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Soyuz programme

The Soyuz programme ( , ; Russian:Союз , meaning "Union") is a human spaceflight programme initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s. The Soyuz spacecraft was originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. It was the third Soviet human spaceflight programme after the Vostok and Voskhod programmes.

Soyuz programme
Artist's impression of the Soyuz 19 spacecraft from the Apollo–Soyuz mission
CountrySoviet Union
Russia
OrganizationRoscosmos (1991–present)
StatusOngoing
Programme history
First crewed flightSoyuz 1
Launch site(s)Baikonur
Vehicle information
Uncrewed vehicle(s)Progress
Crewed vehicle(s)Soyuz
Crew capacity1–3
Launch vehicle(s)

The programme consists of the Soyuz spacecraft and the Soyuz rocket and is now the responsibility of the Russian Roscosmos. After the retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2011, Soyuz was the only way for human spaceflight to the International Space Station (ISS) until 30 May 2020, when Crew Dragon flew to the ISS for the first time with astronauts.

Contents

Main article: Soyuz (rocket family)
Soyuz rocket on launch pad.

The launch vehicles used in the Soyuz expendable launch system are manufactured at the Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center (TsSKB-Progress) in Samara, Russia. As well as being used in the Soyuz programme as the launcher for the crewed Soyuz spacecraft, Soyuz launch vehicles are now also used to launch robotic Progress supply spacecraft to the International Space Station and commercial launches marketed and operated by TsSKB-Progress and the Starsem company. Currently Soyuz vehicles are launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northwest Russia and, since 2011, Soyuz launch vehicles are also being launched from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana. The Spaceport's new Soyuz launch site has been handling Soyuz launches since 21 October 2011, the date of the first launch. As of December 2019, 19 Guiana Soyuz launches had been made from French Guiana Space Centre, all successful.

Main article: Soyuz (spacecraft)

The basic Soyuz spacecraft design was the basis for many projects, many of which were never developed. Its earliest form was intended to travel to the Moon without employing a huge booster like the Saturn V or the Soviet N-1 by repeatedly docking with upper stages that had been put in orbit using the same rocket as the Soyuz. This and the initial civilian designs were done under the Soviet Chief Designer Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, who did not live to see the craft take flight. Several military derivatives took precedence in the Soviet design process, though they never came to pass.

A Soyuz spacecraft consists of three parts (from front to back):

There have been many variants of the Soyuz spacecraft, including:

The Zond spacecraft was designed to take a crew around the Moon, but never achieved the required degree of safety or political need. Zond 5 did circle the Moon in September, 1968, with two tortoises and other life forms, and returned safely to Earth although in an atmospheric entry which probably would have killed human travelers.

The Progress series of robotic cargo ships for the Salyut, Mir, and ISS use the engine section, orbital module, automatic navigation, docking mechanism, and overall layout of the Soyuz spacecraft, but are incapable of reentry.

While not a direct derivative, the Chinese Shenzhou spacecraft follows the basic template originally pioneered by Soyuz.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soyuz program.
  1. "Soyuz & Vega at the Spaceport". Archived from the original on 15 April 2009.
  2. "Galileo: Europe readies itself for October launch".
  3. "CNES at Europe's Spaceport". European Space Agency. ESA.
  4. "ESA at Europe's Spaceport". European Space Agency. ESA.
  5. "Arianespace at Europe's Spaceport". European Space Agency. ESA.
  6. Shenzhou-5 – Quick Facts Archived 2010-02-01 at the Wayback Machine. Astronautix.com. Retrieved on 2013-10-23.
  7. "ShenZhou Manned Spacecraft". sinodefence.com. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved18 May 2021.
  8. "Launch and Landing". NASA. Retrieved1 July 2011.
  9. "SpaceX Launched Two Astronauts—Changing Spaceflight Forever". Wired. Retrieved31 May 2020.
  10. LA times, U.S.-Russian Crew Blasts Off to Space, By David Holley, 26 April 2003, Times Staff Writer
  11. Beyond the Saga of Rocket Science: In Space to Stay, By Walter Sierra, page 225-226, 2019

Soyuz programme
Soyuz programme Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Soyuz program The Soyuz programme ˈ s ɔɪ juː z SOY yooz ˈ s ɔː SAW Russian Soyuz sɐˈjus meaning Union is a human spaceflight programme initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s The Soyuz spacecraft was originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon It was the third Soviet human spaceflight programme after the Vostok and Voskhod programmes Soyuz programmeArtist s impression of the Soyuz 19 spacecraft from the Apollo Soyuz missionCountrySoviet Union RussiaOrganizationRoscosmos 1991 present StatusOngoingProgramme historyFirst crewed flightSoyuz 1Launch site s BaikonurVehicle informationUncrewed vehicle s ProgressCrewed vehicle s SoyuzCrew capacity1 3Launch vehicle s Soyuz USoyuz FGSoyuz 2 The programme consists of the Soyuz spacecraft and the Soyuz rocket and is now the responsibility of the Russian Roscosmos After the retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2011 Soyuz was the only way for human spaceflight to the International Space Station ISS until 30 May 2020 when Crew Dragon flew to the ISS for the first time with astronauts Contents 1 Soyuz rocket 2 Soyuz spacecraft 3 Derivatives 4 Soyuz crewed flights 5 Soyuz uncrewed flights 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 ReferencesSoyuz rocket EditMain article Soyuz rocket family Soyuz rocket on launch pad The launch vehicles used in the Soyuz expendable launch system are manufactured at the Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center TsSKB Progress in Samara Russia As well as being used in the Soyuz programme as the launcher for the crewed Soyuz spacecraft Soyuz launch vehicles are now also used to launch robotic Progress supply spacecraft to the International Space Station and commercial launches marketed and operated by TsSKB Progress and the Starsem company Currently Soyuz vehicles are launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northwest Russia and since 2011 Soyuz launch vehicles are also being launched from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana 1 The Spaceport s new Soyuz launch site has been handling Soyuz launches since 21 October 2011 the date of the first launch 2 As of December 2019 19 Guiana Soyuz launches had been made from French Guiana Space Centre all successful 3 4 5 Soyuz spacecraft EditMain article Soyuz spacecraft The basic Soyuz spacecraft design was the basis for many projects many of which were never developed Its earliest form was intended to travel to the Moon without employing a huge booster like the Saturn V or the Soviet N 1 by repeatedly docking with upper stages that had been put in orbit using the same rocket as the Soyuz This and the initial civilian designs were done under the Soviet Chief Designer Sergei Pavlovich Korolev who did not live to see the craft take flight Several military derivatives took precedence in the Soviet design process though they never came to pass A Soyuz spacecraft consists of three parts from front to back a spheroid orbital module a small aerodynamic reentry module a cylindrical service module with solar panels attached There have been many variants of the Soyuz spacecraft including Soyuz A 7K 9K 11K circumlunar complex proposal 1963 Soyuz 7K crewed spacecraft concept Soyuz 9K proposed booster Soyuz 11K proposed fuel tanker Soyuz 7K OK 1967 1970 Soyuz 7K L1 Zond 1967 1970 Soyuz 7K L3 LOK 1971 1972 Soyuz 7K OKS 1971 Soyuz 7K T or ferry 1973 1981 Soyuz 7K T A9 1974 1978 7K MF6 1976 Soyuz 7K TM 1974 1976 Soyuz T 1976 1986 Soyuz TM 1986 2003 Soyuz TMA 2003 2012 Soyuz ACTS 2006 Soyuz TMA M 2010 2016 Soyuz MS since 2016 Military Soyuz P PPK R 7K VI Zvezda and OIS Soyuz P crewed satellite interceptor proposal 1962 Soyuz R command reconnaissance spacecraft proposal 1962 Soyuz 7K TK 1966 Soyuz PPK revised version of Soyuz P 1964 Soyuz 7K VI Zvezda space station proposal 1964 Soyuz OIS 1967 Soyuz OB VI space station proposal 1967 Soyuz 7K S military transport proposal 1974 Soyuz 7K ST concept for Soyuz T and TM 1974 Derivatives EditThe Zond spacecraft was designed to take a crew around the Moon but never achieved the required degree of safety or political need Zond 5 did circle the Moon in September 1968 with two tortoises and other life forms and returned safely to Earth although in an atmospheric entry which probably would have killed human travelers The Progress series of robotic cargo ships for the Salyut Mir and ISS use the engine section orbital module automatic navigation docking mechanism and overall layout of the Soyuz spacecraft but are incapable of reentry While not a direct derivative the Chinese Shenzhou spacecraft follows the basic template originally pioneered by Soyuz 6 7 Soyuz crewed flights EditFurther information List of Soviet human spaceflight missions and List of Russian human spaceflight missions Soviet human spaceflight missions started in 1961 and ended in 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union The Russian human spaceflight missions program started in 1991 and continues to this day Soyuz crewed missions were the only spacecraft visiting the International Space Station starting from when the Space Shuttle program ended in 2011 until the launch of Crew Dragon Demo 2 on 30 May 2020 8 9 The International Space Station always has at least one Soyuz spacecraft docked at all times for use as an escape craft 10 11 Soyuz uncrewed flights EditKosmos 133 launch failure Kosmos 140 reentry damage Kosmos 186 Kosmos 188 Kosmos 212 Kosmos 213 Kosmos 238 Soyuz 2 failed to dock Kosmos 379 Kosmos 396 Kosmos 434 Kosmos 496 Kosmos 573 Kosmos 613 Kosmos 638 Kosmos 656 Kosmos 670 Kosmos 672 Kosmos 772 partial fail Soyuz 20 Kosmos 869 Kosmos 1001 Kosmos 1074 Soyuz T 1 Soyuz TM 1 Soyuz MS 14Gallery Edit Soyuz TMA 3 launch Soyuz 19 as seen from the Apollo spacecraft during Apollo Soyuz Test Project July 1975 Soyuz TMA 14M landing Soyuz TMA 16M approaching the ISSSee also Edit Spaceflight portal Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soyuz program Shenzhou a Chinese spacecraft influenced by Soyuz Space Shuttle Buran spacecraft List of spaceflight related accidents and incidentsReferences Edit Soyuz amp Vega at the Spaceport Archived from the original on 15 April 2009 Galileo Europe readies itself for October launch CNES at Europe s Spaceport European Space Agency ESA ESA at Europe s Spaceport European Space Agency ESA Arianespace at Europe s Spaceport European Space Agency ESA Shenzhou 5 Quick Facts Archived 2010 02 01 at the Wayback Machine Astronautix com Retrieved on 2013 10 23 ShenZhou Manned Spacecraft sinodefence com Archived from the original on 2 December 2010 Retrieved 18 May 2021 Launch and Landing NASA Retrieved 1 July 2011 SpaceX Launched Two Astronauts Changing Spaceflight Forever Wired Retrieved 31 May 2020 LA times U S Russian Crew Blasts Off to Space By David Holley 26 April 2003 Times Staff Writer Beyond the Saga of Rocket Science In Space to Stay By Walter Sierra page 225 226 2019 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Soyuz programme amp oldid 1023901372, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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