java Thirty five barrels from that shipment were then shipped to the Netherlands 24 In the 18th century diplomat and scholar Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce Although earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West his was among the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version 25 By the mid 19th century Japanese soy sauce gradually disappeared from the European market and the condiment became synonymous with the Chinese product 26 Europeans were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of Aspergillus oryzae the fungus used in its brewing 26 Soy sauce made from ingredients such as Portobello mushrooms were disseminated in European cookbooks during the late 18th century A Swedish recipe for Soija was published in the 1770 edition of Cajsa Warg s Hjelpreda i Hushallningen for Unga Fruentimber and was flavored with allspice and mace 27 United States Edit The first soy sauce production in the United States began in the Territory of Hawaii in 1908 by the Hawaiian Yamajo Soy Company La Choy started selling hydrolyzed vegetable protein based soy sauce in 1933 28 Production Edit Soy sauce is made from soybeans Soy sauce is made either by fermentation or by hydrolysis Some commercial sauces have both fermented and chemical sauces Flavor color and aroma developments during production are attributed to non enzymatic Maillard browning 29 Variation is usually achieved as the result of different methods and durations of fermentation different ratios of water salt and fermented soy or through the addition of other ingredients Traditional Edit Further information Soup soy sauce Production Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as Aspergillus oryzae and other related microorganisms and yeasts the resulting mixture is called koji in Japan the term koji is used both for the mixture of soybeans wheat and mold as well as for the mold itself Historically the mixture was fermented naturally in large urns and under the sun which was believed to contribute extra flavors Today the mixture is placed in a temperature and humidity controlled incubation chamber 30 Traditional soy sauces take months to make Soaking and cooking The soybeans are soaked in water and boiled until cooked Wheat is roasted crushed Koji culturing Equal amounts of boiled soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed to form a grain mixture A culture of Aspergillus spore is added to the grain mixture and mixed or the mixture is allowed to gather spores from the environment itself The cultures include Aspergillus a genus of fungus that is used for fermenting various ingredients the cultures are called koji in Japanese Three species are used for brewing soy sauce A oryzae Strains with high proteolytic capacity are used for brewing soy sauce 31 A sojae This fungus also has a high proteolytic capacity A tamarii 32 This fungus is used for brewing tamari a variety of soy sauce Saccharomyces cerevisiae the yeasts in the culture convert some of the sugars to ethanol which can undergo secondary reactions to make other flavor compounds Other microbes contained in the culture Bacillus spp genus This organism is likely to grow in soy sauce ingredients and to generate odors and ammonia Lactobacillus species This organism makes a lactic acid that increases the acidity in the feed Brewing The cultured grain mixture is mixed into a specific amount of salt brine for wet fermentation or with coarse salt for dry fermentation and left to brew Over time the Aspergillus mold on the soy and wheat break down the grain proteins into free amino acid and protein fragments and starches into simple sugars This amino glycosidic reaction gives soy sauce its dark brown color Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid and yeast makes ethanol which through aging and secondary fermentation makes numerous flavor compounds typical of soy sauce Pressing The fully fermented grain slurry is placed into cloth lined containers and pressed to separate the solids from the liquid soy sauce The isolated solids are used as fertilizer or fed to animals while the liquid soy sauce is processed further Pasteurization The raw soy sauce is heated to eliminate any active yeasts and molds remaining in the soy sauce and can be filtered to remove any fine particulates Storage The soy sauce can be aged or directly bottled and sold Soy and wheat with Aspergillus sojae cultures to brew soy sauce Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein Edit Some brands of soy sauce are made from acid hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed with a traditional culture This takes about three days 33 Although they have a different flavor aroma and texture when compared to brewed soy sauces they can be produced more quickly and cheaply and also have a longer shelf life and are usually made for these reasons The clear plastic packets of dark sauce common with Chinese style take out food typically use a hydrolyzed vegetable protein formula Some higher priced hydrolyzed vegetable protein products with no added sugar or colorings are sold as low sodium soy sauce alternatives called liquid aminos in health food stores similar to the way salt substitutes are used These products are however not necessarily low in sodium High salt liquid state fermented soy sauce Edit High salt liquid state fermentation HLF of soybeans depends heavily on microbial activity metabolism and enzymatic hydrolysis of macro nutrients During HLF koji infused soybeans are exposed to air so that hydrolytic enzymes of the mold can continuously break down macro nutrients within the soybean Ample water usually about 2 to 2 5 times the weight of the feed 34 is required to support sufficient microbial growth High amount of salt concentration 17 20 is required to selectively inhibit microbial activity HLF is generally carried out under 15 30 C and requires long ageing period usually from 90 180 days 35 In the aging period constant stirring of moromi is required for distributing nutrients as well as flavoring compounds evenly In some cases moromi is exposed to direct sunlight to facilitate the decomposition of macro nutrients Due to the high salinity of HLF moromi only anaerobic halophile can survive in the medium Beside the 15 30 C temperature range narrows down the growth condition to allow only the growth of mesophiles Similar to the fermentation of pickle the primary lactic acid fermentation of sugars by halophiles reduces the pH of moromi down to acidic range 35 Lowered pH further limited the growth of undesirable microbes but favors the growth of fermentative yeast which contributes to secondary fermentation that generate various flavoring compounds and odorants Low salt solid state fermented soy sauce Edit LSF also referred as rapid fermenting is a modern fermentation method invented in response to high market demand Compared to HLF LSF employs pure cultures at a relatively higher temperature 40 55 C and lower brine solution concentrations 13 15 In LSF koji is mixed with the equivalent weight of brine to form solid moromi The elevated temperature accelerates the fermentation process significantly Due to the short aging 15 30 days period of LSF and low production cost LSF soy sauce accounts for more share of the Chinese soy sauce market 36 Chemical composition EditThe chemical composition of soy sauce can be affected easily by raw materials fermentation methodologies fermenting molds and strains and post fermentation treatments 37 Although the formation mechanism of chemical composition in soy sauce is complex it has been widely accepted that free amino acids water soluble peptides and Maillard reaction products in soy sauce are considered as essential chemical composition and to provide core sensory effects 38 The primary fermentation of lactic acid fermenting halophiles lowers the pH of the moromi and this directly results in the acidic pH range 4 4 5 4 of soy sauce products The secondary fermentation conducted by heterofermentative microbes provides soy sauce with a wide range of flavor and odorant compounds by breaking down macro nutrients Soy proteins and grain proteins are hydrolyzed into short peptide chains and free amino acids which adds umami to the product Based on the result of free amino acid analysis the most abundant amino acids in Chinese soy sauce product are glutamic acid aspartic acid alanine and leucine 37 Starch is hydrolyzed into simple sugars which contribute to the sweet flavor in soy sauce Legume fats may also be decomposed into short chain fatty acids and the interactions among lipids and other macronutrients also result in a richer flavor in the final product Non enzymatic browning also contributes significantly to the development of the properties of soy sauce The hydrolysis of proteins and large carbohydrates also provides free amino acids and simple sugars as reagents for the Maillard reaction Soy sauce may contain more than 1 alcohol and may run afoul of liquor control legislation 39 Sensory profile EditThe taste of soy sauce is predominated by saltiness followed by moderate umami sweet taste and finally slight bitterness which is hard to perceive due to the masking effect of other tastes The overall flavor of soy sauce is a result of the balance and interaction among different taste components The saltiness is largely attributed to the presence of NaCl common salt in brine The sugars hydrolyzed from starch add sweetness into soy sauce Umami is largely caused by the presence of free amino acids Additionally the interaction between glutamine and sodium cation may have given rise to sodium glutamate MSG which can further contribute to the umami flavor Basic tastes can also be attributed to amino acid groups arranged in specific sequence In soy sauce it was found that amino acids were grouped as MSG like monosodium glutamate like Asp Glu sweet Ala Gly Ser Thr bitter Arg His Ile Leu Met Phe Trp Try Val and tasteless Cys Lys Pro 40 Despite a large variety of volatile and odorant compounds that have been identified in soy sauce the food product per se does not present a strong aroma Alcohols acids esters aldehydes ketones phenols heterocyclic compounds alkynes and benzenes have been identified in Chinese soy sauces 35 An explanation for this observation is that the aroma of soy sauce does not depend largely on the aroma active compounds The subtle aroma is a result of a critical balance achieved among all volatile and odorant compounds whose respective concentrations are relatively low Variations by country EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed January 2009 Learn how and when to remove this template message Soy sauce is widely used as an important flavoring and has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures Despite their rather similar appearance soy sauces made in different cultures and regions are different in taste consistency fragrance and saltiness Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight Burmese Edit Burmese soy sauce production is dated back to the Bagan Era in the 9th and 10th century Scripts written in praise of pe ngan byar yay ပ င ပ ရည literally bean fish sauce were found citation needed Thick soy sauce is called kya nyo က ည from Chinese jiangyou citation needed Chinese Edit Chinese soy sauces Chinese 酱油 pinyin jiang you Jyutping zoeng3 jau4 Cantonese Yale jeungyauh or alternatively 豉油 pinyin chǐyou Jyutping si6jau4 Cantonese Yale sihyauh are primarily made from soybeans with relatively low amounts of other grains Chinese soy sauce can be roughly split into two classes brewed or blended Chinese soy sauces can also be classified into Low Salt Solid State fermented soy sauce LSF and High Salt Liquid State fermented soy sauce HLF Brewed Edit A bottle of commercially made light soy sauce Soy sauce that has been brewed directly from a fermentation process using wheat soybeans salt and water without additional additives Light or fresh soy sauce 生抽 pinyin sheng chōu Jyutping saang1 cau1 Cantonese Yale saangchau or 醬清 pinyin jiang qing Jyutping zoeng3 cing1 Cantonese Yale jeungching is a thin low viscosity opaque lighter brown soy sauce brewed by first culturing steamed wheat and soybeans with Aspergillus and then letting the mixture ferment in brine It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning since it is saltier has less noticeable color and also adds a distinct flavor 41 Tou chōu 頭抽 A light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans this can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce Tou chōu is sold at a premium because like extra virgin olive oil the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior Due to its delicate flavor it is used primarily for seasoning light dishes and for dipping Shuang huang 雙璜 A light soy sauce that is double fermented by using the light soy sauce from another batch to take the place of brine for a second brewing This adds further complexity to the flavor of the light soy sauce Due to its complex flavor this soy sauce is used primarily for dipping Yin you 蔭油 A darker soy sauce brewed primarily in Taiwan by culturing only steamed soybeans with Aspergillus and mixing the cultured soybeans with coarse rock salt before undergoing prolonged dry fermentation The flavor of this soy sauce is complex and rich and is used for dipping or in red cooking For the former use yin you can be thickened with starch to make a thick soy sauce 42 Blended Edit Additives with sweet or umami tastes are sometimes added to a finished brewed soy sauce to modify its taste and texture Dark and old soy sauce 老抽 pinyin lǎo chōu Jyutping lou5 cau1 Cantonese Yale louhchau a darker and slightly thicker soy sauce made from light soy sauce This soy sauce is made through prolonged aging and may contain added caramel color and or molasses to give it its distinctive appearance It has a richer slightly sweeter and less salty flavor than light soy sauce This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavor develops during heating Dark soy sauce is mainly used to add color and flavor to a dish after cooking One of the strongest varieties is known as double black 双老头抽 43 Mushroom dark soy 草菇老抽 cǎogu lǎochōu In the finishing and aging process of making dark soy sauce the broth of Volvariella volvacea straw mushroom is mixed into the soy sauce and is then exposed to the sun to make this type of dark soy The added broth gives this soy sauce a richer flavor than plain dark soy sauce 44 Thick soy sauce 醬油膏 jiang you gao is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with heat and sugar occasionally a starch thickener and MSG are used This sauce is often used as a dipping sauce or finishing sauce and poured on food as a flavorful addition However due to its sweetness and caramelized flavors from its production process the sauce is also used in red cooking Shrimp soy sauce 蝦子醬油 Xia zǐ jiangyou Fresh soy sauce is simmered with fresh shrimp and finished with sugar baijiu type of distilled liquor 白酒 and spices A specialty of Suzhou Filipino Edit Toyomansi a typical Filipino dipping sauce composed of soy sauce and calamansi spiced with siling labuyo In the Philippines soy sauce is called toyo in the native languages derived from tau yu in Philippine Hokkien Philippine soy sauce is usually a combination of soybeans wheat salt and caramel color It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste than its Southeast Asian counterparts It is most similar to the Japanese koikuchi shōyu in terms of consistency and the use of wheat though toyo is a bit saltier and darker in color 45 46 Toyo is used as a marinade an ingredient in cooked dishes and most often as a table condiment usually alongside other sauces such as fish sauce patis and sugar cane vinegar suka It is often mixed and served with the juice of the calamansi Citrofortunella microcarpa also called calamondin limonsito The combination is known as toyomansi which can be comparable to the Japanese ponzu sauce soy sauce with yuzu Toyo is also a main ingredient in Philippine adobo one of the more famous dishes of Filipino cuisine Hawaiian Edit Soy sauce is a very popular condiment and marinade for many dishes in the Hawaiian cuisine Aloha shoyu is soy sauce made on the Islands 47 Soy sauce is known by its Japanese name shoyu less commonly shōyu in Hawaii 48 Indonesian Edit Main article Sweet soy sauce Left ABC brand Kecap manis sweet Indonesian soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses right Kecap asin In Indonesia soy sauce is known as kecap old spelling ketjap which is a catch all term for fermented sauces and cognate to the English word ketchup 49 The most popular type of soy sauce in Indonesian cuisine is kecap manis or sweet soy sauce The term kecap is also used to describe other non soy based sauces such as kecap ikan fish sauce and kecap Inggris worcestershire sauce lit English sauce due to Worcestershire sauce originating in England Three common varieties of soy based kecap exist in Indonesian cuisine used either as ingredients or condiments Kecap manis Sweetened soy sauce which has a thick syrupy consistency and a unique pronounced sweet somewhat treacle like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar Regular soy with brown sugar and a trace of molasses added can substitute It is by far the most popular type of soy sauce employed in Indonesian cuisine accounts for an estimated 90 percent of the nation s total soy sauce production 50 Kecap manis is an important sauce in Indonesian signature dishes such as nasi goreng mie goreng satay tongseng and semur Sambal kecap for example is type of sambal dipping sauce of kecap manis with sliced chili tomato and shallot a popular dipping sauce for sate kambing goat meat satay and ikan bakar grilled fish seafood Since soy sauce is of Chinese origin kecap asin is also an important seasoning in Chinese Indonesian cuisine Kecap manis sedang Medium sweet soy sauce which has a less thick consistency is less sweet and has a saltier taste than kecap manis Kecap asin Regular soy sauce derived from the Japanese shoyu but are usually more concentrated thicker darker color and stronger flavor it can be replaced by Chinese light soy sauce in some recipes Salty soy sauce was first introduced into Indonesia by Hokkien people so its taste resembles that of Chinese soy sauce Hakka soy sauce made from black beans is very salty and large productions are mainly made in Bangka Island Japanese Edit Japanese supermarket soy sauce corner Shōyu is traditionally divided into five main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production citation needed Most but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts citation needed They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry like flavor sometimes enhanced by the addition of small amounts of alcohol as a natural preservative citation needed The widely varying flavors of these soy sauces are not always interchangeable some recipes only call for one type or the other much as a white wine cannot replace a red s flavor or beef stock does not make the same results as fish stock Some soy sauces made in the Japanese way or styled after them contain about 50 wheat Varieties Edit Koikuchi 濃口 thick taste Originating in the Kantō region its usage eventually spread all over Japan Over 80 of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce It is made from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat 9 15 This variety is also called kijōyu 生醤油 or namashōyu 生しょうゆ when it is not pasteurized Usukuchi 薄口 thin taste Almost 14 of soy sauce production is usukuchi shoyu 9 It is particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan It matures for less time than koichuchi 15 and is both saltier and lighter in color It is paler due to the use in its production of amazake a sweet liquid made from fermented rice Usukuchi is commonly used in cooking as it does not alter the color and taste of the ingredients 9 Tamari たまり Made mainly in the Chubu region of Japan tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavor than koikuchi It contains little or no wheat Wheat free tamari can be used by people with gluten intolerance Tamari is more viscous than koikuchi shoyu 9 Of soy sauce produced in Japan 1 5 is tamari 9 It is the original Japanese soy sauce as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China Technically this variety is known as miso damari 味噌溜り as this is the liquid that runs off miso a soybean based seasoning and soup base as it matures The Japanese word tamari is derived from the verb tamaru 溜る to accumulate referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally a liquid byproduct made during the fermentation of miso Japan remains the leading producer of tamari citation needed though it has also become popular in the United States Tamari shoyu is often used for sashimi 15 9 Oftentimes other varieties of soy sauce for sashimi are inaccurately referred to as tamari shoyu 15 The back label in Japan by law will clarify whether or not it is actually tamari 15 Shiro 白 white In contrast to tamari soy sauce shiro uses mostly wheat and very little soybean lending it a light appearance and sweet taste It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food for example sashimi Shiro shoyu used to be used a lot in high class cookery and is generally not available abroad 15 Its main use is for pickles 9 Of soy sauce production in Japan 0 7 is shiro 9 Saishikomi 再仕込 twice brewed This variety substitutes previously made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process Consequently it is much darker and more strongly flavored This type is also known as kanro shōyu 甘露醤油 sweet soy sauce Of soy sauce production in Japan 0 8 is saishikomi 9 Kanro shoyu is a variety of soy sauce made exclusively in Yanai a city in Yamaguchi Prefecture 15 It is handmade and is less salty and less sweet than saishikomi shoyu 15 Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include 51 Gen en 減塩 reduced salt This version contains 50 less salt than regular soy sauce for consumers concerned about heart disease Usujio 薄塩 light salt This version contains 20 less salt than regular soy sauce All of these varieties are sold in three different grades according to how they were made Honjōzō 本醸造 genuine fermented Contains 100 genuine fermented product Kongō jōzō 混合醸造 mixed fermented Contains genuine fermented shōyu mash mixed with 30 50 of chemical or enzymatic hydrolysate of plant protein Kongō 混合 mixed Contains honjōzō or Kongō jōzō shōyu mixed with 30 50 of chemical or enzymatic hydrolysate of plant protein All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality 52 Hyōjun 標準 standard grade contains more than 1 2 total nitrogen Jōkyu 上級 upper grade contains more than 1 35 of total nitrogen Tokkyu 特級 special grade contains more than 1 5 of total nitrogenKorean Edit In South Korea soy sauces or ganjang 간장 seasoning sauce can be roughly split into two categories hansik ganjang Korean style soy sauce and gaeryang ganjang modernized soy sauce 53 54 The term ganjang can also refer to non soy based salty condiments such as eo ganjang fish sauce Traditional Korean soy sauce Hansik ganjang Edit Main article soup soy sauce Hansik ganjang 한식간장 Korean style soy sauce is made entirely of fermented soybean meju and brine It is a byproduct of doenjang fermented soybean paste production and has a unique fermented soybean flavour Both lighter in colour and saltier than other Korean ganjang varieties hansik ganjang is used mainly in guk soup and namul seasoned vegetable dish in modern Korean cuisine 55 Common names for hansik ganjang include jaeraesik ganjang 재래식 간장 traditional soy sauce Joseon ganjang 조선간장 Joseon soy sauce and guk ganjang 국간장 soup soy sauce The homebrewed variety is also called jip ganjang 집간장 home soy sauce Depending on the length of aging hansik ganjang can be divided into three main varieties clear middle and dark Haet ganjang 햇간장 new soy sauce soy sauce aged for a year Also called cheongjang 청장 clear soy sauce Jung ganjang 중간장 middle soy sauce soy sauce aged for three to four years Jin ganjang 진간장 dark soy sauce soy sauce aged for more than five years Also called jinjang 진장 aged soy sauce nongjang 농장 thick soy sauce or jingamjang 진감장 aged mature soy sauce Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety s Food Code classifies hansik ganjang into two categories by their ingredients 53 54 Jaerae hansik ganjang 재래한식간장 traditional Korean style soy sauce made with traditional style meju and brine Gaeryang hansik ganjang 개량한식간장 modernized Korean style soy sauce made with nontraditional meju which can be made of regular soybean rice barley wheat or soybean meal and ripened using traditional method or Aspergillus and brine Gaeryang ganjang Edit Gaeryang ganjang 개량간장 modernized soy sauce referring to varieties of soy sauces not made of meju is now the most widely used type of soy sauce in modern Korean cuisine 56 The word ganjang without modifiers in bokkeum stir fry jorim braised or simmered dishes and jjim steamed dishes recipes usually mean gaeryang ganjang Another common name of gaeryang ganjang is jin ganjang 진간장 dark soy sauce because gaeryang ganjang varieties are usually darker in appearance compared to traditional hansik ganjang Having been introduced to Korea during the era of Japanese forced occupation garyang ganjang is also called Wae ganjang 왜간장 Wae soy sauce Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety s Food Code classifies gaeryang ganjang into four categories by their method of production 53 54 Brewed soy sauce 양조간장 yangjo ganjang made by fermenting soybean soybean meal or other grains with saline solution Acid hydrolyzed soy sauce 산분해간장 made by hydrolyzing raw materials containing protein with acid Enzyme hydrolyzed soy sauce 효소분해간장 made by hydrolyzing raw materials containing protein with enzyme Blended soy sauce 혼합간장 Also called mixed soy sauce blended soy sauce can be made by blending hansik ganjang Korean style soy sauce or yangjo ganjang brewed soy sauce with acid hydrolyzed soy sauce or enzyme hydrolyzed soy sauce Other Edit Eo ganjang 어간장 fish sauce Made mainly in Jeju island eo ganjang is a soy sauce substitute made of jeotgal fermented fish 57 58 Malaysian and Singaporean Edit Malays from Malaysia using the Malay dialect similar to Indonesian use the word kicap for soy sauce Kicap is traditionally of two types kicap lemak lit fat rich soy sauce and kicap cair Kicap lemak is similar to Indonesian kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin Sri Lankan Edit Soy sauce Sinhala ස ය ස ස is a popular food product used in Sri Lanka and is a major ingredient used in the nationally popular street food dish Kottu 59 Soy sauce has largely been produced by the Sri Lankan Chinese community but its production has also spread to other communities in Sri Lanka Soy sauce production in Sri Lanka is the same as the production of soy sauce in Indonesia Fermentation occurs over a period of three months The soy beans which are steeped in brine are then pressed to obtain a liquid sauce 60 Taiwanese Edit The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong Taiwanese soy sauce is known for its black bean variant known as black bean soy sauce 黑豆蔭油 which takes longer to make about 6 months Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan make soy sauce from soybeans and wheat and are widely popular and are available in many Oriental Foods and Grocery Stores Some make black bean soy sauce which is very widely used in Chinese and Oriental cooking as an excellent flavor enhancer 61 Thai Edit Soft serve usually topped with Thai sweet soy sauce served at Yaowarat Bangkok Thailand In Thailand soy sauce is called sii iu Thai sixiw Sii iu kǎao Thai sixiwkhaw white soy sauce is used as regular soy sauce in Thai cuisine while sii iu dam Thai sixiwda black soy sauce is used primarily for colour Another darker coloured variety sii iu wǎan Thai sixiwhwan sweet soy sauce is used for dipping sauces Sɔ ɔt prung rot Thai sxsprungrs seasoning sauce is also commonly used in modern Thai cuisine Vietnamese Edit In Vietnam Chinese style soy sauce is called xi dầu derived from the Cantonese name 豉油 or nước tương The term soy sauce could also imply other condiments and soy bean paste with thick consistency known as tương Both are used mostly as a seasoning or dipping sauce for a number of dishes Vietnamese cuisine itself favors fish sauce in cooking but nước tương has a clear presence in vegetarian cuisine Nutrition EditA study by the National University of Singapore showed that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases 62 Unpasteurized soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti allergic potential 63 64 Soy sauce does not contain the level of isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame 65 It can also be very salty having a salt content between 14 18 Low sodium soy sauces are made but it is difficult to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt as an antimicrobial agent 66 A serving of 100 millilitres 3 5 imp fl oz 3 4 US fl oz of soy sauce contains according to the USDA Energy 60 kcal Fat 0 1 g Carbohydrates 5 57 g Fibers 0 8 g Protein 10 51 g Sodium 6 g Carcinogens Edit Soy sauce may contain ethyl carbamate a Group 2A carcinogen 67 In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in testing various soy sauces manufactured in mainland China Taiwan Hong Kong and Thailand made from hydrolyzed soy protein rather than being naturally fermented that 22 of tested samples contained a chemical carcinogen named 3 MCPD 3 monochloropropane 1 2 diol at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the EU About two thirds of these samples also contained a second carcinogenic chemical named 1 3 DCP 1 3 dichloropropane 2 ol which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided 68 69 70 71 The same carcinogens were found in soy sauces manufactured in Vietnam causing a food scare in 2007 72 73 In Canada the Canadian Cancer Society writes Health Canada has concluded that there is no health risk to Canadians from use of available soy and oyster sauces Because continuous lifetime exposure to high levels of 3 MCPD could pose a health risk Health Canada has established 1 0 part per million ppm as a guideline for importers of these sauces in order to reduce Canadians long term exposure to this chemical This is considered to be a very safe level 74 Allergies Edit Further information Soy allergy Soy sauce allergy not caused by soy or wheat allergy is rare 17 Most varieties of soy sauce contain wheat to which some people have a medical intolerance 75 However some naturally brewed soy sauces made with wheat may be tolerated by people with a specific intolerance to gluten because gluten is not detectable in the finished product 76 Japanese tamari soy sauce is traditionally wheat free and some tamari available commercially today is wheat and gluten free See also EditList of Chinese sauces List of condiments List of fermented soy productsReferences 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antitumor effect Dailian in Korean Retrieved 9 November 2016 황 광해 9 January 2013 바람이 말리고 세월이 삭힌 깊은 맛 Deep flavour dried by wind and fermented by time Weekly Hankook in Korean Retrieved 9 November 2016 Koo Chun Sur Spring 2004 Ganjang and Doenjang Traditional Fermented Seasonings PDF Koreana 18 1 The Korea Foundation Archived from the original PDF on 9 November 2016 Retrieved 9 November 2016 신 동민 9 November 2015 행복을 부르는 맛 간장 집에서 만든 만능간장소스 하나면 OK Ganjang the flavour that brings happiness Home made versatile ganjang sauce is all you need Maekyung Economy 1831 Retrieved 9 November 2016 a b 하 상도 11 January 2016 신라시대에 왕비 폐백품목에도 있었던 식품은 Guess what food was used for pyebaek ceremony of a Silla queen Chosun pub in Korean Retrieved 9 November 2016 김 성윤 19 January 2012 정월에 담근 장이 가장 맛있다는데 Jang tastes the best when made in the first month of the year in the Lunar calendar Chosun Ilbo in Korean Retrieved 9 November 2016 Tanaka p 6 Titsingh Isaac 1781 Bereiding van de Soya Producing Soy Sauce Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap Transactions of the Batavian Academy Vol III OCLC 9752305 a b Tanaka p 7 Warg Cajsa 1770 Hjelpreda i Hushallningen for Unga Fruentimber Soija pp 70 71 of the appendix Shurtleff William Aoyagi Akiko 2004 History of Soy Sauce Shoyu and Tamari Page 7 Soy Info Center Retrieved 27 December 2019 Lertsiri Sittiwat Maungma Roungdao Assavanig Apinya Bhumiratana Amaret 1 May 2001 Roles of the Maillard Reaction in Browning During Moromi Process of Thai Soy Sauce Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 25 2 149 162 doi 10 1111 j 1745 4549 2001 tb00450 x ISSN 1745 4549 Tamari Soy Sauce San J san j com Archived from the original on 18 February 2011 Maheshwari D K Dubey R C Saravanamuthu R 2010 Industrial exploitation of microorganisms New Delhi I K International Pub House p 242 ISBN 978 93 8002 653 4 Dorner J W December 1983 Production of cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita Applied and Environmental Microbiology 46 6 1435 1437 doi 10 1128 AEM 46 6 1435 1437 1983 ISSN 0099 2240 PMC 239590 PMID 6660879 Korean Restaurant Guide article on soy sauce Koreanrestaurantguide com Archived from the original on 27 September 2010 Retrieved 16 July 2010 Wan Wan 中国 日本和韩国的酱油有什么异同 Daily Zhihu a b c Feng Yunzi Cai Yu Su Guowan Zhao Haifeng Wang Chenxia Zhao Mouming February 2014 Evaluation of aroma differences between high salt liquid state fermentation and low salt solid state fermentation soy sauces from China Food Chemistry 145 126 134 doi 10 1016 j foodchem 2013 07 072 PMID 24128458 2017年中国酱油产量 出口量 进口量及表观消费量走势分析 图 中国产业信息网 www chyxx com a b Zhang Yanfang Tao Wenyi 18 February 2009 Flavor and taste compounds analysis in Chinese solid fermented soy sauce African Journal of Biotechnology 8 4 673 681 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 891 5204 Gao Xianli Cui Chun Ren Jiaoyan Zhao Haifeng Zhao Qiangzhong Zhao Mouming February 2011 Changes in the chemical composition of traditional Chinese type soy sauce at different stages of manufacture and its relation to taste International Journal of Food Science amp Technology 46 2 243 249 doi 10 1111 j 1365 2621 2010 02487 x Beavan Katrina 30 July 2019 NT liquor licensing laws affect sale of household cooking products vendors warned ABC News and Current Affairs Retrieved 30 July 2019 Tseng Yu Hsiu Lee Yu Ling Li Ruei Chian Mau Jeng Leun May 2005 Non volatile flavour components of Ganoderma tsugae Food Chemistry 90 3 409 415 doi 10 1016 j foodchem 2004 03 054 Kamal Ghulam Mustafa Wang Xiaohua Bin Yuan Wang Jie Sun Peng Zhang Xu Liu Maili September 2016 Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis Talanta 158 89 99 doi 10 1016 j talanta 2016 05 033 PMID 27343582 jzqu20519 咱へ故鄉 丸莊醬油 DOUBLE BLACK SOY SAUCE Anusasananan Linda Lau 8 October 2012 The Hakka Cookbook Chinese Soul Food from around the World University of California Press ISBN 978 0 520 95344 4 Liwanag M A Filipino Soy Sauce Pinoy Bites Retrieved 28 January 2021 Soy Sauce Clove Garden Retrieved 28 January 2021 Soy Sauce alohashoyu com About Aloha Shoyu Company Retrieved 7 August 2019 See discussion and references at Wiktionary ketchup William Shurtleff Akiko Aoyagi 2010 History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in Southeast Asia 13th Century To 2010 Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook Soyinfo Center p 537 ISBN 9781928914303 Retrieved 15 February 2016 Steinkraus Keith H ed 2004 Industrialization of indigenous fermented foods Second ed Marcel Dekker p 22 ISBN 978 0 8247 4784 8 Wood Brian J B ed 1998 Microbiology of fermented foods Volume 1 Second ed Blackie Academic amp Professional p 364 ISBN 978 0 7514 0216 2 volume has extra text help a b c Food Code No 2015 4 20150203 www mfds go kr MFDS Ministry of Food And Drug Safety 3 February 2015 Retrieved 9 November 2016 a b c 식품공전 제 5 식품별 기준 및 규격 20 장류 Food Code Article 5 Standards and Specifications for Each Food Product 20 Soy Sauces or Pastes www foodsafetykorea go kr in Korean 식품의약품안전처 식품안전정보포털 30 September 2016 Retrieved 9 November 2016 정 재균 4 April 2014 양조간장 진간장 국간장 무슨 차이지 간장의 종류별 활용법 Yangjo ganjang jin ganjang and guk ganjang What s the difference Uses of different types of ganjang Chosun Ilbo in Korean Retrieved 9 November 2016 Jung Soon Teck Kang Seong Gook 2002 The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea Archived from the original on 23 December 2007 Retrieved 7 January 2008 김 봉현 9 August 2010 제주에는 생선으로 만든 천연간장 이 있다 제주의 소리 Retrieved 5 November 2016 박 미향 10 October 2012 한국식 피시소스 제주어간장 아시나요 한겨레 Retrieved 5 November 2016 Chicken Kottu Roti Recipe Shurtleff William Huang H T Aoyagi Akiko 22 June 2014 History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in China and Taiwan and in Chinese Cookbooks Restaurants and Chinese Work with Soyfoods Outside China 1024 BCE to 2014 Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook Including Manchuria Hong Kong and Tibet ISBN 9781928914686 Chung Oscar 1 January 2010 A Sauce for All Taiwan Review Government Information Office Republic of China Taiwan Archived from the original on 11 March 2012 Retrieved 14 November 2010 Daniells Stephen 6 June 2006 Antioxidant rich soy sauce could protect against CVD nutraingredients com Retrieved 7 January 2008 Tanasupawat Somboon et al 18 June 2002 Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 48 4 201 209 doi 10 2323 jgam 48 201 PMID 12469319 Kobayashi Makio 18 April 2005 Immunological Functions of Soy Sauce Hypoallergenicity and Antiallergic Activity of Soy Sauce Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 100 2 144 151 doi 10 1263 jbb 100 144 PMID 16198255 Shahidi Fereidoon Naczk Marian 2003 Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals Edition 2 Florence Kentucky CRC Press p 103 ISBN 978 1 58716 138 4 Hutkins Robert Wayne 2006 Microbiology and technology of fermented foods Blackwell publishing ISBN 978 0 8138 0018 9 Matsudo T T Aoki K Abe N Fukuta T Higuchi M Sasaki amp K Uchida 1993 Determination of ethyl carbamate in soy sauce and its possible precursor J Agric Food Chem 41 3 352 356 doi 10 1021 jf00027a003 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Survey of 3 Monochloropropane 1 2 Diol 3 MCPD in Soy Sauce and Related Products Number 14 01 Food Standards Agency 18 June 2001 Retrieved 16 July 2010 Junelyn S de la Rosa May 2004 Is your soy sauce safe Bar gov ph Archived from the original on 15 January 2015 Retrieved 1 January 2015 Food Standards Agency 20 June 2001 Some Soy Sauce Products to Be Removed Press release Food Standards Agency Retrieved 7 January 2008 UK UK Food Standards Agency Soy advice leaflet VIETNAMNET Ha Noi Viet nam Soya sauce stirs worry and discontentment among public English vietnamnet vn Archived from the original on 15 May 2010 Retrieved 16 July 2010 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link AFP 11 September 2007 Toxic soy sauce chemical veggies food scares hit Vietnam Archived from the original on 19 January 2010 Retrieved 16 July 2010 Oyster and soy sauce Canadian Cancer Society Retrieved 25 December 2012 Celiac Disease Foundation Celiac Disease Foundation Does soy sauce contain gluten Soya be Retrieved 16 July 2010 Further reading EditHuang T C Teng D F 2004 Soy Sauce Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology doi 10 1201 9780203913550 ch29 ISBN 978 0 8247 4780 0 on the production of soy sauceExternal links Edit Media related to Soy sauce at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Soy sauce amp oldid 1053626677, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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