fbpx
Wikipedia

Starvation

This article is about extreme malnutrition. For other uses, see Starvation (disambiguation).

Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life. It is the most extreme form of malnutrition. In humans, prolonged starvation can cause permanent organ damage and eventually, death. The term inanition refers to the symptoms and effects of starvation. Starvation may also be used as a means of torture or execution.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hunger is the single gravest threat to the world's public health. The WHO also states that malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality, present in half of all cases. Undernutrition is a contributory factor in the death of 3.1 million children under five every year. Figures on actual starvation are difficult to come by, but according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the less severe condition of undernourishment currently affects about 842 million people, or about one in eight (12.5%) people in the world population.

The bloated stomach represents a form of malnutrition called kwashiorkor. The exact pathogenesis of kwashiorkor is not clear, as initially it was thought to relate to diets high in carbohydrates (e.g. maize) but low in protein. While many patients have low albumin, this is thought to be a consequence of the condition. Possible causes such as aflatoxin poisoning, oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and altered gut microbiota have been suggested. Treatment can help mitigate symptoms such as the pictured weight loss and muscle wasting, however prevention is of utmost importance.

Contents

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(November 2020) ()
A girl during the Nigerian Civil War of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition

The following are some of the symptoms of starvation:

Changes in behaviour or mental status

The beginning stages of starvation impact mental status and behaviours. These symptoms show up as irritable mood, fatigue, trouble concentrating, and preoccupation with food thoughts. People with those symptoms tend to be easily distracted and have no energy.

Physical signs

As starvation progresses, the physical symptoms set in. The timing of these symptoms depends on age, size, and overall health. It usually takes days to weeks, and includes weakness, fast heart rate, shallow breaths that are slowed, thirst, and constipation. There may also be diarrhea in some cases. The eyes begin to sink in and glass over. The muscles begin to become smaller and muscle wasting sets in. One prominent sign in children is a swollen belly. Skin loosens and turns pale in color, and there may be swelling of the feet and ankles.

Weakened immune system

Symptoms of starvation may also appear as a weakened immune system, slow wound healing, and poor response to infection. Rashes may develop on the skin. The body directs any nutrients available to keeping organs functioning.

Other symptoms

Other effects of starvation may include:

Stages of starvation

The symptoms of starvation show up in three stages. Phase one and two can show up in anyone that skips meals, diets, and goes through fasting. Phase three is more severe, can be fatal, and results from long-term starvation.

Phase one: When meals are skipped, the body begins to maintain blood sugar levels by producing glycogen in the liver and breaking down stored fat and protein. The liver can provide glycogen for the first few hours. After that, the body begins to break down fat and protein. The body uses Fatty acids as an energy source for muscles but lowers the amount of glucose sent to the brain. Another chemical that comes from fatty acids is glycerol. It can be used as glucose for energy but eventually runs out.

Phase two: Phase two can last for weeks at a time. In this phase, the body mainly uses stored fat for energy. The breakdown occurs in the liver and turns fat into ketones. After fasting for one week, the brain will use these ketones and any available glucose. Using ketones lowers the need for glucose, and the body slows the breakdown of proteins.

Phase three: By this point, the fat stores are gone, and the body begins to turn to stored protein for energy. This means it needs to break down muscle tissues full of protein; the muscles break down very quickly. Protein is essential for our cells to work correctly, and when it runs out, the cells can no longer function.

The cause of death due to starvation is usually an infection or the result of tissue breakdown. This is due to the body becoming unable to produce enough energy to fight off bacteria and viruses. The final stage of starvation includes signals like hair color loss, skin flaking, swelling in the extremities, and a bloated belly. Even though they may feel hunger, people in the final stage of starvation usually cannot eat enough food to recover.

Starved Vietnamese man, who was deprived of food in a Viet Cong prison camp. Note the rib cage showing, a clear sign of starvation.

The body expends more energy than it takes in. This imbalance can arise from one or more medical conditions or circumstantial situations, which can include:

Medical reasons

Circumstantial causes

Main article: Starvation response

With a typical high-carbohydrate diet, the human body relies on free blood glucose as its primary energy source. Glucose can be obtained directly from dietary sugars and by the breakdown of other carbohydrates. In the absence of dietary sugars and carbohydrates, glucose is obtained from the breakdown of stored glycogen. Glycogen is a readily-accessible storage form of glucose, stored in notable quantities in the liver and skeletal muscle.

After the exhaustion of the glycogen reserve, and for the next two to three days, fatty acids become the principal metabolic fuel. At first, the brain continues to use glucose. If a non-brain tissue is using fatty acids as its metabolic fuel, the use of glucose in the same tissue is switched off. Thus, when fatty acids are being broken down for energy, all of the remaining glucose is made available for use by the brain.[citation needed]

After two or three days of fasting, the liver begins to synthesize ketone bodies from precursors obtained from fatty acid breakdown. The brain uses these ketone bodies as fuel, thus cutting its requirement for glucose. After fasting for three days, the brain gets 30% of its energy from ketone bodies. After four days, this may increase to 70% or more. Thus, the production of ketone bodies cuts the brain's glucose requirement from 80 g per day to 30 g per day, about 35% of normal, with 65% derived from ketone bodies. But of the brain's remaining 30 g requirement, 20 g per day can be produced by the liver from glycerol (itself a product of fat breakdown). This still leaves a deficit of about 10 g of glucose per day that must be supplied from another source; this other source will be the body's own proteins.

After exhaustion of fat stores, the cells in the body begin to break down protein. This releases alanine and lactate produced from pyruvate, which can be converted into glucose by the liver. Since much of human muscle mass is protein, this phenomenon is responsible for the wasting away of muscle mass seen in starvation. However, the body is able to choose which cells will break down protein and which will not. About 2–3 g of protein has to be broken down to synthesize 1 g of glucose; about 20–30 g of protein is broken down each day to make 10 g of glucose to keep the brain alive. However, this number may decrease the longer the fasting period is continued, in order to conserve protein.

Starvation ensues when the fat reserves are completely exhausted and protein is the only fuel source available to the body. Thus, after periods of starvation, the loss of body protein affects the function of important organs, and death results, even if there are still fat reserves left. In a leaner person, the fat reserves are depleted faster, and the protein, sooner, therefore death occurs sooner.[citation needed]) Ultimately, the cause of death is in general cardiac arrhythmia or cardiac arrest, brought on by tissue degradation and electrolyte imbalances. Conditions like metabolic acidosis may also kill starving people.

Starvation can be caused by factors beyond the control of the individual. The Rome Declaration on World Food Security outlines several policies aimed at increasing food security and, consequently, preventing starvation. These include:

Supporting farmers in areas of food insecurity through such measures as free or subsidized fertilizers and seeds increases food harvest and reduces food prices.

Patients that suffer from starvation can be treated, but this must be done cautiously to avoid refeeding syndrome. Rest and warmth must be provided and maintained.Food can be given gradually in small quantities. The quantity of food can be increased over time. Proteins may be administered intravenously to raise the level of serum proteins. For worse situations, hospice care and opioid medications can be used.

Organizations

Main article: Famine relief

Many organizations have been highly effective at reducing starvation in different regions. Aid agencies give direct assistance to individuals, while political organizations pressure political leaders to enact more macro-scale policies that will reduce famine and provide aid.

Main articles: Malnutrition and Hunger
Percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2020.
< 2,5%
< 5,0%
5,0–14,9%
15,0–24,9%
25,0–34,9%
> 35,0%
No data

According to estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization there were 925 million under- or malnourished people in the world in 2010. This was a decrease from an estimate of roughly 1 billion malnourished people in 2009. In 2007, 923 million people were reported as being undernourished, an increase of 80 million since 1990–92. An estimated 820 million people did not have enough to eat in 2018, up from 811 million in the previous year, which is the third year of increase in a row.

As the definitions of starving and malnourished people are different, the number of starving people is different from that of malnourished. Generally, far fewer people are starving than are malnourished.

The proportion of malnourished and starving people in the world has been more or less continually decreasing for at least several centuries. This is due to an increasing supply of food and to overall gains in economic efficiency. In 40 years, the proportion of malnourished people in the developing world has been more than halved. The proportion of starving people has decreased even faster.

Year 1970 1980 1990 2004 2007 2009
Proportion of undernourished people in the less-developed world 37 % 28 % 20 % 16 % 17 % 16 %
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(December 2008) ()
Main article: Immurement
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The starving Livilla refusing food.
From a drawing by André Castagne.

Historically, starvation has been used as a death sentence. From the beginning of civilization to the Middle Ages, people were immured, and died for want of food.

In ancient Greco-Roman societies, starvation was sometimes used to dispose of guilty upper-class citizens, especially erring female members of patrician families. In the year 31, Livilla, the niece and daughter-in-law of Tiberius, was discreetly starved to death by her mother for her adulterous relationship with Sejanus and for her complicity in the murder of her own husband, Drusus the Younger.

Another daughter-in-law of Tiberius, named Agrippina the Elder (a granddaughter of Augustus and the mother of Caligula), also died of starvation, in 33 AD; however, it is unclear if her starvation was self-inflicted.

A son and daughter of Agrippina were also executed by starvation for political reasons; Drusus Caesar, her second son, was put in prison in 33 AD, and starved to death by orders of Tiberius (he managed to stay alive for nine days by chewing the stuffing of his bed); Agrippina's youngest daughter, Julia Livilla, was exiled on an island in 41 by her uncle, Emperor Claudius, and her death by starvation was arranged by the empress Messalina.

It is also possible that Vestal Virgins were starved when found guilty of breaking their vows of celibacy.

Ugolino della Gherardesca, his sons, and other members of his family were immured in the Muda, a tower of Pisa, and starved to death in the thirteenth century. Dante, his contemporary, wrote about Gherardesca in his masterpiece The Divine Comedy.

In Sweden in 1317, King Birger of Sweden imprisoned his two brothers for a coup they had staged several years earlier (Nyköping Banquet). According to legend they died of starvation a few weeks later, since their brother had thrown the prison key in the castle moat.

In Cornwall in the UK in 1671, John Trehenban from St Columb Major was condemned to be starved to death in a cage at Castle An Dinas for the murder of two girls.

The Makah, a Native American tribe inhabiting the Pacific Northwest near the modern border of Canada and the United States, practiced death by starvation as a punishment for slaves.

Buchenwald inmates, 16 April 1945, when camp was liberated

Many of the prisoners in the Nazi concentration camps were murdered through deliberate maltreatment, disease, starvation, and overwork, or were executed as unfit for labor. Many occupants of ghettos in eastern Europe also starved to death, most notoriously in the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland. Prisoners were transported in inhumane conditions by rail freight cars, in which many died before reaching their destination. The prisoners were confined to the cattle cars for days or even weeks, with little or no food or water. Many died of dehydration in the intense heat of summer or froze to death in winter. Nazi concentration camps in Europe from 1933 to 1945 deliberately underfed prisoners, who were at the same time forced to perform heavy labour. Their diet was restricted to watery vegetable soup and a little bread, with little to no dietary fats, proteins or other essential nutrients. Such treatment led to loss of body tissues, and when prisoners became skeletal, the so-called Muselmann were murdered by gas or bullets when examined by camp doctors.

Maximilian Kolbe, on a West German postage stamp, marked Auschwitz

Starvation was also used as a punishment where victims were locked into a small cell until dead, a process which could take many days. Saint Maximilian Kolbe, a martyred Polish friar, underwent a sentence of starvation in Auschwitz concentration camp in 1941. Ten prisoners had been condemned to death by starvation in the wake of a successful escape from the camp. Kolbe volunteered to take the place of a man with a wife and children. After two weeks of starvation, Kolbe and three other inmates remained alive; they were then executed with injections of phenol.

  1. Disease-Related Malnutrition: An Evidence-Based Approach to Treatment "When [food] intake is poor or absent for a long time (weeks), weight loss is associated with organ failure and death."
  2. "Definition of INANITION". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved2021-10-26.
  3. Malnutrition The Starvelings
  4. "As more go hungry and malnutrition persists, achieving Zero Hunger by 2030 in doubt, UN report warns". www.who.int. Retrieved2021-10-27.
  5. "Hunger Stats". World Food Programme.
  6. FAO: The State of Food Insecurity in the World
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-02. Retrieved2011-06-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. "Protein-Energy Malnutrition | Nutrition Guide for Clinicians". PCRM's nutrition guide for clinicians. PCRM. Retrieved16 April 2019.
  9. Howe Bancroft, Hubert (1883). "North American states. 1883". History of the Pacific States of North America. A.L. Bancroft,1883. 10: 411.
  10. Taylor, Charles (1811). "The Literary Panorama, Volume 10". The Literary Panorama. 10: 539.
  11. C. J. Coffee (Dec 1, 2004). Quick Look: Metabolism. Hayes Barton Press. p. 169.
  12. Toth, HL; Greenbaum, LA (November 2003). "Severe acidosis caused by starvation and stress". American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 42 (5): E16-9. doi:10.1016/j.ajkd.2003.07.012. PMID 14582074.
  13. World Food Summit - Rome Declaration on World Food Security
  14. Laird Birmingham, C. (2000). "Child hunger: semi-starvation study repeated in Canada". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 163 (8): 985–986. PMC80547. PMID 11068570.
  15. Ending Famine, Simply by Ignoring the Experts
  16. Mehanna HM, Moledina J, Travis J (June 2008). "Refeeding syndrome: what it is, and how to prevent and treat it". BMJ. 336 (7659): 1495–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.a301. PMC2440847. PMID 18583681.
  17. "The Physiology and Treatment of Starvation". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. US national library of medicine. 38 (7): 388–398. 1945. doi:10.1177/003591574503800716. PMC2181967. PMID 19993083.
  18. FAO:Hunger
  19. The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2010: Addressing Food Insecurity in Protracted Crises
  20. Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. "The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security - threats and opportunities". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 2. "FAO’s most recent estimates put the number of hungry people at 923 million in 2007, an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990–92 base period.".
  21. "World hunger is still not going down after three years and obesity is still growing – UN report".
  22. Fogel, RW (2004). The escape from hunger and premature death, 1700-2100: Europe, America, and the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  23. Food and Agriculture Organization Agricultural and Development Economics Division. "The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2006 : Eradicating world hunger – taking stock ten years after the World Food Summit". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006, p. 8. "Because of population growth, the very small decrease in the number of hungry people has nevertheless resulted in a reduction in the proportion of undernourished people in the developing countries by 3 percentage points – from 20 percent in 1990–92 to 17 percent in 2001–03. (…) the prevalence of undernourishment declined by 9 percent (from 37 percent to 28 percent) between 1969–71 and 1979–81 and by a further 8 percentage points (to 20 percent) between 1979–81 and 1990–92.".
  24. Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. "The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security - threats and opportunities". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 6. "Good progress in reducing the share of hungry people in the developing world had been achieved – down from almost 20 percent in 1990–92 to less than 18 percent in 1995–97 and just above 16 percent in 2003–05. The estimates show that rising food prices have thrown that progress into reverse, with the proportion of undernourished people worldwide moving back towards 17 percent.".
  25. Donald, Leland (1997). Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America, University of California Press, p. 23
Wikimedia Commons has media related toStarvation.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Starvation

Starvation
Starvation Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about extreme malnutrition For other uses see Starvation disambiguation Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake below the level needed to maintain an organism s life It is the most extreme form of malnutrition In humans prolonged starvation can cause permanent organ damage 1 and eventually death The term inanition 2 refers to the symptoms and effects of starvation Starvation may also be used as a means of torture or execution StarvationStarving Russian girl during the Russian famine of 1921SpecialtyCritical care medicineSymptomsfeeling weak or tired lack of energy loss of consciousnessComplicationsAnemia low blood sugar dangerously low blood pressure organ failureCausesMalnutritionDiagnostic methodbased on symptomsTreatmentintensive care According to the World Health Organization WHO hunger is the single gravest threat to the world s public health 3 4 The WHO also states that malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality present in half of all cases 3 Undernutrition is a contributory factor in the death of 3 1 million children under five every year 5 Figures on actual starvation are difficult to come by but according to the Food and Agriculture Organization the less severe condition of undernourishment currently affects about 842 million people or about one in eight 12 5 people in the world population 6 The bloated stomach represents a form of malnutrition called kwashiorkor The exact pathogenesis of kwashiorkor is not clear as initially it was thought to relate to diets high in carbohydrates e g maize but low in protein 7 While many patients have low albumin this is thought to be a consequence of the condition Possible causes such as aflatoxin poisoning oxidative stress immune dysregulation and altered gut microbiota have been suggested 8 Treatment can help mitigate symptoms such as the pictured weight loss and muscle wasting however prevention is of utmost importance 7 Contents 1 Signs and symptoms 1 1 Changes in behaviour or mental status 1 2 Physical signs 1 3 Weakened immune system 1 4 Other symptoms 1 5 Stages of starvation 2 Causes 3 Biochemistry 4 Prevention 5 Treatment 5 1 Organizations 6 Statistics 7 Capital punishment 8 Concentration camps and ghettos 9 See also 10 References 11 Further readingSigns and symptoms EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed November 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message A girl during the Nigerian Civil War of the late 1960s shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition The following are some of the symptoms of starvation Changes in behaviour or mental status Edit The beginning stages of starvation impact mental status and behaviours These symptoms show up as irritable mood fatigue trouble concentrating and preoccupation with food thoughts People with those symptoms tend to be easily distracted and have no energy Physical signs Edit As starvation progresses the physical symptoms set in The timing of these symptoms depends on age size and overall health It usually takes days to weeks and includes weakness fast heart rate shallow breaths that are slowed thirst and constipation There may also be diarrhea in some cases The eyes begin to sink in and glass over The muscles begin to become smaller and muscle wasting sets in One prominent sign in children is a swollen belly Skin loosens and turns pale in color and there may be swelling of the feet and ankles Weakened immune system Edit Symptoms of starvation may also appear as a weakened immune system slow wound healing and poor response to infection Rashes may develop on the skin The body directs any nutrients available to keeping organs functioning Other symptoms Edit Other effects of starvation may include Anemia Gallstones Hypotension Stomach disease Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases Irregular or absent menstrual periods in women Kidney disease or failure Electrolyte imbalance Emaciation OliguriaStages of starvation Edit The symptoms of starvation show up in three stages Phase one and two can show up in anyone that skips meals diets and goes through fasting Phase three is more severe can be fatal and results from long term starvation Phase one When meals are skipped the body begins to maintain blood sugar levels by producing glycogen in the liver and breaking down stored fat and protein The liver can provide glycogen for the first few hours After that the body begins to break down fat and protein The body uses Fatty acids as an energy source for muscles but lowers the amount of glucose sent to the brain Another chemical that comes from fatty acids is glycerol It can be used as glucose for energy but eventually runs out Phase two Phase two can last for weeks at a time In this phase the body mainly uses stored fat for energy The breakdown occurs in the liver and turns fat into ketones After fasting for one week the brain will use these ketones and any available glucose Using ketones lowers the need for glucose and the body slows the breakdown of proteins Phase three By this point the fat stores are gone and the body begins to turn to stored protein for energy This means it needs to break down muscle tissues full of protein the muscles break down very quickly Protein is essential for our cells to work correctly and when it runs out the cells can no longer function The cause of death due to starvation is usually an infection or the result of tissue breakdown This is due to the body becoming unable to produce enough energy to fight off bacteria and viruses The final stage of starvation includes signals like hair color loss skin flaking swelling in the extremities and a bloated belly Even though they may feel hunger people in the final stage of starvation usually cannot eat enough food to recover Causes Edit Starved Vietnamese man who was deprived of food in a Viet Cong prison camp Note the rib cage showing a clear sign of starvation The body expends more energy than it takes in This imbalance can arise from one or more medical conditions or circumstantial situations which can include Medical reasons Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Eating disorder not otherwise specified Celiac disease Coma Major depressive disorder Diabetes mellitus Digestive disease Constant vomiting Circumstantial causes Child elder or dependant abuse Famine for any reason such as political strife and war 9 10 Hunger striking Excessive fasting Poverty TortureBiochemistry EditMain article Starvation response With a typical high carbohydrate diet the human body relies on free blood glucose as its primary energy source Glucose can be obtained directly from dietary sugars and by the breakdown of other carbohydrates In the absence of dietary sugars and carbohydrates glucose is obtained from the breakdown of stored glycogen Glycogen is a readily accessible storage form of glucose stored in notable quantities in the liver and skeletal muscle After the exhaustion of the glycogen reserve and for the next two to three days fatty acids become the principal metabolic fuel At first the brain continues to use glucose If a non brain tissue is using fatty acids as its metabolic fuel the use of glucose in the same tissue is switched off Thus when fatty acids are being broken down for energy all of the remaining glucose is made available for use by the brain citation needed After two or three days of fasting the liver begins to synthesize ketone bodies from precursors obtained from fatty acid breakdown The brain uses these ketone bodies as fuel thus cutting its requirement for glucose After fasting for three days the brain gets 30 of its energy from ketone bodies After four days this may increase to 70 or more 11 Thus the production of ketone bodies cuts the brain s glucose requirement from 80 g per day to 30 g per day about 35 of normal with 65 derived from ketone bodies But of the brain s remaining 30 g requirement 20 g per day can be produced by the liver from glycerol itself a product of fat breakdown This still leaves a deficit of about 10 g of glucose per day that must be supplied from another source this other source will be the body s own proteins After exhaustion of fat stores the cells in the body begin to break down protein This releases alanine and lactate produced from pyruvate which can be converted into glucose by the liver Since much of human muscle mass is protein this phenomenon is responsible for the wasting away of muscle mass seen in starvation However the body is able to choose which cells will break down protein and which will not About 2 3 g of protein has to be broken down to synthesize 1 g of glucose about 20 30 g of protein is broken down each day to make 10 g of glucose to keep the brain alive However this number may decrease the longer the fasting period is continued in order to conserve protein Starvation ensues when the fat reserves are completely exhausted and protein is the only fuel source available to the body Thus after periods of starvation the loss of body protein affects the function of important organs and death results even if there are still fat reserves left In a leaner person the fat reserves are depleted faster and the protein sooner therefore death occurs sooner citation needed Ultimately the cause of death is in general cardiac arrhythmia or cardiac arrest brought on by tissue degradation and electrolyte imbalances Conditions like metabolic acidosis may also kill starving people 12 Prevention EditStarvation can be caused by factors beyond the control of the individual The Rome Declaration on World Food Security outlines several policies aimed at increasing food security 13 and consequently preventing starvation These include Poverty reduction Prevention of wars and political instability Food aid 14 Agricultural sustainability Reduction of economic inequality Supporting farmers in areas of food insecurity through such measures as free or subsidized fertilizers and seeds increases food harvest and reduces food prices 15 Treatment EditPatients that suffer from starvation can be treated but this must be done cautiously to avoid refeeding syndrome 16 Rest and warmth must be provided and maintained Food can be given gradually in small quantities The quantity of food can be increased over time Proteins may be administered intravenously to raise the level of serum proteins 17 For worse situations hospice care and opioid medications can be used Organizations Edit Main article Famine relief Many organizations have been highly effective at reducing starvation in different regions Aid agencies give direct assistance to individuals while political organizations pressure political leaders to enact more macro scale policies that will reduce famine and provide aid Statistics EditMain articles Malnutrition and Hunger Percentage of population suffering from hunger World Food Programme 2020 lt 2 5 lt 5 0 5 0 14 9 15 0 24 9 25 0 34 9 gt 35 0 No data According to estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization there were 925 million under or malnourished people in the world in 2010 18 This was a decrease from an estimate of roughly 1 billion malnourished people in 2009 19 In 2007 923 million people were reported as being undernourished an increase of 80 million since 1990 92 20 An estimated 820 million people did not have enough to eat in 2018 up from 811 million in the previous year which is the third year of increase in a row 21 As the definitions of starving and malnourished people are different the number of starving people is different from that of malnourished Generally far fewer people are starving than are malnourished The proportion of malnourished and starving people in the world has been more or less continually decreasing for at least several centuries 22 This is due to an increasing supply of food and to overall gains in economic efficiency In 40 years the proportion of malnourished people in the developing world has been more than halved The proportion of starving people has decreased even faster Year 1970 1980 1990 2004 2007 2009Proportion of undernourished people in the less developed world 19 23 24 37 28 20 16 17 16 Capital punishment EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed December 2008 Learn how and when to remove this template message Main article Immurement Wikisource has original text related to this article The Women of the Caesars The starving Livilla refusing food From a drawing by Andre Castagne Historically starvation has been used as a death sentence From the beginning of civilization to the Middle Ages people were immured and died for want of food In ancient Greco Roman societies starvation was sometimes used to dispose of guilty upper class citizens especially erring female members of patrician families In the year 31 Livilla the niece and daughter in law of Tiberius was discreetly starved to death by her mother for her adulterous relationship with Sejanus and for her complicity in the murder of her own husband Drusus the Younger Another daughter in law of Tiberius named Agrippina the Elder a granddaughter of Augustus and the mother of Caligula also died of starvation in 33 AD however it is unclear if her starvation was self inflicted A son and daughter of Agrippina were also executed by starvation for political reasons Drusus Caesar her second son was put in prison in 33 AD and starved to death by orders of Tiberius he managed to stay alive for nine days by chewing the stuffing of his bed Agrippina s youngest daughter Julia Livilla was exiled on an island in 41 by her uncle Emperor Claudius and her death by starvation was arranged by the empress Messalina It is also possible that Vestal Virgins were starved when found guilty of breaking their vows of celibacy Ugolino della Gherardesca his sons and other members of his family were immured in the Muda a tower of Pisa and starved to death in the thirteenth century Dante his contemporary wrote about Gherardesca in his masterpiece The Divine Comedy In Sweden in 1317 King Birger of Sweden imprisoned his two brothers for a coup they had staged several years earlier Nykoping Banquet According to legend they died of starvation a few weeks later since their brother had thrown the prison key in the castle moat In Cornwall in the UK in 1671 John Trehenban from St Columb Major was condemned to be starved to death in a cage at Castle An Dinas for the murder of two girls The Makah a Native American tribe inhabiting the Pacific Northwest near the modern border of Canada and the United States practiced death by starvation as a punishment for slaves 25 Concentration camps and ghettos Edit Buchenwald inmates 16 April 1945 when camp was liberated Many of the prisoners in the Nazi concentration camps were murdered through deliberate maltreatment disease starvation and overwork or were executed as unfit for labor Many occupants of ghettos in eastern Europe also starved to death most notoriously in the Warsaw Ghetto in German occupied Poland Prisoners were transported in inhumane conditions by rail freight cars in which many died before reaching their destination The prisoners were confined to the cattle cars for days or even weeks with little or no food or water Many died of dehydration in the intense heat of summer or froze to death in winter Nazi concentration camps in Europe from 1933 to 1945 deliberately underfed prisoners who were at the same time forced to perform heavy labour Their diet was restricted to watery vegetable soup and a little bread with little to no dietary fats proteins or other essential nutrients Such treatment led to loss of body tissues and when prisoners became skeletal the so called Muselmann were murdered by gas or bullets when examined by camp doctors Maximilian Kolbe on a West German postage stamp marked Auschwitz Starvation was also used as a punishment where victims were locked into a small cell until dead a process which could take many days Saint Maximilian Kolbe a martyred Polish friar underwent a sentence of starvation in Auschwitz concentration camp in 1941 Ten prisoners had been condemned to death by starvation in the wake of a successful escape from the camp Kolbe volunteered to take the place of a man with a wife and children After two weeks of starvation Kolbe and three other inmates remained alive they were then executed with injections of phenol See also Edit2007 2008 world food price crisis Anorexia mirabilis Cachexia Global Hunger Index Starvation mode Famine scales Hunger strike List of famines List of people who died of starvationReferences Edit Disease Related Malnutrition An Evidence Based Approach to Treatment When food intake is poor or absent for a long time weeks weight loss is associated with organ failure and death Definition of INANITION www merriam webster com Retrieved 2021 10 26 a b Malnutrition The Starvelings As more go hungry and malnutrition persists achieving Zero Hunger by 2030 in doubt UN report warns www who int Retrieved 2021 10 27 Hunger Stats World Food Programme FAO The State of Food Insecurity in the World a b Archived copy Archived from the original on 2011 10 02 Retrieved 2011 06 26 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Protein Energy Malnutrition Nutrition Guide for Clinicians PCRM s nutrition guide for clinicians PCRM Retrieved 16 April 2019 Howe Bancroft Hubert 1883 North American states 1883 History of the Pacific States of North America A L Bancroft 1883 10 411 Taylor Charles 1811 The Literary Panorama Volume 10 The Literary Panorama 10 539 C J Coffee Dec 1 2004 Quick Look Metabolism Hayes Barton Press p 169 Toth HL Greenbaum LA November 2003 Severe acidosis caused by starvation and stress American Journal of Kidney Diseases 42 5 E16 9 doi 10 1016 j ajkd 2003 07 012 PMID 14582074 World Food Summit Rome Declaration on World Food Security Laird Birmingham C 2000 Child hunger semi starvation study repeated in Canada Canadian Medical Association Journal 163 8 985 986 PMC 80547 PMID 11068570 Ending Famine Simply by Ignoring the Experts Mehanna HM Moledina J Travis J June 2008 Refeeding syndrome what it is and how to prevent and treat it BMJ 336 7659 1495 8 doi 10 1136 bmj a301 PMC 2440847 PMID 18583681 The Physiology and Treatment of Starvation Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine US national library of medicine 38 7 388 398 1945 doi 10 1177 003591574503800716 PMC 2181967 PMID 19993083 FAO Hunger a b The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2010 Addressing Food Insecurity in Protracted Crises Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008 High food prices and food security threats and opportunities Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2008 p 2 FAO s most recent estimates put the number of hungry people at 923 million in 2007 an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990 92 base period World hunger is still not going down after three years and obesity is still growing UN report Fogel RW 2004 The escape from hunger and premature death 1700 2100 Europe America and the Third World Cambridge Cambridge University Press Food and Agriculture Organization Agricultural and Development Economics Division The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006 Eradicating world hunger taking stock ten years after the World Food Summit Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2006 p 8 Because of population growth the very small decrease in the number of hungry people has nevertheless resulted in a reduction in the proportion of undernourished people in the developing countries by 3 percentage points from 20 percent in 1990 92 to 17 percent in 2001 03 the prevalence of undernourishment declined by 9 percent from 37 percent to 28 percent between 1969 71 and 1979 81 and by a further 8 percentage points to 20 percent between 1979 81 and 1990 92 Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008 High food prices and food security threats and opportunities Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2008 p 6 Good progress in reducing the share of hungry people in the developing world had been achieved down from almost 20 percent in 1990 92 to less than 18 percent in 1995 97 and just above 16 percent in 2003 05 The estimates show that rising food prices have thrown that progress into reverse with the proportion of undernourished people worldwide moving back towards 17 percent Donald Leland 1997 Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America University of California Press p 23Further reading EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Starvation Wikiquote has quotations related to StarvationOnline books and library resources in your library and in other libraries about Starvation U N Chief Hunger Kills 17 000 Kids Daily by CNN Wilson DE Zeikus R Chan IF Apr 1987 Relationship of organ lipoprotein lipase activity and ketonuria to hypertriglyceridemia in starved and streptozocin induced diabetic rats Diabetes 36 4 485 90 doi 10 2337 diabetes 36 4 485 PMID 3817303 Swaner JC Connor WE Aug 1975 Hypercholesterolemia of total starvation its mechanism via tissue mobilization of cholesterol The American Journal of Physiology 229 2 365 9 doi 10 1152 ajplegacy 1975 229 2 365 PMID 169705 ClassificationDICD 10 T73 0ICD 9 CM 994 2MeSH D013217DiseasesDB 12415 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Starvation amp oldid 1059990127, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.