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This article is about the military government in Burma set up in 1988. For the military junta established after the 2021 coup d'etat, see State Administration Council.

The State Peace and Development Council (Burmese:နိုင်ငံတော် အေးချမ်းသာယာရေး နှင့် ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေး ကောင်စီ ; abbreviated SPDC orနအဖ, ) was the official name of the military government of Burma (Myanmar), which in 1997, succeeded the State Law and Order Restoration Council (Burmese:နိုင်ငံတော်ငြိမ်ဝပ်ပိပြားမှုတည်ဆောက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ that seized power under the rule of Saw Maung in 1988. On 30 March 2011, Senior General and Council Chairman Than Shwe signed a decree that officially dissolved the Council. On the next day, Union of Myanmar became the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, and opened its new chapter of history.

Union of Burma
ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်
Pyidaunzu Myăma Nainngandaw
(1988–1989)
Union of Myanmar
ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်
Pyidaunzu Myăma Nainngandaw
(1989–2011)
1988–2011
Anthem:ကမ္ဘာမကျေ
Kaba Ma Kyei
"Till the End of the World"
CapitalRangoon (Yangon)
(1988–2006)
Naypyidaw
(2006–2011)
Largest cityYangon
Official languagesBurmese
Religion
Buddhism
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic under a military dictatorship
Chairman
• 1988–1992
Saw Maung
• 1992–2011
Than Shwe
Vice-Chairman
• 1988–1992
Than Shwe
• 1992–2011
Maung Aye
Prime Minister
• 1988–1992 (first)
Saw Maung
• 1992–2003
Than Shwe
• 2003–2004
Khin Nyunt
• 2004–2007
Soe Win
• 2007–2010 (last)
Thein Sein
LegislatureNone
Historical eraCold War
18 September 1988
18 June 1989
23 July 1997
15 August 2007
7 November 2010
Aung San Suu Kyi released
13 November 2010
• SPDC dissolved
30 March
31 January 2011 2011
HDI(2011)0.526
low
CurrencyKyat
Calling code95
ISO 3166 codeMM
Today part ofMyanmar
State Law and Order Restoration Council
နိုင်ငံတော် ငြိမ်ဝပ်ပိပြားမှုတည်ဆောက်ရေး အဖွဲ့
နဝတ
Council overview
Formed18 September 1988
Preceding agencies
Dissolved15 November 1997
Superseding agency
  • State Peace and Development Council
State Peace and Development Council
နိုင်ငံတော် အေးချမ်းသာယာရေးနှင့်ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေး ကောင်စီ
နအဖ
Council overview
Formed15 November 1997
Preceding Council
  • State Law and Order Restoration Council
Dissolved30 March 2011
This article contains Burmese script. Without proper , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Burmese script.

From 1988 to 1997, the junta was known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council (Burmese:နိုင်ငံတော် ငြိမ်ဝပ်ပိပြားမှု တည်ဆောက်ရေးအဖွဲ့; abbreviated SLORC orနဝတ), which had succeeded the Pyithu Hluttaw as a legislature and the Council of State as a ruling council, after dissolving the State organs of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. In 1997, SLORC was abolished and reconstituted as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The powerful regional military commanders, who were members of SLORC, were promoted to new positions and transferred to the capital of Rangoon (now Yangon). The new regional military commanders were not included in the membership of the SPDC.

The SPDC consisted of eleven senior military officers. The members of the junta wielded a great deal more power than the cabinet ministers, who were either more-junior military officers or civilians. The exception was the Defence Ministry portfolio, which was in the hands of junta leader Than Shwe himself. On 15 September 1993, it established the Union Solidarity and Development Association which was replaced by Union Solidarity and Development Party in 29 March 2010 in time for the elections.

Although the regime retreated from the totalitarian Burmese Way to Socialism of the BSPP when it took power in 1988, the regime was widely accused of human rights abuses. It rejected the 1990 election results and kept Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest until her release on 13 November 2010. The council was officially dissolved on 30 March 2011, with the inauguration of the newly elected government, led by its former member and Prime Minister, President Thein Sein.

Contents

SPDC members greet Thai PM Abhisit Vejjajiva in an October 2010 visit to Naypyidaw.
SPDC members with Thai delegation in an October 2010 visit to Naypyidaw.

The State Law and Order Restoration Council was formed when the Burmese Armed Forces, commanded by General Saw Maung (later self-promoted to Senior General Saw Maung, died July 1997), seized power on 18 September 1988 crushing the 8888 Uprising. On the day it seized power SLORC issued Order No.1/1988 stating that the Armed Forces had taken over power and announced the formation of the SLORC. With Order No. 2/1988, the SLORC abolished all organs of state power that were formed under the 1974 Burmese constitution. The Pyithu Hluttaw (the legislature under the 1974 Constitution), the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet), the Council of People's Justices (the Judiciary), the Council of People's Attorneys (the Attorney-General Office), the Council of People's Inspectors (the Auditor-General Office), as well as the State/Region, Township, Ward/Village People's Councils were abolished.

The SLORC also stated that the services of the Deputy Ministers in the previous Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) government which it replaced were also terminated. (Under the 1974 Burmese Constitution the Council of Ministers acted as a Cabinet but since the Deputy Ministers were not considered to be formally part of the Council of Ministers, the SLORC made sure that the Deputy Ministers – together with the Ministers' – services in the previous BSPP government from whom it had taken over power were also terminated.) The Orders that SLORC issued on the day of its takeover can be seen in the 19 September 1988 issue of The Working People's Daily. The first Chairman of SLORC was General Saw Maung, later Senior General, who was also the Prime Minister. He was removed as both Chairman of SLORC and Prime Minister on 23 April 1992 when General Than Shwe, later Senior General, took over both posts from him.

On 15 November 1997, SLORC was abolished and reconstituted as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Most, but not all members of the abolished SLORC, were in the SPDC military regime.

Chairmen

Chairman Term of office Political party
No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Duration
1 Senior General Saw Maung
(1928–1997)
18 September 1988 23 April 1992 3 years, 218 days Tatmadaw
2 Senior General Than Shwe
(b. 1933)
23 April 1992 30 March 2011 18 years, 341 days Tatmadaw

Vice Chairmen

Vice-Chairman Term of office Political party
No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Duration
1 General Than Shwe
(b. 1933)
18 September 1988 23 April 1992 3 years, 218 days Tatmadaw
2 Vice-Senior General Maung Aye
(b. 1938)
July 1993 30 March 2011 17 years, 8 months Tatmadaw

Ordered by protocol:

Western non-governmental organisations, such as the Burma Campaign UK, the US Campaign for Burma, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have made a variety of serious accusations against the SPDC. Reports by these organisations as well as the United Nations and the Karen Human Rights Group alleged gross human rights abuses that took place in Burma under their regime, including:

  • Murder and arbitrary executions
  • Torture and rape
  • Recruitment of child soldiers
  • Forced relocations
  • Forced labour
  • Political imprisonment

Murder

One of the worst atrocities in Burma took place during the uprising of August 1988, when millions of Burmese marched throughout the country calling for an end to military rule. Soldiers shot hundreds of protesters and killed an estimated 3,000 people in the following weeks. During the August and September demonstrations of 2007, at least 184 protesters were shot and killed and many were tortured. Under the SPDC, the Burmese army engaged in military offensives against ethnic minority populations, committing acts that violated international humanitarian law.

Recruitment of child soldiers

It has been alleged that the SPDC forcibly recruited children – some as young as 10 – to serve in its army, the Tatmadaw. It is difficult to estimate the number of child soldiers used to serve in the Burmese army, but there were thousands, according to Human Rights Watch [1] [2] [3] the Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 [4] and Amnesty International.[citation needed]

The UN Secretary-General named the SPDC in four consecutive reports for violating international standards prohibiting the recruitment and use of child soldiers.
Children and Armed Conflict, Report of the Secretary-General, 26 October 2006 UN Doc. A/61/529 S2006/826. [5]
Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Myanmar to the Security Council, 16 November 2007, UN Doc. S/2007/666.[6]
Report of the Secretary-General on Children and armed conflict to the UN Security Council, 21 December 2007, UN Doc. A/62/609-S/2007/757. [7]
Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Myanmar 1 June 2009 UN Doc. S/2009/278 [8]

Forced relocations

Human Rights Watch reported [9] that since Cyclone Nargis in May 2008, the Burmese authorities expelled hundreds, if not thousands, of displaced persons from schools, monasteries, and public buildings, and encouraged them to return to their destroyed villages in the Irrawaddy Delta. The authorities emptied some public buildings and schools to use as polling stations for the 24 May referendum on a new constitution, despite pleas from United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to postpone the referendum and focus their resources on humanitarian relief. The SPDC was alleged to have evicted people from dozens of government-operated tented relief camps in the vicinity of the former capital Yangon, ordering the residents to return to their homes, regardless of the conditions they face.

The forced evictions were part of government efforts to demonstrate that the emergency relief period was over and that the affected population were capable of rebuilding their lives without foreign aid. People who were forced from their homes by Cyclone Nargis are considered to be internally displaced persons under international law. Under the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the Burmese government was urged to ensure the right of "internally displaced persons to return voluntarily, in safety and with dignity, to their homes or places of habitual residence, or to resettle voluntarily in another part of the country."

Forced labour

According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), despite the new quasi-civilian government taking power in Burma, forced labour continues to be widespread in Burma. It is imposed mainly by the military, for portering (that is, carrying of provisions to remote bases, or on military operations), road construction, camp construction and repair, and for a range of other tasks. In March 1997, the European Union withdrew Burma's trade privileges because of the prevalence of forced labour and other abuses. The same year, the ILO established a Commission of Inquiry to look into allegations of forced labour, coming up with a damning report the following year.

In November 2006, the International Labour Organization (ILO) announced it was to seek at the International Criminal Court "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the allegations of forced labour of its citizens by the military. According to the ILO, an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labour in Burma.

Political imprisonment

Even before the large-scale demonstrations began in August 2007, the authorities arrested many well-known opponents of the government on political grounds, several of whom had only been released from prison several months earlier. Before the 25–29 September crackdown, more arrests of members of the opposition party National League for Democracy (NLD) took place, which critics say was a pre-emptive measure before the crackdown.

Mass round-ups occurred during the crackdown itself, and the authorities continued to arrest protesters and supporters throughout 2007. Between 3,000 and 4,000 political prisoners were detained, including children and pregnant women, 700 of whom were believed still in detention at year's end. At least 20 were charged and sentenced under anti-terrorism legislation in proceedings which did not meet international fair trial standards. Detainees and defendants were denied the right to legal counsel.

  1. "The Adaptation of Expressions Law". 2,ofError: the date or year parameters are either empty or in an invalid format, please use a valid year for year, and use DMY, MDY, MY, or Y date formats for date. The State Law and Order Restoration Council.
  2. "The Law Relating to Adaptation of Expressions, 2011". 1(b),2(a),ofError: the date or year parameters are either empty or in an invalid format, please use a valid year for year, and use DMY, MDY, MY, or Y date formats for date. The State Peace and Development Council.
  3. "2008 Constitution". Constitutional Tribunal of the Union of Myanmar, Online Law Library. အာဏာတည်သည့်ရက်: 31/01/2011
  4. Shwe Yinn Mar Oo; Soe Than Lynn (4 April 2011). "Mission accomplished as SPDC 'dissolved'". Myanmar Times. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved21 August 2011.
  5. Leibenluft, Jacob (2 June 2008). "Who's in the Junta? The mysterious generals who run Burma". Slate.
  6. "Myanmar's Aung San Suu Kyi released". Al Jazeera News in English. 13 November 2010.
  7. Moe, Wai (30 March 2011). "Than Shwe Officially Dissolves Junta". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved30 March 2011.
  8. "Myanmar: Junta Member Resigns From Parliament". New York Times. 16 February 2011.
  9. Elaine Pearson, deputy Asia director at Human Rights Watch (6 August 2008). "Burma: No Rights Reform 20 Years After Massacre | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved13 October 2009.
  10. Human Rights in Myanmar Archived 22 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ILO cracks the whip at Yangon.
  12. "Amnesty International Report 2009 | Working to Protect Human Rights". Thereport.amnesty.org. 9 October 2009. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved13 October 2009.

State Peace and Development Council Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from State Law and Order Restoration Council This article is about the military government in Burma set up in 1988 For the military junta established after the 2021 coup d etat see State Administration Council The State Peace and Development Council Burmese န င င တ အ ခ မ သ ယ ရ န င ဖ ဖ ရ က င စ naɪɰ ŋaɰ dɔ ʔedʑaɰ 8ajaje n ḭɰ pʰʊ ɰ bjo je kaʊ ɰ si abbreviated SPDC or နအဖ na ʔa pʰa was the official name of the military government of Burma Myanmar which in 1997 succeeded the State Law and Order Restoration Council Burmese န င င တ င မ ဝပ ပ ပ မ တည ဆ က ရ အဖ that seized power under the rule of Saw Maung in 1988 On 30 March 2011 Senior General and Council Chairman Than Shwe signed a decree that officially dissolved the Council 4 On the next day Union of Myanmar became the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and opened its new chapter of history Union of Burma ပ ည ထ င စ မ န မ န င င တ Pyidaunzu Myăma Nainngandaw 1988 1989 Union of Myanmar ပ ည ထ င စ မ န မ န င င တ Pyidaunzu Myăma Nainngandaw 1989 2011 1988 2011Top Flag 1988 2010 Bottom Flag 2010 2011 Top Emblem 1989 2010 Bottom Emblem 2010 2011 Anthem ကမ ဘ မက Kaba Ma Kyei Till the End of the World source source track track track track CapitalRangoon Yangon 1988 2006 Naypyidaw 2006 2011 Largest cityYangonOfficial languagesBurmeseReligionBuddhismGovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic under a military dictatorshipChairman 1988 1992Saw Maung 1992 2011Than ShweVice Chairman 1988 1992Than Shwe 1992 2011Maung AyePrime Minister 1988 1992 first Saw Maung 1992 2003Than Shwe 2003 2004Khin Nyunt 2004 2007Soe Win 2007 2010 last Thein SeinLegislatureNoneHistorical eraCold War 1988 Military takeover18 September 1988 Renamed from Burma to Myanmar 18 June 1989 1 ASEAN Declaration23 July 1997 Saffron Revolution15 August 2007 Elections7 November 2010 Aung San Suu Kyi released13 November 2010 SPDC dissolved30 March Renamed to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar31 January 2011 2 3 2011HDI 2011 0 526 lowCurrencyKyatCalling code95ISO 3166 codeMMPreceded by Succeeded bySocialist Republic of the Union of Burma Republic of the Union of MyanmarToday part ofMyanmarState Law and Order Restoration Councilန င င တ င မ ဝပ ပ ပ မ တည ဆ က ရ အဖ နဝတCouncil overviewFormed18 September 1988Preceding agenciesCouncil of State as the supreme council Pyithu Hluttaw as the legislature Dissolved15 November 1997Superseding agencyState Peace and Development CouncilState Peace and Development Councilန င င တ အ ခ မ သ ယ ရ န င ဖ ဖ ရ က င စ နအဖCouncil overviewFormed15 November 1997Preceding CouncilState Law and Order Restoration CouncilDissolved30 March 2011This article contains Burmese script Without proper rendering support you may see question marks boxes or other symbols instead of Burmese script From 1988 to 1997 the junta was known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council Burmese န င င တ င မ ဝပ ပ ပ မ တည ဆ က ရ အဖ abbreviated SLORC or နဝတ which had succeeded the Pyithu Hluttaw as a legislature and the Council of State as a ruling council after dissolving the State organs of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma In 1997 SLORC was abolished and reconstituted as the State Peace and Development Council SPDC The powerful regional military commanders who were members of SLORC were promoted to new positions and transferred to the capital of Rangoon now Yangon The new regional military commanders were not included in the membership of the SPDC The SPDC consisted of eleven senior military officers The members of the junta 5 wielded a great deal more power than the cabinet ministers who were either more junior military officers or civilians The exception was the Defence Ministry portfolio which was in the hands of junta leader Than Shwe himself On 15 September 1993 it established the Union Solidarity and Development Association which was replaced by Union Solidarity and Development Party in 29 March 2010 in time for the elections Although the regime retreated from the totalitarian Burmese Way to Socialism of the BSPP when it took power in 1988 the regime was widely accused of human rights abuses It rejected the 1990 election results and kept Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest until her release on 13 November 2010 6 The council was officially dissolved on 30 March 2011 with the inauguration of the newly elected government led by its former member and Prime Minister President Thein Sein 7 Contents 1 History 2 Leadership 2 1 Chairmen 2 2 Vice Chairmen 3 Former members 4 Human rights abuses 4 1 Murder 4 2 Recruitment of child soldiers 4 3 Forced relocations 4 4 Forced labour 4 5 Political imprisonment 5 References 6 External linksHistory Edit SPDC members greet Thai PM Abhisit Vejjajiva in an October 2010 visit to Naypyidaw SPDC members with Thai delegation in an October 2010 visit to Naypyidaw The State Law and Order Restoration Council was formed when the Burmese Armed Forces commanded by General Saw Maung later self promoted to Senior General Saw Maung died July 1997 seized power on 18 September 1988 crushing the 8888 Uprising On the day it seized power SLORC issued Order No 1 1988 stating that the Armed Forces had taken over power and announced the formation of the SLORC With Order No 2 1988 the SLORC abolished all organs of state power that were formed under the 1974 Burmese constitution The Pyithu Hluttaw the legislature under the 1974 Constitution the Council of Ministers the Cabinet the Council of People s Justices the Judiciary the Council of People s Attorneys the Attorney General Office the Council of People s Inspectors the Auditor General Office as well as the State Region Township Ward Village People s Councils were abolished The SLORC also stated that the services of the Deputy Ministers in the previous Burma Socialist Programme Party BSPP government which it replaced were also terminated Under the 1974 Burmese Constitution the Council of Ministers acted as a Cabinet but since the Deputy Ministers were not considered to be formally part of the Council of Ministers the SLORC made sure that the Deputy Ministers together with the Ministers services in the previous BSPP government from whom it had taken over power were also terminated The Orders that SLORC issued on the day of its takeover can be seen in the 19 September 1988 issue of The Working People s Daily The first Chairman of SLORC was General Saw Maung later Senior General who was also the Prime Minister He was removed as both Chairman of SLORC and Prime Minister on 23 April 1992 when General Than Shwe later Senior General took over both posts from him On 15 November 1997 SLORC was abolished and reconstituted as the State Peace and Development Council SPDC Most but not all members of the abolished SLORC were in the SPDC military regime Leadership EditChairmen Edit Chairman Term of office Political partyNo Portrait Name Born Died Took office Left office Duration1 Senior General Saw Maung 1928 1997 18 September 1988 23 April 1992 3 years 218 days Tatmadaw2 Senior General Than Shwe b 1933 23 April 1992 30 March 2011 18 years 341 days TatmadawVice Chairmen Edit Vice Chairman Term of office Political partyNo Portrait Name Born Died Took office Left office Duration1 General Than Shwe b 1933 18 September 1988 23 April 1992 3 years 218 days Tatmadaw2 Vice Senior General Maung Aye b 1938 July 1993 30 March 2011 17 years 8 months TatmadawFormer members EditOrdered by protocol Senior General Than Shwe Chairman of the SPDC Commander in Chief of Defence Services Vice Senior General Maung Aye Deputy Chairman of the SPDC Deputy Commander in Chief of Defence Services Commander in Chief of the Army Retired General Thura U Shwe Mann Former Joint Chief of Staff of the Army Navy and Air Force Retired General U Thein Sein Prime Minister and former President Retired General U Thiha Thura Tin Aung Myint Oo Secretary 1 of the SPDC Former Quartermaster General and ex Vice President Major General Ohn Myint Chief of Bureau of Special Operation 1 Kachin State Mandalay Region Chin State Sagaing Region Lieutenant General Min Aung Hlaing Chief of Bureau of Special Operation 2 Shan State Kayah State Lieutenant General Ko Ko Chief of Bureau of Special Operation 3 Bago Region Ayeyarwady Region Lieutenant General Tha Aye Chief of Bureau of Special Operation 4 Karen State Mon State Tanintharyi Region Lieutenant General Myint Swe Chief of Bureau of Special Operation 5 Yangon Region Lieutenant General Khin Zaw Chief of Bureau of Special Operation 6 Magwe Region Rakhine State Major General Hla Htay Win Chief of Armed Forces Training Retired Lieutenant General U Tin Aye Former Chief of Military Ordnance Current Head of Election Council 8 Lieutenant General Thura Myint Aung Adjutant GeneralHuman rights abuses EditSee also Human rights in Burma Western non governmental organisations such as the Burma Campaign UK the US Campaign for Burma Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have made a variety of serious accusations against the SPDC Reports by these organisations as well as the United Nations and the Karen Human Rights Group alleged gross human rights abuses that took place in Burma under their regime including Murder and arbitrary executions Torture and rape Recruitment of child soldiers Forced relocations Forced labour Political imprisonmentMurder Edit One of the worst atrocities in Burma took place during the uprising of August 1988 when millions of Burmese marched throughout the country calling for an end to military rule Soldiers shot hundreds of protesters and killed an estimated 3 000 people in the following weeks During the August and September demonstrations of 2007 at least 184 protesters were shot and killed and many were tortured Under the SPDC the Burmese army engaged in military offensives against ethnic minority populations committing acts that violated international humanitarian law 9 Recruitment of child soldiers Edit It has been alleged that the SPDC forcibly recruited children some as young as 10 to serve in its army the Tatmadaw It is difficult to estimate the number of child soldiers used to serve in the Burmese army but there were thousands according to Human Rights Watch 1 2 3 the Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 4 and Amnesty International citation needed The UN Secretary General named the SPDC in four consecutive reports for violating international standards prohibiting the recruitment and use of child soldiers Children and Armed Conflict Report of the Secretary General 26 October 2006 UN Doc A 61 529 S2006 826 5 Report of the Secretary General on children and armed conflict in Myanmar to the Security Council 16 November 2007 UN Doc S 2007 666 6 Report of the Secretary General on Children and armed conflict to the UN Security Council 21 December 2007 UN Doc A 62 609 S 2007 757 7 Report of the Secretary General on children and armed conflict in Myanmar 1 June 2009 UN Doc S 2009 278 8 Forced relocations Edit Human Rights Watch reported 9 that since Cyclone Nargis in May 2008 the Burmese authorities expelled hundreds if not thousands of displaced persons from schools monasteries and public buildings and encouraged them to return to their destroyed villages in the Irrawaddy Delta The authorities emptied some public buildings and schools to use as polling stations for the 24 May referendum on a new constitution despite pleas from United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki moon to postpone the referendum and focus their resources on humanitarian relief The SPDC was alleged to have evicted people from dozens of government operated tented relief camps in the vicinity of the former capital Yangon ordering the residents to return to their homes regardless of the conditions they face The forced evictions were part of government efforts to demonstrate that the emergency relief period was over and that the affected population were capable of rebuilding their lives without foreign aid People who were forced from their homes by Cyclone Nargis are considered to be internally displaced persons under international law Under the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement the Burmese government was urged to ensure the right of internally displaced persons to return voluntarily in safety and with dignity to their homes or places of habitual residence or to resettle voluntarily in another part of the country Forced labour Edit According to the International Labour Organization ILO despite the new quasi civilian government taking power in Burma forced labour continues to be widespread in Burma It is imposed mainly by the military for portering that is carrying of provisions to remote bases or on military operations road construction camp construction and repair and for a range of other tasks In March 1997 the European Union withdrew Burma s trade privileges because of the prevalence of forced labour and other abuses The same year the ILO established a Commission of Inquiry to look into allegations of forced labour coming up with a damning report the following year In November 2006 the International Labour Organization ILO announced it was to seek at the International Criminal Court 10 to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity over the allegations of forced labour of its citizens by the military According to the ILO an estimated 800 000 people are subject to forced labour in Burma 11 Political imprisonment Edit Even before the large scale demonstrations began in August 2007 the authorities arrested many well known opponents of the government on political grounds several of whom had only been released from prison several months earlier Before the 25 29 September crackdown more arrests of members of the opposition party National League for Democracy NLD took place which critics say was a pre emptive measure before the crackdown Mass round ups occurred during the crackdown itself and the authorities continued to arrest protesters and supporters throughout 2007 Between 3 000 and 4 000 political prisoners were detained including children and pregnant women 700 of whom were believed still in detention at year s end At least 20 were charged and sentenced under anti terrorism legislation in proceedings which did not meet international fair trial standards Detainees and defendants were denied the right to legal counsel 12 References Edit The Adaptation of Expressions Law 2 of Error the date or year parameters are either empty or in an invalid format please use a valid year for year and use DMY MDY MY or Y date formats for date The State Law and Order Restoration Council The Law Relating to Adaptation of Expressions 2011 1 b 2 a of Error the date or year parameters are either empty or in an invalid format please use a valid year for year and use DMY MDY MY or Y date formats for date The State Peace and Development Council 2008 Constitution Constitutional Tribunal of the Union of Myanmar Online Law Library အ ဏ တည သည ရက 31 01 2011 Shwe Yinn Mar Oo Soe Than Lynn 4 April 2011 Mission accomplished as SPDC dissolved Myanmar Times Archived from the original on 16 September 2011 Retrieved 21 August 2011 Leibenluft Jacob 2 June 2008 Who s in the Junta The mysterious generals who run Burma Slate Myanmar s Aung San Suu Kyi released Al Jazeera News in English 13 November 2010 Moe Wai 30 March 2011 Than Shwe Officially Dissolves Junta The Irrawaddy Archived from the original on 3 April 2011 Retrieved 30 March 2011 Myanmar Junta Member Resigns From Parliament New York Times 16 February 2011 Elaine Pearson deputy Asia director at Human Rights Watch 6 August 2008 Burma No Rights Reform 20 Years After Massacre Human Rights Watch Hrw org Retrieved 13 October 2009 Human Rights in Myanmar Archived 22 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine ILO cracks the whip at Yangon Amnesty International Report 2009 Working to Protect Human Rights Thereport amnesty org 9 October 2009 Archived from the original on 17 April 2009 Retrieved 13 October 2009 External links EditMyanmar gov Official State Peace And Development Council SPDC website Irrawaddy org Members of State Peace and Development Council SPDC Burma Campaign UK Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title State Peace and Development Council amp oldid 1069224183, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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