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Wikipedia

Star Wars

This article is about the media franchise as a whole. For the original 1977 film, see Star Wars (film). For other uses, see Star Wars (disambiguation).

Star Wars is an American epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon. The franchise has been expanded into various films and other media, including television series, video games, novels, comic books, theme park attractions, and themed areas, comprising an all-encompassing fictional universe. In 2020, its total value was estimated atUS$70billion, and it is currently the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time.

Star Wars
Created byGeorge Lucas
Original workStar Wars (1977)
OwnerLucasfilm Ltd.
Print publications
Book(s)List of reference books
Novel(s)List of novels
Short storiesSee list of novels
ComicsList of comics
Comic strip(s)See list of comics
Magazine(s)Star Wars Insider
(1987–present)
Films and television
Film(s)Full list
Live-action

Animated

Short film(s)Reflections (2018)
Television seriesFull list
Television special(s)Holiday Special
(1978)
Television film(s)List of TV films
Games
Role-playingList of RPGs
Video game(s)Full list
Audio
Radio program(s)List of radio dramas
Original musicMusic
Miscellaneous
Toy(s)Merchandise
Theme park attraction(s)List of attractions

The original film (Star Wars), retroactively subtitled Episode IV: A New Hope (1977), was followed by the sequels Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (1983), forming the original Star Wars trilogy. Lucas later returned to filmmaking to direct a prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999), Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002), and Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (2005). In 2012, Lucas sold his production company to Disney, relinquishing his ownership of the franchise. The subsequently produced sequel trilogy consists of Episode VII: The Force Awakens (2015), Episode VIII: The Last Jedi (2017), and Episode IX: The Rise of Skywalker (2019).

All nine films of the "Skywalker saga" were nominated for Academy Awards, with wins going to the first two releases. Together with the theatrical live action "anthology" films Rogue One (2016) and Solo (2018), the combined box office revenue of the films equated to overUS$10 billion, which makes it the second-highest-grossing film franchise of all time. An additional film, Rogue Squadron, is planned for release in late 2023. A number of other films, including an independent trilogy, are suggested to be in development.

Contents

The Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away", in which humans and many species of aliens (often humanoid) co-exist with robots, or 'droids', who may assist them in their daily routines; space travel between planets is common due to lightspeed hyperspace technology. Spacecraft range from small starfighters, to huge capital ships such as the Star Destroyers, to space stations such as the moon-sized Death Stars. Telecommunication includes two-way audio and audiovisual screens, and holographic projections.

A mystical power known as the Force is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things ... [that] binds the galaxy together". Through training and meditation, those whom "the Force is strong with" are able to perform various superpowers (such as telekinesis, precognition, telepathy, and manipulation of physical energy). The Force is wielded by two major knightly orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, peacekeepers of the Galactic Republic who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, and the Sith, who use the dark side by manipulating fear and aggression. While Jedi Knights can be numerous, the Dark Lords of the Sith (or 'Darths') are intended to be limited to two: a master and their apprentice.

Force-wielders are very limited in numbers in comparison to the population. The Jedi and Sith prefer the use of a weapon called a lightsaber, a blade of energy that can cut through virtually any surface and deflect energy bolts. The rest of the population, as well as renegades and soldiers, use laser-powered blaster firearms. In the outer reaches of the galaxy, crime syndicates such as the Hutt cartel are dominant. Bounty hunters are often employed by both gangsters and governments. Illicit activities include smuggling and slavery.

Film U.S. release date Director Screenwriter(s) Story by Producer(s) Refs
Original trilogy
Episode IV – A New Hope May 25, 1977 (1977-05-25) George Lucas Gary Kurtz
Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back May 21, 1980 (1980-05-21) Irvin Kershner Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan George Lucas
Episode VI – Return of the Jedi May 25, 1983 (1983-05-25) Richard Marquand Lawrence Kasdan and George Lucas Howard Kazanjian
Prequel trilogy
Episode I – The Phantom Menace May 19, 1999 (1999-05-19) George Lucas George Lucas Rick McCallum
Episode II – Attack of the Clones May 16, 2002 (2002-05-16) George Lucas and Jonathan Hales George Lucas
Episode III – Revenge of the Sith May 19, 2005 (2005-05-19) George Lucas
Sequel trilogy
Episode VII – The Force Awakens December 18, 2015 (2015-12-18) J. J. Abrams J. J. Abrams & Lawrence Kasdan and Michael Arndt Kathleen Kennedy, J. J. Abrams and Bryan Burk
Episode VIII – The Last Jedi December 15, 2017 (2017-12-15) Rian Johnson Kathleen Kennedy and Ram Bergman
Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker December 20, 2019 (2019-12-20) J. J. Abrams Chris Terrio & J. J. Abrams Derek Connolly & Colin Trevorrow and Chris Terrio & J. J. Abrams Kathleen Kennedy, J. J. Abrams and Michelle Rejwan
Anthology films
Rogue One December 16, 2016 (2016-12-16) Gareth Edwards Chris Weitz and Tony Gilroy John Knoll and Gary Whitta Kathleen Kennedy, Allison Shearmur and Simon Emanuel
Solo May 25, 2018 (2018-05-25) Ron Howard Jonathan Kasdan & Lawrence Kasdan
Rogue Squadron December 22, 2023 (2023-12-22) Patty Jenkins Matthew Robinson Kathleen Kennedy

The Star Wars film series centers around three sets of trilogies, the nine films of which are collectively referred to as the "Skywalker saga". They were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IVVI (the original trilogy) being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes IIII (the prequel trilogy) being released between 1999 and 2005, and Episodes VIIIX (the sequel trilogy), being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family. The original trilogy depicts the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell the backstory of his father Anakin, while the sequels star Luke's nephew, Kylo Ren.

An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney chief financial officer Jay Rasulo as origin stories. The first entry, Rogue One (2016), tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans just before Episode IV. Solo (2018) focuses on Han Solo's backstory, also featuring original trilogy co-protagonists Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian and involving prequel trilogy villain Darth Maul.

Lucasfilm has a number of Star Wars films in development, two of which were confirmed during Disney Investor Day 2020. The first will be a film titled Rogue Squadron, which is being directed by Patty Jenkins, and is scheduled for release on December 22, 2023. The second is an unspecified film from Taika Waititi, who in May 2020 was announced to be directing a Star Wars film he was co-writing with Krysty Wilson-Cairns. Additionally, a trilogy independent from the Skywalker saga is being written by The Last Jedi writer/director Rian Johnson. In September 2019, it was announced that Kathleen Kennedy and Kevin Feige would collaborate to develop a Star Wars film. In February 2020, a film was announced to be in development from director J. D. Dillard and writer Matt Owens.

The Skywalker saga

Original trilogy

Main article: Star Wars Trilogy
The original trilogy's main cast includes (from left to right) Mark Hamill (Luke Skywalker), Harrison Ford (Han Solo), Carrie Fisher (Princess Leia), and James Earl Jones (Darth Vader's voice).

In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but could not obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti (1973), he wrote a two-page synopsis, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay. The 1977 movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm.

Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977, and first subtitled Episode IV: A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980, also achieving wide financial and critical success. The final film in the trilogy, Episode VI: Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, and the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Galactic Empire.

Prequel trilogy

The prequel trilogy's main cast includes (from left to right) Ewan McGregor (Obi-Wan Kenobi), Natalie Portman (Padmé Amidala), Hayden Christensen (Anakin Skywalker), and Ian McDiarmid (Palpatine).

According to producer Gary Kurtz, loose plans for a prequel trilogy were developed during the outlining of the original two films. In 1980, Lucas confirmed that he had the nine-film series plotted, but due to the stress of producing the original trilogy, he had decided to cancel further sequels by 1981. In 1983, Lucas explained that "There was never a script completed that had the entire story as it exists now ... As the stories unfolded, I would take certain ideas and save them ... I kept taking out all the good parts, and I just kept telling myself I would make other movies someday."

Technical advances in the late 1980s and early 1990s, including the ability to create computer-generated imagery (CGI), inspired Lucas to consider that it might be possible to revisit his saga. In 1989, Lucas stated that the prequels would be "unbelievably expensive." In 1992, he acknowledged that he had plans to create the prequel trilogy. A theatrical rerelease of the original trilogy in 1997 "updated" the 20-year-old films with the style of CGI envisioned for the new trilogy.

Episode I: The Phantom Menace was released on May 19, 1999, and Episode II: Attack of the Clones on May 16, 2002. Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, the firstPG-13 film in the franchise, was released on May 19, 2005. The first two movies were met with mixed reviews, with the third being received somewhat more positively. The trilogy begins 32 years before Episode IV and follows the Jedi training of Anakin Skywalker, Luke's father, and his eventual fall from grace and transformation into the Sith lord Darth Vader, as well as the corruption of the Galactic Republic and rise of the Empire led by Darth Sidious. Together with the original trilogy, Lucas has collectively referred to the first six episodic films of the franchise as "the tragedy of Darth Vader".

Sequel trilogy

The sequel trilogy's main cast includes (from left to right) Adam Driver (Kylo Ren), Daisy Ridley (Rey), John Boyega (Finn), and Oscar Isaac (Poe Dameron).

Prior to releasing the original film, and made possible by its success, Lucas planned "three trilogies of nine films." He announced this to Time in 1978, and confirmed that he had outlined them in 1981. At various stages of development, the sequel trilogy was to focus on the rebuilding of the Republic, the return of Luke in a role similar to that of Obi-Wan in the original trilogy, Luke's sister (not yet determined to be Leia), Han, Leia,R2-D2 andC-3PO. However, after beginning work on the prequel trilogy, Lucas insisted that Star Wars was meant to be a six-part series and that there would be no sequel trilogy.

Lucas decided to leave the franchise in the hands of other filmmakers, announcing in January 2012 that he would make no more Star Wars films. In October of that year, the Walt Disney Company agreed to buy Lucasfilm and announced that Episode VII would be released in 2015. The co-chairman of Lucasfilm, Kathleen Kennedy, became president of the company and served as executive producer of new Star Wars feature films. Lucas provided Kennedy his story treatments for the sequels during the 2012 sale, but in 2015 it was revealed Lucas's sequel outline had been discarded. The sequel trilogy also meant the end of the existing Star Wars Expanded Universe, which was discarded from canon to give "maximum creative freedom to the filmmakers and also preserve an element of surprise and discovery for the audience."

Episode VII: The Force Awakens was released on December 16, 2015, Episode VIII: The Last Jedi on December 13, 2017, and Episode IX: The Rise of Skywalker on December 18, 2019, in many countries. The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi were both critical and box office successes. Episode IX received a mixed reception from critics and audiences. The sequel trilogy starts 30 years after Episode VI and focuses on the journey of the Force-sensitive orphan Rey, guided by Luke Skywalker. Along with ex-stormtrooper Finn and ace X-Wing pilot Poe Dameron, Rey helps the Resistance, led by Leia, fight the First Order, commanded by Han and Leia's son (and Luke's nephew), Kylo Ren.

Anthology films

The anthology films' main casts include (from left to right) Felicity Jones (Jyn Erso) and Diego Luna (Cassian Andor) from Rogue One: A Star Wars Story and Alden Ehrenreich (Han Solo) and Woody Harrelson (Tobias Beckett) from Solo: A Star Wars Story .

Lucasfilm and Kennedy have stated that the standalone films would be referred to as the Star Wars anthology series (though the word anthology has not been used in any of the titles, instead carrying the promotional "A Star Wars Story" subtitle). Focused on how the Rebels obtained the Death Star plans introduced in the 1977 film, the first anthology film, Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, was released on December 16, 2016, to favorable reviews and box office success. The second, Solo: A Star Wars Story, centered on a young Han Solo with Chewbacca and Lando as supporting characters, was released on May 25, 2018, to generally favorable reviews and underperformance at the box office. Despite this, more anthology films are expected to be released, following a hiatus after 2019's The Rise of Skywalker.

The Star Wars franchise has been spun off to various television productions, including two animated series released in the mid-1980s. Further animated series began to be released in the 2000s, the first two of which focused on the Clone Wars. After Disney's acquisition of Lucasfilm, only the later one remained canon. Eight live-action Star Wars series will be released on Disney+. The first, The Mandalorian, premiered on November 12, 2019. Star Wars won the 2020 Webby Award for Television & Film in the category Social. Disney+ later released the Ewoks movies and animated series, along the animated first appearance of Boba Fett, and the Clone Wars animated micro-series in a section called Star Wars Vintage, that section will also include the Droids animated series in the future. Certain aspects of the original Clone Wars micro-series are considered to not contradict the canon, while others do.

A live-action spinoff of The Mandalorian, titled The Book of Boba Fett, was announced in December 2020 and is set to be released on December 29, 2021.

Series

Many Star Wars series have been produced, both animated and live-action. The first being Star Wars: Droids in 1985, and the next being The Book of Boba Fett in December.

SeriesSeasonsEpisodesOriginally releasedNetwork
Animated series
Droids113September 7, 1985 – June 7, 1986 (1985-09-071986-06-07)ABC
Ewoks226September 7, 1985 – December 13, 1986 (1985-09-071986-12-13)
The Clone Wars7133October 3, 2008 – May 4, 2020 (2008-10-032020-05-04)Cartoon Network / Netflix / Disney+
Rebels475October 3, 2014 – March 5, 2018 (2014-10-032018-03-05)Disney XD
Resistance240October 7, 2018 – January 26, 2020 (2018-10-072020-01-26)Disney Channel
The Bad Batch116May 4, 2021 – present (2021-05-04 – present)Disney+
Visions19September 22, 2021 (2021-09-22)
Animated micro-series
Clone Wars325November 7, 2003 – March 25, 2005 (2003-11-072005-03-25)Cartoon Network
Blips18May 3 – September 4, 2017 (2017-05-032017-09-04)YouTube
Forces of Destiny232July 3, 2017 – May 25, 2018 (2017-07-032018-05-25)
Galaxy of Adventures255November 30, 2018 – October 2, 2020 (2018-11-302020-10-02)
Roll Out116August 9, 2019 – April 1, 2020 (2019-08-092020-04-01)
Live-action series
The Mandalorian216November 12, 2019 – present (2019-11-12 – present)Disney+
Game shows
Jedi Temple Challenge110June 10 – August 5, 2020 (2020-06-102020-08-05)StarWarsKids.com

Films

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Main article: Ewok
Film U.S. release date Director(s) Teleplay by Story by Producer(s) Network
The Ewok Adventure November 25, 1984 (1984-11-25) John Korty Bob Carrau George Lucas Thomas G. Smith and Patricia Rose Duignan ABC
Ewoks: The Battle for Endor November 24, 1985 (1985-11-24) Jim Wheat and Ken Wheat Thomas G. Smith and Ian Bryce

Television special

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Film U.S. release date Director(s) Teleplay by Story by Producer(s) Network
Star Wars Holiday Special November 17, 1978 (1978-11-17) Steve Binder Pat Proft, Leonard Ripps, Bruce Vilanch, Rod Warren, and Mitzie Welch Joe Layton, Jeff Starsh, Ken Welch, and Mitzie Welch CBS

The Star Wars canon fictional universe spans multiple eras, of which three are focused around each of the film trilogies. The following eras were defined in January 2021:

The Expanded Universe of spin-off media depicts different levels of continuity, which were deemed non-canonical and rebranded as Legends on April 25, 2014, to make most subsequent works align to the episodic films, The Clone Wars film, and television series.

From 1976 to 2014, the term Expanded Universe (EU) was an umbrella term for all officially licensed Star Wars storytelling material set outside the events depicted within the theatrical films, including novels, comics, and video games. Lucasfilm maintained internal continuity between the films and television content and the EU material until April 25, 2014, when the company announced all of the EU works would cease production. Existing works would no longer be considered canon to the franchise and subsequent reprints would be rebranded under the Star Wars Legends label, with downloadable content for the massively multiplayer online game The Old Republic the only Legends material to still be produced. The Star Wars canon was subsequently restructured to only include the existing six feature films, the animated film The Clone Wars (2008), and its companion animated series. All future projects and creative developments across all types of media would be overseen and coordinated by the story group, announced as a division of Lucasfilm created to maintain continuity and a cohesive vision on the storytelling of the franchise. Multiple comics series from Marvel and novels published by Del Rey were produced after the announcement.

Print media

Star Wars in print predates the release of the first film, with the November 1976 novelization of Star Wars, initially subtitled "From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker". Credited to Lucas, it was ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster. The first "Expanded Universe" story appeared in Marvel Comics' Star Wars #7 in January 1978 (the first six issues being an adaptation of the film), followed by Foster's sequel novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye the following month.

Novels

Further information: List of Star Wars books
Timothy Zahn authored the Thrawn trilogy, which was widely credited with revitalizing the dormant Star Wars franchise.

After penning the novelization of the original film, Foster followed it with the sequel Splinter of the Mind's Eye (1978). The novelizations of The Empire Strikes Back (1980) by Donald F. Glut and Return of the Jedi (1983) by James Kahn followed, as well as The Han Solo Adventures trilogy (1979–1980) by Brian Daley, and The Adventures of Lando Calrissian trilogy (1983) by L. Neil Smith.

Timothy Zahn's bestselling Thrawn trilogy (1991–1993) reignited interest in the franchise and introduced the popular characters Grand Admiral Thrawn, Mara Jade, Talon Karrde, and Gilad Pellaeon. The first novel, Heir to the Empire, reached #1 on the New York Times Best Seller list, and the series finds Luke, Leia, and Han facing off against tactical genius Thrawn, who is plotting to retake the galaxy for the Empire. In The Courtship of Princess Leia (1994) by Dave Wolverton, set immediately before the Thrawn trilogy, Leia considers an advantageous political marriage to Prince Isolder of the planet Hapes, but she and Han ultimately marry. Steve Perry's Shadows of the Empire (1996), set between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, was part of a multimedia campaign that included a comic book series and video game. The novel introduced the crime lord Prince Xizor, another popular character who would appear in multiple other works. Other notable series from Bantam include the Jedi Academy trilogy (1994) by Kevin J. Anderson, the 14-book Young Jedi Knights series (1995–1998) by Anderson and Rebecca Moesta, and the X-wing series (1996–2012) by Michael A. Stackpole and Aaron Allston.

Del Rey took over Star Wars book publishing in 1999, releasing what would become a 19-installment novel series called The New Jedi Order (1999–2003). Written by multiple authors, the series was set 25 to 30 years after the original films and introduced the Yuuzhan Vong, a powerful alien race attempting to invade and conquer the entire galaxy. The bestselling multi-author series Legacy of the Force (2006–2008) chronicles the crossover of Han and Leia's son Jacen Solo to the dark side of the Force; among his evil deeds, he kills Luke's wife Mara Jade as a sacrifice to join the Sith. Although no longer canon, the story is paralleled in The Force Awakens with Han and Leia's son Ben Solo, who has become the dark Kylo Ren.

Three series set in the prequel era were introduced for younger audiences: the 18-book Jedi Apprentice (1999–2002) chronicles the adventures of Obi-Wan Kenobi and his master Qui-Gon Jinn in the years before The Phantom Menace; the 11-book Jedi Quest (2001–2004) follows Obi-Wan and his own apprentice, Anakin Skywalker in between The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones; and the 10-book The Last of the Jedi (2005–2008), set almost immediately after Revenge of the Sith, features Obi-Wan and the last few surviving Jedi.

Although Thrawn had been designated a Legends character in 2014, he was reintroduced into the canon in the 2016 third season of Rebels, with Zahn returning to write more novels based in the character, and set in the new canon.

Comics

Marvel Comics published a Star Wars comic book series from 1977 to 1986. Original Star Wars comics were serialized in the Marvel magazine Pizzazz between 1977 and 1979. The 1977 installments were the first original Star Wars stories not directly adapted from the films to appear in print form, as they preceded those of the Star Wars comic series. From 1985 to 1987, the animated children's series Ewoks and Droids inspired comic series from Marvel's Star Comics line. According to Marvel comics former Editor-In-Chief Jim Shooter, the strong sales of Star Wars comics saved Marvel financially in 1977 and 1978. Marvel's Star Wars series was one of the industry's top selling titles in 1979 and 1980. The only downside for Marvel was that the 100,000 copy sales quota was surpassed quickly, allowing Lippincott to renegotiate the royalty arrangements from a position of strength.

In the late 1980s, Marvel dropped a new Star Wars comic it had in development, which was picked up by Dark Horse Comics and published as the popular Dark Empire series (1991–1995). Dark Horse subsequently launched dozens of series set after the original film trilogy, including Tales of the Jedi (1993–1998), X-wing Rogue Squadron (1995–1998), Star Wars: Republic (1998–2006), Star Wars Tales (1999–2005), Star Wars: Empire (2002–2006), and Knights of the Old Republic (2006–2010).

After Disney's acquisition of Lucasfilm, it was announced in January 2014 that in 2015 the Star Wars comics license would return to Marvel Comics, whose parent company, Marvel Entertainment, Disney had purchased in 2009. Launched in 2015, the first three publications were titled Star Wars, Darth Vader, and the limited series Princess Leia.

First announced as Project Luminous at Star Wars Celebration in April 2019, full details of a publishing initiative called Star Wars: The High Republic were revealed in a press conference in February 2020. Involving the majority of the current officially licensed publishers, a new era set 200 years before the Skywalker Saga will be explored in various books and comics. These include ongoing titles by Marvel and IDW Publishing, written by Cavan Scott and Daniel José Older respectively, that will both premiere in August 2020.

Audio

Soundtracks and singles

Further information: Music of Star Wars

John Williams composed the soundtracks for the nine episodic films; he has stated that he will retire from the franchise with The Rise of Skywalker. He also composed Han Solo's theme for Solo: A Star Wars Story; John Powell adapted and composed the rest of the score. Michael Giacchino composed the score of Rogue One. Ludwig Göransson scored and composed the music of The Mandalorian. Williams also created the main theme for Galaxy's Edge.

Audio novels

The first Star Wars audio work is The Story of Star Wars, an LP using audio samples from the original film and a new narration to retell the story, released in 1977. Most later printed novels were adapted into audio novels, usually released on cassette tape and re-released on CD. As of 2019, audio-only novels have been released not directly based on printed media.

Radio

Further information: Star Wars (radio)

Radio adaptations of the films were also produced. Lucas, a fan of the NPR-affiliated campus radio station of his alma mater the University of Southern California, licensed the Star Wars radio rights to KUSC-FM forUS$1. The production used John Williams's original film score, along with Ben Burtt's sound effects.

The first was written by science-fiction author Brian Daley and directed by John Madden. It was broadcast on National Public Radio in 1981, adapting the original 1977 film into 13 episodes. Mark Hamill and Anthony Daniels reprised their film roles.

The overwhelming success, led to a 10-episode adaptation of The Empire Strikes Back debuted in 1983. Billy Dee Williams joined the other two stars, reprising his role as Lando Calrissian.

In 1983, Buena Vista Records released an original, 30-minute Star Wars audio drama titled Rebel Mission to Ord Mantell, written by Daley. In the 1990s, Time Warner Audio Publishing adapted several Star Wars series from Dark Horse Comics into audio dramas: the three-part Dark Empire saga, Tales of the Jedi, Dark Lords of the Sith, the Dark Forces trilogy, and Crimson Empire (1998). Return of the Jedi was adapted into 6-episodes in 1996, featuring Daniels.

Video games

The Star Wars franchise has spawned over one hundred computer, video, and board games, dating back to some of the earliest home consoles. Some are based directly on the movie material, while others rely heavily on the non-canonical Expanded Universe (rebranded as Star Wars Legends and removed from the canon in 2014). Star Wars games have gone through three significant development eras, marked by a change in leadership among the developers: the early licensed games, those developed after the creation of LucasArts, and those created after the closure of the Lucasfilm division by Disney and the transfer of the license to Electronic Arts.

Early licensed games (1979–1993)

The first officially licensed electronic Star Wars game was Kenner's 1979 table-top Star Wars Electronic Battle Command. In 1982, Parker Brothers published the first Star Wars video game for the Atari 2600, Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back, followed soon the year later by Star Wars: Jedi Arena, the first video game to depict lightsaber combat. They were followed in 1983 by Atari's rail shooter arcade game Star Wars, with vector graphics to replicate the Death Star trench run scene from the 1977 film. The next game, Star Wars: Return of the Jedi (1984), has more traditional raster graphics, while the following Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (1985) has vector graphics.

Platform games were made for the Nintendo Entertainment System, including the Japan-exclusive Star Wars (1987), an international Star Wars (1991), and Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (1992). Super Star Wars (1992) was released for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, with two sequels over the next two years.

LucasArts and modern self-published games (1993–2014)

Main article: LucasArts

Lucasfilm founded its own video game company in 1982, becoming best known for adventure games and World War II flight combat games, but as George Lucas took more interest in the increasing success of the video game market, he wanted to have more creative control over the games and founded his own development company, LucasArts. Improved graphics allowed games to tell complex narratives, which allowed for the retelling of the films, and eventually original narratives set in the same continuity, with voice-overs and CGI cutscenes. In 1993, LucasArts released Star Wars: X-Wing, the first self-published Star Wars video game and the first space flight simulator based on the franchise. It was one of the best-selling video games of 1993 and established its own series of games. The Rogue Squadron series was released between 1998 and 2003, also focusing on space battles set during the films.

Dark Forces (1995), a hybrid adventure game incorporating puzzles and strategy, was the first Star Wars first-person shooter. It featured gameplay and graphical features not then common in other games, made possible by LucasArts' custom-designed game engine, the Jedi. The game was well received, and it was followed by four sequels. The series introduced Kyle Katarn, who would appear in multiple games, novels, and comics. Katarn is a former stormtrooper who joins the Rebellion and becomes a Jedi, a plot arc similar to that of Finn in the sequel trilogy films. A massively multiplayer online role-playing game, Star Wars Galaxies, was in operation from 2003 until 2011. After Disney bought Lucasfilm, LucasArts ceased its role as a developer in 2013, although it still operates as a licensor.

EA Star Wars (2014–present)

Following its acquisition of the franchise, Disney reassigned video game rights to Electronic Arts. Games made during this era are considered canonical, and feature more influence from the Star Wars filmmakers. Disney partnered with Lenovo to create the augmented reality video game Jedi Challenges, released in November 2017. In August 2018, it was announced that Zynga would publish free-to-play Star Wars mobile games. The Battlefront games received a canonical reboot with Star Wars: Battlefront in November 2015, which was followed by a sequel, Battlefront II, in November 2017. A single-player action-adventure game, Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order, with an original story and cast of characters, was released in November 2019. A space combat game titled Star Wars: Squadrons, which builds upon the space battles from Battlefront, was released in October 2020.

Theme park attractions

In addition to the Disneyland ride Star Tours (1987) and its successor, Star Tours: The Adventures Continue (2011), many live attractions have been held at Disney parks, including the travelling exhibition Where Science Meets Imagination, the Space Mountain spin-off Hyperspace Mountain, a walkthrough Launch Bay, and the night-time A Galactic Spectacular. An immersive themed area called Galaxy's Edge (2019) opened at Disneyland and opened at Walt Disney World in mid-2019. A themed hotel, Star Wars: Galactic Starcruiser, is currently under construction at Walt Disney World.

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Title Park(s) Opening date Closing date
Star Tours Disneyland January 9, 1987 (1987-01-09) July 27, 2010 (2010-07-27)
Tokyo Disneyland July 12, 1989 (1989-07-12) April 2, 2012 (2012-04-02)
Disney's Hollywood Studios December 15, 1989 (1989-12-15) September 7, 2010 (2010-09-07)
Disneyland Paris April 12, 1992 (1992-04-12) March 16, 2016 (2016-03-16)
Star Wars Weekends Disney's Hollywood Studios 1997 (1997) November 2015 (2015)
Star Wars: Where Science Meets Imagination Multiple locations October 19, 2005 (2005-10-19) March 23, 2014 (2014-03-23)
Jedi Training Academy Disneyland July 1, 2006 (2006-19-01) November 15, 2015 (2015-11-15)
Disney's Hollywood Studios October 9, 2007 (2007-10-09) October 5, 2015 (2015-10-05)
Star Tours: The Adventures Continue Disney's Hollywood Studios May 20, 2011 (2011-05-20) N/A (Operating)
Disneyland June 3, 2011 (2011-06-03)
Tokyo Disneyland May 7, 2013 (2013-05-07)
Disneyland Paris March 26, 2017 (2017-03-26)
Star Wars: Hyperspace Mountain Disneyland November 14, 2015 (2015-11-14) May 31, 2017 (2017-05-31)
Hong Kong Disneyland June 11, 2016 (2016-06-11) N/A (Operating)
Disneyland Paris May 7, 2017 (2017-05-07)
Star Wars Launch Bay Disneyland November 16, 2015 (2015-11-16)
Disney's Hollywood Studios December 4, 2015 (2015-12-04)
Shanghai Disneyland Park June 16, 2016 (2016-06-16)
Jedi Training: Trials of the Temple Disney's Hollywood Studios December 1, 2015 (2015-12-01)
Disneyland December 8, 2015 (2015-12-08)
Disneyland Paris July 11, 2015 (2015-07-11)
Hong Kong Disneyland June 25, 2016 (2016-06-25)
Star Wars: A Galactic Spectacular Disney's Hollywood Studios June 17, 2016 (2016-06-17)
Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge Disneyland May 31, 2019 (2019-05-31)
Disney's Hollywood Studios August 29, 2019 (2019-08-29)
Star Wars: Millennium Falcon - Smugglers Run Disneyland May 31, 2019 (2019-05-31)
Disney's Hollywood Studios August 29, 2019 (2019-08-29)
Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance Disney's Hollywood Studios December 5, 2019 (2019-12-05)
Disneyland January 17, 2020 (2020-01-17)

Multimedia projects

A multimedia project involves works released across multiple types of media. Shadows of the Empire (1996) was a multimedia project set between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi that included a novel by Steve Perry, a comic book series, a video game, and action figures. The Force Unleashed (2008–2010) was a similar project set between Revenge of the Sith and A New Hope that included a novel, a 2008 video game and its 2010 sequel, a graphic novel, a role-playing game supplement, and toys.

Merchandising

George Lucas made much of his fortune by retaining his rights to the franchise's merchandising.

The success of the Star Wars films led the franchise to become one of the most merchandised franchises in the world. While filming the original 1977 film, George Lucas decided to take a $500,000 pay cut to his salary as director in exchange for full ownership of the franchise's merchandising rights. By 1987, the first three films have madeUS$2.6billion in merchandising revenue. By 2012, the first six films produced approximatelyUS$20billion in merchandising revenue.

Kenner made the first Star Wars action figures to coincide with the release of the original film, and today the original figures are highly valuable. Since the 1990s, Hasbro holds the rights to create action figures based on the saga. Pez dispensers began to be produced in 1997. Star Wars was the first intellectual property to be licensed in Lego history. Lego has produced animated parody short films and mini-series to promote their Star Wars sets. The Lego Star Wars video games are critically acclaimed bestsellers.

In 1977, the board game Star Wars: Escape from the Death Star was released. A Star Wars Monopoly and themed versions of Trivial Pursuit and Battleship were released in 1997, with updated versions released in subsequent years. The board game Risk has been adapted in two editions by Hasbro: The Clone Wars Edition (2005) and the Original Trilogy Edition (2006). Three Star Wars tabletop role-playing games have been developed: a version by West End Games in the 1980s and 1990s, one by Wizards of the Coast in the 2000s, and one by Fantasy Flight Games in the 2010s.

Star Wars Trading Cards have been published since the first "blue" series, by Topps, in 1977. Dozens of series have been produced, with Topps being the licensed creator in the United States. Each card series are of film stills or original art. Many of the cards have become highly collectible with some very rare "promos", such as the 1993 Galaxy Series II "floating Yoda" P3 card often commanding US$1,000 or more. While most "base" or "common card" sets are plentiful, many "insert" or "chase cards" are very rare. From 1995 until 2001, Decipher, Inc. had the license for, created, and produced the Star Wars Customizable Card Game.

It has been suggested that portions of The Mandalorian#Themes be split from it and merged into this article. (Discuss)(October 2021)

Star Wars features elements such as knighthood, chivalry, and Jungian archetypes such as "the shadow". There are also many references to Christianity, such as in the appearance of Darth Maul, whose design draws heavily from traditional depictions of the devil. Anakin was conceived of a virgin birth, and is assumed to be the "Chosen One", a messianic individual. However, unlike Jesus, Anakin falls from grace, remaining evil as Darth Vader until Return of the Jedi. According to Adam Driver, sequel trilogy villain Kylo Ren, who idolizes Vader, believes he is "doing what he thinks is right". George Lucas has said that the theme of the saga is redemption.

The saga draws heavily from the hero's journey, an archetypical template developed by comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell. Each character—primarily Anakin, Luke, and Rey—follows the steps of the cycle or undergoes its reversal, becoming the villain. A defining step of the journey is "Atonement with the Father". Obi-Wan's loss of a father figure could have impacted his relationship with Anakin, whom both Obi-Wan and Palpatine are fatherlike mentors to. Luke's discovery that Vader is his father has strong repercussions on the saga and is regarded as one of the most influential plot twists in cinema. Supreme Leader Snoke encourages Kylo Ren to kill his father, Han Solo. Kylo uses the fact that Rey is an orphan to tempt her into joining the dark side. According to Inverse, the final scene in The Last Jedi, which depicts servant children playing with a toy of Luke and one boy using the Force, symbolizes that "the Force can be found in people with humble beginnings."

Historical influences

Political science has been an important element of Star Wars since the franchise launched in 1977, focusing on a struggle between democracy and dictatorship. Battles featuring the Ewoks and Gungans against the Empire and Trade Federation, respectively, represent the clash between a primitive society and a more advanced one, similar to the Vietnam-American War. Darth Vader's design was initially inspired by Samurai armor, and also incorporated a German military helmet. Originally, Lucas conceived of the Sith as a group that served the Emperor in the same way that the Schutzstaffel served Adolf Hitler; this was condensed into one character in the form of Vader. Stormtroopers borrow the name of World War I German "shock" troopers. Imperial officers wear uniforms resembling those of German forces during World War II, and political and security officers resemble the black-clad SS down to the stylized silver death's head on their caps. World War II terms were used for names in the films; e.g. the planets Kessel (a term that refers to a group of encircled forces) and Hoth (after a German general who served on the snow-laden Eastern Front). Shots of the commanders looking through AT-AT walker viewscreens in The Empire Strikes Back resemble tank interiors, and space battles in the original film were based on World War I and World War II dogfights.

Palpatine being a chancellor before becoming the Emperor in the prequel trilogy alludes to Hitler's role before appointing himself Führer. Lucas has also drawn parallels to historical dictators such as Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, and politicians like Richard Nixon. The Great Jedi Purge mirrors the events of the Night of the Long Knives. The corruption of the Galactic Republic is modeled after the fall of the democratic Roman Republic and the formation of an empire.

On the inspiration for the First Order formed "from the ashes of the Empire", The Force Awakens director J. J. Abrams spoke of conversations the writers had about how the Nazis could have escaped to Argentina after WWII and "started working together again."

The lightsaber and the blaster are iconic elements of the franchise.

The Star Wars saga has had a significant impact on popular culture, with references to its fictional universe deeply embedded in everyday life. Phrases like "evil empire" and "May the Force be with you" have become part of the popular lexicon. The first Star Wars film in 1977 was a cultural unifier, enjoyed by a wide spectrum of people. The film can be said to have helped launch the science-fiction boom of the late 1970s and early 1980s, making science-fiction films a mainstream genre. The widespread impact made it a prime target for parody works and homages, with popular examples including Hardware Wars, Spaceballs, The Family Guy Trilogy and Robot Chicken: Star Wars.

In 1989, the Library of Congress selected the original Star Wars film for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry, as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." The Empire Strikes Back, was selected in 2010. 35mm reels of the 1997 Special Editions were the versions initially presented for preservation because of the difficulty of transferring from the original prints, but it was later revealed that the Library possesses a copyright deposit print of the original theatrical releases.

Industry

The original Star Wars film was a huge success for 20th Century Fox, and was credited for reinvigorating the company. Within three weeks of the film's release, the studio's stock price doubled to a record high. Prior to 1977, 20th Century Fox's greatest annual profits were $37 million, while in 1977, the company broke that record by posting a profit of $79 million. The franchise helped Fox to change from an almost bankrupt production company to a thriving media conglomerate.

Star Wars fundamentally changed the aesthetics and narratives of Hollywood films, switching the focus of Hollywood-made films from deep, meaningful stories based on dramatic conflict, themes and irony to sprawling special-effects-laden blockbusters, as well as changing the Hollywood film industry in fundamental ways. Before Star Wars, special effects in films had not appreciably advanced since the 1950s. The commercial success of Star Wars created a boom in state-of-the-art special effects in the late 1970s. Along with Jaws, Star Wars started the tradition of the summer blockbuster film in the entertainment industry, where films open on many screens at the same time and profitable franchises are important. It created the model for the major film trilogy and showed that merchandising rights on a film could generate more money than the film itself did.

Film critic Roger Ebert wrote in his book The Great Movies, "Like The Birth of a Nation and Citizen Kane, Star Wars was a technical watershed that influenced many of the movies that came after." It began a new generation of special effects and high-energy motion pictures. The film was one of the first films to link genres together to invent a new, high-concept genre for filmmakers to build upon. Finally, along with Steven Spielberg's Jaws, it shifted the film industry's focus away from personal filmmaking of the 1970s and towards fast-paced, big-budget blockbusters for younger audiences.

Some critics have blamed Star Wars and Jaws for "ruining" Hollywood by shifting its focus from "sophisticated" films such as The Godfather, Taxi Driver, and Annie Hall to films about spectacle and juvenile fantasy, and for the industry shift from stand-alone, one and done films, towards blockbuster franchises with multiple sequels and prequels. One such critic, Peter Biskind, complained, "When all was said and done, Lucas and Spielberg returned the 1970s audience, grown sophisticated on a diet of European and New Hollywood films, to the simplicities of the pre-1960s Golden Age of movies... They marched backward through the looking-glass." In an opposing view, Tom Shone wrote that through Star Wars and Jaws, Lucas and Spielberg "didn't betray cinema at all: they plugged it back into the grid, returning the medium to its roots as a carnival sideshow, a magic act, one big special effect", which was "a kind of rebirth".

The original Star Wars trilogy is widely considered one of the best film trilogies in history. Numerous filmmakers have been influenced by Star Wars, including Damon Lindelof, Dean Devlin, Roland Emmerich, John Lasseter, David Fincher, Joss Whedon, John Singleton, Kevin Smith, and later Star Wars directors J. J. Abrams and Gareth Edwards. Lucas's concept of a "used universe" particularly influenced Ridley Scott's Blade Runner (1982) and Alien (1979), James Cameron's Aliens (1986) as well as The Terminator (1984), George Miller's Mad Max 2 (1981), and Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001–2003). Christopher Nolan cited Star Wars as an influence when making the 2010 blockbuster film Inception.

Fan works

Main article: Star Wars fan films

The Star Wars saga has inspired many fans to create their own non-canon material set in the Star Wars galaxy. In recent years, this has ranged from writing fan fiction to creating fan films. In 2002, Lucasfilm sponsored the first annual Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards, officially recognizing filmmakers and the genre. Because of concerns over potential copyright and trademark issues, however, the contest was initially open only to parodies, mockumentaries, and documentaries. Fan fiction films set in the Star Wars universe were originally ineligible, but in 2007, Lucasfilm changed the submission standards to allow in-universe fiction entries. Lucasfilm has allowed but not endorsed the creation of fan fiction, as long as it does not attempt to make a profit.

Academia

As the characters and the storyline of the original trilogy are so well known, educators have used the films in the classroom as a learning resource. For example, a project in Western Australia honed elementary school students storytelling skills by role-playing action scenes from the movies and later creating props and audio/visual scenery to enhance their performance. Others have used the films to encourage second-level students to integrate technology in the science classroom by making prototype lightsabers. Similarly, psychiatrists in New Zealand and the US have advocated their use in the university classroom to explain different types of psychopathology.

  1. The film's release was preceded byits novelization in November 1976.
  2. Later titled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope
  3. Most existing spin-off media was made non-canon and rebranded as 'Legends' in April 2014.
  4. Lucas started by researching the inspiration behind Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon comic, leading him to the works of author Edgar Rice Burroughs—the John Carter of Mars series in particular.
  5. Played by Jake Lloyd as a child in Episode I
  6. Each film was released two days later in the U.S.
  7. The prequels feature a relatively sleek and new design aesthetic in comparison to the original trilogy.
  8. The original trilogy depicts the galaxy as dirty and grimy in George Lucas's depiction of a "used universe".
  9. The sequel trilogy made a return to what J. J. Abrams called "the wonderful preposterousness" of practical effects that were used to create the original trilogy.
  10. Not to be confused with the board game with the same name published in 1990
  11. In his early drafts, Lucas used the plot point of a dictator staying in power with the support of the military. In his comment (made in the prequel trilogy era) Lucas attributed this to Nixon's supposed intention to defy the 22nd Amendment, but the president resigned and never ran for a third term.
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Star Wars
Star Wars Language Watch Edit This article is about the media franchise as a whole For the original 1977 film see Star Wars film For other uses see Star Wars disambiguation Star Wars is an American epic space opera 1 multimedia franchise created by George Lucas which began with the eponymous 1977 film b and quickly became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon The franchise has been expanded into various films and other media including television series video games novels comic books theme park attractions and themed areas comprising an all encompassing fictional universe c In 2020 its total value was estimated at US 70 billion and it is currently the fifth highest grossing media franchise of all time Star WarsCreated byGeorge LucasOriginal workStar Wars 1977 a b OwnerLucasfilm Ltd Print publicationsBook s List of reference booksNovel s List of novelsShort storiesSee list of novelsComicsList of comicsComic strip s See list of comicsMagazine s Star Wars Insider 1987 present Films and televisionFilm s Full list Live action Skywalker Saga 9 films 1977 2019 Anthology 2 films 2016 present Animated The Clone Wars 1 theatrical pilot 2008 Short film s Reflections 2018 Television seriesFull list The Mandalorian 2019 present The Book of Boba Fett 2021 Andor 2022 Obi Wan Kenobi 2022 Television special s Holiday Special 1978 Television film s List of TV filmsGamesRole playingList of RPGsVideo game s Full list X Wing 4 games 1993 1999 Jedi Knight 4 games 1995 2003 Rogue Squadron 3 games 1998 2003 Knights of the Old Republic 4 games 2003 present Battlefront 8 games 2004 2017 Lego Star Wars 6 games 2005 present The Force Unleashed 2 games 2008 2010 AudioRadio program s List of radio dramasOriginal musicMusicMiscellaneousToy s MerchandiseTheme park attraction s List of attractions The original film Star Wars retroactively subtitled Episode IV A New Hope 1977 was followed by the sequels Episode V The Empire Strikes Back 1980 and Episode VI Return of the Jedi 1983 forming the original Star Wars trilogy Lucas later returned to filmmaking to direct a prequel trilogy consisting of Episode I The Phantom Menace 1999 Episode II Attack of the Clones 2002 and Episode III Revenge of the Sith 2005 In 2012 Lucas sold his production company to Disney relinquishing his ownership of the franchise The subsequently produced sequel trilogy consists of Episode VII The Force Awakens 2015 Episode VIII The Last Jedi 2017 and Episode IX The Rise of Skywalker 2019 All nine films of the Skywalker saga were nominated for Academy Awards with wins going to the first two releases Together with the theatrical live action anthology films Rogue One 2016 and Solo 2018 the combined box office revenue of the films equated to over US 10 billion which makes it the second highest grossing film franchise of all time 3 4 An additional film Rogue Squadron is planned for release in late 2023 A number of other films including an independent trilogy are suggested to be in development Contents 1 Premise 2 Film 2 1 The Skywalker saga 2 1 1 Original trilogy 2 1 2 Prequel trilogy 2 1 3 Sequel trilogy 2 2 Anthology films 3 Television 3 1 Series 3 2 Films 3 3 Television special 4 Fictional timeline 5 Other media 5 1 Print media 5 1 1 Novels 5 1 2 Comics 5 2 Audio 5 2 1 Soundtracks and singles 5 2 2 Audio novels 5 2 3 Radio 5 3 Video games 5 3 1 Early licensed games 1979 1993 5 3 2 LucasArts and modern self published games 1993 2014 5 3 3 EA Star Wars 2014 present 5 4 Theme park attractions 5 5 Multimedia projects 5 6 Merchandising 6 Themes 6 1 Historical influences 7 Cultural impact 7 1 Industry 7 1 1 Fan works 7 2 Academia 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Works cited 12 Further reading 13 External linksPremiseThe Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters A long time ago in a galaxy far far away 5 in which humans and many species of aliens often humanoid co exist with robots or droids who may assist them in their daily routines space travel between planets is common due to lightspeed hyperspace technology 6 7 8 Spacecraft range from small starfighters to huge capital ships such as the Star Destroyers to space stations such as the moon sized Death Stars Telecommunication includes two way audio and audiovisual screens and holographic projections A mystical power known as the Force is described in the original film as an energy field created by all living things that binds the galaxy together 9 Through training and meditation those whom the Force is strong with are able to perform various superpowers such as telekinesis precognition telepathy and manipulation of physical energy 10 The Force is wielded by two major knightly orders at conflict with each other the Jedi peacekeepers of the Galactic Republic who act on the light side of the Force through non attachment and arbitration and the Sith who use the dark side by manipulating fear and aggression While Jedi Knights can be numerous the Dark Lords of the Sith or Darths are intended to be limited to two a master and their apprentice 11 Force wielders are very limited in numbers in comparison to the population The Jedi and Sith prefer the use of a weapon called a lightsaber a blade of energy that can cut through virtually any surface and deflect energy bolts The rest of the population as well as renegades and soldiers use laser powered blaster firearms In the outer reaches of the galaxy crime syndicates such as the Hutt cartel are dominant Bounty hunters are often employed by both gangsters and governments Illicit activities include smuggling and slavery FilmMain article List of Star Wars films Film U S release date Director Screenwriter s Story by Producer s RefsOriginal trilogyEpisode IV A New Hope May 25 1977 1977 05 25 George Lucas Gary Kurtz 12 13 Episode V The Empire Strikes Back May 21 1980 1980 05 21 Irvin Kershner Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan George Lucas 14 15 Episode VI Return of the Jedi May 25 1983 1983 05 25 Richard Marquand Lawrence Kasdan and George Lucas Howard Kazanjian 16 17 Prequel trilogyEpisode I The Phantom Menace May 19 1999 1999 05 19 George Lucas George Lucas Rick McCallum 18 Episode II Attack of the Clones May 16 2002 2002 05 16 George Lucas and Jonathan Hales George Lucas 19 20 Episode III Revenge of the Sith May 19 2005 2005 05 19 George Lucas 21 22 Sequel trilogyEpisode VII The Force Awakens December 18 2015 2015 12 18 J J Abrams J J Abrams amp Lawrence Kasdan and Michael Arndt Kathleen Kennedy J J Abrams and Bryan Burk 16 23 Episode VIII The Last Jedi December 15 2017 2017 12 15 Rian Johnson Kathleen Kennedy and Ram Bergman 24 25 Episode IX The Rise of Skywalker December 20 2019 2019 12 20 J J Abrams Chris Terrio amp J J Abrams Derek Connolly amp Colin Trevorrow and Chris Terrio amp J J Abrams Kathleen Kennedy J J Abrams and Michelle Rejwan 26 27 Anthology filmsRogue One December 16 2016 2016 12 16 Gareth Edwards Chris Weitz and Tony Gilroy John Knoll and Gary Whitta Kathleen Kennedy Allison Shearmur and Simon Emanuel 28 Solo May 25 2018 2018 05 25 Ron Howard Jonathan Kasdan amp Lawrence Kasdan 29 Rogue Squadron December 22 2023 2023 12 22 Patty Jenkins Matthew Robinson Kathleen Kennedy 30 31 The Star Wars film series centers around three sets of trilogies the nine films of which are collectively referred to as the Skywalker saga 32 They were produced non chronologically with Episodes IV VI the original trilogy being released between 1977 and 1983 Episodes I III the prequel trilogy being released between 1999 and 2005 and Episodes VII IX the sequel trilogy being released between 2015 and 2019 Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force sensitive Skywalker family The original trilogy depicts the heroic development of Luke Skywalker the prequels tell the backstory of his father Anakin while the sequels star Luke s nephew Kylo Ren An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy 33 described by Disney chief financial officer Jay Rasulo as origin stories 34 The first entry Rogue One 2016 tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans just before Episode IV 35 36 Solo 2018 focuses on Han Solo s backstory also featuring original trilogy co protagonists Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian and involving prequel trilogy villain Darth Maul Lucasfilm has a number of Star Wars films in development two of which were confirmed during Disney Investor Day 2020 The first will be a film titled Rogue Squadron which is being directed by Patty Jenkins and is scheduled for release on December 22 2023 37 The second is an unspecified film from Taika Waititi who in May 2020 was announced to be directing a Star Wars film he was co writing with Krysty Wilson Cairns 38 Additionally a trilogy independent from the Skywalker saga is being written by The Last Jedi writer director Rian Johnson 39 40 In September 2019 it was announced that Kathleen Kennedy and Kevin Feige would collaborate to develop a Star Wars film 41 In February 2020 a film was announced to be in development from director J D Dillard and writer Matt Owens 42 The Skywalker saga Original trilogy Main article Star Wars Trilogy The original trilogy s main cast includes from left to right Mark Hamill Luke Skywalker Harrison Ford Han Solo Carrie Fisher Princess Leia and James Earl Jones Darth Vader s voice In 1971 George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial but could not obtain the rights so he began developing his own space opera 43 d After directing American Graffiti 1973 he wrote a two page synopsis which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in 44 45 By 1974 he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay 46 The 1977 movie s success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial 47 With the backstory he created for the sequel Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies 48 Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy which were self financed by Lucasfilm Star Wars was released on May 25 1977 and first subtitled Episode IV A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars 49 Episode V The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21 1980 also achieving wide financial and critical success The final film in the trilogy Episode VI Return of the Jedi was released on May 25 1983 The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker s quest to become a Jedi his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader and the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Galactic Empire Prequel trilogy Main article Star Wars prequel trilogy The prequel trilogy s main cast includes from left to right Ewan McGregor Obi Wan Kenobi Natalie Portman Padme Amidala Hayden Christensen Anakin Skywalker e and Ian McDiarmid Palpatine According to producer Gary Kurtz loose plans for a prequel trilogy were developed during the outlining of the original two films 50 In 1980 Lucas confirmed that he had the nine film series plotted 51 but due to the stress of producing the original trilogy he had decided to cancel further sequels by 1981 52 In 1983 Lucas explained that There was never a script completed that had the entire story as it exists now As the stories unfolded I would take certain ideas and save them I kept taking out all the good parts and I just kept telling myself I would make other movies someday 53 Technical advances in the late 1980s and early 1990s including the ability to create computer generated imagery CGI inspired Lucas to consider that it might be possible to revisit his saga In 1989 Lucas stated that the prequels would be unbelievably expensive 54 In 1992 he acknowledged that he had plans to create the prequel trilogy 55 A theatrical rerelease of the original trilogy in 1997 updated the 20 year old films with the style of CGI envisioned for the new trilogy Episode I The Phantom Menace was released on May 19 1999 and Episode II Attack of the Clones on May 16 2002 Episode III Revenge of the Sith the first PG 13 film in the franchise was released on May 19 2005 56 The first two movies were met with mixed reviews with the third being received somewhat more positively The trilogy begins 32 years before Episode IV and follows the Jedi training of Anakin Skywalker Luke s father and his eventual fall from grace and transformation into the Sith lord Darth Vader as well as the corruption of the Galactic Republic and rise of the Empire led by Darth Sidious Together with the original trilogy Lucas has collectively referred to the first six episodic films of the franchise as the tragedy of Darth Vader 57 Sequel trilogy Main article Star Wars sequel trilogy The sequel trilogy s main cast includes from left to right Adam Driver Kylo Ren Daisy Ridley Rey John Boyega Finn and Oscar Isaac Poe Dameron Prior to releasing the original film and made possible by its success Lucas planned three trilogies of nine films 48 58 He announced this to Time in 1978 59 and confirmed that he had outlined them in 1981 60 At various stages of development the sequel trilogy was to focus on the rebuilding of the Republic 61 the return of Luke in a role similar to that of Obi Wan in the original trilogy 58 Luke s sister not yet determined to be Leia 50 Han Leia 62 R2 D2 and C 3PO 48 63 However after beginning work on the prequel trilogy Lucas insisted that Star Wars was meant to be a six part series and that there would be no sequel trilogy 64 65 Lucas decided to leave the franchise in the hands of other filmmakers announcing in January 2012 that he would make no more Star Wars films 66 In October of that year the Walt Disney Company agreed to buy Lucasfilm and announced that Episode VII would be released in 2015 67 The co chairman of Lucasfilm Kathleen Kennedy became president of the company and served as executive producer of new Star Wars feature films 68 Lucas provided Kennedy his story treatments for the sequels during the 2012 sale 69 but in 2015 it was revealed Lucas s sequel outline had been discarded 70 71 The sequel trilogy also meant the end of the existing Star Wars Expanded Universe which was discarded from canon to give maximum creative freedom to the filmmakers and also preserve an element of surprise and discovery for the audience 2 Episode VII The Force Awakens was released on December 16 2015 Episode VIII The Last Jedi on December 13 2017 and Episode IX The Rise of Skywalker on December 18 2019 in many countries f The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi were both critical and box office successes 72 73 Episode IX received a mixed reception from critics and audiences 74 The sequel trilogy starts 30 years after Episode VI and focuses on the journey of the Force sensitive orphan Rey guided by Luke Skywalker Along with ex stormtrooper Finn and ace X Wing pilot Poe Dameron Rey helps the Resistance led by Leia fight the First Order commanded by Han and Leia s son and Luke s nephew Kylo Ren Anthology films The anthology films main casts include from left to right Felicity Jones Jyn Erso and Diego Luna Cassian Andor from Rogue One A Star Wars Story and Alden Ehrenreich Han Solo and Woody Harrelson Tobias Beckett from Solo A Star Wars Story Lucasfilm and Kennedy have stated that the standalone films would be referred to as the Star Wars anthology series 35 though the word anthology has not been used in any of the titles instead carrying the promotional A Star Wars Story subtitle Focused on how the Rebels obtained the Death Star plans introduced in the 1977 film the first anthology film Rogue One A Star Wars Story was released on December 16 2016 to favorable reviews and box office success The second Solo A Star Wars Story centered on a young Han Solo with Chewbacca and Lando as supporting characters was released on May 25 2018 to generally favorable reviews and underperformance at the box office Despite this more anthology films are expected to be released 75 following a hiatus after 2019 s The Rise of Skywalker 76 TelevisionThe Star Wars franchise has been spun off to various television productions including two animated series released in the mid 1980s Further animated series began to be released in the 2000s the first two of which focused on the Clone Wars After Disney s acquisition of Lucasfilm only the later one remained canon Eight live action Star Wars series will be released on Disney The first The Mandalorian premiered on November 12 2019 Star Wars won the 2020 Webby Award for Television amp Film in the category Social 77 Disney later released the Ewoks movies and animated series along the animated first appearance of Boba Fett and the Clone Wars animated micro series in a section called Star Wars Vintage that section will also include the Droids animated series in the future 78 79 Certain aspects of the original Clone Wars micro series are considered to not contradict the canon while others do 80 A live action spinoff of The Mandalorian titled The Book of Boba Fett was announced in December 2020 and is set to be released on December 29 2021 81 Series Main article List of Star Wars television series Many Star Wars series have been produced both animated and live action The first being Star Wars Droids in 1985 and the next being The Book of Boba Fett in December SeriesSeasonsEpisodesOriginally releasedNetworkAnimated seriesDroids113September 7 1985 June 7 1986 1985 09 07 1986 06 07 ABCEwoks226September 7 1985 December 13 1986 1985 09 07 1986 12 13 The Clone Wars7133October 3 2008 May 4 2020 2008 10 03 2020 05 04 Cartoon Network Netflix Disney Rebels475October 3 2014 March 5 2018 2014 10 03 2018 03 05 Disney XDResistance240October 7 2018 January 26 2020 2018 10 07 2020 01 26 Disney ChannelThe Bad Batch116May 4 2021 present 2021 05 04 present Disney Visions19September 22 2021 2021 09 22 Animated micro seriesClone Wars325November 7 2003 March 25 2005 2003 11 07 2005 03 25 Cartoon NetworkBlips18May 3 September 4 2017 2017 05 03 2017 09 04 YouTubeForces of Destiny232July 3 2017 May 25 2018 2017 07 03 2018 05 25 Galaxy of Adventures255November 30 2018 October 2 2020 2018 11 30 2020 10 02 Roll Out116August 9 2019 April 1 2020 2019 08 09 2020 04 01 Live action seriesThe Mandalorian216November 12 2019 present 2019 11 12 present Disney Game showsJedi Temple Challenge110June 10 August 5 2020 2020 06 10 2020 08 05 StarWarsKids comFilms This section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed January 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Main article Ewok Film U S release date Director s Teleplay by Story by Producer s NetworkThe Ewok Adventure November 25 1984 1984 11 25 John Korty Bob Carrau George Lucas Thomas G Smith and Patricia Rose Duignan ABCEwoks The Battle for Endor November 24 1985 1985 11 24 Jim Wheat and Ken Wheat Thomas G Smith and Ian BryceTelevision special This section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed January 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Film U S release date Director s Teleplay by Story by Producer s NetworkStar Wars Holiday Special November 17 1978 1978 11 17 Steve Binder Pat Proft Leonard Ripps Bruce Vilanch Rod Warren and Mitzie Welch Joe Layton Jeff Starsh Ken Welch and Mitzie Welch CBSFictional timelineSee also Star Wars in other media Legends fictional timeline The Star Wars canon fictional universe spans multiple eras of which three are focused around each of the film trilogies The following eras were defined in January 2021 82 The High Republic The era of the High Republic set 200 years before the prequel trilogy It includes the media released in The High Republic and the upcoming The Acolyte 82 Fall of the Jedi The era of the prequel trilogy g in which the democratic Galactic Republic is corrupted by its ruler Palpatine secretly the Sith lord Darth Sidious After orchestrating the Clone Wars between the Republic and a Separatist confederation Palpatine exterminates the Jedi Order overthrows the Republic and establishes the totalitarian Galactic Empire 84 85 It includes the prequel trilogy films and the animated The Clone Wars 82 Reign of the Empire The era after the prequel trilogy exploring the reign of the Empire It includes the animated The Bad Batch and Solo A Star Wars Story 82 The Age of Rebellion The era of the original trilogy h in which the Empire is fought by the Rebel Alliance in a Galactic Civil War that spans several years climaxing with the death of the emperor and fall of the Empire 87 88 It includes the animated Star Wars Rebels Rogue One and the original trilogy films 82 The New Republic The era after the original trilogy set during the formative years of the New Republic following the fall of the Empire It includes The Mandalorian and its spin off series The Book of Boba Fett Rangers of the New Republic and Ahsoka 82 Rise of the First Order The era of the sequel trilogy i in which the remnants of the Empire have reformed as the First Order 90 Heroes of the former Rebellion aided by the New Republic lead the Resistance against the oppressive regime and its rulers the mysterious being known as Snoke and the revived Palpatine 91 It includes the animated Star Wars Resistance and the sequel trilogy films 82 The Expanded Universe of spin off media depicts different levels of continuity which were deemed non canonical and rebranded as Legends on April 25 2014 to make most subsequent works align to the episodic films The Clone Wars film and television series 2 Other mediaMain article Star Wars expanded to other media From 1976 to 2014 the term Expanded Universe EU was an umbrella term for all officially licensed Star Wars storytelling material set outside the events depicted within the theatrical films including novels comics and video games 92 Lucasfilm maintained internal continuity between the films and television content and the EU material until April 25 2014 when the company announced all of the EU works would cease production Existing works would no longer be considered canon to the franchise and subsequent reprints would be rebranded under the Star Wars Legends label 92 with downloadable content for the massively multiplayer online game The Old Republic the only Legends material to still be produced The Star Wars canon was subsequently restructured to only include the existing six feature films the animated film The Clone Wars 2008 and its companion animated series All future projects and creative developments across all types of media would be overseen and coordinated by the story group announced as a division of Lucasfilm created to maintain continuity and a cohesive vision on the storytelling of the franchise 2 Multiple comics series from Marvel and novels published by Del Rey were produced after the announcement Print media Star Wars in print predates the release of the first film with the November 1976 novelization of Star Wars initially subtitled From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker Credited to Lucas it was ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster 93 The first Expanded Universe story appeared in Marvel Comics Star Wars 7 in January 1978 the first six issues being an adaptation of the film followed by Foster s sequel novel Splinter of the Mind s Eye the following month Novels Further information List of Star Wars books Timothy Zahn authored the Thrawn trilogy which was widely credited with revitalizing the dormant Star Wars franchise After penning the novelization of the original film Foster followed it with the sequel Splinter of the Mind s Eye 1978 The novelizations of The Empire Strikes Back 1980 by Donald F Glut and Return of the Jedi 1983 by James Kahn followed as well as The Han Solo Adventures trilogy 1979 1980 by Brian Daley 94 and The Adventures of Lando Calrissian trilogy 1983 by L Neil Smith 95 96 Timothy Zahn s bestselling Thrawn trilogy 1991 1993 reignited interest in the franchise and introduced the popular characters Grand Admiral Thrawn Mara Jade Talon Karrde and Gilad Pellaeon 97 98 99 100 The first novel Heir to the Empire reached 1 on the New York Times Best Seller list 101 and the series finds Luke Leia and Han facing off against tactical genius Thrawn who is plotting to retake the galaxy for the Empire 102 In The Courtship of Princess Leia 1994 by Dave Wolverton set immediately before the Thrawn trilogy Leia considers an advantageous political marriage to Prince Isolder of the planet Hapes but she and Han ultimately marry 103 104 Steve Perry s Shadows of the Empire 1996 set between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi was part of a multimedia campaign that included a comic book series and video game 105 106 The novel introduced the crime lord Prince Xizor another popular character who would appear in multiple other works 105 107 Other notable series from Bantam include the Jedi Academy trilogy 1994 by Kevin J Anderson 108 109 the 14 book Young Jedi Knights series 1995 1998 by Anderson and Rebecca Moesta 109 110 and the X wing series 1996 2012 by Michael A Stackpole and Aaron Allston 111 112 113 Del Rey took over Star Wars book publishing in 1999 releasing what would become a 19 installment novel series called The New Jedi Order 1999 2003 Written by multiple authors the series was set 25 to 30 years after the original films and introduced the Yuuzhan Vong a powerful alien race attempting to invade and conquer the entire galaxy 114 115 The bestselling multi author series Legacy of the Force 2006 2008 chronicles the crossover of Han and Leia s son Jacen Solo to the dark side of the Force among his evil deeds he kills Luke s wife Mara Jade as a sacrifice to join the Sith Although no longer canon the story is paralleled in The Force Awakens with Han and Leia s son Ben Solo who has become the dark Kylo Ren 116 117 118 119 Three series set in the prequel era were introduced for younger audiences the 18 book Jedi Apprentice 1999 2002 chronicles the adventures of Obi Wan Kenobi and his master Qui Gon Jinn in the years before The Phantom Menace the 11 book Jedi Quest 2001 2004 follows Obi Wan and his own apprentice Anakin Skywalker in between The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones and the 10 book The Last of the Jedi 2005 2008 set almost immediately after Revenge of the Sith features Obi Wan and the last few surviving Jedi Although Thrawn had been designated a Legends character in 2014 he was reintroduced into the canon in the 2016 third season of Rebels with Zahn returning to write more novels based in the character and set in the new canon 120 121 Comics Main articles Star Wars comics and List of Star Wars comic books Marvel Comics published a Star Wars comic book series from 1977 to 1986 122 123 124 125 Original Star Wars comics were serialized in the Marvel magazine Pizzazz between 1977 and 1979 The 1977 installments were the first original Star Wars stories not directly adapted from the films to appear in print form as they preceded those of the Star Wars comic series 126 From 1985 to 1987 the animated children s series Ewoks and Droids inspired comic series from Marvel s Star Comics line 127 128 129 According to Marvel comics former Editor In Chief Jim Shooter the strong sales of Star Wars comics saved Marvel financially in 1977 and 1978 130 Marvel s Star Wars series was one of the industry s top selling titles in 1979 and 1980 131 The only downside for Marvel was that the 100 000 copy sales quota was surpassed quickly allowing Lippincott to renegotiate the royalty arrangements from a position of strength 132 In the late 1980s Marvel dropped a new Star Wars comic it had in development which was picked up by Dark Horse Comics and published as the popular Dark Empire series 1991 1995 133 Dark Horse subsequently launched dozens of series set after the original film trilogy including Tales of the Jedi 1993 1998 X wing Rogue Squadron 1995 1998 Star Wars Republic 1998 2006 Star Wars Tales 1999 2005 Star Wars Empire 2002 2006 and Knights of the Old Republic 2006 2010 134 135 After Disney s acquisition of Lucasfilm it was announced in January 2014 that in 2015 the Star Wars comics license would return to Marvel Comics 136 whose parent company Marvel Entertainment Disney had purchased in 2009 137 Launched in 2015 the first three publications were titled Star Wars Darth Vader and the limited series Princess Leia 138 139 140 First announced as Project Luminous at Star Wars Celebration in April 2019 full details of a publishing initiative called Star Wars The High Republic were revealed in a press conference in February 2020 Involving the majority of the current officially licensed publishers a new era set 200 years before the Skywalker Saga will be explored in various books and comics These include ongoing titles by Marvel and IDW Publishing written by Cavan Scott and Daniel Jose Older respectively that will both premiere in August 2020 141 Audio Soundtracks and singles Further information Music of Star Wars John Williams composed the soundtracks for the nine episodic films he has stated that he will retire from the franchise with The Rise of Skywalker 142 He also composed Han Solo s theme for Solo A Star Wars Story John Powell adapted and composed the rest of the score 143 Michael Giacchino composed the score of Rogue One 143 Ludwig Goransson scored and composed the music of The Mandalorian 144 Williams also created the main theme for Galaxy s Edge 145 Audio novels Further information The Story of Star Wars and List of Star Wars books The first Star Wars audio work is The Story of Star Wars an LP using audio samples from the original film and a new narration to retell the story released in 1977 Most later printed novels were adapted into audio novels usually released on cassette tape and re released on CD As of 2019 audio only novels have been released not directly based on printed media 146 Radio Further information Star Wars radio Radio adaptations of the films were also produced Lucas a fan of the NPR affiliated campus radio station of his alma mater the University of Southern California licensed the Star Wars radio rights to KUSC FM for US 1 The production used John Williams s original film score along with Ben Burtt s sound effects 147 148 The first was written by science fiction author Brian Daley and directed by John Madden It was broadcast on National Public Radio in 1981 adapting the original 1977 film into 13 episodes 149 147 148 Mark Hamill and Anthony Daniels reprised their film roles 149 147 The overwhelming success led to a 10 episode adaptation of The Empire Strikes Back debuted in 1983 150 Billy Dee Williams joined the other two stars reprising his role as Lando Calrissian 151 In 1983 Buena Vista Records released an original 30 minute Star Wars audio drama titled Rebel Mission to Ord Mantell written by Daley 148 152 In the 1990s Time Warner Audio Publishing adapted several Star Wars series from Dark Horse Comics into audio dramas the three part Dark Empire saga Tales of the Jedi Dark Lords of the Sith the Dark Forces trilogy and Crimson Empire 1998 152 Return of the Jedi was adapted into 6 episodes in 1996 featuring Daniels 147 152 Video games Further information Star Wars video games and List of Star Wars video games The Star Wars franchise has spawned over one hundred 153 computer video and board games dating back to some of the earliest home consoles Some are based directly on the movie material while others rely heavily on the non canonical Expanded Universe rebranded as Star Wars Legends and removed from the canon in 2014 Star Wars games have gone through three significant development eras marked by a change in leadership among the developers the early licensed games those developed after the creation of LucasArts and those created after the closure of the Lucasfilm division by Disney and the transfer of the license to Electronic Arts Early licensed games 1979 1993 The first officially licensed electronic Star Wars game was Kenner s 1979 table top Star Wars Electronic Battle Command 154 155 In 1982 Parker Brothers published the first Star Wars video game for the Atari 2600 Star Wars The Empire Strikes Back 156 followed soon the year later by Star Wars Jedi Arena the first video game to depict lightsaber combat They were followed in 1983 by Atari s rail shooter arcade game Star Wars with vector graphics to replicate the Death Star trench run scene from the 1977 film 157 The next game Star Wars Return of the Jedi 1984 has more traditional raster graphics 158 while the following Star Wars The Empire Strikes Back 1985 has vector graphics 159 Platform games were made for the Nintendo Entertainment System including the Japan exclusive Star Wars 1987 an international Star Wars 1991 and Star Wars The Empire Strikes Back 1992 Super Star Wars 1992 was released for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System with two sequels over the next two years LucasArts and modern self published games 1993 2014 Main article LucasArts Lucasfilm founded its own video game company in 1982 becoming best known for adventure games and World War II flight combat games but as George Lucas took more interest in the increasing success of the video game market he wanted to have more creative control over the games and founded his own development company LucasArts Improved graphics allowed games to tell complex narratives which allowed for the retelling of the films and eventually original narratives set in the same continuity with voice overs and CGI cutscenes In 1993 LucasArts released Star Wars X Wing the first self published Star Wars video game and the first space flight simulator based on the franchise 160 It was one of the best selling video games of 1993 and established its own series of games 160 The Rogue Squadron series was released between 1998 and 2003 also focusing on space battles set during the films Dark Forces 1995 a hybrid adventure game incorporating puzzles and strategy 161 was the first Star Wars first person shooter 162 It featured gameplay and graphical features not then common in other games made possible by LucasArts custom designed game engine the Jedi 162 161 163 164 The game was well received 165 166 167 and it was followed by four sequels 168 169 The series introduced Kyle Katarn who would appear in multiple games novels and comics 170 Katarn is a former stormtrooper who joins the Rebellion and becomes a Jedi 162 171 172 a plot arc similar to that of Finn in the sequel trilogy films 116 A massively multiplayer online role playing game Star Wars Galaxies was in operation from 2003 until 2011 After Disney bought Lucasfilm LucasArts ceased its role as a developer in 2013 although it still operates as a licensor 173 EA Star Wars 2014 present Following its acquisition of the franchise Disney reassigned video game rights to Electronic Arts Games made during this era are considered canonical and feature more influence from the Star Wars filmmakers Disney partnered with Lenovo to create the augmented reality video game Jedi Challenges released in November 2017 174 175 In August 2018 it was announced that Zynga would publish free to play Star Wars mobile games 176 The Battlefront games received a canonical reboot with Star Wars Battlefront in November 2015 which was followed by a sequel Battlefront II in November 2017 A single player action adventure game Star Wars Jedi Fallen Order with an original story and cast of characters was released in November 2019 A space combat game titled Star Wars Squadrons which builds upon the space battles from Battlefront was released in October 2020 Theme park attractions Main article List of Star Wars theme parks attractions In addition to the Disneyland ride Star Tours 1987 and its successor Star Tours The Adventures Continue 2011 many live attractions have been held at Disney parks including the travelling exhibition Where Science Meets Imagination the Space Mountain spin off Hyperspace Mountain a walkthrough Launch Bay and the night time A Galactic Spectacular An immersive themed area called Galaxy s Edge 2019 opened at Disneyland and opened at Walt Disney World in mid 2019 177 A themed hotel Star Wars Galactic Starcruiser is currently under construction at Walt Disney World 178 This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed January 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Title Park s Opening date Closing dateStar Tours Disneyland January 9 1987 1987 01 09 July 27 2010 2010 07 27 Tokyo Disneyland July 12 1989 1989 07 12 April 2 2012 2012 04 02 Disney s Hollywood Studios December 15 1989 1989 12 15 September 7 2010 2010 09 07 Disneyland Paris April 12 1992 1992 04 12 March 16 2016 2016 03 16 Star Wars Weekends Disney s Hollywood Studios 1997 1997 November 2015 2015 Star Wars Where Science Meets Imagination Multiple locations October 19 2005 2005 10 19 March 23 2014 2014 03 23 Jedi Training Academy Disneyland July 1 2006 2006 19 01 November 15 2015 2015 11 15 Disney s Hollywood Studios October 9 2007 2007 10 09 October 5 2015 2015 10 05 Star Tours The Adventures Continue Disney s Hollywood Studios May 20 2011 2011 05 20 N A Operating Disneyland June 3 2011 2011 06 03 Tokyo Disneyland May 7 2013 2013 05 07 Disneyland Paris March 26 2017 2017 03 26 Star Wars Hyperspace Mountain Disneyland November 14 2015 2015 11 14 May 31 2017 2017 05 31 Hong Kong Disneyland June 11 2016 2016 06 11 N A Operating Disneyland Paris May 7 2017 2017 05 07 Star Wars Launch Bay Disneyland November 16 2015 2015 11 16 Disney s Hollywood Studios December 4 2015 2015 12 04 Shanghai Disneyland Park June 16 2016 2016 06 16 Jedi Training Trials of the Temple Disney s Hollywood Studios December 1 2015 2015 12 01 Disneyland December 8 2015 2015 12 08 Disneyland Paris July 11 2015 2015 07 11 Hong Kong Disneyland June 25 2016 2016 06 25 Star Wars A Galactic Spectacular Disney s Hollywood Studios June 17 2016 2016 06 17 Star Wars Galaxy s Edge Disneyland May 31 2019 2019 05 31 Disney s Hollywood Studios August 29 2019 2019 08 29 Star Wars Millennium Falcon Smugglers Run Disneyland May 31 2019 2019 05 31 Disney s Hollywood Studios August 29 2019 2019 08 29 Star Wars Rise of the Resistance Disney s Hollywood Studios December 5 2019 2019 12 05 Disneyland January 17 2020 2020 01 17 Multimedia projects A multimedia project involves works released across multiple types of media Shadows of the Empire 1996 was a multimedia project set between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi that included a novel by Steve Perry a comic book series a video game and action figures 105 106 The Force Unleashed 2008 2010 was a similar project set between Revenge of the Sith and A New Hope that included a novel a 2008 video game and its 2010 sequel a graphic novel a role playing game supplement and toys 179 180 Merchandising Main articles Kenner Star Wars action figures List of Kenner Star Wars action figures Star Wars The Vintage Collection Lego Star Wars Star Wars trading card and Star Wars role playing games George Lucas made much of his fortune by retaining his rights to the franchise s merchandising The success of the Star Wars films led the franchise to become one of the most merchandised franchises in the world While filming the original 1977 film George Lucas decided to take a 500 000 pay cut to his salary as director in exchange for full ownership of the franchise s merchandising rights By 1987 the first three films have made US 2 6 billion in merchandising revenue 181 By 2012 the first six films produced approximately US 20 billion in merchandising revenue 182 Kenner made the first Star Wars action figures to coincide with the release of the original film and today the original figures are highly valuable Since the 1990s Hasbro holds the rights to create action figures based on the saga Pez dispensers began to be produced in 1997 183 Star Wars was the first intellectual property to be licensed in Lego history 184 Lego has produced animated parody short films and mini series to promote their Star Wars sets 185 The Lego Star Wars video games are critically acclaimed bestsellers 186 187 In 1977 the board game Star Wars Escape from the Death Star was released 188 j A Star Wars Monopoly and themed versions of Trivial Pursuit and Battleship were released in 1997 with updated versions released in subsequent years The board game Risk has been adapted in two editions by Hasbro The Clone Wars Edition 2005 190 and the Original Trilogy Edition 2006 191 Three Star Wars tabletop role playing games have been developed a version by West End Games in the 1980s and 1990s one by Wizards of the Coast in the 2000s and one by Fantasy Flight Games in the 2010s Star Wars Trading Cards have been published since the first blue series by Topps in 1977 192 Dozens of series have been produced with Topps being the licensed creator in the United States Each card series are of film stills or original art Many of the cards have become highly collectible with some very rare promos such as the 1993 Galaxy Series II floating Yoda P3 card often commanding US 1 000 or more While most base or common card sets are plentiful many insert or chase cards are very rare 193 From 1995 until 2001 Decipher Inc had the license for created and produced the Star Wars Customizable Card Game ThemesSee also Star Wars sources and analogues Star Wars trilogy Themes Star Wars prequel trilogy Themes Star Wars prequel trilogy Themes and The Mandalorian Themes It has been suggested that portions of The Mandalorian Themes be split from it and merged into this article Discuss October 2021 Star Wars features elements such as knighthood chivalry and Jungian archetypes such as the shadow 194 There are also many references to Christianity such as in the appearance of Darth Maul whose design draws heavily from traditional depictions of the devil 195 Anakin was conceived of a virgin birth and is assumed to be the Chosen One a messianic individual However unlike Jesus Anakin falls from grace remaining evil as Darth Vader until Return of the Jedi According to Adam Driver sequel trilogy villain Kylo Ren who idolizes Vader believes he is doing what he thinks is right 196 George Lucas has said that the theme of the saga is redemption 197 The saga draws heavily from the hero s journey an archetypical template developed by comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell 195 Each character primarily Anakin Luke and Rey follows the steps of the cycle or undergoes its reversal becoming the villain 198 A defining step of the journey is Atonement with the Father 199 Obi Wan s loss of a father figure could have impacted his relationship with Anakin 200 whom both Obi Wan and Palpatine are fatherlike mentors to 201 Luke s discovery that Vader is his father has strong repercussions on the saga and is regarded as one of the most influential plot twists in cinema 202 Supreme Leader Snoke encourages Kylo Ren to kill his father Han Solo 196 Kylo uses the fact that Rey is an orphan to tempt her into joining the dark side 203 According to Inverse the final scene in The Last Jedi which depicts servant children playing with a toy of Luke and one boy using the Force symbolizes that the Force can be found in people with humble beginnings 204 Historical influences Political science has been an important element of Star Wars since the franchise launched in 1977 focusing on a struggle between democracy and dictatorship Battles featuring the Ewoks and Gungans against the Empire and Trade Federation respectively represent the clash between a primitive society and a more advanced one similar to the Vietnam American War 205 206 Darth Vader s design was initially inspired by Samurai armor and also incorporated a German military helmet 207 208 Originally Lucas conceived of the Sith as a group that served the Emperor in the same way that the Schutzstaffel served Adolf Hitler this was condensed into one character in the form of Vader 209 Stormtroopers borrow the name of World War I German shock troopers Imperial officers wear uniforms resembling those of German forces during World War II 210 and political and security officers resemble the black clad SS down to the stylized silver death s head on their caps World War II terms were used for names in the films e g the planets Kessel a term that refers to a group of encircled forces and Hoth after a German general who served on the snow laden Eastern Front 211 Shots of the commanders looking through AT AT walker viewscreens in The Empire Strikes Back resemble tank interiors 212 and space battles in the original film were based on World War I and World War II dogfights 213 Palpatine being a chancellor before becoming the Emperor in the prequel trilogy alludes to Hitler s role before appointing himself Fuhrer 210 Lucas has also drawn parallels to historical dictators such as Julius Caesar Napoleon Bonaparte and politicians like Richard Nixon 214 215 k The Great Jedi Purge mirrors the events of the Night of the Long Knives 217 The corruption of the Galactic Republic is modeled after the fall of the democratic Roman Republic and the formation of an empire 218 219 On the inspiration for the First Order formed from the ashes of the Empire The Force Awakens director J J Abrams spoke of conversations the writers had about how the Nazis could have escaped to Argentina after WWII and started working together again 90 The aerial warfare of WWII inspired the space fights The flag and iconography of the Empire resembles those of the Nazi Party and Germany during its rule Cultural impactMain article Cultural impact of Star Wars The lightsaber and the blaster are iconic elements of the franchise The Star Wars saga has had a significant impact on popular culture 220 with references to its fictional universe deeply embedded in everyday life 221 Phrases like evil empire and May the Force be with you have become part of the popular lexicon 222 The first Star Wars film in 1977 was a cultural unifier 223 enjoyed by a wide spectrum of people 224 The film can be said to have helped launch the science fiction boom of the late 1970s and early 1980s making science fiction films a mainstream genre 225 The widespread impact made it a prime target for parody works and homages with popular examples including Hardware Wars Spaceballs The Family Guy Trilogy and Robot Chicken Star Wars In 1989 the Library of Congress selected the original Star Wars film for preservation in the U S National Film Registry as being culturally historically or aesthetically significant 226 The Empire Strikes Back was selected in 2010 227 228 35mm reels of the 1997 Special Editions were the versions initially presented for preservation because of the difficulty of transferring from the original prints 229 230 but it was later revealed that the Library possesses a copyright deposit print of the original theatrical releases 231 Industry The original Star Wars film was a huge success for 20th Century Fox and was credited for reinvigorating the company Within three weeks of the film s release the studio s stock price doubled to a record high Prior to 1977 20th Century Fox s greatest annual profits were 37 million while in 1977 the company broke that record by posting a profit of 79 million 213 The franchise helped Fox to change from an almost bankrupt production company to a thriving media conglomerate 232 Star Wars fundamentally changed the aesthetics and narratives of Hollywood films switching the focus of Hollywood made films from deep meaningful stories based on dramatic conflict themes and irony to sprawling special effects laden blockbusters as well as changing the Hollywood film industry in fundamental ways Before Star Wars special effects in films had not appreciably advanced since the 1950s 233 The commercial success of Star Wars created a boom in state of the art special effects in the late 1970s 232 Along with Jaws Star Wars started the tradition of the summer blockbuster film in the entertainment industry where films open on many screens at the same time and profitable franchises are important 234 224 It created the model for the major film trilogy and showed that merchandising rights on a film could generate more money than the film itself did 223 Film critic Roger Ebert wrote in his book The Great Movies Like The Birth of a Nation and Citizen Kane Star Wars was a technical watershed that influenced many of the movies that came after It began a new generation of special effects and high energy motion pictures The film was one of the first films to link genres together to invent a new high concept genre for filmmakers to build upon 235 Finally along with Steven Spielberg s Jaws it shifted the film industry s focus away from personal filmmaking of the 1970s and towards fast paced big budget blockbusters for younger audiences 213 236 237 Some critics have blamed Star Wars and Jaws for ruining Hollywood by shifting its focus from sophisticated films such as The Godfather Taxi Driver and Annie Hall to films about spectacle and juvenile fantasy and for the industry shift from stand alone one and done films towards blockbuster franchises with multiple sequels and prequels 238 One such critic Peter Biskind complained When all was said and done Lucas and Spielberg returned the 1970s audience grown sophisticated on a diet of European and New Hollywood films to the simplicities of the pre 1960s Golden Age of movies They marched backward through the looking glass 238 239 In an opposing view Tom Shone wrote that through Star Wars and Jaws Lucas and Spielberg didn t betray cinema at all they plugged it back into the grid returning the medium to its roots as a carnival sideshow a magic act one big special effect which was a kind of rebirth 237 The original Star Wars trilogy is widely considered one of the best film trilogies in history 240 Numerous filmmakers have been influenced by Star Wars including Damon Lindelof Dean Devlin Roland Emmerich John Lasseter 241 David Fincher Joss Whedon John Singleton Kevin Smith 235 and later Star Wars directors J J Abrams and Gareth Edwards 242 Lucas s concept of a used universe particularly influenced Ridley Scott s Blade Runner 1982 and Alien 1979 James Cameron s Aliens 1986 as well as The Terminator 1984 George Miller s Mad Max 2 1981 and Peter Jackson s The Lord of the Rings trilogy 2001 2003 235 Christopher Nolan cited Star Wars as an influence when making the 2010 blockbuster film Inception 243 Fan works Main article Star Wars fan films The Star Wars saga has inspired many fans to create their own non canon material set in the Star Wars galaxy In recent years this has ranged from writing fan fiction to creating fan films In 2002 Lucasfilm sponsored the first annual Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards officially recognizing filmmakers and the genre Because of concerns over potential copyright and trademark issues however the contest was initially open only to parodies mockumentaries and documentaries Fan fiction films set in the Star Wars universe were originally ineligible but in 2007 Lucasfilm changed the submission standards to allow in universe fiction entries 244 Lucasfilm has allowed but not endorsed the creation of fan fiction as long as it does not attempt to make a profit 245 Academia As the characters and the storyline of the original trilogy are so well known educators have used the films in the classroom as a learning resource For example a project in Western Australia honed elementary school students storytelling skills by role playing action scenes from the movies and later creating props and audio visual scenery to enhance their performance 246 Others have used the films to encourage second level students to integrate technology in the science classroom by making prototype lightsabers 247 Similarly psychiatrists in New Zealand and the US have advocated their use in the university classroom to explain different types of psychopathology 248 249 See also Speculative fiction portal Film portal Science fiction portal 501st Legion Architecture of Star Wars Comparison of Star Trek and Star Wars Jedi census phenomenon Jediism List of space science fiction franchises List of Star Wars characters List of Star Wars creatures List of Star Wars planets and moons Music of Star Wars Physics and Star Wars Star Wars Celebration Star Wars Day Star Wars documentaries Star Wars The High Republic The Force The Story of Star Wars Technology in Star Wars Wookieepedia the Star Wars WikiNotes The film s release was preceded by its novelization in November 1976 a b Later titled Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope Most existing spin off media was made non canon and rebranded as Legends in April 2014 2 Lucas started by researching the inspiration behind Alex Raymond s Flash Gordon comic leading him to the works of author Edgar Rice Burroughs the John Carter of Mars series in particular 43 Played by Jake Lloyd as a child in Episode I Each film was released two days later in the U S The prequels feature a relatively sleek and new design aesthetic in comparison to the original trilogy 83 The original trilogy depicts the galaxy as dirty and grimy in George Lucas s depiction of a used universe 86 The sequel trilogy made a return to what J J Abrams called the wonderful preposterousness of practical effects that were used to create the original trilogy 89 Not to be confused with the board game with the same name published in 1990 189 In his early drafts Lucas used the plot point of a dictator staying in power with the support of the military In his comment made in the prequel trilogy era Lucas attributed this to Nixon s supposed intention to defy the 22nd Amendment 216 but the president resigned and never ran for a 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Wire April 23 2002 Archived from the original on June 29 2012 Retrieved March 28 2008 Knapton Sarah April 7 2008 Court to rule in Star Wars costume battle The Guardian UK Archived from the original on April 11 2008 Retrieved April 15 2008 Hesterman Sandra December 1 2011 Multiliterate Star Warians the force of popular culture and ICT in early learning Australasian Journal of Early Childhood 36 4 86 95 doi 10 1177 183693911103600412 ISSN 1836 9391 S2CID 56078619 Archived from the original on June 30 2020 Retrieved December 11 2019 Thompson Stephanie November 1 2006 The science of Star Wars Integrating technology and the Benchmarks for Science Literacy Science Scope Washington D C 55 ISSN 0887 2376 Friedman Susan Hatters Hall Ryan C W December 1 2015 Teaching Psychopathology in a Galaxy Far Far Away The Light Side of the Force Academic Psychiatry 39 6 719 725 doi 10 1007 s40596 015 0340 y ISSN 1042 9670 PMID 25933645 S2CID 27871244 Hall Ryan C W Friedman Susan Hatters December 1 2015 Psychopathology in a Galaxy Far Far Away the Use of Star Wars Dark Side in Teaching Academic Psychiatry 39 6 726 732 doi 10 1007 s40596 015 0337 6 ISSN 1042 9670 PMID 25943902 S2CID 19738769 Works citedArnold Alan 1980 Once Upon a Galaxy A Journal of the Making of The Empire Strikes Back Ballantine Books ISBN 978 0 345 29075 5 Bouzereau Laurent 1997 The Annotated Screenplays Del Rey ISBN 978 0 345 40981 2 Kaminski Michael 2008 2007 The Secret History of Star Wars Legacy Books Press ISBN 978 0 9784652 3 0 Rinzler Jonathan W 2005 The Making of Star Wars Episode III Revenge of the Sith Del Rey ISBN 978 0 345 43139 4 2007 The Making of Star Wars The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film Star Wars Del Rey ISBN 978 0 345 49476 4 Further readingDecker Kevin S 2005 Star Wars and Philosophy Open Court ISBN 978 0 8126 9583 0 Campbell Joseph 1991 The Power of Myth Anchor ISBN 978 0 385 41886 7 Henderson Mary 1997 Star Wars The Magic of Myth Bantam ISBN 978 0 553 10206 2 Cavlelos Jeanne 1999 The Science of Star Wars St Martin s Press ISBN 978 0 312 20958 2 Nancy R Reagin Janice Liedl ed 2012 Star Wars and History John Wiley amp Sons ISBN 978 0 470 60200 3 Star Wars Where Science Meets Imagination National Geographic amp Boston Museum of Science October 2005 ISBN 978 0 7922 6200 8 External linksWikiquote has quotations related to Star WarsWikibooks has more on the topic of Star WarsWikimedia Commons has media related to Star Wars Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Star Wars tourism Official website Star Wars on Wookieepedia a Star Wars wiki Star Wars Map 2020 official HiRez WebSite Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Star Wars amp oldid 1053369870, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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