Star Trek is an American science fiction media franchise created by Gene Roddenberry, which began with the eponymous 1960s series and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon. The franchise has been expanded into various films, television series, video games, novels, and comic books. With an estimated $10.6 billion in revenue, Star Trek is one of the most recognizable and highest-grossing media franchises of all time. The Next Generation films Reboot (Kelvin Timeline) films Streaming series The franchise began with Star Trek: The Original Series, which debuted in the US on September 8, 1966, and aired for three seasons on NBC. It was first broadcast on September 6, 1966, on Canada's CTV network. It followed the voyages of the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel built by the United Federation of Planets in the 23rd century, on a mission "to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no man has gone before". In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower series of novels, Jonathan Swift's 1726 novel Gulliver's Travels, the 1956 film Forbidden Planet, and television westerns such as Wagon Train. The Star Trek canon includes the Original Series, nine spin-off television series, and a film franchise; further adaptations also exist in several media. After the conclusion of the Original Series, the adventures of its characters continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. A television revival beginning in the 1980s saw three sequel series and a prequel: Star Trek: The Next Generation, following the crew of a new starship Enterprise a century after the original series; Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Voyager, set in the same era as the Next Generation; and Enterprise, set before the original series in the early days of human interstellar travel. The adventures of the Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a reboot, creating an alternate continuity known as the Kelvin timeline; three films have been set in this continuity. The newest Star Trek television revival, beginning in 2017, includes the series Star Trek: Discovery, Picard, Short Treks, Lower Decks, and Prodigy, streaming exclusively on digital platforms, with an additional series, Star Trek: Strange New Worlds, currently in development. Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called "Trekkies" or "Trekkers". The franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, figurines, novels, toys, and comics. From 1998 to 2008, there was a Star Trek–themed attraction in Las Vegas. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world. The constructed language Klingon was created for the franchise. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions. Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is also noted for its progressive civil rights stances. The Original Series included one of the first multiracial casts on US television.
Star Trek Created by Gene Roddenberry Original work Star Trek: The Original Series Owner ViacomCBS Print publications Book(s) Novel(s) List of novels Comics List of comics Magazine(s) Films and television Film(s) The Original Series films Television series Broadcast television series Animated series Television short(s) Short Treks (2018–2020) Games Traditional List of games Miscellaneous Theme park attraction(s) Exhibits Official website www.startrek.com
Star Trek is an American science fiction media franchise created by Gene Roddenberry, which began with the eponymous 1960s series and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon. The franchise has been expanded into various films, television series, video games, novels, and comic books. With an estimated $10.6 billion in revenue, Star Trek is one of the most recognizable and highest-grossing media franchises of all time.
The Next Generation films
Reboot (Kelvin Timeline) films
The franchise began with Star Trek: The Original Series, which debuted in the US on September 8, 1966, and aired for three seasons on NBC. It was first broadcast on September 6, 1966, on Canada's CTV network. It followed the voyages of the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel built by the United Federation of Planets in the 23rd century, on a mission "to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no man has gone before". In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower series of novels, Jonathan Swift's 1726 novel Gulliver's Travels, the 1956 film Forbidden Planet, and television westerns such as Wagon Train.
The Star Trek canon includes the Original Series, nine spin-off television series, and a film franchise; further adaptations also exist in several media. After the conclusion of the Original Series, the adventures of its characters continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. A television revival beginning in the 1980s saw three sequel series and a prequel: Star Trek: The Next Generation, following the crew of a new starship Enterprise a century after the original series; Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Voyager, set in the same era as the Next Generation; and Enterprise, set before the original series in the early days of human interstellar travel. The adventures of the Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a reboot, creating an alternate continuity known as the Kelvin timeline; three films have been set in this continuity. The newest Star Trek television revival, beginning in 2017, includes the series Star Trek: Discovery, Picard, Short Treks, Lower Decks, and Prodigy, streaming exclusively on digital platforms, with an additional series, Star Trek: Strange New Worlds, currently in development.
Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called "Trekkies" or "Trekkers". The franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, figurines, novels, toys, and comics. From 1998 to 2008, there was a Star Trek–themed attraction in Las Vegas. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world. The constructed language Klingon was created for the franchise. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions.
Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is also noted for its progressive civil rights stances. The Original Series included one of the first multiracial casts on US television.
As early as 1964, Gene Roddenberry drafted a proposal for the science fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon Train to the Stars"—he privately told friends that he was modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale.
Most Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans and aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets. The protagonists have altruistic values, and must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas.
Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of Star Trek are allegories of contemporary cultural realities. The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s, just as later spin-offs have tackled issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty, authoritarianism, imperialism, class warfare, economics, racism, religion, human rights, sexism, feminism, and the role of technology.: 57 Roddenberry stated: "[By creating] a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, religion, Vietnam, politics, and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and fortunately they all got by the network.": 79 "If you talked about purple people on a far off planet, they (the television network) never really caught on. They were more concerned about cleavage. They actually would send a censor down to the set to measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't showing"
Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not fully forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted Star Trek to show what humanity might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most specifically by ending violence. An extreme example is the alien species known as the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry also gave Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations. His efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g., they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that Enterprise have a racially diverse crew.
The Original Series era (1965–1969)
In early 1964, Roddenberry presented a brief treatment for a television series to Desilu Productions, calling it "a Wagon Train to the stars." Desilu worked with Roddenberry to develop the treatment into a script, which was then pitched to NBC.
NBC paid to make a pilot, "The Cage", starring Jeffrey Hunter as Enterprise Captain Christopher Pike. NBC rejected The Cage, but the executives were still impressed with the concept, and made the unusual decision to commission a second pilot: "Where No Man Has Gone Before".
While the show initially enjoyed high ratings, the average rating of the show at the end of its first season dropped to 52nd out of 94 programs. Unhappy with the show's ratings, NBC threatened to cancel the show during its second season. The show's fan base, led by Bjo Trimble, conducted an unprecedented letter-writing campaign, petitioning the network to keep the show on the air. NBC renewed the show, but moved it from primetime to the "Friday night death slot", and substantially reduced its budget. In protest, Roddenberry resigned as producer and reduced his direct involvement in Star Trek, which led to Fred Freiberger becoming producer for the show's third and final season. Despite another letter-writing campaign, NBC canceled the series after three seasons and 79 episodes.
Post–Original Series rebirth (1969–1991)
After the original series was canceled, Desilu, which by then had been renamed Paramount Television, licensed the broadcast syndication rights to help recoup the production losses. Reruns began in late 1969, and by the late 1970s the series aired in over 150 domestic and 60 international markets. This helped Star Trek develop a cult following greater than its popularity during its original run.
One sign of the series' growing popularity was the first Star Trek convention, which occurred on January 21–23, 1972 in New York City. Although the original expectation was that only a few hundred fans would attend, several thousand turned up. Star Trek fans continue to attend similar conventions worldwide.
The series' newfound success led to the idea of reviving the franchise. Filmation with Paramount Television produced the first post–original series show, Star Trek: The Animated Series, featuring the cast of the original series reprising their roles. It ran on NBC for 22 half-hour episodes over two seasons on Saturday mornings from 1973 to 1974.: 208 Although short-lived, typical for animated productions in that time slot during that period, the series garnered the franchise's only Emmy Award in a "Best Series" category—specifically Outstanding Entertainment Children's Series; later Emmy awards for the franchise would be in technical categories. Paramount Pictures and Roddenberry began developing a new series, Star Trek: Phase II, in May 1975 in response to the franchise's newfound popularity. Work on the series ended when the proposed Paramount Television Service folded.
Following the success of the science fiction movies Star Wars and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Paramount adapted the planned pilot episode of Phase II into the feature film Star Trek: The Motion Picture. The film opened in North America on December 7, 1979, with mixed reviews from critics. The film earned $139 million worldwide, below expectations but enough for Paramount to create a sequel. The studio forced Roddenberry to relinquish creative control of future sequels.
The success of the sequel, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, reversed the fortunes of the franchise. While the sequel grossed less than the first movie, The Wrath of Khan's lower production costs made it net more profit. Paramount produced six Star Trek feature films between 1979 and 1991, each featuring the Original Series cast in their original roles.
In response to the popularity of Star Trek feature films, the franchise returned to television with Star Trek: The Next Generation in 1987. Paramount chose to distribute it as a first-run syndication show rather than a network show.: 545 The Next Generation was set a century after the original series, following the adventures of a new starship Enterprise with a new crew.
Post-Roddenberry television era (1991–2005)
Following Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Roddenberry's role was changed from producer to creative consultant with minimal input to the films while being heavily involved with the creation of The Next Generation. Roddenberry died on October 24, 1991, giving executive producer Rick Berman control of the franchise.: 268: 591–593 Star Trek had become known to those within Paramount as "the franchise", because of its great success and recurring role as a tent pole for the studio when other projects failed. The Next Generation had the highest ratings of any Star Trek series and became the most syndicated show during the last years of its original seven-season run. In response to the Next Generation's success, Paramount released a spin-off series Deep Space Nine in 1993. While never as popular as the Next Generation, the series had sufficient ratings for it to last seven seasons.
In January 1995, a few months after the Next Generation ended, Paramount released a fourth television series, Voyager. Star Trek saturation reached a peak in the mid-1990s with Deep Space Nine and Voyager airing concurrently and three of the four Next Generation-based feature films released in 1994, 1996, and 1998. By 1998, Star Trek was Paramount's most important property; the enormous profits of "the franchise" funded much of the rest of the studio's operations. Voyager became the flagship show of the new United Paramount Network (UPN) and thus the first major network Star Trek series since the original.
After Voyager ended, UPN produced Enterprise, a prequel series. Enterprise did not enjoy the high ratings of its predecessors and UPN threatened to cancel it after the series' third season. Fans launched a campaign reminiscent of the one that saved the third season of the Original Series. Paramount renewed Enterprise for a fourth season, but moved it to the Friday night death slot. Like the Original Series, Enterprise's ratings dropped during this time slot, and UPN cancelled Enterprise at the end of its fourth season. Enterprise aired its final episode on May 13, 2005. A fan group, "Save Enterprise", attempted to save the series and tried to raise $30 million to privately finance a fifth season of Enterprise. Though the effort garnered considerable press, the fan drive failed to save the series. The cancellation of Enterprise ended an eighteen-year continuous production run of Star Trek programming on television. The poor box office performance in 2002 of the film Nemesis cast an uncertain light upon the future of the franchise. Paramount relieved Berman, the franchise producer, of control of Star Trek.
Rebooted film series (2005–2016)
In 2005, Paramount's parent company Viacom split into two companies: the CBS Corporation, owner of CBS Television Studios, and Viacom, owner of Paramount Pictures. CBS owned the film brand while Paramount owned the film library and would continue the film franchise. Paramount was the first company to try to revive the franchise by hiring a new creative team to reinvigorate in 2007. Writers Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman and producer J. J. Abrams had the freedom to reinvent the feel of the franchise.
The team created the franchise's eleventh film, Star Trek, releasing it in May 2009. The film featured a new cast portraying the crew of the original show. Star Trek was a prequel of the original series set in an alternate timeline, later named the Kelvin Timeline. This gave the film and sequels freedom from the need to conform to the franchise's canonical timeline and minimized the impact these films would have on CBS's portion of the franchise. The eleventh Star Trek film's marketing campaign targeted non-fans, stating in the film's advertisements that "this is not your father's Star Trek".
The film earned considerable critical and financial success, grossing (in inflation-adjusted dollars) more box office sales than any previous Star Trek film. The plaudits include the franchise's first Academy Award (for makeup). Two sequels were released. The first sequel, Star Trek Into Darkness, premiered summer 2013. While the film was not as successful in the North American box office as its predecessor, internationally, in terms of box office receipts, Into Darkness is the most successful of the franchise. The thirteenth film, Star Trek Beyond, was released on July 22, 2016. The film had many pre-production problems and its script went through several rewrites. While receiving positive reviews, Star Trek Beyond disappointed in the box office.
Expansion of the Star Trek Universe (2017–present)
CBS turned down several proposals in the mid-2000s to restart the franchise. Proposals included pitches from film director Bryan Singer, Babylon 5 creator J. Michael Straczynski, and Trek actors Jonathan Frakes and William Shatner While CBS was not creating new Star Trek for network television, the ease of access to Star Trek content on new streaming services such as Netflix and Amazon Prime Video introduced a new set of fans to the franchise. To capitalize on this trend, CBS brought the franchise back to the small screen with the series Star Trek: Discovery to help launch and draw subscribers to its streaming service CBS All Access. Discovery's first season premiered on September 24, 2017. While Discovery is shown in the United States exclusively on Paramount+ (formerly CBS All Access), Netflix, in exchange for funding the production costs of the show, owns the international screening rights for the show. The series' fourth season premeires November 2021.
In June 2018, after becoming sole showrunner of Discovery, Kurtzman signed a five-year overall deal with CBS Television Studios to expand the Star Trek franchise beyond Discovery to several new series, miniseries, and animated series. Kurtzman wanted to "open this world up" and create multiple series set in the same universe but with their own "unique storytelling and distinct cinematic feel", an approach that he compared to the Marvel Cinematic Universe. However, the franchise would not tell a single story across multiple series, allowing audiences to watch each series without having to see all of the others. CBS and Kurtzman refer to this expanded franchise as the Star Trek Universe. In October 2020, Kurtzman stated that Star Trek series have been planned through 2027. Kurtzman cautioned that this was a preliminary plan, but it was necessary to plan so far out due to the long production schedules for each series.
The second series of the expansion of the Star Trek Universe, Star Trek: Picard, features Patrick Stewart reprising the character Jean-Luc Picard from The Next Generation. Picard premiered on CBS All Access on January 23, 2020. Unlike Discovery, Amazon Prime Video streams Picard internationally. CBS has also released two seasons of Star Trek: Short Treks, a series of standalone mini-episodes which air between Discovery and Picard seasons. An additional live-action streaming series, Star Trek: Strange New Worlds will be released in 2022. The Star Trek Universe has also returned in animated form with Lower Decks, an animated adult comedy series, released on August 6, 2020 on CBS All Access. Another animated series, Star Trek: Prodigy, premiered on the rebranded service Paramount+ first on October 28, 2021, and will later air on Nickelodeon.
ViacomCBS announced in February 2021 that the Star Trek Universe would be available on Paramount+, including Discovery, Picard, Lower Decks, Prodigy, and Strange New Worlds. The service's Executive Vice President of Development and Programming, Julie McNamara, said they were unlikely to expand the slate of Star Trek series until one of these five shows ended, which could happen when a series' story runs its course or a lead actor's contract expires. McNamara hoped to release a new season of Star Trek each quarter. Discussing the next phase of the franchise, Kurtzman said several projects were in development and the success of Prodigy could lead to more young audience-focused series. He added that future live-action series would likely explore new parts of the Star Trek franchise's timeline in a similar way to Discovery's jump to the far future in its third season. Kurtzman also felt there would be opportunities for future series to be associated to other ViacomCBS brands such as BET and Showtime, similar to Prodigy being developed for Nickelodeon. Monthly meetings with the showrunners of each new series are held to allow coordination between the different series and ensure that "they're not stepping on each other's toes" by using the same elements of the universe, according to Kurtzman.
Seven live-action television series, three animated series and one short-form companion series make up the bulk of the Star Trek mythos: The Original Series, The Animated Series, The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine, Voyager, Enterprise, Discovery, Short Treks, Picard, Lower Decks and Prodigy. All the series in total amount to 811 episodes across 39 seasons of television.
|The Original Series||3||79||September 8, 1966 – June 3, 1969 (1966-09-08 –1969-06-03)||NBC|
|The Animated Series||2||22||September 8, 1973 – October 12, 1974 (1973-09-08 –1974-10-12)|
|The Next Generation||7||178||September 28, 1987 – May 23, 1994 (1987-09-28 –1994-05-23)||Syndication|
|Deep Space Nine||7||176||January 4, 1993 – May 31, 1999 (1993-01-04 –1999-05-31)|
|Voyager||7||172||January 16, 1995 – May 23, 2001 (1995-01-16 –2001-05-23)||UPN|
|Enterprise||4||98||September 26, 2001 – May 13, 2005 (2001-09-26 –2005-05-13)|
|Discovery||3||42||September 24, 2017 – present (2017-09-24 – present)||CBS All Access |
|Short Treks||2||10||October 4, 2018 – January 9, 2020 (2018-10-04 –2020-01-09)|
|Picard||1||10||January 23, 2020 – present (2020-01-23 – present)|
|Lower Decks||2||20||August 6, 2020 – present (2020-08-06 – present)|
|Prodigy||1||4||October 28, 2021 – present (2021-10-28 – present)|
The Original Series (1966–1969)
Star Trek: The Original Series, frequently abbreviated as TOS, debuted on NBC on September 8, 1966. The show tells the tale of the crew of the starship USS Enterprise and its five-year mission "to boldly go where no man has gone before". During the series's initial run, it was nominated for Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation multiple times, and won twice.: 231 Cast included:
NBC canceled the show after three seasons; the last original episode aired on June 3, 1969. A petition near the end of the second season to save the show signed by many Caltech students and its multiple Hugo nominations would, however, indicate that despite low Nielsen ratings, it was highly popular with science fiction fans and engineering students. The series later became popular in reruns and found a cult following.
The Animated Series (1973–1974)
Star Trek: The Animated Series, produced by Filmation, ran for two seasons from 1973 to 1974. Most of the original cast performed the voices of their characters from the Original Series, and some of the writers who worked on the Original Series returned. While the animated format allowed the producers to create more exotic alien landscapes and life forms, animation errors and liberal reuse of shots and musical cues have tarnished the series' reputation. Gene Roddenberry often spoke of it as non-canon, though more recent productions have treated it as canonical.: 232 The cast included:
The Animated Series won Star Trek's first Emmy Award on May 15, 1975. The series briefly returned to television in the mid-1980s on the children's cable network Nickelodeon, and again on Sci-Fi Channel in the mid-90s. The complete series was released on LaserDisc during the 1980s. The complete series was first released in the U.S. on eleven volumes of VHS tapes in 1989. All 22 episodes were released on DVD in 2006.
The Next Generation (1987–1994)
Star Trek: The Next Generation, frequently abbreviated as TNG, takes place about a century after the Original Series (2364–2370). It features a new starship, Enterprise(NCC-1701-D), and a new crew:
- Patrick Stewart as Jean-Luc Picard
- Jonathan Frakes as William Riker
- LeVar Burton as Geordi La Forge
- Denise Crosby as Tasha Yar (Season 1)
- Michael Dorn as Worf
- Gates McFadden as Beverly Crusher (Season 1, 3–7)
- Diana Muldaur as Katherine Pulaski (Season 2)
- Marina Sirtis as Deanna Troi
- Brent Spiner as Data
- Wil Wheaton as Wesley Crusher
The series premiered on September 28, 1987, and ran for seven seasons. It had the highest ratings of any of the Star Trek series and became the highest rated syndicated show near the end of its run, allowing it to act as a springboard for other series. Many relationships and races introduced in the Next Generation became the basis for episodes in Deep Space Nine and Voyager. The series earned several Emmy awards and nominations—including Best Dramatic Series for its final season—two Hugo Awards, and a Peabody Award for Outstanding Television Programming for one episode.
Deep Space Nine (1993–1999)
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, frequently abbreviated as DS9, takes place during the last years of and immediately after the Next Generation (2369–2375). It debuted the week of January 3, 1993, and ran for seven seasons. Unlike the other Star Trek series, Deep Space Nine was set primarily on a space station of the same name rather than aboard a starship. The cast included:
- Avery Brooks as Benjamin Sisko
- René Auberjonois as Constable Odo
- Nicole de Boer as Ezri Dax (Season 7)
- Michael Dorn as Worf (Seasons 4–7, reprising his role from the Next Generation)
- Terry Farrell as Jadzia Dax (Seasons 1–6)
- Cirroc Lofton as Jake Sisko
- Colm Meaney as Miles O'Brien (reprising his role from the Next Generation)
- Armin Shimerman as Quark
- Alexander Siddig as Julian Bashir (Credited as Siddig El Fadil seasons 1–3)
- Nana Visitor as Kira Nerys
The show begins after the conclusion of the brutal Cardassian occupation of the planet Bajor, introduced in The Next Generation. The liberated Bajoran people ask the United Federation of Planets to help run a space station near Bajor. After the Federation takes control of the station, the protagonists of the show discover a uniquely stable wormhole that provides immediate access to the distant Gamma Quadrant, making Bajor and the station a strategically important location. The show chronicles the events of the station's crew, led by Commander Benjamin Sisko (Avery Brooks), and Major Kira Nerys (Nana Visitor).
Deep Space Nine stands apart from earlier Trek series for its lengthy serialized storytelling, character conflicts, and religious themes—all elements praised by critics and audiences, but which Roddenberry had forbidden as a producer of the original series and the Next Generation.
Star Trek: Voyager ran for seven seasons, airing from January 16, 1995 to May 23, 2001. It features Kate Mulgrew as Captain Kathryn Janeway, the first female commanding officer in a leading role of a Star Trek series. Cast included:
Voyager takes place during the same time period as Deep Space Nine and the years immediately following (2371–2378). The militant renegade movement known as the Maquis, introduced on Deep Space Nine, is part of the premise of Voyager. The premiere episode has the USS Voyager and its crew pursuing a Maquis ship; both ships become stranded in the Delta Quadrant about 70,000 light-years from Earth. Faced with a 75-year voyage to Earth, the crews must work together to overcome challenges and shorten the voyage on their long and perilous journey home.
Like Deep Space Nine, early seasons of Voyager feature more conflict between its crew members than seen in The Next Generation. Such conflict often arose from friction between "by-the-book" Starfleet crew and rebellious Maquis fugitives forced by circumstance to work together. The starship Voyager, isolated from its home, faced new cultures and dilemmas not possible in shows based in the Alpha Quadrant. Later seasons brought in an influx of characters and cultures from prior shows, such as the Borg, Q, the Ferengi, Romulans, Klingons, Cardassians and cast members of the Next Generation.
Star Trek: Enterprise, originally titled Enterprise, is a prequel to the original Star Trek series. It aired from September 26, 2001 to May 13, 2005 on UPN. Enterprise is set about a century earlier than The Original Series, early in the fictional history of humanity's space exploration and shortly before the creation of the United Federation of Planets. The show follows the crew of an earlier starship Enterprise(NX-01) on Earth's first deep-space exploration mission. The cast included:
Initially, Enterprise featured self-contained episodes, much like the Original Series, Next Generation and Voyager. The third season comprised a single narrative arc. The fourth and final season consisted of several three- and four-episode arcs, which explored the origins of some elements of previous series, and resolved some continuity errors with The Original Series.
Ratings for Enterprise started strong but declined rapidly. Although critics received the fourth season well, both fans and the cast reviled the series finale, partly because of the episode's focus on the guest appearance of members of the Next Generation cast. The cancellation of Enterprise ended an 18-year run of new Star Trek series, which began with the Next Generation in 1987.
Star Trek: Discovery is the first series of the streaming television Star Trek revival; it begins as a prequel to the Original Series, set roughly ten years prior. It premiered September 24, 2017 in the United States and Canada on CBS. The series is shown on Paramount+ in the United States; elsewhere, Netflix distributes the series worldwide, except for Canada. The cast includes:
Discovery is a serialized drama in which each season follows a single overarching narrative. In a departure from previous Star Trek series, the primary protagonist, Michael Burnham (portrayed by Martin-Green), is not the captain of the titular ship for most of the series. The first season follows a war between the United Federation of Planets and the Klingon Empire, instigated by Burnham, who is court-martialed, demoted, and assigned to the starship Discovery; later seasons follow the crew of Discovery on other adventures.
Short Treks (2018–2020)
Star Trek: Short Treks is a short film anthology companion series initially exploring settings and characters from Discovery. Later episodes feature the crew of the Enterprise under the command of Christopher Pike. The final episode of the second season serves as a teaser for Picard.
Star Trek: Picard, like Discovery, is a serialized drama created for CBS All Access; it premiered on January 23, 2020. Set about 30 years after The Next Generation, the series sees Patrick Stewart reprise his TNG role of Jean-Luc Picard. The first season follows Picard in his retirement, seeking redemption for what he sees as his past failings, as he goes on an adventure to save the daughter of his late crewmate Data. The cast includes:
Lower Decks (2020–present)
Star Trek: Lower Decks is an animated adult comedy series created by the Rick and Morty writer Mike McMahan. The series follows the support crew of "one of Starfleet's least important ships." The series premiered on August 6, 2020 on CBS All Access. The cast includes:
Star Trek: Prodigy is an animated series created by Kevin and Dan Hageman for Paramount+, and the cable channel Nickelodeon. The series follows a group of teenagers who use an abandoned starship to search for adventure. The series premiered on October 28, 2021. The cast includes:
CBS and Star Trek producers Alex Kurtzman and Heather Kadin have announced that further animated and live-action television series are currently in development. A series titled Star Trek: Strange New Worlds has been announced, starring Ethan Peck, Anson Mount and Rebecca Romijn reprising their Star Trek: Discovery season 2 roles as Spock, Captain Pike and Number One respectively.
In February 2021, it was announced that further series would only move forward once at least one of the current slate of series (Discovery, Picard, Lower Decks, Prodigy, and Strange New Worlds) concludes its run. One such series includes Michelle Yeoh reprising her role as the mirror universe's Philippa Georgiou of Section 31 from Discovery. The expanded franchise reportedly also includes several series, including a series being developed by Stephanie Savage and Josh Schwartz that is set at Starfleet Academy, as well as Ceti Alpha V, a limited series based on the character Khan Noonien Singh and his The Wrath of Khan storyline, written by Nicholas Meyer.
Paramount Pictures has produced thirteen Star Trek feature films, the most recent being released in July 2016. The first six films continue the adventures of the cast of the Original Series; the seventh film, Generations, was intended as a transition from original cast to the cast of the Next Generation; the next three films focused completely on the Next Generation cast.
The eleventh film and its sequels occur in an alternate timeline with a new cast portraying the Original Series characters. Leonard Nimoy portrayed an elderly Spock in the films, providing a narrative link to what became known as the Prime Timeline. The alternate reality was named "the Kelvin Timeline" by Michael and Denise Okuda, in honor of the starship USS Kelvin which was first seen in the 2009 film.
|Film||U.S. release date||Director(s)||Screenwriter(s)||Story by||Producer(s)|
|The Original Series|
|Star Trek: The Motion Picture||December 7, 1979 (1979-12-07)||Robert Wise||Harold Livingston||Alan Dean Foster||Gene Roddenberry|
|Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan||June 4, 1982 (1982-06-04)||Nicholas Meyer||Jack B. Sowards||Harve Bennett and Jack B. Sowards||Robert Sallin|
|Star Trek III: The Search for Spock||June 1, 1984 (1984-06-01)||Leonard Nimoy||Harve Bennett|
|Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home||November 26, 1986 (1986-11-26)||Steve Meerson, Peter Krikes, Nicholas Meyer and Harve Bennett||Harve Bennett and Leonard Nimoy||Harve Bennett|
|Star Trek V: The Final Frontier||June 9, 1989 (1989-06-09)||William Shatner||David Loughery||William Shatner, Harve Bennett and David Loughery|
|Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country||December 6, 1991 (1991-12-06)||Nicholas Meyer||Nicholas Meyer and Denny Martin Flinn||Leonard Nimoy, Lawrence Konner and Mark Rosenthal||Ralph Winter and Steven-Charles Jaffe|
|The Next Generation|
|Star Trek Generations||November 18, 1994 (1994-11-18)||David Carson||Ronald D. Moore and Brannon Braga||Rick Berman, Brannon Braga and Ronald D. Moore||Rick Berman|
|Star Trek: First Contact||November 22, 1996 (1996-11-22)||Jonathan Frakes||Brannon Braga and Ronald D. Moore||Rick Berman, Marty Hornstein and Peter Lauritson|
|Star Trek: Insurrection||December 11, 1998 (1998-12-11)||Michael Piller||Rick Berman and Michael Piller||Rick Berman|
|Star Trek: Nemesis||December 13, 2002 (2002-12-13)||Stuart Baird||John Logan||John Logan, Rick Berman and Brent Spiner|
|Star Trek||May 8, 2009 (2009-05-08)||J. J. Abrams||Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman||J. J. Abrams and Damon Lindelof|
|Star Trek Into Darkness||May 16, 2013 (2013-05-16)||Roberto Orci, Alex Kurtzman and Damon Lindelof||J. J. Abrams, Bryan Burk, Damon Lindelof, Alex Kurtzman and Roberto Orci|
|Star Trek Beyond||July 22, 2016 (2016-07-22)||Justin Lin||Simon Pegg and Doug Jung||J. J. Abrams, Roberto Orci, Lindsey Weber and Justin Lin|
Films in development
Though initially reported as being placed on hold, Paramount confirmed in September 2020 that they haven't cancelled any of the Star Trek films that are currently in development. This includes Star Trek 4 with Reboot (Kelvin Timeline) cast, Noah Hawley's film, and the Tarantino film.
In March 2021, Nicholas Meyer announced that he and Steven Charles-Jaffe had written a treatment for a Star Trek film that takes place between The Motion Picture and Wrath of Khan. The duo had proposed the project within the prior year to Alex Kurtzman, J.J. Abrams, and Paramount Pictures' Emma Watts.
- Untitled Mark L. Smith film: In December 2017, an R-rated Star Trek film, was announced as in-development with a script written by Mark L. Smith, from an original story pitch by Quentin Tarantino and J. J. Abrams. Though the studio was courting Tarantino to serve as director, the filmmaker decided to pass on the project. The plot takes place primarily on Earth during the '30s in a mobster setting, and was based on an episode from the original Star Trek television series. The studio is open to adapting the script with another director.
- Star Trek 4: In April 2018, a fourth film in the Reboot (Kelvin Timeline) series was announced to be in development with S. J. Clarkson hired as director. The script co-written by J. D. Payne and Patrick McKay, focused on Captain Kirk and his deceased father, George Kirk. The project would be a joint-venture production between Bad Robot Productions and Paramount pictures, with J. J. Abrams and Lindsey Weber signed on as producers. The project was delayed due to scheduling conflicts and additional work on the script was required.
- Untitled Noah Hawley film: In November 2019, an additional film was announced as being in-development with Noah Hawley signed onto the project as writer/director. By August 2020, the project was placed on hold, while studio executives decide which project will be green-lit first.
- Untitled film based on a script by Kalinda Vasquez: In March 2021, it was announced that another film is in development. Kalinda Vasquez, who previously worked on Star Trek: Discovery, will serve as screenwriter. The project will be a joint-venture production between Paramount Pictures and Bad Robot Productions, with J. J. Abrams serving as producer.
- Untitled Matt Shakman film: In July 2021, it was announced that the next film would be directed by Matt Shakman, using a script by Lindsey Beer and Geneva Robertson-Dworet. It is set to begin production in Spring 2022. The project will be a joint-venture production between Paramount Pictures and Bad Robot Productions, with J. J. Abrams serving as producer.
Many licensed products are based on the Star Trek franchise. Merchandising is very lucrative for both studio and actors; by 1986 Nimoy had earned more than $500,000 from royalties. Products include novels, comic books, video games, and other materials, which are generally considered non-canon. Star Trek merchandise generated $4 billion for Paramount by 2002.
Since 1967, hundreds of original novels, short stories, and television and movie adaptations have been published. The first original Star Trek novel was Mission to Horatius by Mack Reynolds, which was published in hardcover by Whitman Books in 1968.: 131
Among the most recent is the Star Trek Collection of Little Golden Books. Three titles were published by Random House in 2019, a fourth is scheduled for July 2020.
The first publisher of Star Trek fiction aimed at adult readers was Bantam Books. James Blish wrote adaptations of episodes of the original series in twelve volumes from 1967 to 1977; in 1970, he wrote the first original Star Trek novel published by Bantam, Spock Must Die!.: xi
Pocket Books published subsequent Star Trek novels. Prolific Star Trek novelists include Peter David, Diane Carey, Keith DeCandido, J.M. Dillard, Diane Duane, Michael Jan Friedman, and Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens. Several actors from the television series have also written or co-written books featuring their respective characters: William Shatner, John de Lancie, Andrew J. Robinson, J. G. Hertzler and Armin Shimerman. Voyager producer Jeri Taylor wrote two novels detailing the personal histories of Voyager characters. Screenplay writers David Gerrold, D. C. Fontana, and Melinda Snodgrass have also penned books.: 213
A 2014 scholarly work Newton Lee discussed the actualization of Star Trek's holodeck in the future by making extensive use of artificial intelligence and cyborgs.
Star Trek-based comics have been issued almost continuously since 1967, published by Marvel, DC, Malibu, Wildstorm, and Gold Key, among others. In 2009, Tokyopop produced an anthology of Next Generation-based stories presented in the style of Japanese manga. In 2006, IDW Publishing secured publishing rights to Star Trek comics and issued a prequel to the 2009 film, Star Trek: Countdown. In 2012, IDW published the first volume of Star Trek – The Newspaper Strip, featuring the work of Thomas Warkentin. As of 2020, IDS continues to produce new titles.
The Star Trek franchise has numerous games in many formats. Beginning in 1967 with a board game based on the original series and continuing through today with online and DVD games, Star Trek games continue to be popular among fans.
Video games based on the series include Star Trek: Legacy and Star Trek: Conquest. An MMORPG based on Star Trek called Star Trek Online was developed by Cryptic Studios and published by Perfect World. It is set during the Next Generation era, about 30 years after the events of Star Trek: Nemesis. The most recent video game was set in the alternate timeline from Abrams's Star Trek.
Star Trek has led directly or indirectly to the creation of a number of magazines which focus either on science fiction or specifically on Star Trek. Starlog was a magazine which was founded in the 1970s.: 13 Initially, its focus was on Star Trek actors, but then it expanded its scope.: 80 Star Trek: The Magazine was a magazine published in the U.S. that ceased publication in 2003. Star Trek Magazine, originally published as Star Trek Monthly by Titan Magazines for the United Kingdom market, began in February 1995. The magazine has since expanded to worldwide distribution.
Other magazines through the years included professional, as well as magazines published by fans, or fanzines.
The Star Trek media franchise is a multibillion-dollar industry, owned by ViacomCBS. Gene Roddenberry sold Star Trek to NBC as a classic adventure drama; he pitched the show as "Wagon Train to the Stars" and as Horatio Hornblower in Space. The opening line, "to boldly go where no man has gone before," was taken almost verbatim from a U.S. White House booklet on space produced after the Sputnik flight in 1957.
Star Trek and its spin-offs have proven highly popular in syndication and was broadcast worldwide. The show's cultural impact goes far beyond its longevity and profitability. Star Trek conventions have become popular among its fans, who call themselves "trekkie" or "trekkers". An entire subculture has grown up around the franchise, which was documented in the film Trekkies. Star Trek was ranked most popular cult show by TV Guide. The franchise has also garnered many comparisons of the Star Wars franchise being rivals in the science fiction genre with many fans and scholars.
The Star Trek franchise inspired some designers of technologies, the Palm PDA and the handheld mobile phone. Michael Jones, Chief technologist of Google Earth, has cited the tricorder's mapping capability as one inspiration in the development of Keyhole/Google Earth. The Tricorder X Prize, a contest to build a medical tricorder device was announced in 2012. Ten finalists were selected in 2014, and the winner was to be selected in January 2016. However, no team managed to reach the required criteria. Star Trek also brought teleportation to popular attention with its depiction of "matter-energy transport", with the famously misquoted phrase "Beam me up, Scotty" entering the vernacular. The Star Trek replicator is credited in the scientific literature with inspiring the field of diatom nanotechnology. In 1976, following a letter-writing campaign, NASA named its prototype space shuttle Enterprise, after the fictional starship. Later, the introductory sequence to Star Trek: Enterprise included footage of this shuttle which, along with images of a naval sailing vessel called Enterprise, depicted the advancement of human transportation technology.
Beyond Star Trek's fictional innovations, its contributions to television history included a multicultural and multiracial cast. While more common in subsequent years, in the 1960s it was controversial to feature an Enterprise crew that included a Japanese helmsman, a Russian navigator, a black female communications officer, and a human–Vulcan first officer. Captain Kirk's and Lt. Uhura's kiss, in the episode "Plato's Stepchildren", was also daring, and is often mis-cited as being American television's first scripted, interracial kiss, even though several other interracial kisses predated this one. Nichelle Nichols, who played the communications officer, said that the day after she told Roddenberry of her plan to leave the series, she was told a big fan wanted to meet her while attending a NAACP dinner party:
I thought it was a Trekkie, and so I said, 'Sure.' I looked across the room, and there was Dr. Martin Luther King walking towards me with this big grin on his face. He reached out to me and said, 'Yes, Ms. Nichols, I am your greatest fan.' He said that Star Trek was the only show that he, and his wife Coretta, would allow their three little children to stay up and watch. [She told King about her plans to leave the series.] I never got to tell him why, because he said, 'You can't. You're part of history.'
After the show Nichols used this public standing to speak for women and people of colour and against their exclusion from the human space program of the US, achieving that NASA reacted asking her to find people for its future Space Shuttle program. Nichols proceeded and successfully brought the first people of colour and women into the US space program, working in this quality for NASA from the late 1970s until the late 1980s.
Computer engineer and entrepreneur Steve Wozniak credited watching Star Trek and attending Star Trek conventions in his youth as a source of inspiration for co-founding Apple Inc. in 1976. Apple later became the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer.
In 2020, the US effort to develop a vaccine to protect against COVID-19 was named Operation Warp Speed, which is the brainchild of a Star Trek fan, Dr. Peter Marks. Dr. Peters leads the unit at the Food and Drug Administration which approves vaccines and therapies.
Early parodies of Star Trek included a famous sketch on Saturday Night Live titled "The Last Voyage of the Starship Enterprise", with John Belushi as Kirk, Chevy Chase as Spock and Dan Aykroyd as McCoy. In the 1980s, Saturday Night Live did a sketch with William Shatner reprising his Captain Kirk role in The Restaurant Enterprise, preceded by a sketch in which he played himself at a Trek convention angrily telling fans to "Get a Life", a phrase that has become part of Trek folklore. In Living Color continued the tradition in a sketch where Captain Kirk is played by a fellow Canadian Jim Carrey.
A feature-length film that indirectly parodies Star Trek is Galaxy Quest. This film is based on the premise that aliens monitoring the broadcast of an Earth-based television series called Galaxy Quest, modeled heavily on Star Trek, believe that what they are seeing is real. Many Star Trek actors have been quoted saying that Galaxy Quest was a brilliant parody.
Star Trek has been blended with Gilbert and Sullivan at least twice. The North Toronto Players presented a Star Trek adaptation of Gilbert & Sullivan titled H.M.S. Starship Pinafore: The Next Generation in 1991 and an adaptation by Jon Mullich of Gilbert and Sullivan's H.M.S. Pinafore that sets the operetta in the world of Star Trek has played in Los Angeles and was attended by series luminaries Nichelle Nichols, D.C. Fontana and David Gerrold. A similar blend of Gilbert and Sullivan and Star Trek was presented as a benefit concert in San Francisco by the Lamplighters in 2009. The show was titled Star Drek: The Generation After That. It presented an original story with Gilbert and Sullivan melodies.
The Simpsons and Futurama television series and others have had many individual episodes parodying Star Trek or with Trek allusions. Black Mirror's Star Trek parody episode, "USS Callister", won four Emmy Awards, including the Outstanding Television Movie and Writing for a Limited Series, Movie or Drama, and was nominated for three more.
In August 2010, the members of the Internal Revenue Service created a Star Trek themed training video for a conference. Revealed to the public in 2013, the spoof along with parodies of other media franchises was cited as an example of the misuse of taxpayer funds in a congressional investigation.
Star Trek has been parodied in several non-English movies, including the German Traumschiff Surprise – Periode 1 which features a gay version of the Original Series bridge crew and a Turkish film that spoofs that same series' episode "The Man Trap" in one of the series of films based on the character Turist Ömer. An entire series of films and novel parodies titled Star Wreck has been created in Finnish.
The Orville is a comedy-drama science fiction television series created by Seth MacFarlane that premiered on September 10, 2017, on Fox. MacFarlane, a longtime fan of the franchise who previously guest-starred on an episode of Enterprise, created the series with a similar look and feel as the Star Trek series. MacFarlane has made references to Star Trek on his animated series Family Guy, where the Next Generation cast guest-starred in the episode "Not All Dogs Go to Heaven".
Until 2016, Paramount Pictures and CBS permitted fan-produced films and episode-like clips to be produced. Several veteran Star Trek actors and writers participated in many of these productions. Several producers turned to crowdfunding, such as Kickstarter, to help with production and other costs.
Popular productions include: New Voyages (2004–2016) and Star Trek Continues (2013–2017). Additional productions include: Of Gods and Men (2008), originally released as a three-part web series, and Prelude to Axanar. Audio dramatizations such as The Continuing Mission (2007–2016) have also been published by fans.
In 2016, CBS published guidelines which restricted the scope of fan productions, such as limiting the length of episodes or films to fifteen minutes, limiting production budgets to $50,000, and preventing actors and technicians from previous Star Trek productions from participating. A number of highly publicized productions have since been cancelled or have gone abeyant.
Star Trek has been a popular subject for documentaries reviewing the history of the franchise. Some examples include:
- Journey’s End: Saga of Star Trek Next Generation, hosted by Jonathon Frakes, it reviewed the final season of the series and the upcoming Generations.
- Trekkies (1997), exploring the subculture of Star Trek fandom
- Star Trek: Beyond the Final Frontier (2007), exploring a giant Christie's auction of tens of thousand of Star Trek props, hosted by actor Leonard Nimoy
- The Center Seat (2016), an 85-minute special on Star Trek for its 50th anniversary, aired by the History network
- For the Love of Spock (2016), focusing on the history and impact of the character Spock
- What We Left Behind (2019), about the production and legacy of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine
Some documentaries have been funded by the community by money raised by crowdfunding. What We Left Behind raised nearly $650,000 in this way, and a planned Voyager documentary raised $450,000 in 24 hours.
In 2021, the History network ordered an eight-episode documentary series covering the decades-long history of the Star Trek franchise. The series is expected examine the long history of the franchise and its various television series, and conduct cast interviews. They announced the title The Center Seat: 55 Years of Star Trek.
Of the various science fiction awards for drama, only the Hugo Award dates back as far as the original series. In 1968, all five nominees for a Hugo Award were individual episodes of Star Trek, as were three of the five nominees in 1967.: 231 The only Star Trek series not to receive a Hugo Award nomination are the Animated Series and Voyager, though only the Original Series and Next Generation won in any nominated category. No Star Trek feature film has ever won a Hugo Award. In 2008, the fan-made Star Trek: New Voyages episode "World Enough and Time" was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Short Drama.
One of the most successful films was Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, which grossed a global total of $133 million against a $21 million budget.The Voyage Home garnered 11 nominations at the 14th annual Saturn Awards, tying Aliens for number of nominations. Nimoy and Shatner were nominated for best actor for their roles, and Catherine Hicks was nominated for best supporting actress. At the 59th Academy Awards, The Voyage Home was nominated for Best Cinematography, Sound (Terry Porter, David J. Hudson, Mel Metcalfe and Gene Cantamessa), Sound Effects Editing, and Original Score.
The episode "The Big Goodbye" in the first season of Star Trek: The Next Generation, in recognition of its "new standard of quality for first-run syndication", the episode was honored with a Peabody Award in 1987. "The Big Goodbye" was also nominated for two Emmy Awards in the categories of Outstanding Cinematography for a Series and Outstanding Costumes for a Series, with costume designer William Ware Theiss winning the award in the latter category.
Star Trek (2009) won the Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling, the franchise's first Academy Award. In 2016, the franchise was listed in the Guinness World Records as the most successful science fiction television franchise in the world.
- List of awards and nominations received by Star Trek: Deep Space Nine
- List of awards and nominations received by Star Trek: Enterprise
- List of awards and nominations received by Star Trek: The Next Generation
- List of awards and nominations received by Star Trek: The Original Series
- List of awards and nominations received by Star Trek: Voyager
TV Guide (1996)
In 1996, TV Guide published the following as the ten best Star Trek episodes for the franchise's 30th anniversary:
- "The City on the Edge of Forever" (The Original Series)
- "Amok Time" (The Original Series)
- "Mirror, Mirror" (The Original Series)
- "The Doomsday Machine" (The Original Series)
- "Journey to Babel" (The Original Series)
- "11001001" (The Next Generation)
- "Yesterday's Enterprise" (The Next Generation)
- "The Best of Both Worlds" (Part I) (The Next Generation)
- "Tapestry" (The Next Generation)
- "The Visitor" (Deep Space Nine)
50th Anniversary Convention (2016)
At the 50th Anniversary Star Trek Las Vegas (STLV) convention, in 2016, the following were voted by fans as the best episodes:
- "The City on the Edge of Forever" (The Original Series)
- "In the Pale Moonlight" (Deep Space Nine)
- "The Inner Light" (The Next Generation)
- "Amok Time" (The Original Series)
- "Yesterday's Enterprise" (The Next Generation)
- "The Visitor" (Deep Space Nine)
- "Chain of Command" (The Next Generation)
- "Balance of Terror" (The Original Series)
- "In a Mirror, Darkly" (Enterprise)
- "The Magnificent Ferengi" (Deep Space Nine)
Additionally, fans voted the following as the worst episodes:
- "These Are the Voyages..." (Enterprise)
- "Code of Honor" (The Next Generation)
- "Threshold" (Voyager)
- "Turnabout Intruder" (The Original Series)
- "Shades of Gray" (The Next Generation)
- "Sub Rosa" (The Next Generation)
- "And the Children Shall Lead" (The Original Series)
- "Move Along Home" (Deep Space Nine)
- "The Alternative Factor" (The Original Series)
- "Precious Cargo" (Enterprise)
Washington Post (2016)
In 2016, The Washington Post ranked the best live-action television episodes:
- "The Best of Both Worlds" (The Next Generation)
- "Darmok" (The Next Generation)
- "Balance of Terror" (The Original Series)
- "In the Pale Moonlight" (Deep Space Nine)
- "Chain of Command" (The Next Generation)
- "Yesterday's Enterprise" (The Next Generation)
- "The Doomsday Machine" (The Original Series)
- "The Measure of a Man" (The Next Generation)
- "Journey to Babel" (The Original Series)
- "First Contact" (The Next Generation)
Star Trek began as a joint-production of Norway Productions, owned by Roddenberry, and Desilu, owned by Desi Arnaz. The profit-sharing agreement for the series split proceeds between Norway, Desilu—later Paramount Television, William Shatner's production company, and the broadcast network, NBC. However, Star Trek lost money during its initial broadcast, and NBC did not expect to recoup its losses by selling the series into syndication, nor did Paramount. With NBC's approval, Paramount offered its share of the series to Roddenberry sometime in 1970. However, Roddenberry could not raise the $150,000 (equivalent to $999,614 in 2020) offered by the studio. Paramount would go on to license the series to television syndicators worldwide. NBC's remaining broadcast and distribution rights eventually returned to Paramount and Roddenberry sometime before 1986, which coincided with the development of what would become The Next Generation.
As for Desilu, the studio was acquired by Gulf+Western. It was then reorganized as the television production division of Paramount Pictures, which Gulf+Western had acquired in 1966. Gulf+Western sold its remaining industrial assets in 1989, renaming itself Paramount Communications. Sometime before 1986, Sumner Redstone had acquired a controlling stake of Viacom via his family's theater chain, National Amusements. Viacom was established in 1952 as a division of CBS responsible for syndicating the network's in-house productions, originally called CBS Films. In 1994, Viacom and Paramount Communications were merged. Viacom then merged with its former parent, CBS Corporation, in 1999. National Amusements and the Redstone family increased their stake in the combined company between 1999 and 2005.
Split ownership (2005–2019)
In 2005, the Redstone family reorganized Viacom, spinning off the conglomerate's assets as two independent groups: the new Viacom, and the new CBS Corporation. National Amusements and the Redstone family retained approximately 80% ownership of both CBS and Viacom. Star Trek was split between the two entities. The terms of this split were not known. However, CBS held all copyrights, marks, production assets, and film negatives, to all Star Trek television series. CBS also retained the rights to all likenesses, characters, names and settings, and stories, and the right to license Star Trek, and its spin-offs, to merchandisers, and publishers, etc. The rights were exercised via the new CBS Television Studios, which was carved out of the former Paramount Television.
Viacom, which housed Paramount Pictures, retained the feature film library, and exclusive rights to produce new feature films for a limited time. Viacom also retained home video distribution rights for all television series produced before 2005. However, home video editions of the various television series released after the split, as well as streaming video versions of episodes available worldwide, carried variants of the new CBS Television Studios livery in addition to the original Paramount Television Studios livery. It was unclear who retained the synchronization or streaming rights.
Rights and distribution issues, and the fraught relationship between the leadership at CBS, Viacom, and the National Amusements' board of directors, resulted in a number of delayed and or cancelled Star Trek productions between 2005 and 2019. Additionally, the development and release of the new Star Trek film, in 2009, was met with resistance by executives at CBS, as was Into Darkness (2013) and Beyond (2016), which affected merchandising, tie-in media, and promotion for the new films. During this period, both CBS and Viacom continued to list Star Trek as an important asset in their prospectus to investors, and in corporate filings made to the Securities and Exchange Commission.
While several attempts were made to merge Viacom and CBS, power struggles between the major stakeholders of the companies prevented this from happening. In 2019, after the resignation of CBS CEO, Leslie Moonves, negotiations to merge CBS and Viacom began in earnest. These negotiations were led by Shari Redstone, chairman of the National Amusements, and Joe Ianniello, then CEO of Viacom. On August 13, 2019, CBS and Viacom boards of directors reached an agreement to reunite the conglomerates as a single entity called ViacomCBS. National Amusements' board of directors approved the merger on October 28, 2019, which was finalized on December 4. Star Trek is under one corporate umbrella again.
Star Trek has an ongoing tradition of actors returning to reprise their roles in other spin-off series. In some instances, actors have portrayed potential ancestors, descendants, or relatives of characters they originated. Characters have also been recast for later appearances.
Click show below to view an incomplete list:
|List of Star Trek Characters with reoccurring roles|
|Actor(s)||Character||The Original Series |
|The Animated Series |
|The Next Generation |
|Deep Space Nine |
|Short Treks |
|Lower Decks |
|Strange New Worlds|
|William Shatner||James T. Kirk||Main||Archive footage||Archive footage||Archive footage|
|Jeffrey Hunter||Christopher Pike||Main||Archive footage|
|Leonard Nimoy||Spock||Main||Recurring||Archive footage||Archive footage|
|DeForest Kelley||Leonard McCoy||Main||Guest||Archive footage||Guest|
|James Doohan||Scotty||Co-star||Guest||Archive footage|
|Nichelle Nichols||Uhura||Co-star||Archive footage|
|George Takei||Hikaru Sulu||Co-star||Guest||Archive footage|
|Walter Koenig||Pavel Chekov||Co-star||Archive footage|
|Majel Barrett||Christine Chapel||Co-star|
|Number One / Una||Guest||Archive footage|
|Susan Oliver||Vina||Recurring||Archive footage|
|Roger C. Carmel||Harry Mudd||Recurring||Guest|
|Phillip Pine||Philip Green||Guest|
|Patrick Stewart||Jean-Luc Picard||Main||Guest||Archive footage||Archive footage||Main|
|Jonathan Frakes||William Riker||Main||Guest||Guest|
|LeVar Burton||Geordi La Forge||Main||Guest|
|Denise Crosby||Tasha Yar||Main|
|Gates McFadden||Beverly Crusher||Main|
|Marina Sirtis||Deanna Troi||Main||Guest||Guest|
|Wil Wheaton||Wesley Crusher||Main|
|Diana Muldaur||Katherine Pulaski||Main|
|John de Lancie||Q||Recurring||Guest||Recurring||Guest|
|Dwight Schultz||Reginald Barclay||Recurring||Recurring|
|Jon Paul Steuer||Alexander Rozhenko||Guest|
|Jonathan Del Arco||Hugh||Recurring||Recurring|
|Brian Brophy||Bruce Maddox||Guest|
|Avery Brooks||Benjamin Sisko||Main|
|Terry Farrell||Jadzia Dax||Main|
|Nicole de Boer||Ezri Dax||Main|
|Cirroc Lofton||Jake Sisko||Main|
|Colm Meaney||Miles O'Brien||Recurring||Main|
|Alexander Siddig||Julian Bashir||Guest||Main|
|Nana Visitor||Kira Nerys||Main|
|Kate Mulgrew||Kathryn Janeway||Main|
|Roxann Dawson||B'Elanna Torres||Main|
|Robert Duncan McNeill||Tom Paris||Main||Guest|
|Robert Picardo||The Doctor||Guest||Main|
|Jeri Ryan||Seven of Nine||Main||Recurring|
|Garrett Wang||Harry Kim||Main|
|Scott Bakula||Jonathan Archer||Main|
|Dominic Keating||Malcolm Reed||Main|
|Anthony Montgomery||Travis Mayweather||Main|
|Linda Park||Hoshi Sato||Main|
|Connor Trinneer||Trip Tucker||Main|
|Sonequa Martin-Green||Michael Burnham||Main|
|Shazad Latif||Ash Tyler / Voq||Main|
|Anthony Rapp||Paul Stamets||Main|
|Mary Wiseman||Sylvia Tilly||Main||Guest|
|Jason Isaacs||Gabriel Lorca||Main|
|Wilson Cruz||Hugh Culber||Main|
|Santiago Cabrera||Cristóbal Rios||Main|
|Michelle Hurd||Raffi Musiker||Main|
|Alison Pill||Agnes Jurati||Main|
|Isa Briones||Dahj Asha / Soji Asha / Sutra||Main|
|Tawny Newsome||Beckett Mariner||Main|
|Jack Quaid||Brad Boimler||Main|
|Noël Wells||D'Vana Tendi||Main|
|Eugene Cordero||Sam Rutherford||Main|
|Dawnn Lewis||Carol Freeman||Main|
|Jerry O'Connell||Jack Ransom||Main|
- Published as Star Trek Monthly from 1995 until 2003
- Roddenberry co-authored two scripts for the third season.
- Star Trek Into Darkness premiered in Sydney, Australia, on April 23, 2013, but the film did not release in the United States until May 17, 2013
- The episode count includes all completed and released episodes. The count also includes episodes of the Animated Series, and the unaired pilot, "The Cage". Multi-part episodes not originally broadcast as one presentation are counted individually. Ten feature-length episodes are counted as two episodes each, as they were split for foreign broadcast and syndication.
- Originally broadcast as Star Trek. The series was dubbed The Original Series by fans to distinguish it from its many spinoffs and films. Paramount and CBS have since used the title Star Trek: The Original Series in promotional materials and tie-in media.
- Crosby had cameos in other TNG seasons both as Tasha Yar, and the character's daughter, Sela
- Film titles of the North American and UK releases of the films no longer contained the number of the film following the sixth film (the sixth was Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country but the seventh was Star Trek Generations). However, European releases continued using numbers in the film titles until Nemesis.
- Although the Hugo Award is mainly given for print-media science fiction, its "best drama" award is usually given to film or television presentations. The Hugo does not give out awards for best actor, director, or other aspects of film production. Before 2002, films and television series competed for the same Hugo, before the split of the drama award into short drama and long drama.
- Other nominees for the 1967 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation were Fahrenheit 451 and Fantastic Voyage.
- Eller, Claudia (December 11, 1998). "Lower Costs Energize 'Trek' Film Profit". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2015. RetrievedOctober 12, 2020.
- "Star Trek Franchise Box Office History" The Numbers
- "44 entertainment/character properties reach $100 m in sales of licensed merchandise; 50% of sales are Disney's. - Free Online Library". www.thefreelibrary.com. RetrievedOctober 24, 2021.
- "Today's TV Previews". Montreal Gazette. September 6, 1966. p. 36. Archived from the original on April 8, 2017. RetrievedSeptember 8, 2016.
- "Star Trek: Strange New Worlds – New Star Trek Series To Follow Captain Pike, Spock, and Number One – YouTube". CBS All Access. May 15, 2020. RetrievedJuly 4, 2020 – via YouTube.
- Patten, Dominic (May 15, 2020). "'Star Trek: Strange New Worlds' Series Continuing Spock's Saga At CBS All Access". Deadline Hollywood. RetrievedMay 15, 2020.
- Italie, Hillel (July 2, 2007). "Like 'Star Wars' and 'Star Trek,' Potter is a modern phenomenon". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Saadia, Manu (January 13, 2017). "Why Peter Thiel Fears "Star Trek"". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. RetrievedMay 28, 2017.
- Reagin, Nancy R (March 5, 2013). Star Trek and History. Wiley Pop Culture and History. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118167632.
- Gibberman, Susan. "RODDENBERRY, GENE". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Keonig, Rachel (August 29, 1986). "Roddenberry, Eugene Wesley 1921– (Gene Roddenberry)". In Commire, Anna (ed.). Something about the Author. 45. Detroit: Gale Research. pp. 168–179. ISBN 9780810322554. ISSN 0276-816X.
- Alexander, David (June 1994). Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry. New York: Roc. ISBN 9780451454188.
- Simon, Richard Keller (November 23, 1999). "Star Trek, Gulliver's Travels, and the Problem of History". Trash Culture: Popular Culture and the Great Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 139–154. ISBN 9780520222236.
- Snyder, J. William, Jr (1995). "Star Trek: A Phenomenon and Social Statement on the 1960s". ibiblio.org. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Johnson-Smith, Jan (January 10, 2005).American Science Fiction TV: Star Trek, Stargate and Beyond. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 9780819567383.
- Grothe, DJ (May 29, 2009). "Susan Sackett – The Secular Humanism of Star Trek". pointofinquiry.org. RetrievedSeptember 27, 2016.
- Goulart, Woody. "Gene Roddenberry". woodygoulart.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2011. RetrievedMarch 25, 2019.
- Whitfield, Stephen E; Roddenberry, Gene (May 1973). The Making of Star Trek. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345234018.
- Roddenberry, Gene (March 11, 1964). "Star Trek is…"(PDF). ex-astris-scientia.org. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 24, 2006. RetrievedJune 26, 2009.
- Davies, Máire Messenger; Pearson, Roberta (August 2007). "The Little Program That Could: The Relationship between NBC and Star Trek". In Hilmes, Michele (ed.). NBC: America's network. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 209–223. ISBN 9780520250796.
- Solow, Herbert F; Justman, Robert H (June 1996). Inside Star Trek: The Real Story. New York: Pocket Books. pp. 377–394. ISBN 9780671896287.
- "Bjo Trimble: The Woman Who Saved Star Trek – Part 1". StarTrek.com. August 31, 2011. RetrievedJanuary 12, 2012.
- Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (October 1993). Star Trek Memories. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 290–291. ISBN 9780060177348.
- Shult, Doug (July 5, 1972). "Cult Fans, Reruns Give Star Trek an out of This World Popularity". Green Sheets. The Milwaukee Journal. 90 (230). Los Angeles Times New Service. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- "Celebrating 40 Years since Trek's 1st Convention". StarTrek.com. January 20, 2012. RetrievedAugust 1, 2013.
- Sackett, Susan (May 15, 2002). Inside Trek: My Secret Life with Star Trek Creator Gene Roddenberry. Tulsa, Oklahoma: HAWK Publishing Group. ISBN 9781930709423.
- Turnbull, Gerry, ed. (October 1979). A Star Trek Catalog. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. ISBN 9780441784776.
- Teitelbaum, Sheldon (May 5, 1991). "How Gene Roddenberry and his Brain Trust Have Boldly Taken 'Star Trek' Where No TV Series Has Gone Before : Trekking to the Top". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. RetrievedMay 11, 2011.
- "Star Trek – A Short History". ee.surrey.ac.uk. Transcribed press release originally distributed by Paramount Pictures. May 9, 1994. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. RetrievedAugust 21, 2006.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Poe, Stephen Edward (April 1998). A Vision of the Future. New York: Pocket Books. pp. 49–54. ISBN 9780671534813.
- Levesque, John (January 6, 2001). "UPN in search of post-'Voyager' flagship". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. RetrievedJune 30, 2009.
- "Fan Groups, Sites Rally on Behalf of Enterprise (UPDATE)". StarTrek.com. January 17, 2010. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. RetrievedMarch 27, 2019.
- "Star Trek: Enterprise Cancelled!". StarTrek.com. February 3, 2005. Archived from the original on January 11, 2010. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- "Uniting Star Trek Fans". trekunited.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. RetrievedDecember 18, 2007.
- Adler, Margo (May 6, 2009). "Some Older 'Star Trek' Fans May Skip This Voyage". NPR. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Hinman, Michael (June 23, 2009). "'Star Trek' Becomes Highest Grossing Franchise Film". Airlock Alpha. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Pascale, Anthony (November 23, 2011). "Star Trek Sequel To Be Released May 17, 2013 – In 3D". TrekMovie.com. RetrievedNovember 25, 2011.
- "Box Office History for Star Trek Movies". the-numbers.com. The Numbers. Archived from the original on December 30, 2014. RetrievedDecember 24, 2014.
- McNary, Dave (December 13, 2014). "'Star Trek 3' Sets July 8, 2016, Release Date". Variety. RetrievedDecember 24, 2014.
- Holmes, Brad (March 26, 2018). "Why Star Trek Beyond Wasn't A Box Office Hit, According To Simon Pegg". cinemablend.com. RetrievedJanuary 28, 2019.
- Fitzpatrick, Kevin (April 12, 2011). "Bryan Singer's TV Star Trek Details Emerge". UGO. Archived from the original on April 16, 2011. RetrievedJanuary 18, 2012.
- Straczynski, J. Michael; Zabel, Bryce. "Star Trek, Reboot, 2004"(PDF). bztv.typepad.com. Archived from the original(PDF) on May 6, 2010. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Fitzpatrick, Kevin (April 7, 2011). "Jonathan Frakes Talks Bar Karma, Star Trek, and Yes, Gargoyles". UGO. Archived from the original on April 11, 2011. RetrievedAugust 23, 2015.
- Goldberg, Lesley (November 2, 2015). "'Star Trek' TV Series in the Works". The Hollywood Reporter. RetrievedNovember 4, 2015.
- Andreeva, Nellie (June 19, 2017). "'Star Trek: Discovery' Gets September Premiere Date On CBS". Deadline Hollywood. RetrievedJune 20, 2017.
- Bacon, Thomas (November 6, 2018). "Star Trek: Discovery's Budget Reportedly Paid For By Netflix". Screen Rant. RetrievedJanuary 9, 2020.
- Otterson, Joe (June 19, 2018). "Alex Kurtzman Sets Five-Year CBS TV Studios Pact, Will Oversee Expanded 'Star Trek' Universe". Variety. Archived from the original on July 21, 2018. RetrievedJuly 21, 2018.
- "Paramount+ Is the Home of the Star Trek Universe" (Press release). CBS Studios. February 24, 2021. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. RetrievedFebruary 28, 2021.
- Goldberg, Lesly (January 9, 2019). "'Star Trek: Discovery' Showrunner on Pleasing Fickle Fans and Adapting James Comey's Tell-All". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Vary, Adam B. (February 24, 2021). "Inside the 'Star Trek' Universe of New Shows and Kids' Fare on Paramount Plus". Variety. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. RetrievedFebruary 27, 2021.
- "Everything You Need to Know for SDCC 2019". StarTrek.com. July 12, 2019. Archived from the original on November 2, 2019. RetrievedMarch 22, 2020.
- Goldberg, Lesley; Fienberg, Daniel (October 9, 2020). 'TV's Top 5': Inside the State of 'Star Trek' With Franchise Captain Alex Kurtzman. The Hollywood Reporter. RetrievedOctober 11, 2020.
- Littleton, Cynthia (May 13, 2019). "Amazon Nabs International Rights to CBS' Jean-Luc Picard 'Star Trek' Series". Variety. RetrievedJanuary 9, 2020.
- Goldberg, Lesley (February 24, 2021). "How the 'Star Trek' Universe Will Fit Into (and Expand) on Paramount+". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. RetrievedFebruary 28, 2021.
- Otterson, Joe (April 14, 2021). "From 'Star Wars' to 'Avatar: The Last Airbender': How Big IP Is Driving the Streaming Wars". Variety. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. RetrievedApril 15, 2021.
- Lee, Luaine (August 18, 2006). "KRT Wire | 08/18/2006 | 'Star Trek' turns 40". San Jose Mercury News. McClatchy News. Tribune News Service. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. RetrievedDecember 15, 2008.
- Rioux, Terry Lee (February 28, 2005). From Sawdust to Stardust: The Biography of Deforest Kelley, Star Trek's Dr. Mccoy. New York: Gallery Books. pp. 194–196. ISBN 9780743457620.
- Trimble, Bjo (October 1986). Stine, Hank (ed.). On the Good Ship Enterprise: My 15 Years with Star Trek (Reprint ed.). Norfolk, Virginia: The Donning Company. p. 33. ISBN 9780898652536.
- Dursin, Andre (November 14, 2006). "The Aisle Seat by Andy Dursin". andyfilm.com. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Ayers, Jeff (November 14, 2006). Voyages of the Imagination: The Star Trek Fiction Companion. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 9781416503491.
- "Star Trek". IMDb. RetrievedMarch 26, 2019.
- "Star Trek Animated – The Series that ran from 1973 – 1974". sciencefictionbuzz.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- "Cult – Star Trek – Next Generation – Trivia". BBC. Archived from the original on December 31, 2006. RetrievedMarch 26, 2019.
- "Emissary, Part I". StarTrek.com. RetrievedAugust 21, 2006.
- Lense. "Review of "Inter Arma Enim Silent Leges" – Star Trek Fans". scifi.about.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2003. RetrievedOctober 29, 2006.
- Sturgis, Amy H. "Star Trek Voyager : Final Episode : Review". revolutionsf.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2004. RetrievedAugust 24, 2006.
- "Star Trek: Voyager [TV Series] Synopsis – Plot Summary". Fandango. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- "Star Trek: Enterprise Summary". starpulse.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. RetrievedMarch 26, 2019.
- Lee, Patrick (May 14, 2005). "Star Trek: Enterprise Series Finale". scifi.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2007. RetrievedJanuary 16, 2009.
- Leao, Gustavo (December 17, 2005). "Anthony Montgomery Says "These Are The Voyages..." Not an Effective Finale". trekweb.com. Archived from the original on March 7, 2006. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Slotek, Jim (May 13, 2005). "Star Trek: E lamely goes away". Toronto Sun. p. E4.
- Ausiello, Michael; Roots, Kimberly (August 10, 2016). "'Star Trek: Discovery' Spoilers: Amanda Grayson Role in CBS Reboot". TVLine. RetrievedApril 30, 2017.
- Frankel, Daniel (December 7, 2016). "Moonves: Netflix international sales pay for entire 'Star Trek' production cost". fiercevideo.com. RetrievedJanuary 16, 2017.
- Goldberg, Lesley (January 8, 2019). "'Star Trek': Second Animated Series, More 'Short Treks' Coming to CBS All Access (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. RetrievedJanuary 13, 2019.
- "Short Treks – How Children of Mars Sets Up Star Trek: Picard". Den of Geek. January 19, 2020. RetrievedAugust 2, 2020.
- Spencer, Samuel (January 23, 2020). "'Star Trek: Picard' Timeline: Where Does the New Series Fit in the World of 'Star Trek'?". Newsweek. RetrievedAugust 2, 2020.
- Andreeva, Nellie (October 25, 2018). "'Star Trek: Lower Decks' Animated Series Ordered By CBS All Access". Deadline Hollywood. RetrievedOctober 25, 2018.
- Petski, Denise (July 1, 2020). "'Star Trek: Lower Decks' Gets August Premiere Date On CBS All Access; Teaser Art Unveiled". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. RetrievedJuly 2, 2020.
- Otterson, Joe (February 13, 2019). "'Star Trek' Animated Kids Show in the Works at Nickelodeon – Variety". Variety. RetrievedFebruary 17, 2019.
- "Nickelodeon and CBS Television Studios Announce Title of Original Animated Series, Star Trek: Prodigy" (Press release). Nickelodeon. July 23, 2020. RetrievedJuly 23, 2020 – via The Futon Critic.
- Zalben, Alex (September 9, 2021). "'Star Trek: Prodigy' Reveals October Premiere Date, Full Trailer". Decider. Archived from the original on September 9, 2021. RetrievedSeptember 10, 2021.
- Labonte, Rachel (January 13, 2020). "2 More Unannounced Star Trek TV Shows in the Works After Picard". Screen Rant. RetrievedFebruary 23, 2020.
- Otterson, Joe (May 15, 2020). "'Star Trek' Series Starring Ethan Peck as Spock, Anson Mount a Capt. Pike Set at CBS All Access". Variety. RetrievedMay 15, 2020.
- Vary, Adam B. (February 24, 2021). "Inside the 'Star Trek' Universe of New Shows and Kids' Fare on Paramount Plus". Variety. RetrievedMarch 14, 2021.
- Goldberg, Lesley (August 4, 2018). "Patrick Stewart to Reprise 'Star Trek' Role in New CBS All Access Series". The Hollywood Reporter. RetrievedAugust 4, 2018.
- Patten, Dominic (January 14, 2019). "Michelle Yeoh 'Star Trek' Spinoff In Development At CBS All Access". Deadline Hollywood. RetrievedMarch 17, 2019.
- "Nicholas Meyer Gives Update On Khan Mini-Series And Talks 'Star Trek: Discovery'". TrekMovie.com. November 21, 2018. Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. RetrievedApril 1, 2019.
- "Star Trek Beyond (2016) – Release Info". IMDb. RetrievedJuly 27, 2016.
- Agar, Chris (June 28, 2016). "J.J. Abrams Star Trek Universe Is The Kelvin Timeline". Screen Rant. RetrievedDecember 18, 2019.
- Zinski, Dan (September 21, 2020). "Star Trek 4 (& Other Star Trek Movies) Are NOT Cancelled Says Paramount". Screen Rant.
- "Wrath of Khan Director Pitched A Star Trek 4 Movie To Paramount". ScreenRant. March 11, 2021. RetrievedMarch 11, 2021.
- Roffman, Michael (December 16, 2019). "Filmmaker of the Year Quentin Tarantino on What's Next | Interview | Page 2". Consequence of Sound. RetrievedJanuary 22, 2020.
- Kit, Borys (August 7, 2020). "Noah Hawley's 'Star Trek' on the Back Burner at Paramount". The Hollywood Reporter. RetrievedSeptember 22, 2020.
- Fleming, Mike (January 14, 2020). "Quentin Tarantino Oscar Once Upon A Time No Star Trek, Bounty Law series". Deadline. RetrievedJanuary 22, 2020.
- Kroll, Justin (April 26, 2018). "'Star Trek 4': S.J. Clarkson Becomes the First Female Director in Franchise's History (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. RetrievedMarch 4, 2021.
- Fleming, Mike (November 19, 2019). "'Star Trek' Movie: 'Fargo's Noah Hawley In Talks To Write & Direct For Paramount". Deadline. RetrievedNovember 19, 2019.
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (August 7, 2020). "Emma Watts' Top Priority At Paramount: Figure Out 'Star Trek' Reboot". Deadline. RetrievedMarch 4, 2021.
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (March 4, 2021). "Kalinda Vazquez Set By Paramount To Script Original 'Star Trek' Movie". Deadline. RetrievedMarch 4, 2021.
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (July 13, 2021). "Next 'Star Trek' Film To Be Directed By 'WandaVision's Matt Shakman". Deadline. RetrievedJuly 14, 2021.
- Harmetz, Aljean (November 2, 1986). "New 'Star Trek' Plan Reflects Symbiosis of Tv and Movies". Section 2. The New York Times. p. 31. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedFebruary 11, 2015.
- Cloud, John (January 25, 2002). "Star Trek Inc". Time. RetrievedJune 28, 2017.
- Lee, Newton (August 2, 2014). "From a Pin-up Girl to Star Trek's Holodeck: Artificial Intelligence and Cyborgs". In Lee, Newton (ed.). Digital da Vinci: Computers in the Arts and Sciences. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 1–22. ISBN 9781493909643.
- Marshall, Rick (April 14, 2009). "'Star Trek: The Next Generation' Goes Manga, But Will Picard Lose The Captain's Chair? » Splash Page". MTV. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- "Star Trek: The Next Generation". IDW Publishing. October 6, 2006. Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. RetrievedDecember 26, 2006.
- Warkentin, Thomas (December 25, 2012). Star Trek: The Newspaper Strip, Vol. 1. San Diego: IDW Publishing. ISBN 9781613774946.
- "Star Trek Comics Checklist". startrekcomics.info. RetrievedFebruary 21, 2020.
- "FAQ". Star Trek Online. Archived from the original on October 12, 2011. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- "Announcing Star Trek Based Games from WizKids". WizKids. June 8, 2010. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. RetrievedJune 8, 2010.
- "Great Animated Adventures Episodes". StarTrek.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2006. RetrievedAugust 24, 2006.
- Day, Dwayne. "Social History: Star Trek as a Cultural Phenomenon". Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. RetrievedMay 31, 2013.
- "Introduction to Outer Space (1958)". Federation of American Scientists. March 26, 1958. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. RetrievedMarch 26, 2019.
- "TREK NATION — Rich Text Format". eugene.roddenberry.com. Archived from the original(RTF) on February 5, 2005. RetrievedAugust 24, 2006.
- "Trekkies (1997)". IMDb. November 8, 2002. RetrievedAugust 24, 2006.
- "TV Guide Names the Top Cult Shows Ever". TV Guide. June 29, 2007. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Ewalt, David M (May 18, 2005). "Star Wars Vs. Star Trek". Forbes. RetrievedSeptember 13, 2007.
- Ho, Richard (May 14, 1995). "Trekkers VS Lucasites". The Harvard Crimson. RetrievedMay 18, 2009.
- Kelly, Heather (September 3, 2014). "Qualcomm Tricorder X Prize: Race to create a tricorder". CNN. RetrievedSeptember 7, 2014.
- Laytner, Lance (2009). "Star Trek Tech". editinternational.com. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. RetrievedMarch 26, 2019.
- Evangelista, Benny (March 15, 2004). "TREK TECH / 40 years since the Enterprise's inception, some of its science fiction gadgets are part of everyday life". San Francisco Chronicle. RetrievedMay 14, 2010.
- Parsons, Ed (March 27, 2006). "Google Earth inspiration was Star Treks tricorder !!". edparsons.com. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Quinion, Michael (August 6, 1996). "World Wide Words: Beam me up, Scotty!". worldwidewords.org. RetrievedAugust 24, 2012.
- Drum, Ryan W; Gordon, Richard (August 1, 2003). "Star Trek replicators and diatom nanotechnology". Trends in Biotechnology. Cell Press. 21 (8): 325–328. doi:10.1016/S0167-7799(03)00169-0. PMID 12902165.
- Dumoulin, Jim (March 18, 1994). "Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise (OV-101)". Kennedy Space Center. RetrievedNovember 17, 2012.
- Bently, Rick (September 5, 2016). "5-year mission became 50-year journey for 'Star Trek'". Detroit Free Press. Tribune News Service. RetrievedSeptember 6, 2016.
- "Nichelle Nichols, NASA Recruiter". NASA. Archived from the original on December 22, 2009. RetrievedJanuary 9, 2019.
From the late 1970s until the late 1980s, NASA employed Nichelle Nichols to recruit new astronaut candidates. Many of her new recruits were women or members of racial and ethnic minorities, including Guion Bluford (the first African-American astronaut), Sally Ride (the first female American astronaut), Judith Resnik (one of the original set of female astronauts, who perished during the launch of the Challenger on January 28, 1986), and Ronald McNair (the second African-American astronaut, and another victim of the Challenger accident).
- Arcynta Ali Childs (June 11, 2011). "Q & A: Nichelle Nichols, AKA Lt. Uhura, and NASA". Smithsonian.com. RetrievedJanuary 9, 2019.
Ten years after "Star Trek" was cancelled, almost to the day, I was invited to join the board of directors of the newly formed National Space Society. They flew me to Washington and I gave a speech called “New Opportunities for the Humanization of Space” or “Space, What’s in it for me?” In [the speech], I’m going where no man or woman dares go. I took NASA on for not including women and I gave some history of the powerful women who had applied and, after five times applying, felt disenfranchised and backed off. [At that time] NASA was having their fifth or sixth recruitment and women and ethnic people [were] staying away in droves. I was asked to come to headquarters the next day and they wanted me to assist them in persuading women and people of ethnic backgrounds that NASA was serious [about recruiting them]. And I said you’ve got to be joking; I didn’t take them seriously. . . . John Yardley, who I knew from working on a previous project, was in the room and said 'Nichelle, we are serious.' I said OK. I will do this and I will bring you the most qualified people on the planet, as qualified as anyone you’ve ever had and I will bring them in droves. And if you do not pick a person of color, if you do not pick a woman, if it’s the same old, same old, all-white male astronaut corps, that you’ve done for the last five years, and I’m just another dupe, I will be your worst nightmare.
- Hasan, Zaki (April 19, 2017). "INTERVIEW: Steve Wozniak on Sci-Fi, Comic Books, and How Star Trek Shaped the Future". Huffington Post. RetrievedJanuary 2, 2018.
- LaFraniere, Sharon; Thomas, Katie; Weiland, Noah; Baker, Peter; Karni, Annie (August 2, 2020). "Scientists Worry About Political Influence Over Coronavirus Vaccine Project". The New York Times. RetrievedAugust 3, 2020.
- Chaires, Robert; Chilton, Bradley (September 10, 2004). Star Trek Visions of Law and Justice. Dallas: University of North Texas Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780966808025.
- Porter, Jennifer E; McLaren, Darcee L (January 1999). Star Trek and Sacred Ground: Explorations of Star Trek, Religion, and American Culture. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 268. ISBN 9780585291901.
- Bernardi, Daniel Leonard (February 1998). Star Trek and History: Race-ing Toward a White Future. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780813524658.
- Duncan, Jody; Shay, Estelle (April 2000). "Trekking into the Klaatu Nebula". Cinefex. No. 81. ISSN 0198-1056.
- "STAR TREK: George Takei Is Ready To Beam Up". Sci-Fi Channel. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. RetrievedMarch 27, 2019.
- "Cult – Star Trek – Patrick Stewart – Galaxy Quest". BBC. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. RetrievedMarch 27, 2019.
- Mullich, Jon. "Welcome to madbeast.com – The Jon Mullich site". madbeast.com. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- "Lamplighters Music Theatre presents Our Annual Champagne Gala & Auction STAR DREK: THE GENERATION AFTER THAT"(PDF) (Press release). Lamplighters Music Theatre. October 6, 2009. Archived from the original(PDF) on January 12, 2012. RetrievedMay 5, 2013.
- Geraghty, Lincoln (March 30, 2007). Living with Star Trek: American Culture and the Star Trek Universe. London: I.B. Tauris. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9781845114213.
- "USS Callister (Black Mirror) – Television Academy". Television Academy. RetrievedJuly 14, 2018.
- Friedman, Dan (June 6, 2013). "IRS official apologizes for wasting funds on 'Star Trek' spoof video". New York Daily News. RetrievedMay 24, 2016.
- Grier, Peter (June 4, 2013). "How much did IRS spend filming 'Star Trek' spoof?". The Christian Science Monitor. RetrievedMay 24, 2016.
- Whitmore, Linda (November 10, 2009). "'Star Wreck,' from Finland with love". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. RetrievedDecember 18, 2017.
- Opam, Kwame (May 16, 2017). "The first trailer for The Orville promises Star Trek crossed with Family Guy's humor". The Verge. RetrievedMay 18, 2017.
- Howell, Elizabeth (August 14, 2014). "'Star Trek: Axanar' Fan Film Warps Beyond Crowdfunding Goal". Space.com. RetrievedSeptember 24, 2014.
- Axanar Productions (March 2, 2014). "Star Trek: Prelude to Axanar by Axanar Productions". Kickstarter. RetrievedOctober 9, 2014.
- "Fan Films". StarTrek.com. June 23, 2016. RetrievedJanuary 16, 2017.
- Martinelli, Marissa (July 13, 2016). "Crowdfunding gave us a golden age of amateur Star Trek—and then led to its downfall". Slate. RetrievedJanuary 16, 2017.
- "Star Trek: Voyager Documentary Breaks Record, Expands Crowdfunding Campaign". Comicbook.com. RetrievedMarch 18, 2021.
- "Star Trek: History Channel Orders 8-Part Docuseries Chronicling the Franchise". Comicbook.com. RetrievedMarch 18, 2021.
- Journey's End: The Saga of Star Trek - The Next Generation (1994), retrievedApril 18, 2021
- Weldon, Michael (1996). The Psychotronic Video Guide To Film. Macmillan. p. 531. ISBN 978-0-312-13149-4.
- "Star Trek: Beyond the Final Frontier". The Hollywood Reporter. February 18, 2007. RetrievedMarch 18, 2021.
- Bastién, Angelica Jade (May 17, 2019). "What We Left Behind Boldly Argues for Star Trek: Deep Space Nine's Place in the Black TV Canon". vulture.com. RetrievedMay 27, 2019.
- "Star Trek: Voyager Documentary Breaks Record, Expands Crowdfunding Campaign". Star Trek. RetrievedMarch 18, 2021.
- "'Star Trek: Voyager' Doc Becomes Most Successful Documentary Crowdfunding Campaign Ever". That Hashtag Show. March 16, 2021. RetrievedMarch 18, 2021.
- Grobar, Matt (March 11, 2021). "'The Center Seat: 55 Years Of Star Trek': History Channel Sets 8-Part Docuseries From The Nacelle Company". Deadline. RetrievedMarch 18, 2021.
- Eller, Claudia (December 11, 1998). "Lower Costs Energize 'Trek' Film Profits". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 18, 2020. RetrievedMay 21, 2020.
- Pascale, Anthony (June 30, 2010). "Exclusive: Producer Ralph Winter on Star Trek V: We Almost Killed The Franchise". TrekMovie. RetrievedJuly 1, 2010.
- "Former CIA chief gets shinier in mugging". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. August 5, 1987. p. 3A.
- Canby, Vincent (February 22, 1987). "Film View; Oscars Seen In a Crystal Ball". The New York Times. sec. 2; p. 1, col. 1.
- "Primetime Emmy Award Database". Emmys.com. RetrievedJuly 5, 2013.
- "Most successful sci-fi TV franchise". Guinness World Records. October 7, 2016. RetrievedOctober 11, 2016.
- Logan, Michael (August 24, 1996). "10 Truly Stellar Episodes". TV Guide. Vol. 44 no. 34. pp. 22–25. ISSN 0039-8543.
- Kooser, Amanda (August 6, 2016). "10 best Star Trek episodes, according to the fans". CNET. RetrievedAugust 8, 2019.
- Kooser, Amanda (August 5, 2016). "10 worst Star Trek episodes, according to the fans". CNET. RetrievedSeptember 8, 2019.
- Drezner, Daniel W. "The top 10 'Star Trek' episodes ever". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. RetrievedMarch 25, 2021.
- Sumner, Redstone; Redstone, Shari (September 26, 2016). "National Amusements, Inc. Proposes Combination of CBS and Viacom"(PDF) (Press release). National Amusements.
- Lang, Brent (May 15, 2013). "How the Battle Over 'Star Trek' Rights Killed J.J. Abrams' Grand Ambitions". TheWrap. RetrievedJune 21, 2019.
- Pascale, Anthony (February 11, 2010). "Star Trek Helps Bring Big Profits To Viacom & Paramount". TrekMovie.com. RetrievedOctober 19, 2011.
- Carmon, Irin (July 9, 2019). "Shari Redstone's $30 Billion Triumph". Intelligencer. RetrievedJuly 18, 2019.
- Baker-Whitelaw, Gavia (May 17, 2018). "New Star Trek trilogy delayed over legal battle". The Daily Dot. RetrievedJune 21, 2019.
- Littleton, Cynthia (June 19, 2019). "Shari Redstone, Joe Ianniello in Spotlight as CBS and Viacom Pursue Merger Talks Again". Variety. RetrievedDecember 5, 2019.
- Lee, Edmund (August 13, 2019). "CBS and Viacom to Reunite in Victory for Shari Redstone". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedAugust 13, 2019.
- Weprin, Alex (October 28, 2019). "Viacom-CBS Merger Now Expected to Close in "Early December"". The Hollywood Reporter. RetrievedNovember 5, 2019.
- Szalai, Georg (November 25, 2019). "Viacom, CBS Set Date to Close Merger". The Hollywood Reporter. RetrievedDecember 8, 2019.
- "Viacom and CBS Corp. are officially back together again". CBS News. December 4, 2019. RetrievedDecember 4, 2019.
- Asherman, Allan (March 20, 1981). The Star Trek Compendium. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-79145-1.
- Barad, Judith; Robertson, Ed (December 5, 2000). The Ethics of Star Trek. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-019530-4.
- Ellison, Harlan (January 1996). The City on the Edge of Forever. Benson, Maryland: Borderlands Press. ISBN 1-880325-02-0.
- Greenwald, Jeff (June 1998). Future Perfect: How Star Trek Conquered Planet Earth. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-87399-3.
- Gerrold, David (April 12, 1973). Trouble with Tribbles. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-23402-2.
- Gerrold, David (May 1984). The World of Star Trek (Revised ed.). New York: Bluejay Books. ISBN 0-312-94463-2.
- Krauss, Lawrence M (September 1995). The Physics of Star Trek. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00559-4.
- Lichtenberg, Jacqueline; Marshak, Sondra; Winston, Joan (July 1975). Star Trek Lives!. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-02151-6.
- McIntee, David (March 9, 2000). Delta Quadrant: The Unofficial Guide to Star Trek Voyager. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 0-7535-0436-7.
- Nichols, Nichelle (October 19, 1994). Beyond Uhura. New York: Putnam Adult. ISBN 0-399-13993-1.
- Projansky, Sarah; Helford, Elyce Rae; Ono, Kent (August 8, 1996). Harrison, Taylor (ed.).Enterprise Zones: Critical Positions on Star Trek. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2899-3.
- Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (October 1993). Star Trek Memories. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-017734-9.
- Shatner, William; Kreski, Chris (May 1999). Get a Life!. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-02131-1.
- Shatner, William; Walter, Chip (July 30, 2002). I'm Working on That: A Trek from Science Fiction to Science Fact. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-04737-X.
- Winston, Joan (November 1977). The Making of the Trek Conventions. New York: Knopf Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13112-7.