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Starčevo culture

The Starčevo culture is an archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dating to the Neolithic period between c. 6200 and 4500 BCE. It originates in the spread of the Neolithic package of peoples and technological innovations including farming and ceramics from Anatolia to the area of Sesklo. The Starčevo culture marks its spread to the inland Balkan peninsula as the Cardial ware culture did along the Adriatic coastline. It forms part of the wider Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture which gave rise to the central European Linear Pottery culture c. 700 years after the initial spread of Neolithic farmers towards the northern Balkans.

The village of Starčevo, the type site, is located on the north bank of the Danube in Serbia (Vojvodina province), opposite Belgrade.

Contents

Neolithic expansion from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE

The Starčevo culture represents a northern expansion of Early Neolithic Farmers who settled from Anatolia to present-day central Greece and expanded northwards. It forms part of the wider Starčevo–Körös–Criș culture. The river routes which traverse present-day Northern Macedonia have been suggested as the potential path of the movement of peoples and farming knowledge. The Sesklo site has been generally viewed as the direct point of northwards expansion, but in 2020 radiocarbon dating across several sites showed that the site in Mavropigi (ca. 180 northwest of Sesklo) is a much more probable point of origin of the population movement along the river routes towards the central Balkans. As of 2020, the two oldest dated sites are Crkvina near Miokovci, Serbia and Runik, Kosovo which are statistically indistinguishable to each other and have been dated to ca. 6238 BCE (6362-6098 BCE at 95% CI) and ca. 6185 BCE (6325–6088 BCE at 95% Cl) respectively.

These two earliest sites were followed by a second cluster of sites which developed ca. 6200-6000 BCE in southern and central Serbia. The next expansion is located in eastern Serbia (Lepenski Vir) ca. 6100 BCE and since ca. 6000 BCE another cluster of settlements appears in northern Serbia. This general route of expansion suggests a wave of expansion model along river routes like the Morava Valley but it is not a strictly defined model as not all northern sites are of a later date in comparison to sites to the south of them and vice versa.

The pottery is usually coarse but finer fluted and painted vessels later emerged. A type of bone spatula, perhaps for scooping flour, is a distinctive artifact. The Körös is a similar culture in Hungary named after the River Körös with a closely related culture which also used footed vessels but fewer painted ones. Both have given their names to the wider culture of the region in that period.

Parallel and closely related cultures also include the Karanovo culture in Bulgaria, Criş in Romania and the pre-Sesklo in Greece.

The Starčevo culture covered sizable area that included much of present-day western and southern Serbia, Montenegro (except for the coastal region), Kosovo,[a] parts of eastern Albania, eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, western Bulgaria, eastern Croatia, Hungary, North Macedonia and Romania.

The westernmost locality of this culture can be found in Croatia, in the vicinity of Ždralovi, a part of the town of Bjelovar. The region of Slavonia in present-day Croatia is the westernmost area of settlement of the Starčevo culture. Between 6200-5500 BCE this area saw intensive habitation and land use organized around Zadubravlje, Galovo, Sarvaš, Pepelane, Stari Perkovci and other sites. This was the final stage of the culture. Findings from Ždralovi belong to a regional subtype of the final variant in the long process of development of that Neolithic culture. In 1990, Starčevo was added to the Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance list, protected by Republic of Serbia.

In Kosovo, the Starčevo material culture has been found in pre-Vinca layers in the sites of Vlashnjë and Runik.

In a 2017 genetic study published in Nature, the remains of five males ascribed to the early Starčevo culture was analyzed. With regards to Y-DNA extracted, three belonged to subclades of G2a2, and two belonged to H2. mtDNA extracted were subclades of T, K, N, W and X.

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states have recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.
  1. Istorijski atlas, Intersistem Kartografija, Beograd, 2010, page 11.
  2. Chapman, John (2000). Fragmentation in Archaeology: People, Places, and Broken Objects. London: Routledge. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-415-15803-9..
  3. Gyulai 2016, p. 125.
  4. Porčić et al. 2020, p. 3.
  5. Porčić et al. 2020, p. 6
  6. Istorijski atlas, Intersistem Kartografija, Beograd, 2010, page 11.
  7. "The Starčevo culture". Retrieved2017-12-05.
  8. Rajković & Vitezović 2020, p. 156.
  9. Lipson 2017.
  10. Narasimhan 2019.
Books
Journals
  • Lipson, Mark (November 16, 2017). "Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers". Nature. Nature Research. 551 (7680): 368–372. doi:10.1038/nature24476. PMC5973800. PMID 29144465.
  • Mikić, Živko (1989). "Прилог антрополошком упознавању неолита у Србији". Гласник Српског археолошког друштва. Belgrade. 5: 18–26.
  • Narasimhan, Vagheesh M. (September 6, 2019). "The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 365 (6457): eaat7487. bioRxiv10.1101/292581. doi:10.1126/science.aat7487. PMC6822619. PMID 31488661.
  • Porčić, Marko; Blagojević, Tamara; Pendić, Jugoslav; Stefanović, Sofija (2020). "The timing and tempo of the Neolithic expansion across the Central Balkans in the light of the new radiocarbon evidence". Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 33: 102528. doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2020.102528.
  • Rajković, Dragana; Vitezović, Selena (2020). "The Starčevo Culture Horizon at the Site of Kneževi Vinogradi (Eastern Croatia). Lithic and Osseous Industries". Documenta Praehistorica. XLVII. doi:10.4312/dp.47.9.
  • Тасић, Н., 1998. Старчевачка култура. Во Тасиђ Н.(уред.) Археолошко благо Косова и Метохије, Од неолита до раног средљег века. Музеј у Приштини. Београд: Српска Академија Наука и Уметности, pp. 30–55.
  • Manson, J.L., 1992. A reanalysis of Starcevo culture ceramics: Implications for neolithic development in the Balkans.
  • Kalicz, N., Virág, Z.M. and Biró, K.T., 1998. The northern periphery of the Early Neolithic Starčevo culture in south-western Hungary: a case study of an excavation at Lake Balaton.
  • Minichreiter, K., 2001. The architecture of Early and Middle Neolithic settlements of the Starčevo culture in Northern Croatia. Documenta Praehistorica, 28, pp. 199–214.
  • Clason, A.T., 2016. Padina and Starčevo: game, fish and cattle. Palaeohistoria, 22, pp. 141–173.
  • Bartosiewicz, L., 2005. Plain talk: animals, environment and culture in the Neolithic of the Carpathian Basin and adjacent areas. Un) settling the Neolithic. Oxbow, Oxford, pp. 51–63.
  • Barker, G., 1975, December. Early Neolithic land use in Yugoslavia. In Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society (Vol. 41, pp. 85–104). Cambridge University Press.
  • Regenye, J., 2007. A Starcevo-kultúra települése a Tihanyi-félszigeten (A settlement of the Starcevo culture on the Tihany peninsula). Osrégészeti Levelek. Prehistoric Newsletter, pp. 8–9.
  • Tasic, N., 2000. Salt use in the Early and Middle Neolithic of the Balkan Peninsula. BAR International Series, 854, pp. 35–40.
  • Bogucki, P., 1996. The spread of early farming in Europe. American Scientist, 84(3), pp. 242–253.
  • Bánffy, E., 2004. Advances in the research of the Neolithic transition in the Carpathian Basin. LBK dialogues: studies in the formation of the Linear Pottery Culture. British Archaeological Reports. Oxford: Archaeopress. p, pp. 49–70.
  • Leković, V., 1990. The vinčanization of Starčevo culture. In Vinča and its world, International symposium–The Danubian region from (Vol. 6000, pp. 67–74).
  • Boric, D., 1996. Social dimensions of mortuary practices in the Neolithic: a case study. Starinar, (47), pp. 67–83.
  • Vitezović, S., 2012. The white beauty-Starčevo culture jewellery. Documenta Praehistorica, 39, p. 215.
  • Regenye, J.U.D.I.T., 2010. What about the other side: Starčevo and LBK settlements north of Lake Balaton. Neolithization of the Carpathian basin: northernmost distribution of the Starčevo/Körös culture (Kraków/Budapest 2010), pp. 53–64.
  • Brukner, B., 2006. A Contribution to the Study of Establishment of Ethnic and Cultural (Dis) continuity at the Transition from the Starčevo to the Vinča culture group. From Starčevo to Vinča culture, Current problems of the Transition Period, Proceedings from the International round table, Zrenjanin 1996, pp. 165–178.
  • Vitezović, S., 2014. Antlers as raw material in the Starčevo culture. Archaeotechnology: Studying Technology from Prehistory to the Middle Ages, Srpsko arheološko društvo, Beograd, pp. 151–176.
  • Nikolić, D., 2005. The development of pottery in the Middle Neolithic and chronological systems of the Starčevo culture. Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva, 21, pp. 45–70.
  • Marinković, S., 2006. Starčevo Culture in Banat. Current Problems of the Transition Period from the Starčevo to the Vinča Culture. National Museum Zrenjanin, 1, pp. 63–79.
  • Minichreiter, K., 2010. Above-ground Structures in the Settlements of the Starčevo Culture. Prilozi Instituta za arheologiju u Zagrebu, 26(1).

Starčevo culture
Starcevo culture Language Watch Edit The Starcevo culture is an archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe dating to the Neolithic period between c 6200 and 4500 BCE 1 2 It originates in the spread of the Neolithic package of peoples and technological innovations including farming and ceramics from Anatolia to the area of Sesklo The Starcevo culture marks its spread to the inland Balkan peninsula as the Cardial ware culture did along the Adriatic coastline It forms part of the wider Starcevo Koros Cris culture which gave rise to the central European Linear Pottery culture c 700 years after the initial spread of Neolithic farmers towards the northern Balkans Starcevo culturePeriodNeolithic EuropeDatescirca 6 200 B C E circa 4 500 B C E Type siteStarcevoPreceded byIron Gates culture Mesolithic Romania Koros culture Sesklo culture Dimini culture Neolithic GreeceFollowed byVinca culture Gumelnița Karanovo culture Kakanj culture The village of Starcevo the type site is located on the north bank of the Danube in Serbia Vojvodina province opposite Belgrade Contents 1 Origins 2 Characteristics and related cultures 3 Sites 4 Genetic studies 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksOrigins Edit Neolithic expansion from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE The Starcevo culture represents a northern expansion of Early Neolithic Farmers who settled from Anatolia to present day central Greece and expanded northwards It forms part of the wider Starcevo Koros Criș culture The river routes which traverse present day Northern Macedonia have been suggested as the potential path of the movement of peoples and farming knowledge 3 The Sesklo site has been generally viewed as the direct point of northwards expansion but in 2020 radiocarbon dating across several sites showed that the site in Mavropigi ca 180 northwest of Sesklo is a much more probable point of origin of the population movement along the river routes towards the central Balkans 4 As of 2020 the two oldest dated sites are Crkvina near Miokovci Serbia and Runik Kosovo which are statistically indistinguishable to each other and have been dated to ca 6238 BCE 6362 6098 BCE at 95 CI and ca 6185 BCE 6325 6088 BCE at 95 Cl respectively 5 These two earliest sites were followed by a second cluster of sites which developed ca 6200 6000 BCE in southern and central Serbia The next expansion is located in eastern Serbia Lepenski Vir ca 6100 BCE and since ca 6000 BCE another cluster of settlements appears in northern Serbia This general route of expansion suggests a wave of expansion model along river routes like the Morava Valley but it is not a strictly defined model as not all northern sites are of a later date in comparison to sites to the south of them and vice versa 5 Characteristics and related cultures EditThe pottery is usually coarse but finer fluted and painted vessels later emerged A type of bone spatula perhaps for scooping flour is a distinctive artifact The Koros is a similar culture in Hungary named after the River Koros with a closely related culture which also used footed vessels but fewer painted ones Both have given their names to the wider culture of the region in that period Parallel and closely related cultures also include the Karanovo culture in Bulgaria Cris in Romania and the pre Sesklo in Greece Sites EditThe Starcevo culture covered sizable area that included much of present day western and southern Serbia Montenegro except for the coastal region Kosovo a parts of eastern Albania eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina western Bulgaria eastern Croatia Hungary North Macedonia and Romania 6 7 The westernmost locality of this culture can be found in Croatia in the vicinity of Zdralovi a part of the town of Bjelovar The region of Slavonia in present day Croatia is the westernmost area of settlement of the Starcevo culture Between 6200 5500 BCE this area saw intensive habitation and land use organized around Zadubravlje Galovo Sarvas Pepelane Stari Perkovci and other sites 8 This was the final stage of the culture Findings from Zdralovi belong to a regional subtype of the final variant in the long process of development of that Neolithic culture In 1990 Starcevo was added to the Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance list protected by Republic of Serbia In Kosovo the Starcevo material culture has been found in pre Vinca layers in the sites of Vlashnje and Runik Genetic studies EditIn a 2017 genetic study published in Nature the remains of five males ascribed to the early Starcevo culture was analyzed With regards to Y DNA extracted three belonged to subclades of G2a2 and two belonged to H2 mtDNA extracted were subclades of T K N W and X 9 10 See also EditKoros culture Cris culture Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance Prehistoric Serbia Vinca cultureNotes Edita Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008 Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013 as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states In total 112 UN member states have recognized Kosovo at some point of which 15 later withdrew their recognition References Edit Istorijski atlas Intersistem Kartografija Beograd 2010 page 11 Chapman John 2000 Fragmentation in Archaeology People Places and Broken Objects London Routledge p 237 ISBN 978 0 415 15803 9 Gyulai 2016 p 125 Porcic et al 2020 p 3 a b Porcic et al 2020 p 6 Istorijski atlas Intersistem Kartografija Beograd 2010 page 11 The Starcevo culture Retrieved 2017 12 05 Rajkovic amp Vitezovic 2020 p 156 Lipson 2017 Narasimhan 2019 Sources EditBooksGyulai Ference 2016 Seed and fruit remains associated with neolithic origins in the Carpathia Basin In Colledge Sue Connolly James eds The Origins and Spread of Domestic Plants in Southwest Asia and Europe Routledge ISBN 978 1315417608 Trbuhovic V 2006 Indoevropljani Indo Europeans Belgrade Pesic i sinovi Trifunovic Lazar ed 1968 Neolit Centralnog Balkana Les regions centrales des Balkans a l epoque neolithique Belgrade Narodni muzej Beograd Stalio B Vukmanovic M 1977 Neolit na tlu Srbije Narodni muzej Nenad N Tasic 2009 Neolitska kvadratura kruga Zavod za Udzbenike ISBN 978 86 17 16535 0 Mallory James P 2006 1991 Indoeuropljani zagonetka njihova podrijetla jezik arheologija mit In Search of the Indo Europeans Language Archaeology and Myth Translated ed Skolska knjiga ISBN 978 953 0 61568 7 JournalsLipson Mark November 16 2017 Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers Nature Nature Research 551 7680 368 372 doi 10 1038 nature24476 PMC 5973800 PMID 29144465 Mikic Zivko 1989 Prilog antropoloshkom upoznavaњu neolita u Srbiјi Glasnik Srpskog arheoloshkog drushtva Belgrade 5 18 26 Narasimhan Vagheesh M September 6 2019 The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 365 6457 eaat7487 bioRxiv 10 1101 292581 doi 10 1126 science aat7487 PMC 6822619 PMID 31488661 Porcic Marko Blagojevic Tamara Pendic Jugoslav Stefanovic Sofija 2020 The timing and tempo of the Neolithic expansion across the Central Balkans in the light of the new radiocarbon evidence Journal of Archaeological Science Reports 33 102528 doi 10 1016 j jasrep 2020 102528 Rajkovic Dragana Vitezovic Selena 2020 The Starcevo Culture Horizon at the Site of Knezevi Vinogradi Eastern Croatia Lithic and Osseous Industries Documenta Praehistorica XLVII doi 10 4312 dp 47 9 Tasiћ N 1998 Starchevachka kultura Vo Tasiђ N ured Arheoloshko blago Kosova i Metohiјe Od neolita do ranog sredљeg veka Muzeј u Prishtini Beograd Srpska Akademiјa Nauka i Umetnosti pp 30 55 Manson J L 1992 A reanalysis of Starcevo culture ceramics Implications for neolithic development in the Balkans Kalicz N Virag Z M and Biro K T 1998 The northern periphery of the Early Neolithic Starcevo culture in south western Hungary a case study of an excavation at Lake Balaton Minichreiter K 2001 The architecture of Early and Middle Neolithic settlements of the Starcevo culture in Northern Croatia Documenta Praehistorica 28 pp 199 214 Clason A T 2016 Padina and Starcevo game fish and cattle Palaeohistoria 22 pp 141 173 Bartosiewicz L 2005 Plain talk animals environment and culture in the Neolithic of the Carpathian Basin and adjacent areas Un settling the Neolithic Oxbow Oxford pp 51 63 Barker G 1975 December Early Neolithic land use in Yugoslavia In Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society Vol 41 pp 85 104 Cambridge University Press Regenye J 2007 A Starcevo kultura telepulese a Tihanyi felszigeten A settlement of the Starcevo culture on the Tihany peninsula Osregeszeti Levelek Prehistoric Newsletter pp 8 9 Tasic N 2000 Salt use in the Early and Middle Neolithic of the Balkan Peninsula BAR International Series 854 pp 35 40 Bogucki P 1996 The spread of early farming in Europe American Scientist 84 3 pp 242 253 Banffy E 2004 Advances in the research of the Neolithic transition in the Carpathian Basin LBK dialogues studies in the formation of the Linear Pottery Culture British Archaeological Reports Oxford Archaeopress p pp 49 70 Lekovic V 1990 The vincanization of Starcevo culture In Vinca and its world International symposium The Danubian region from Vol 6000 pp 67 74 Boric D 1996 Social dimensions of mortuary practices in the Neolithic a case study Starinar 47 pp 67 83 Vitezovic S 2012 The white beauty Starcevo culture jewellery Documenta Praehistorica 39 p 215 Regenye J U D I T 2010 What about the other side Starcevo and LBK settlements north of Lake Balaton Neolithization of the Carpathian basin northernmost distribution of the Starcevo Koros culture Krakow Budapest 2010 pp 53 64 Brukner B 2006 A Contribution to the Study of Establishment of Ethnic and Cultural Dis continuity at the Transition from the Starcevo to the Vinca culture group From Starcevo to Vinca culture Current problems of the Transition Period Proceedings from the International round table Zrenjanin 1996 pp 165 178 Vitezovic S 2014 Antlers as raw material in the Starcevo culture Archaeotechnology Studying Technology from Prehistory to the Middle Ages Srpsko arheolosko drustvo Beograd pp 151 176 Nikolic D 2005 The development of pottery in the Middle Neolithic and chronological systems of the Starcevo culture Glasnik Srpskog arheoloskog drustva 21 pp 45 70 Marinkovic S 2006 Starcevo Culture in Banat Current Problems of the Transition Period from the Starcevo to the Vinca Culture National Museum Zrenjanin 1 pp 63 79 Minichreiter K 2010 Above ground Structures in the Settlements of the Starcevo Culture Prilozi Instituta za arheologiju u Zagrebu 26 1 Further reading EditShennan Stephen 2018 The First Farmers of Europe An Evolutionary Perspective Cambridge World Archaeology Cambridge University Press doi 10 1017 9781108386029 ISBN 9781108422925 External links EditThe Starcevo culture Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Starcevo culture amp oldid 1026718739, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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