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Wikipedia

"Christian country" redirects here. For the music genre, see Christian country music.

A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church (also called an established church), which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.

Countries with Christianity as their state religion are in blue.

Historically, the nations of Armenia, Abyssinia, Georgia, as well as the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire declared themselves as Christian states.

Today, several nations officially identify themselves as Christian states or have state churches. These countries include Argentina, Armenia, Costa Rica, Denmark (incl. Greenland), England, Ethiopia, Faroe Islands, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, Norway, Samoa, Serbia, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vatican City, and Zambia. A Christian state stands in contrast to a secular state, an atheist state, or another religious state, such as a Jewish state, or an Islamic state.

Contents

By 301 AD, the Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to declare Christianity as its official religion following the conversion of the Royal House of the Arsacids in Armenia. The Armenian Apostolic Church is the world's oldest national church. Later, in AD 380, three Roman emperors issued the Edict of Thessalonica (Cunctos populos), making the Roman Empire a Christian state, and establishing Nicene Christianity, in the form of its State Church, as its official religion.

The boundaries of the Byzantine Empire under Justinian the Great

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century, the "Byzantine Empire" under the emperor Justinian (reigned 527–565), became the world's predominant Christian state, based on Roman law, Greek culture, and the Greek language." In this Christian state, in which nearly all of its subjects upheld faith in Jesus, an "enormous amount of artistic talent was poured into the construction of churches, church ceremonies, and church decoration". John Binns describes this era, writing that:

A new stage in the history of the Church began when not just localised communities but nations became Christian. The stage is associated with the conversion of Constantine and the beginnings of a Christian Empire, but the Byzantine Emperor was not the first ruler to lead his people into Christianity, thus setting up the first Christian state. That honour traditionally goes to the church of Armenia.

As a Christian state, Armenia "embraced Christianity as the religion of the King, the nobles, and the people". In AD 326, according to official tradition of the Georgian Orthodox Church, following the conversion of Mirian and Nana, the country of Georgia became a Christian state, the Emperor Constantine the Great sending clerics for baptising people. In the 4th century AD, in the Kingdom of Aksum, after Ezana's conversion to the faith, this empire also became a Christian state.

In the Middle Ages, efforts were made in order to establish a Pan-Christianity state by uniting the countries within Christendom. Christian nationalism played a role in this era in which Christians felt the impulse to also recover those territories in which Christianity historically flourished, such as the Holy Land and North Africa.

Argentina

Article 2 of the Constitution of Argentina explicitly states that "the Federal Government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic Faith" and Article 14 guarantees freedom of religion. Although it enforces neither an official nor a state faith, it gives Catholic Christianity a preferential status. Before its 1994 amendment, the Constitution stated that the President of the Republic must be a Roman Catholic.

Armenia

In Armenia Christianity is the state religion and the Armenian Apostolic Church is the national church. Armenia is the earliest Christian state.

Costa Rica

The constitution of Costa Rica states that "The Catholic and Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State". As such, Catholic Christian holy days are recognized by the government and "public schools provide religious education", although parents are able to opt-out their children if they choose to do so.

Denmark

A Church of Denmark parish church in Holte, with the Dannebrog flying in its kirkyard

As early as the 11th century AD, "Denmark was considered to be a Christian state", with the Church of Denmark, a member of the Lutheran World Federation, being the state church. Prof. Wasif Shadid, of Leiden University, writes that:

The Lutheran established church is a department of the state. Church affairs are governed by a central government ministry, while clergy are government employees. The registration of births, deaths and marriages falls under this ministry of church affairs, and normally speaking the local Lutheran pastor is also the official registrar.

82.1% of the population of Denmark are members of the Lutheran Church of Denmark, which is "officially headed by the queen of Denmark". Furthermore, clergy "in the Church of Denmark are civil servants employed by the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs" and the "economic base of the Church of Denmark is state-collected church taxes combined with a direct state subsidiary (12%), which symbolically covers the expenses of the Church of Denmark to run the civil registration and the burial system for all citizens."

England

Barbara Yorke writes that the "Carolingian Renaissance heightened appreciation within England of the role of king and church in a Christian state." As such,

Since the 1701 Act of Establishment, England's official state church has been the Church of England, the monarch being its supreme governor and 'defender of the faith'. She, together with Parliament, has a say in appointing bishops, twenty-six of whom have ex officio seats in the House of Lords. In characteristically British fashion, where the state is representative of civil society, it was Parliament that determined, in the Act of Establishment, that the monarch had to be Anglican.

Christian religious education is taught to children in primary and secondary schools in the United Kingdom. English schools have a legal requirement for a daily act of collective worship "of a broadly Christian character" that is widely flouted.

Faroe Islands

The Church of the Faroe Islands is the state church of Faroe Islands.

Georgia

Georgia is one of the oldest Christian states. Article 8 of Georgian Constitution and the Concordat of 2002 grants the Georgian Orthodox Church special privileges, which include legal immunity to the Patriarch of Georgia. The Orthodox Church is the most trusted institution in the country and its head, Patriarch Ilia II, the most trusted person.

Greece

Greece is a Christian state, with the Greek Orthodox Church playing "a dominant role in the life of the country".

Greenland

Being an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark, the Church of Denmark is the established church of Greenland through the Constitution of Denmark:

The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark, and, as such, it shall be supported by the State.

Section IV of Constitution of Denmark

This applies to all of the Kingdom of Denmark, except for the Faroe Islands, as the Church of the Faroe Islands became independent in 2007.

Hungary

The preamble to the Hungarian Constitution of 2011 describes Hungary as "part of Christian Europe" and acknowledges "the role of Christianity in preserving nationhood", while Article VII provides that "the State shall cooperate with the Churches for community goals". However, the constitution also guarantees freedom of religion and separation of church and state.

Iceland

Reykjavík Cathedral, mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland

Around AD 1000, Iceland became a Christian state. The Encyclopedia of Protestantism states that:

The majority of Icelanders are members of the state church. Almost all children are baptized as Lutheran and more than 90 percent are subsequently confirmed. The church conducts 75 percent of all marriages and 99 percent of all funerals. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Iceland is a member of the Lutheran World Federation and the World Council of Churches.

All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity, although an exemption may be considered by the Minister of Education.

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein's constitution designates the Catholic Church as being the state Church of that country. In public schools, per article 16 of the Constitution of Liechtenstein, religious education is given by Church authorities.

Malta

Section Two of the Constitution of Malta specifies the state's religion as being the Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion. It holds that the "authorities of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Church have the duty to teach which principles are right and which are wrong" and that "religious teaching of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Faith shall be provided in all State schools as part of compulsory education".

Monaco

Article 9 of the Constitution of Monaco describes "La religion catholique, apostolique et romaine [the catholic, apostolic and Roman religion]" as the religion of the state.

Norway

Cole Durham and Tore Sam Lindholm, writing in 2013, stated that "For a period of one thousand years Norway has been a kingdom with a Christian state church" and that a decree went out in 1739 ordering that "Elementary schooling for all Norwegian children became mandatory, so that all Norwegians should be able to read the Bible and the Lutheran Catechism firsthand." The modern Constitution of Norway stipulates that "The Church of Norway, an Evangelical-Lutheran church, will remain the Established Church of Norway and will as such be supported by the State." As such, the "Norwegian constitution decrees that Lutheranism is the official religion of the State and that the King is the supreme temporal head of the Church." The administration of the Church "is shared between the Ministry for Church, Education and Research centrally and municipal authorities locally", and the Church of Norway "depends on state and local taxes". The Church of Norway is responsible for the "maintenance of church buildings and cemeteries". John T. Flint writes that "Over 90 percent of the population are married by state church clergymen, have their children baptized and confirmed, and finally are buried with a church service."

Samoa

Samoa became a Christian state in 2017. Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution states that “Samoa is a Christian nation founded of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit”.

Serbia

Serbia as a territory became a Christian state during the time of Constantine the Great in Christianization of Eastern Roman Empire, according to the research and discoveries of artifacts left by the Illyrians, Triballi and other kindred tribes. More research has since been made that perhaps prove the existence of Serbs living in the Balkans during Roman times in Ilyria. In the centuries that followed from the fourth- to the 12th-century, when Catholic Church was in a battleground between Serbia due the Eastern Orthodox Church, Serbia prevailed as Orthodox Christian state under his jurisdiction through Saint Sava.

Serbia as modern state, defines in his constitution as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom. However, orthodox Christians with 6,079,396 comprise 84.5% of country's population. The Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest and traditional church of the country, adherents of which are overwhelmingly Serbs. And the church directly or indirectly has both cultural influence on the decisions and positions of the state.

Tonga

Tonga became a Christian state under George Tupou I in the 19th century, with the Free Wesleyan Church, a member of the World Methodist Council, being established as the country's state Church. Under the rule of George Tupou I, there was established a "rigorous constitutional clause regulating observation of the Sabbath".

Tuvalu

The Church of Tuvalu, a Calvinist church in the Congregationalist tradition, is the state church of Tuvalu and was established as such in 1991. The Constitution of Tuvalu identifies Tuvalu as "an independent State based on Christian principles".

Vatican City

St. Peter's Square, Vatican City

Vatican City is a Christian state, in which the "Pope is ex officio simultaneously leader of the Catholic Church as well as Head of State and Head of the Government of the State of the Vatican City; he also possesses (de jure) absolute authority over the legislative, executive and judicial branches."

Zambia

Jeroen Temperman, a professor of international law at Erasmus University Rotterdam writes that:

Zambia is officially a Christian state as well, though the legal ramifications clearly do not compare to the latter state. The Preamble of the Constitution of Zambia establishes Zambia as a Christian state without specifying "Christian" denominationally. It simply proclaims: "We, the people of Zambia...declare the Republic a Christian nation..." As far as state practice is concerned, it may be pointed out that the Government maintains relations with the Zambian Council of Churches and requires Christianity to be taught in the public school curriculum.

After "Zambia declared itself a Christian nation in 1991", "the nation's vice president urged citizens to 'have a Christian orientation in all fields, at all levels'."

Location Church Denomination Disestablished
Anhalt Evangelical State Church of Anhalt united Protestant 1918, during the German Revolution
Armenia Armenian Apostolic Church Oriental Orthodox 1921
Austria Catholic Church Catholic 1918, under the Federal Constitutional Law
Baden Catholic Church Catholic 1918, during the German Revolution
United Evangelical Protestant State Church of Baden united Protestant 1918, during the German Revolution
Bavaria Catholic Church Catholic 1918, during the German Revolution
Protestant State Church in the Kingdom of Bavaria right of the Rhine Lutheran and Reformed 1918, during the German Revolution
United Protestant Evangelical Christian Church of the Palatinate united Protestant 1918, during the German Revolution
Bolivia Catholic Church Catholic 2009, under the Constitution of Bolivia
Brazil Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1890
Brunswick Evangelical Lutheran State Church in Brunswick Lutheran 1918, during the German Revolution
Bulgaria Bulgarian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1946
Chile Catholic Church Catholic 1925
Colombia Catholic Church Catholic 1936
Connecticut Colony Congregational Church Reformed 1818, under the Constitution of Connecticut
Cuba Catholic Church Catholic 1902
Cyprus Cypriot Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1977 with the death of the Ethnarch Makarios III
Czechoslovakia Catholic Church Catholic 1920, under the Czechoslovak Constitution
Denmark Church of Denmark Lutheran Current
East Florida Church of England Anglican 1783
England Church of England Anglican Current
Ethiopia Ethiopian Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodox 1974, after the formation of the Derg
Faroe Islands Church of the Faroe Islands Lutheran Current; elevated from a diocese of the Church of Denmark in 2007 (the two remain in close cooperation)
Finland Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland Lutheran 1869; however the organisation of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is regulated by the Constitution of Finland and Church Act of 1993. The state also carries out taxing for the funding of the church on its members.
Finnish Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1917
France Catholic Church Catholic 1905, under the law on the Separation of the Churches and the State
Georgia Georgian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1921
Greece Greek Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox The Church of Greece is recognized by the Greek Constitution as the "prevailing religion" in Greece. However, this provision does not give official status to the Church of Greece, while all other religions are recognized as equal and may be practiced freely.
Greenland Church of Denmark Lutheran Current; under discussion to be elevated from The Diocese of Greenland in the Church of Denmark to a state church for Greenland, along‐the‐lines the Faroese Church took in 2007
Guatemala Catholic Church Catholic 1871
Haiti Catholic Church Catholic 1987
Hawaii Church of Hawaii Anglican 1893, after the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom
Hesse Evangelical Church in Hesse united Protestant 1918, during the German Revolution
Hungary Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1946
Iceland Lutheran Evangelical Church Lutheran Current
Kingdom of Ireland Church of Ireland Anglican 1871
Republic of Ireland Catholic Church Catholic 1973
Italy Catholic Church Catholic 1949
Liechtenstein Catholic Church Catholic Current
Lippe Church of Lippe Reformed 1918
Lithuania Catholic Church Catholic 1940
Lübeck Evangelical Lutheran Church in the State of Lübeck Lutheran 1918
Luxembourg Catholic Church Catholic Current
North Macedonia Macedonian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1921
Malta Catholic Church Catholic Current
Mecklenburg-Schwerin Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Lutheran 1918
Mecklenburg-Strelitz Mecklenburg-Strelitz State Church Lutheran 1918
Mexico Catholic Church Catholic 1857, under the Federal Constitution (reestablished between 1864 and 1867)
Monaco Catholic Church Catholic Current
Netherlands Dutch Reformed Church Reformed 1795
New Brunswick Church of England Anglican 1850
Norway Church of Norway Lutheran 2017
Nova Scotia Church of England Anglican 1850
Oldenburg Evangelical Lutheran Church of Oldenburg Lutheran 1918
Panama Catholic Church Catholic 1904
Paraguay Catholic Church Catholic 1992
Philippines Catholic Church Catholic 1898
Poland Catholic Church Catholic 1947
Portugal Catholic Church Catholic 1910, 1976 (reestablished between 1933 and 1974)
Prince Edward Island Church of England Anglican 1850
Province of Georgia, British America Church of England Anglican 1789
Province of Maryland Church of England Anglican 1776
Province of Massachusetts Bay Congregational Church Reformed 1834
Province of New Hampshire Church of England Anglican 1877
Province of North Carolina Church of England Anglican 1776
Province of South Carolina Church of England Anglican 1790
Prussia
pre-1866 provinces
Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces with nine ecclesiastical provinces united Protestant 1918
Prussia
Province of Hanover
Evangelical Reformed State Church of the Province of Hanover Reformed 1918
Prussia
Province of Hanover
Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover Lutheran 1918
Prussia
Province of Hesse-Nassau (partially)
Evangelical State Church of Frankfurt upon Main united Protestant 1918
Prussia
Province of Hesse-Nassau (partially)
Evangelical Church of Electoral Hesse united Protestant 1918
Prussia
Province of Hesse-Nassau (partially)
Evangelical State Church in Nassau united Protestant 1918
Prussia
Province of Schleswig-Holstein
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Schleswig-Holstein Lutheran 1918
Quebec Catholic Church Catholic 1960, after the Quiet Revolution
Romania Romanian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1947
Russia Russian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1917, after the Russian Revolution
Thuringia church bodies in principalities which merged in Thuringia in 1920 Lutheran 1918
Saxony Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Saxony Lutheran 1918
Schaumburg-Lippe Evangelical State Church of Schaumburg-Lippe Lutheran 1918
Scotland Church of Scotland Presbyterian State control disclaimed since 1638. Formally recognised as not an established church in 1921
Serbia Serbian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1946
Spain Catholic Church Catholic 1978
Sweden Church of Sweden Lutheran 2000
Switzerland separate Cantonal Churches («Landeskirchen») Zwinglianism & Calvinism or Catholic during the 20th century
Tuvalu Church of Tuvalu Reformed Current
United Province of Canada Church of England Anglican 1854
Uruguay Catholic Church Catholic 1918 (into effect in 1919)
Virginia Church of England Anglican 1786
Waldeck Evangelical State Church of Waldeck and Pyrmont united Protestant 1918
Wales Church of England Anglican 1920
West Florida Church of England Anglican 1783
Württemberg Evangelical State Church in Württemberg Lutheran 1918
Main article: National church

A number of countries have a national church which is not Established (as the official religion of the nation), but is nonetheless recognised under civil law as being the country's acknowledged religious denomination. Whilst these are not Christian states, the official Christian national church is likely to have certain residual state functions in relation to state occasions and ceremonial. Examples include Scotland (Church of Scotland) and Sweden (Church of Sweden). A national church typically has a monopoly on official state recognition, although unusually Finland has two national churches (the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and the Finnish Orthodox Church), both recognised under civil law as joint official churches of the nation.

  1. Brazilian Laws - the Federal Constitution - The Organization of State. V-brazil.com. Retrieved 5 May 2012. Brazil had Roman Catholicism as the state religion from the country's independence, in 1822, until the fall of the Brazilian Empire. The new Republican government passed, in 1890, Decree 119-A "Decreto 119-A". Prohibits federal and state authorities to intervene on religion, granting freedom of religion. (still in force), instituting the separation of church and state for the first time in Brazilian law. Positivist thinker Demétrio Nunes Ribeiro urged the new government to adopt this stance. The 1891 Constitution, the first under the Republican system of government, abolished privileges for any specific religion, reaffirming the separation of church and state. This has been the case ever since – the 1988 Constitution of Brazil, currently in force, does so in its Nineteenth Article. The Preamble to the Constitution does refer to "God's protection" over the document's promulgation, but this is not legally taken as endorsement of belief in any deity.
  2. In France the Concordat of 1801 made the Catholic, Calvinist and Lutheran churches state-sponsored religions, as well as Judaism.
  3. In Hungary the constitutional laws of 1848 declared five established churches on equal status: the Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox and Unitarian Church. In 1868 the law was ratified again after the Ausgleich. In 1895 Judaism was also recognized as the sixth established church. In 1948 every distinction between the different denominations were abolished.
  4. In the Kingdom of Ireland the Church of Ireland was established in the Reformation. The Act of Union 1800 created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with the United Church of England and Ireland established outside Scotland. The Irish Church Act 1869 demerged and disestablished the Church of Ireland, and the island was partitioned in 1922.
  5. The Republic of Ireland's 1937 constitution prohibits an established religion. Originally, it recognized the "special position" of the Catholic Church "as the guardian of the Faith professed by the great majority of the citizens", and recognized "the Church of Ireland, the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the Methodist Church in Ireland, the Religious Society of Friends in Ireland, as well as the Jewish Congregations and the other religious denominations existing in Ireland at the date of the coming into operation of this Constitution". These provisions were deleted in 1973.
  6. The Philippines was among several possessions ceded by Spain to the United States in 1898; religious freedom was subsequently guaranteed in the archipelago. This was codified in the Philippine Organic Act (1902), section 5: "... That no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed." A similarly worded provision still exists in the present Constitution. Catholicism remains the predominant religion, wielding considerable political and cultural influence.
  7. Article 25 of the constitution states: "1. Churches and other religious organizations shall have equal rights. 2. Public authorities in the Republic of Poland shall be impartial in matters of personal conviction". Article 114 of the Polish March Constitution of 1921 declared the Catholic Church to hold "the principal position among religious denominations equal before the law" (in reference to the idea of first among equals). The article was continued in force by article 81 of the April Constitution of 1935. The Soviet-backed PKWN Manifesto of 1944 reintroduced the March Constitution, which remained in force until it was replaced by the Small Constitution of 1947.
  8. The Church in Wales was split from the Church of England in 1920, by Welsh Church Act 1914; at the same time becoming disestablished.

Citations

  1. Backhouse, Stephen (7 July 2011). Kierkegaard's Critique of Christian Nationalism. Oxford University Press. p. 60. ISBN 9780199604722. ...it is only as an established institution that the Church can fully preserve and promote Christian tradition to the nation. One cannot have a Christian state without a state Church.
  2. Eberle, Edward J. (28 February 2013). Church and State in Western Society: Established Church, Cooperation and Separation. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 9781409497806. Under the established church approach, the government will assist the state church and likewise the church will assist the government. Religious education is mandated by law to be taught in all schools, public or private.
  3. Milman, Henry Hart; Murdock, James (1887). The History of Christianity. A. C. Armstrong & Son. p. 258. But while Persia fiercely repelled Christianity from its frontier, upon that frontier arose a Christian state. Armenia was the first country which embraced Christianity as the religion of the King, the nobles, and the people.
  4. Ching, Francis D. K.; Jarzombek, Mark M.; Prakash, Vikramaditya (13 December 2010). A Global History of Architecture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 213. ISBN 9780470402573. In the 4th century, King Ezana converted to Christianity and declared Aksum a Christian state—the first Christian state in the history of the world.
  5. Olson, James Stuart; Pappas, Lee Brigance; Pappas, Nicholas Charles (1 January 1994). An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 242. ISBN 9780313274978. Kartli became a Christian state under King Mirian in 337.
  6. Ashby, Warren (4 July 2010). A Comprehensive History Of Western Ethics. Prometheus Books. p. 152. ISBN 9781615926947. In the Edict of Thessalonica (380) he expressed the imperial "desire" that all Roman citizens should become Christians, the emperor adjudging all other madmen and ordering them to be designated as heretics,...condemned as such...to suffer divine punishment, and, therewith, the vengeance of that power, which we, by celestial authority, have assumed. There was thus created the "Christian State."
  7. Frucht, Richard C. (2004). Eastern Europe. ABC-CLIO. p. 627. ISBN 9781576078006. In contrast, the emperor Justinian (527-565) refashioned the eastern part of the Roman Empire into a strong and dynamic Byzantine Empire, which claimed Bosnia-Hercegovina, among other provinces. The Byzantine Empire became the world's predominant Christian state, based on Roman law, Greek culture, and the Greek language.
  8. Yakobson, Alexander; Rubinstein, Amnon (2009). Israel and the Family of Nations: The Jewish Nation-state and Human Rights. Taylor & Francis. p. 215. ISBN 9780415464413. Thus the Constitution of Costa Rica, which is considered a model of stable democracy in Latin America, states in Article 75: The Catholic and Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State, which contributes to its maintenance, without preventing the free exercise in the Republic of other forms of worship that are not opposed to universal morality or good customs.
  9. Shadid, W. A. R. (1 January 1995). Religious Freedom and the Position of Islam in Western Europe. Peeters Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 9789039000656. Denmark has declared the Evangelical Lutheran church to be that national church (par. 4 of the Constitution), which corresponds the fact that 91.5% of the population are registered members of this church. This declaration implies that the Danish State does not take a neutral stand in religious matters. Nevertheless, freedom of religion has been incorporated in the Constitution. Nielsen (1992, 77) gives a short description of the position of the minority religious communities in comparison to that of the State Church: The Lutheran established church is a department of the state. Church affairs are government by a central government ministry, and clergy are government employees. The registration of births, deaths and marriages falls under this ministry of church affairs, and normally speaking the local Lutheran pastor is also the official registrar. The other small religious communities, viz. Roman Catholics, Methodists, Baptists and Jews, have the constitutional status of 'recognised communities of faith'. ... Contrary to the minority religious communities, the Lutheran Church is fully financed by the Danish State.
  10. Joppke, Christian (3 May 2013). Veil. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1. ISBN 9780745658575.
  11. Faroe Islands in figures 2015 Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine Statistics Faroe Island
  12. Constitution of Georgia Archived 2018-06-12 at the Wayback Machine Article 9(1&2) and 73(1a1)
  13. Jiang, Qing (2012). A Confucian Constitutional Order. Princeton University Press. p. 221. ISBN 9780691154602. The features of the state affect the essence of the state, but the key term is that of historical identity, hence this chapter concentrates on historical identity as the essence of the state, though at times some of the other features will also be referred to. For instance, ancient Greece has now become an Orthodox Christian state. Ancient Persia (Iran) has now become a Muslim state, and the ancient Buddhist states of the Silk Route have also become Islamic states.
  14. Hungary's Constitution of 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  15. Melton, J. Gordon (1 January 2005). Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing. p. 283. ISBN 9780816069835.
  16. Fox, Jonathan (19 May 2008). A World Survey of Religion and the State. Cambridge University Press. p. 119. ISBN 9781139472593. Liechtenstein's constitution designates the Catholic Church as the state Church and guarantees religious freedom. Article 38 provides protection for the property rights of all religious institutions and states that "the administration of church property in the parishes shall be regulated by a specific law; the agreement of church authorities shall be sought before the law is enacted." Article 16 states that religious instruction in public schools "shall be given by church authorities."
  17. "Chapter 1 – The Republic of Malta". Legal-Malta. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved4 September 2011.
  18. CONSTITUTION DE LA PRINCIPAUTE at the Wayback Machine (archived September 27, 2011) (French): Art. 9., Principaute De Monaco: Ministère d'Etat (archived from the original on 27 September 2011).
  19. "The Constitution of Norway, Article 16 (English translation, published by the Norwegian Parliament)"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2015-09-08. Retrieved2015-11-29.
  20. Wyeth, Grant (June 16, 2017). "Samoa Officially Becomes a Christian State". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on June 16, 2017. RetrievedJune 16, 2017.
  21. Paul Pavlovich. The History of the Serbian Orthodox Church
  22. Fodor's (12 February 1986). Fodor's South Pacific. Fodor's. ISBN 9780679013075. As King George I of Tonga, Tupou created the "modern" Christian state with the Cross dominating its flag, and with the rigorous constitutional clause regulating observation of the Sabbath.
  23. Temperman, Jeroen (2010). State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 18. ISBN 9789004181489. The Constitution of Tuvalu in a similar vein constitutes Tuvalu as "an independent State based on Christian principles...and Tuvaluan custom and tradition"; and also the Constitution of Vanuatu proclaims in its Preamble: "[we] HEREBY proclaim the establishment of the united and free Republic of Vanuatu founded on traditional Melanesian values, faith in God, and Christian principles..."
  24. Temperman, Jeroen (2010). State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 18. ISBN 9789004181489. The Catholic State of Vatican City is, of course, the best contemporary example of a Christian state. The State of Vatican City, originally established by the Lateran Pacts of 1929, approximates most faithfully the ideal-typical conception of theocratic Roman Catholic state. The Pope is ex officio simultaneously leader of the Catholic Church as well as Head of State and Head of the Government of the State of the Vatican City; he also possesses (de jure) absolute authority over the legislative, executive and judicial branches. Practically all acts and policies of the Vatican City revolve around the interests of the Holy See and, apart from the members of the Pontifical Swiss Guard, virtually all inhabitants of the Vatican City are members of the clergy.
  25. Jenkins, Philip (11 August 2011). The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity. Oxford University Press. p. 187. ISBN 9780199911530.
  26. Boer, Roland (8 June 2012). Criticism of Earth: On Marx, Engels and Theology. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 168. ISBN 9789004225589. Yet what is intriguing about this argument is that this modern secular state arises from, or is the simultaneous realisation and negation of, the Christian state.
  27. Marx, Karl; McLellan, David (2000). Karl Marx: Selected Writings. Oxford University Press. p. 55. ISBN 9780198782650. Indeed, it is not the so-called Christian state, that one that recognizes Christianity as its basis, as the state religion, and thus adopts an exclusive attitude to other religions, that is the perfected Christian state, but rather the atheist state, the ...
  28. Burns, J. Patout (1 April 1996). War and Its Discontents: Pacifism and Quietism in the Abrahamic Traditions. Georgetown University Press. p. 92. ISBN 9781589018778. The religious group is confronted by a pagan state, a Jewish state, a Christian state, an Islamic state, or a secular state.
  29. Sjoberg, Laura (1 January 2006). Gender, Justice, and the Wars in Iraq. Lexington Books. p. 24. ISBN 9780739116104. Just as Christian just war theory justified the actions of the Christian state, Islamic jihad theory began with the founding of the Islamic state.
  30. Ismael, Jacqueline S.; Ismael, Tareq Y.; Perry, Glenn (5 October 2015). Government and Politics of the Contemporary Middle East. Taylor & Francis. p. 48. ISBN 9781317662822. Theodosius did so through the 380 CE 'Edict of Thessalonica,' which established Nicene Christianity as the state church of the Roman Empire, with the Bishop of Rome as Pope.
  31. Spielvogel, Jackson (1 January 2013). Western Civilization. Cengage Learning. p. 155. ISBN 9781285500195. The Byzantine Empire was both a Greek and a Christian state. Increasingly, Latin fell into disuse as Greek became both the common and the official language of the empire. The Byzantine Empire was also built on a faith in Jesus that was shared by almost all of its citizens. An enormous amount of artistic talent was poured into the construction of churches, church ceremonies, and church decoration. Spiritual principles deeply permeated Byzantine art.
  32. Truxillo, Charles A. (1 January 2008). Periods of World History: A Latin American Perspective. Jain Publishing Company. p. 103. ISBN 9780895818638. The Byzantine Empire, stripped of Syria, Egypt, and North Africa, became a compact Orthodox Christian state, upholding its claim to Roman universalism and constructing an Orthodox Christian commonwealth among the Slavs of the Balkans and Russia.
  33. Binns, John (4 July 2002). An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches. Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 9780521667388.
  34. Stanton, Andrea L.; Ramsamy, Edward (5 January 2012). Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 1. ISBN 9781412981767. Then, in the early 4th century, Ezana, Aksum's ruler, converted to Christianity and proclaimed Aksum a Christian state.
  35. Snyder, Louis L. (1990). Encyclopedia of Nationalism. St. James Press. p. 282. ISBN 978-1-55862-101-5. Major religions in the past, especially Christianity, have attempted to include all their adherents in a large union, but they have not been successful. Throughout most of the Middle Ages in Western Europe, attempts were made again and again to unite all the Christian world into a kind of Pan-Christianity, which would combine all Christians in a secular-religious state as a successor to the Roman Empire.
  36. Snyder, Louis Leo (1984). Macro-nationalisms: A History of the Pan-movements. Greenwood Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-313-23191-9. Throughout the better part of the Middle Ages, elaborate attempts were made to create what was, in effect, a Pan-Christianity, an effort to unite "all" the Western Christian world into a successor state of the Roman Empire.
  37. Parole de l'Orient, Volume 30. Université Saint-Esprit. 2005. p. 488.
  38. "Argentina's Constitution of 1853, Reinstated in 1983, with Amendments through 1994"(PDF). constituteproject.org.
  39. "Argentina – Religión". argentina.gob.ar. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014.
  40. Constitution of Argentina, arts. 14, 20.
  41. Fayt 1985, p. 347 sfnm error: no target: CITEREFFayt1985 (help); Bidart Campos 2005, p. 53 sfnm error: no target: CITEREFBidart_Campos2005 (help).
  42. Constitution of Argentina, art. 2.
  43. In practice this privileged status amounts to tax-exempt school subsidies and licensing preferences for radio broadcasting frequencies.
  44. "International Religious Freedom Report 2012 – Argentina". Washington, D. C.: US Department of State. 2012.
  45. Merriman, Scott A. (14 July 2009). Religion and the State: An International Analysis of Roles and Relationships. ABC-CLIO. p. 148. ISBN 9781598841343. The government as a whole treats religion well and allows missionaries to freely enter and move around the country. Only the Catholic holy days are recognized as holidays, but the state generally allows people time to celebrate their holy days if they are of another religion. The public schools provide religious education, but parents can opt their children out if they choose.
  46. Warburg, Margit; Christoffersen, Lisbet; Petersen, Hanne; Hans Raun Iversen (28 June 2013). Religion in the 21st Century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 85. ISBN 9781409480860.
  47. Künker Auktion 121 - The De Wit Collection of Medieval Coins. Numismatischer Verlag Künker. p. 206. Sweyn brought about Denmark's transition from a tribal civilisation to an early Christian state and furthermore modernised the organisation of the Christian church.
  48. The Lutheran Standard, Volume 27. Augsburg Publishing House. 1987. The state church of Denmark is Lutheran and a member of the Lutheran World Federation.
  49. Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (18 October 2011). Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE Publications. p. 292. ISBN 9781452266565. A majority of Danes, 82.1% (as of January 2008), are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark—by Section 4 of the constitution, the state church, officially headed by the queen of Denmark. Pastors in the Church of Denmark are civil servants employed by the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs, which also constitutes the head of administration. The economic base of the Church of Denmark is state-collected church taxes combined with a direct state subsidiary (12%), which symbolically covers the expenses of the Church of Denmark to run the civil registration and the burial system for all citizens.
  50. Yorke, Dr Barbara (1 November 2002). Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 9781134707256. The Carolingian Renaissance heightened appreciation within England of the role of king and church in a Christian state.
  51. Eberle, Professor Edward J (28 February 2013). Church and State in Western Society: Established Church, Cooperation and Separation. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 9781409497806. In the UK, the state church is the Church of England, a Protestant church. Under the established church approach, the government will assist the state church and likewise the church will assist the government. Religious education is mandated by law to be taught in all schools, public or private.
  52. López-Muñiz, José Luis Martínez; Groof, Jan De; Lauwers, Gracienne (17 January 2006). Religious Education in Public Schools: Study of Comparative Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 163. ISBN 9781402038631. The requirement that the collective worship be of a broadly Christian character is satisfied '...if it reflects the broad traditions of Christian belief without being distinctive of any particular Christian denomination.' Furthermore, it is expressly provided that not every act of collective worship be of a broadly Christian character: the requirement is satisfied provided that, taking any school term as a whole, the majority of acts of collective worship are broadly Christian in character.
  53. "State schools 'ignoring assembly' despite legal requirement". The Telegraph. 6 September 2011. Retrieved1 May 2020.
  54. "Caucasus Barometer 2013 Georgia".
  55. "Georgian church more trusted than parliament, president and PM together". 11 May 2018.
  56. Patriarch Ilia II: Most trusted man in Georgia CNN
  57. Politicians' Ratings in NDI-Commissioned Poll Civil.ge
  58. Enyedi, Zsolt; Madeley, John T.S. (2 August 2004). Church and State in Contemporary Europe. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 9781135761417. Greece is the only Orthodox country in the EU.
  59. Meyendorff, John (1981). The Orthodox Church: Its Past and Its Role in the World Today. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 155. ISBN 9780913836811. Greece therefore is today the only country where the Orthodox Church remains a state church and plays a dominant role in the life of the country.
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  61. Kendrick, T. D. (15 March 2012). A History of the Vikings. Courier Corporation. p. 350. ISBN 9780486123424. In becoming a Christian state, then, Iceland had avoided the chaos that was threatened by the secession of the Christian party from Althing and had cemented her friendship with the mother-country of Norway.
  62. Jonathan Fox (2008). A World Survey of Religion and the State (Cambridge Studies in Social Theory, Religion and Politics). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70758-9. All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity. Formally, only the Minister of Education has the power to exempt students from this but individual schools usually grant informal exemptions.
  63. Gozdecka, Dorota Anna (27 August 2015). Rights, Religious Pluralism and the Recognition of Difference: Off the Scales of Justice. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 9781317629801. According to Section 2 of the Maltese Constitution from the year 1964, amended in 1994 and 1996, the state church of Malta is the Roman Catholic Church. According to the same section it is endowed with a legal right to determine moral rights and wrongs and is privileged in public education: 1. The religion of Malta is the Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion. 2. The authorities of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Church have the duty to teach which principles are right and which are wrong. Religious teaching of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Faith shall be provided in all State schools as part of compulsory education.
  64. Durham, W. Cole; Lindholm, Tore Sam; Tahzib-Lie, Bahia (11 December 2013). Facilitating Freedom of Religion or Belief. Springer. pp. 778–. ISBN 9789401756167.
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  77. Bell, Daphne (26 April 2005). New to New Zealand: a guide to ethnic groups in New Zealand. Reed Books. ISBN 9780790009988. Nearly all Tongans are Christian, and about 30 percent belong to the Free Wesleyan Church, the official state church.
  78. Ferrari, Silvio (3 May 2015). Routledge Handbook of Law and Religion. Routledge. p. 217. ISBN 9781135045555. Recent trends have moved in opposite directions: while the parliament of Tuvalu in 1991 approved legislation establishing the (Congregationalist) Church of Tuvalu as the State Church, at the end of 2007 Nepal's provisional parliamentary assembly voted to abolish the monarchy whose kings were popularly held to be reincarnations of the Hindu god Vishnu.
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Sources

Legal documents

Christian state Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from State church Christian country redirects here For the music genre see Christian country music A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church also called an established church 1 which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government 2 Countries with Christianity as their state religion are in blue Historically the nations of Armenia 3 Abyssinia 4 Georgia 5 as well as the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire declared themselves as Christian states 6 7 Today several nations officially identify themselves as Christian states or have state churches These countries include Argentina Armenia Costa Rica 8 Denmark incl Greenland 9 England 10 Ethiopia Faroe Islands 11 Georgia 12 Greece 13 Hungary 14 Iceland 15 Liechtenstein 16 Malta 17 Monaco 18 Norway 19 Samoa 20 Serbia 21 Tonga 22 Tuvalu 23 Vatican City 24 and Zambia 25 A Christian state stands in contrast to a secular state 26 an atheist state 27 or another religious state such as a Jewish state 28 or an Islamic state 29 Contents 1 History 2 Modern era 2 1 Argentina 2 2 Armenia 2 3 Costa Rica 2 4 Denmark 2 5 England 2 6 Faroe Islands 2 7 Georgia 2 8 Greece 2 9 Greenland 2 10 Hungary 2 11 Iceland 2 12 Liechtenstein 2 13 Malta 2 14 Monaco 2 15 Norway 2 16 Samoa 2 17 Serbia 2 18 Tonga 2 19 Tuvalu 2 20 Vatican City 2 21 Zambia 3 Established churches and former state churches 4 National church 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 7 1 Citations 7 2 Sources 8 External linksHistory EditBy 301 AD the Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to declare Christianity as its official religion following the conversion of the Royal House of the Arsacids in Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church is the world s oldest national church Later in AD 380 three Roman emperors issued the Edict of Thessalonica Cunctos populos making the Roman Empire a Christian state 6 and establishing Nicene Christianity in the form of its State Church as its official religion 30 The boundaries of the Byzantine Empire under Justinian the Great After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century the Byzantine Empire under the emperor Justinian reigned 527 565 became the world s predominant Christian state based on Roman law Greek culture and the Greek language 7 31 32 In this Christian state in which nearly all of its subjects upheld faith in Jesus an enormous amount of artistic talent was poured into the construction of churches church ceremonies and church decoration 31 John Binns describes this era writing that 33 A new stage in the history of the Church began when not just localised communities but nations became Christian The stage is associated with the conversion of Constantine and the beginnings of a Christian Empire but the Byzantine Emperor was not the first ruler to lead his people into Christianity thus setting up the first Christian state That honour traditionally goes to the church of Armenia 33 As a Christian state Armenia embraced Christianity as the religion of the King the nobles and the people 3 In AD 326 according to official tradition of the Georgian Orthodox Church following the conversion of Mirian and Nana the country of Georgia became a Christian state the Emperor Constantine the Great sending clerics for baptising people In the 4th century AD in the Kingdom of Aksum after Ezana s conversion to the faith this empire also became a Christian state 4 34 In the Middle Ages efforts were made in order to establish a Pan Christianity state by uniting the countries within Christendom 35 36 Christian nationalism played a role in this era in which Christians felt the impulse to also recover those territories in which Christianity historically flourished such as the Holy Land and North Africa 37 Modern era EditArgentina Edit Article 2 of the Constitution of Argentina explicitly states that the Federal Government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic Faith and Article 14 guarantees freedom of religion 38 39 40 Although it enforces neither an official nor a state faith 41 it gives Catholic Christianity a preferential status 42 43 44 Before its 1994 amendment the Constitution stated that the President of the Republic must be a Roman Catholic Armenia Edit In Armenia Christianity is the state religion and the Armenian Apostolic Church is the national church Armenia is the earliest Christian state Costa Rica Edit The constitution of Costa Rica states that The Catholic and Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State 8 As such Catholic Christian holy days are recognized by the government and public schools provide religious education although parents are able to opt out their children if they choose to do so 45 Denmark Edit A Church of Denmark parish church in Holte with the Dannebrog flying in its kirkyard As early as the 11th century AD Denmark was considered to be a Christian state 46 47 with the Church of Denmark a member of the Lutheran World Federation being the state church 48 Prof Wasif Shadid of Leiden University writes that The Lutheran established church is a department of the state Church affairs are governed by a central government ministry while clergy are government employees The registration of births deaths and marriages falls under this ministry of church affairs and normally speaking the local Lutheran pastor is also the official registrar 9 82 1 of the population of Denmark are members of the Lutheran Church of Denmark which is officially headed by the queen of Denmark 49 Furthermore clergy in the Church of Denmark are civil servants employed by the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs and the economic base of the Church of Denmark is state collected church taxes combined with a direct state subsidiary 12 which symbolically covers the expenses of the Church of Denmark to run the civil registration and the burial system for all citizens 49 England Edit Canterbury Cathedral houses the cathedra of the Archbishop of Canterbury the primus inter pares of the worldwide Anglican Communion Barbara Yorke writes that the Carolingian Renaissance heightened appreciation within England of the role of king and church in a Christian state 50 As such Since the 1701 Act of Establishment England s official state church has been the Church of England the monarch being its supreme governor and defender of the faith She together with Parliament has a say in appointing bishops twenty six of whom have ex officio seats in the House of Lords In characteristically British fashion where the state is representative of civil society it was Parliament that determined in the Act of Establishment that the monarch had to be Anglican 10 Christian religious education is taught to children in primary and secondary schools in the United Kingdom 51 English schools have a legal requirement for a daily act of collective worship of a broadly Christian character 52 that is widely flouted 53 Faroe Islands Edit The Church of the Faroe Islands is the state church of Faroe Islands 11 Georgia Edit Georgia is one of the oldest Christian states Article 8 of Georgian Constitution and the Concordat of 2002 grants the Georgian Orthodox Church special privileges which include legal immunity to the Patriarch of Georgia The Orthodox Church is the most trusted institution in the country 54 55 and its head Patriarch Ilia II the most trusted person 56 57 Greece Edit Greece is a Christian state 13 58 with the Greek Orthodox Church playing a dominant role in the life of the country 59 Greenland Edit Being an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark the Church of Denmark is the established church of Greenland through the Constitution of Denmark The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark and as such it shall be supported by the State Section IV of Constitution of Denmark 60 This applies to all of the Kingdom of Denmark except for the Faroe Islands as the Church of the Faroe Islands became independent in 2007 Hungary Edit The preamble to the Hungarian Constitution of 2011 describes Hungary as part of Christian Europe and acknowledges the role of Christianity in preserving nationhood while Article VII provides that the State shall cooperate with the Churches for community goals However the constitution also guarantees freedom of religion and separation of church and state 14 Iceland Edit Reykjavik Cathedral mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland Around AD 1000 Iceland became a Christian state 61 The Encyclopedia of Protestantism states that The majority of Icelanders are members of the state church Almost all children are baptized as Lutheran and more than 90 percent are subsequently confirmed The church conducts 75 percent of all marriages and 99 percent of all funerals The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Iceland is a member of the Lutheran World Federation and the World Council of Churches 15 All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity although an exemption may be considered by the Minister of Education 62 Liechtenstein Edit Liechtenstein s constitution designates the Catholic Church as being the state Church of that country 16 In public schools per article 16 of the Constitution of Liechtenstein religious education is given by Church authorities 16 Malta Edit The Civil Ensign of Malta Section Two of the Constitution of Malta specifies the state s religion as being the Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion 63 17 It holds that the authorities of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Church have the duty to teach which principles are right and which are wrong and that religious teaching of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Faith shall be provided in all State schools as part of compulsory education 63 Monaco Edit Article 9 of the Constitution of Monaco describes La religion catholique apostolique et romaine the catholic apostolic and Roman religion as the religion of the state 18 Norway Edit The Bible in the Norwegian language Cole Durham and Tore Sam Lindholm writing in 2013 stated that For a period of one thousand years Norway has been a kingdom with a Christian state church and that a decree went out in 1739 ordering that Elementary schooling for all Norwegian children became mandatory so that all Norwegians should be able to read the Bible and the Lutheran Catechism firsthand 64 The modern Constitution of Norway stipulates that The Church of Norway an Evangelical Lutheran church will remain the Established Church of Norway and will as such be supported by the State 65 As such the Norwegian constitution decrees that Lutheranism is the official religion of the State and that the King is the supreme temporal head of the Church 66 67 The administration of the Church is shared between the Ministry for Church Education and Research centrally and municipal authorities locally 66 and the Church of Norway depends on state and local taxes 68 The Church of Norway is responsible for the maintenance of church buildings and cemeteries 69 John T Flint writes that Over 90 percent of the population are married by state church clergymen have their children baptized and confirmed and finally are buried with a church service 70 Samoa Edit Samoa became a Christian state in 2017 Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution states that Samoa is a Christian nation founded of God the Father the Son and the Holy Spirit 20 Serbia Edit Main articles Religion in Serbia Eastern Orthodoxy in Serbia and Serbian Orthodox Church Serbia as a territory became a Christian state during the time of Constantine the Great in Christianization of Eastern Roman Empire according to the research and discoveries of artifacts left by the Illyrians Triballi and other kindred tribes More research has since been made that perhaps prove the existence of Serbs living in the Balkans during Roman times in Ilyria In the centuries that followed from the fourth to the 12th century when Catholic Church was in a battleground between Serbia due the Eastern Orthodox Church Serbia prevailed as Orthodox Christian state under his jurisdiction through Saint Sava 71 Serbia as modern state defines in his constitution as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom 72 However orthodox Christians with 6 079 396 comprise 84 5 of country s population The Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest and traditional church of the country adherents of which are overwhelmingly Serbs And the church directly or indirectly has both cultural influence on the decisions and positions of the state 73 74 75 Tonga Edit Tonga became a Christian state under George Tupou I in the 19th century 22 76 with the Free Wesleyan Church a member of the World Methodist Council being established as the country s state Church 77 Under the rule of George Tupou I there was established a rigorous constitutional clause regulating observation of the Sabbath 22 Tuvalu Edit The Church of Tuvalu a Calvinist church in the Congregationalist tradition is the state church of Tuvalu and was established as such in 1991 78 The Constitution of Tuvalu identifies Tuvalu as an independent State based on Christian principles 23 Vatican City Edit St Peter s Square Vatican City Vatican City is a Christian state in which the Pope is ex officio simultaneously leader of the Catholic Church as well as Head of State and Head of the Government of the State of the Vatican City he also possesses de jure absolute authority over the legislative executive and judicial branches 24 Zambia Edit Jeroen Temperman a professor of international law at Erasmus University Rotterdam writes that Zambia is officially a Christian state as well though the legal ramifications clearly do not compare to the latter state The Preamble of the Constitution of Zambia establishes Zambia as a Christian state without specifying Christian denominationally It simply proclaims We the people of Zambia declare the Republic a Christian nation As far as state practice is concerned it may be pointed out that the Government maintains relations with the Zambian Council of Churches and requires Christianity to be taught in the public school curriculum 79 After Zambia declared itself a Christian nation in 1991 the nation s vice president urged citizens to have a Christian orientation in all fields at all levels 25 Established churches and former state churches EditLocation Church Denomination DisestablishedAnhalt Evangelical State Church of Anhalt united Protestant 1918 during the German RevolutionArmenia Armenian Apostolic Church Oriental Orthodox 1921Austria Catholic Church Catholic 1918 under the Federal Constitutional LawBaden Catholic Church Catholic 1918 during the German RevolutionUnited Evangelical Protestant State Church of Baden united Protestant 1918 during the German RevolutionBavaria Catholic Church Catholic 1918 during the German RevolutionProtestant State Church in the Kingdom of Bavaria right of the Rhine Lutheran and Reformed 1918 during the German RevolutionUnited Protestant Evangelical Christian Church of the Palatinate united Protestant 1918 during the German RevolutionBolivia Catholic Church Catholic 2009 under the Constitution of BoliviaBrazil note 1 Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1890Brunswick Evangelical Lutheran State Church in Brunswick Lutheran 1918 during the German RevolutionBulgaria Bulgarian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1946Chile Catholic Church Catholic 1925Colombia Catholic Church Catholic 1936 80 Connecticut Colony Congregational Church Reformed 1818 under the Constitution of ConnecticutCuba Catholic Church Catholic 1902Cyprus Cypriot Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1977 with the death of the Ethnarch Makarios IIICzechoslovakia Catholic Church Catholic 1920 under the Czechoslovak ConstitutionDenmark Church of Denmark Lutheran CurrentEast Florida Church of England Anglican 1783England Church of England Anglican CurrentEthiopia Ethiopian Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodox 1974 after the formation of the DergFaroe Islands Church of the Faroe Islands Lutheran Current elevated from a diocese of the Church of Denmark in 2007 the two remain in close cooperation Finland Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland Lutheran 1869 however the organisation of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is regulated by the Constitution of Finland 81 and Church Act of 1993 82 The state also carries out taxing for the funding of the church on its members 82 Finnish Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1917France note 2 Catholic Church Catholic 1905 under the law on the Separation of the Churches and the StateGeorgia Georgian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1921Greece Greek Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 83 The Church of Greece is recognized by the Greek Constitution as the prevailing religion in Greece 83 However this provision does not give official status to the Church of Greece while all other religions are recognized as equal and may be practiced freely 84 Greenland Church of Denmark Lutheran Current under discussion to be elevated from The Diocese of Greenland in the Church of Denmark to a state church for Greenland along the lines the Faroese Church took in 2007Guatemala Catholic Church Catholic 1871Haiti Catholic Church Catholic 1987Hawaii Church of Hawaii Anglican 1893 after the overthrow of the Hawaiian KingdomHesse Evangelical Church in Hesse united Protestant 1918 during the German RevolutionHungary note 3 Roman Catholic Church Catholic 1946Iceland Lutheran Evangelical Church Lutheran CurrentKingdom of Ireland note 4 Church of Ireland Anglican 1871Republic of Ireland note 5 Catholic Church Catholic 1973 91 Italy Catholic Church Catholic 1949Liechtenstein Catholic Church 92 Catholic CurrentLippe Church of Lippe Reformed 1918Lithuania Catholic Church Catholic 1940Lubeck Evangelical Lutheran Church in the State of Lubeck Lutheran 1918Luxembourg Catholic Church Catholic CurrentNorth Macedonia Macedonian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1921Malta Catholic Church Catholic CurrentMecklenburg Schwerin Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Mecklenburg Schwerin Lutheran 1918Mecklenburg Strelitz Mecklenburg Strelitz State Church Lutheran 1918Mexico Catholic Church Catholic 1857 under the Federal Constitution reestablished between 1864 and 1867 Monaco Catholic Church Catholic CurrentNetherlands Dutch Reformed Church Reformed 1795New Brunswick Church of England Anglican 1850Norway Church of Norway Lutheran 2017 93 94 Nova Scotia Church of England Anglican 1850Oldenburg Evangelical Lutheran Church of Oldenburg Lutheran 1918Panama Catholic Church Catholic 1904Paraguay Catholic Church Catholic 1992 95 Philippines note 6 Catholic Church Catholic 1898Poland note 7 Catholic Church Catholic 1947Portugal Catholic Church Catholic 1910 1976 reestablished between 1933 and 1974 Prince Edward Island Church of England Anglican 1850Province of Georgia British America Church of England Anglican 1789Province of Maryland Church of England Anglican 1776Province of Massachusetts Bay Congregational Church Reformed 1834Province of New Hampshire Church of England Anglican 1877Province of North Carolina Church of England Anglican 1776Province of South Carolina Church of England Anglican 1790Prussia pre 1866 provinces Evangelical State Church of Prussia s older Provinces with nine ecclesiastical provinces united Protestant 1918Prussia Province of Hanover Evangelical Reformed State Church of the Province of Hanover Reformed 1918Prussia Province of Hanover Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover Lutheran 1918Prussia Province of Hesse Nassau partially Evangelical State Church of Frankfurt upon Main united Protestant 1918Prussia Province of Hesse Nassau partially Evangelical Church of Electoral Hesse united Protestant 1918Prussia Province of Hesse Nassau partially Evangelical State Church in Nassau united Protestant 1918Prussia Province of Schleswig Holstein Evangelical Lutheran Church of Schleswig Holstein Lutheran 1918Quebec Catholic Church Catholic 1960 after the Quiet RevolutionRomania Romanian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1947Russia Russian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1917 after the Russian RevolutionThuringia church bodies in principalities which merged in Thuringia in 1920 Lutheran 1918Saxony Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Saxony Lutheran 1918Schaumburg Lippe Evangelical State Church of Schaumburg Lippe Lutheran 1918Scotland 96 Church of Scotland Presbyterian State control disclaimed since 1638 Formally recognised as not an established church in 1921Serbia Serbian Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox 1946Spain Catholic Church Catholic 1978Sweden Church of Sweden Lutheran 2000Switzerland separate Cantonal Churches Landeskirchen Zwinglianism amp Calvinism or Catholic during the 20th centuryTuvalu Church of Tuvalu Reformed CurrentUnited Province of Canada Church of England Anglican 1854Uruguay Catholic Church Catholic 1918 into effect in 1919 Virginia Church of England Anglican 1786Waldeck Evangelical State Church of Waldeck and Pyrmont united Protestant 1918Wales note 8 Church of England Anglican 1920West Florida Church of England Anglican 1783Wurttemberg Evangelical State Church in Wurttemberg Lutheran 1918National church EditMain article National church A number of countries have a national church which is not Established as the official religion of the nation but is nonetheless recognised under civil law as being the country s acknowledged religious denomination Whilst these are not Christian states the official Christian national church is likely to have certain residual state functions in relation to state occasions and ceremonial Examples include Scotland Church of Scotland and Sweden Church of Sweden A national church typically has a monopoly on official state recognition although unusually Finland has two national churches the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and the Finnish Orthodox Church both recognised under civil law as joint official churches of the nation See also Edit Christianity portal Catholicism portal Calvinism portal Methodism portal Antidisestablishmentarianism Christian nationalism Christian Reconstructionism Civil religion History of Christian flags Pan Christianity Render unto Caesar Res publica Christiana Separation of church and state Theonomy Islamic stateNotes Edit Brazilian Laws the Federal Constitution The Organization of State V brazil com Retrieved 5 May 2012 Brazil had Roman Catholicism as the state religion from the country s independence in 1822 until the fall of the Brazilian Empire The new Republican government passed in 1890 Decree 119 A Decreto 119 A Prohibits federal and state authorities to intervene on religion granting freedom of religion still in force instituting the separation of church and state for the first time in Brazilian law Positivist thinker Demetrio Nunes Ribeiro urged the new government to adopt this stance The 1891 Constitution the first under the Republican system of government abolished privileges for any specific religion reaffirming the separation of church and state This has been the case ever since the 1988 Constitution of Brazil currently in force does so in its Nineteenth Article The Preamble to the Constitution does refer to God s protection over the document s promulgation but this is not legally taken as endorsement of belief in any deity In France the Concordat of 1801 made the Catholic Calvinist and Lutheran churches state sponsored religions as well as Judaism In Hungary the constitutional laws of 1848 declared five established churches on equal status the Catholic Calvinist Lutheran Eastern Orthodox and Unitarian Church In 1868 the law was ratified again after the Ausgleich In 1895 Judaism was also recognized as the sixth established church In 1948 every distinction between the different denominations were abolished 85 86 In the Kingdom of Ireland the Church of Ireland was established in the Reformation 87 The Act of Union 1800 created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with the United Church of England and Ireland established outside Scotland The Irish Church Act 1869 demerged and disestablished the Church of Ireland 87 and the island was partitioned in 1922 The Republic of Ireland s 1937 constitution prohibits an established religion 88 Originally it recognized the special position of the Catholic Church as the guardian of the Faith professed by the great majority of the citizens and recognized the Church of Ireland the Presbyterian Church in Ireland the Methodist Church in Ireland the Religious Society of Friends in Ireland as well as the Jewish Congregations and the other religious denominations existing in Ireland at the date of the coming into operation of this Constitution 89 These provisions were deleted in 1973 90 The Philippines was among several possessions ceded by Spain to the United States in 1898 religious freedom was subsequently guaranteed in the archipelago This was codified in the Philippine Organic Act 1902 section 5 That no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof and that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship without discrimination or preference shall forever be allowed A similarly worded provision still exists in the present Constitution Catholicism remains the predominant religion wielding considerable political and cultural influence Article 25 of the constitution states 1 Churches and other religious organizations shall have equal rights 2 Public authorities in the Republic of Poland shall be impartial in matters of personal conviction Article 114 of the Polish March Constitution of 1921 declared the Catholic Church to hold the principal position among religious denominations equal before the law in reference to the idea of first among equals The article was continued in force by article 81 of the April Constitution of 1935 The Soviet backed PKWN Manifesto of 1944 reintroduced the March Constitution which remained in force until it was replaced by the Small Constitution of 1947 The Church in Wales was split from the Church of England in 1920 by Welsh Church Act 1914 at the same time becoming disestablished References EditCitations Edit Backhouse Stephen 7 July 2011 Kierkegaard s Critique of Christian Nationalism Oxford University Press p 60 ISBN 9780199604722 it is only as an established institution that the Church can fully preserve and promote Christian tradition to the nation One cannot have a Christian state without a state Church Eberle Edward J 28 February 2013 Church and State in Western Society Established Church Cooperation and Separation Ashgate Publishing Ltd p 6 ISBN 9781409497806 Under the established church approach the government will assist the state church and likewise the church will assist the government Religious education is mandated by law to be taught in all schools public or private a b Milman Henry Hart Murdock James 1887 The History of Christianity A C Armstrong amp Son p 258 But while Persia fiercely repelled Christianity from its frontier upon that frontier arose a Christian state Armenia was the first country which embraced Christianity as the religion of the King the nobles and the people a b Ching Francis D K Jarzombek Mark M Prakash Vikramaditya 13 December 2010 A Global History of Architecture John Wiley amp Sons p 213 ISBN 9780470402573 In the 4th century King Ezana converted to Christianity and declared Aksum a Christian state the first Christian state in the history of the world Olson James Stuart Pappas Lee Brigance Pappas Nicholas Charles 1 January 1994 An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires Greenwood Publishing Group p 242 ISBN 9780313274978 Kartli became a Christian state under King Mirian in 337 a b Ashby Warren 4 July 2010 A Comprehensive History Of Western Ethics Prometheus Books p 152 ISBN 9781615926947 In the Edict of Thessalonica 380 he expressed the imperial desire that all Roman citizens should become Christians the emperor adjudging all other madmen and ordering them to be designated as heretics condemned as such to suffer divine punishment and therewith the vengeance of that power which we by celestial authority have assumed There was thus created the Christian State a b Frucht Richard C 2004 Eastern Europe ABC CLIO p 627 ISBN 9781576078006 In contrast the emperor Justinian 527 565 refashioned the eastern part of the Roman Empire into a strong and dynamic Byzantine Empire which claimed Bosnia Hercegovina among other provinces The Byzantine Empire became the world s predominant Christian state based on Roman law Greek culture and the Greek language a b Yakobson Alexander Rubinstein Amnon 2009 Israel and the Family of Nations The Jewish Nation state and Human Rights Taylor amp Francis p 215 ISBN 9780415464413 Thus the Constitution of Costa Rica which is considered a model of stable democracy in Latin America states in Article 75 The Catholic and Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State which contributes to its maintenance without preventing the free exercise in the Republic of other forms of worship that are not opposed to universal morality or good customs a b Shadid W A R 1 January 1995 Religious Freedom and the Position of Islam in Western Europe Peeters Publishers p 11 ISBN 9789039000656 Denmark has declared the Evangelical Lutheran church to be that national church par 4 of the Constitution which corresponds the fact that 91 5 of the population are registered members of this church This declaration implies that the Danish State does not take a neutral stand in religious matters Nevertheless freedom of religion has been incorporated in the Constitution Nielsen 1992 77 gives a short description of the position of the minority religious communities in comparison to that of the State Church The Lutheran established church is a department of the state Church affairs are government by a central government ministry and clergy are government employees The registration of births deaths and marriages falls under this ministry of church affairs and normally speaking the local Lutheran pastor is also the official registrar The other small religious communities viz Roman Catholics Methodists Baptists and Jews have the constitutional status of recognised communities of faith Contrary to the minority religious communities the Lutheran Church is fully financed by the Danish State a b Joppke Christian 3 May 2013 Veil John Wiley amp Sons p 1 ISBN 9780745658575 a b Faroe Islands in figures 2015 Archived 2016 03 04 at the Wayback Machine Statistics Faroe Island Constitution of Georgia Archived 2018 06 12 at the Wayback Machine Article 9 1 amp 2 and 73 1a1 a b Jiang Qing 2012 A Confucian Constitutional Order Princeton University Press p 221 ISBN 9780691154602 The features of the state affect the essence of the state but the key term is that of historical identity hence this chapter concentrates on historical identity as the essence of the state though at times some of the other features will also be referred to For instance ancient Greece has now become an Orthodox Christian state Ancient Persia Iran has now become a Muslim state and the ancient Buddhist states of the Silk Route have also become Islamic states a b Hungary s Constitution of 2011 Retrieved 9 February 2016 a b Melton J Gordon 1 January 2005 Encyclopedia of Protestantism Infobase Publishing p 283 ISBN 9780816069835 a b c Fox Jonathan 19 May 2008 A World Survey of Religion and the State Cambridge University Press p 119 ISBN 9781139472593 Liechtenstein s constitution designates the Catholic Church as the state Church and guarantees religious freedom Article 38 provides protection for the property rights of all religious institutions and states that the administration of church property in the parishes shall be regulated by a specific law the agreement of church authorities shall be sought before the law is enacted Article 16 states that religious instruction in public schools shall be given by church authorities a b Chapter 1 The Republic of Malta Legal Malta Archived from the original on 27 August 2011 Retrieved 4 September 2011 a b CONSTITUTION DE LA PRINCIPAUTE at the Wayback Machine archived September 27 2011 French Art 9 Principaute De Monaco Ministere d Etat archived from the original on 27 September 2011 The Constitution of Norway Article 16 English translation published by the Norwegian Parliament PDF Archived from the original PDF on 2015 09 08 Retrieved 2015 11 29 a b Wyeth Grant June 16 2017 Samoa Officially Becomes a Christian State The Diplomat Archived from the original on June 16 2017 Retrieved June 16 2017 Paul Pavlovich The History of the Serbian Orthodox Church a b c Fodor s 12 February 1986 Fodor s South Pacific Fodor s ISBN 9780679013075 As King George I of Tonga Tupou created the modern Christian state with the Cross dominating its flag and with the rigorous constitutional clause regulating observation of the Sabbath a b Temperman Jeroen 2010 State Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law Brill Academic Publishers p 18 ISBN 9789004181489 The Constitution of Tuvalu in a similar vein constitutes Tuvalu as an independent State based on Christian principles and Tuvaluan custom and tradition and also the Constitution of Vanuatu proclaims in its Preamble we HEREBY proclaim the establishment of the united and free Republic of Vanuatu founded on traditional Melanesian values faith in God and Christian principles a b Temperman Jeroen 2010 State Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law Brill Academic Publishers p 18 ISBN 9789004181489 The Catholic State of Vatican City is of course the best contemporary example of a Christian state The State of Vatican City originally established by the Lateran Pacts of 1929 approximates most faithfully the ideal typical conception of theocratic Roman Catholic state The Pope is ex officio simultaneously leader of the Catholic Church as well as Head of State and Head of the Government of the State of the Vatican City he also possesses de jure absolute authority over the legislative executive and judicial branches Practically all acts and policies of the Vatican City revolve around the interests of the Holy See and apart from the members of the Pontifical Swiss Guard virtually all inhabitants of the Vatican City are members of the clergy a b Jenkins Philip 11 August 2011 The Next Christendom The Coming of Global Christianity Oxford University Press p 187 ISBN 9780199911530 Boer Roland 8 June 2012 Criticism of Earth On Marx Engels and Theology Brill Academic Publishers p 168 ISBN 9789004225589 Yet what is intriguing about this argument is that this modern secular state arises from or is the simultaneous realisation and negation of the Christian state Marx Karl McLellan David 2000 Karl Marx Selected Writings Oxford University Press p 55 ISBN 9780198782650 Indeed it is not the so called Christian state that one that recognizes Christianity as its basis as the state religion and thus adopts an exclusive attitude to other religions that is the perfected Christian state but rather the atheist state the Burns J Patout 1 April 1996 War and Its Discontents Pacifism and Quietism in the Abrahamic Traditions Georgetown University Press p 92 ISBN 9781589018778 The religious group is confronted by a pagan state a Jewish state a Christian state an Islamic state or a secular state Sjoberg Laura 1 January 2006 Gender Justice and the Wars in Iraq Lexington Books p 24 ISBN 9780739116104 Just as Christian just war theory justified the actions of the Christian state Islamic jihad theory began with the founding of the Islamic state Ismael Jacqueline S Ismael Tareq Y Perry Glenn 5 October 2015 Government and Politics of the Contemporary Middle East Taylor amp Francis p 48 ISBN 9781317662822 Theodosius did so through the 380 CE Edict of Thessalonica which established Nicene Christianity as the state church of the Roman Empire with the Bishop of Rome as Pope a b Spielvogel Jackson 1 January 2013 Western Civilization Cengage Learning p 155 ISBN 9781285500195 The Byzantine Empire was both a Greek and a Christian state Increasingly Latin fell into disuse as Greek became both the common and the official language of the empire The Byzantine Empire was also built on a faith in Jesus that was shared by almost all of its citizens An enormous amount of artistic talent was poured into the construction of churches church ceremonies and church decoration Spiritual principles deeply permeated Byzantine art Truxillo Charles A 1 January 2008 Periods of World History A Latin American Perspective Jain Publishing Company p 103 ISBN 9780895818638 The Byzantine Empire stripped of Syria Egypt and North Africa became a compact Orthodox Christian state upholding its claim to Roman universalism and constructing an Orthodox Christian commonwealth among the Slavs of the Balkans and Russia a b Binns John 4 July 2002 An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches Cambridge University Press p 145 ISBN 9780521667388 Stanton Andrea L Ramsamy Edward 5 January 2012 Cultural Sociology of the Middle East Asia and Africa An Encyclopedia SAGE Publications p 1 ISBN 9781412981767 Then in the early 4th century Ezana Aksum s ruler converted to Christianity and proclaimed Aksum a Christian state Snyder Louis L 1990 Encyclopedia of Nationalism St James Press p 282 ISBN 978 1 55862 101 5 Major religions in the past especially Christianity have attempted to include all their adherents in a large union but they have not been successful Throughout most of the Middle Ages in Western Europe attempts were made again and again to unite all the Christian world into a kind of Pan Christianity which would combine all Christians in a secular religious state as a successor to the Roman Empire Snyder Louis Leo 1984 Macro nationalisms A History of the Pan movements Greenwood Press p 129 ISBN 978 0 313 23191 9 Throughout the better part of the Middle Ages elaborate attempts were made to create what was in effect a Pan Christianity an effort to unite all the Western Christian world into a successor state of the Roman Empire Parole de l Orient Volume 30 Universite Saint Esprit 2005 p 488 Argentina s Constitution of 1853 Reinstated in 1983 with Amendments through 1994 PDF constituteproject org Argentina Religion argentina gob ar Archived from the original on 8 October 2014 Constitution of Argentina arts 14 20 Fayt 1985 p 347sfnm error no target CITEREFFayt1985 help Bidart Campos 2005 p 53sfnm error no target CITEREFBidart Campos2005 help Constitution of Argentina art 2 In practice this privileged status amounts to tax exempt school subsidies and licensing preferences for radio broadcasting frequencies International Religious Freedom Report 2012 Argentina Washington D C US Department of State 2012 Merriman Scott A 14 July 2009 Religion and the State An International Analysis of Roles and Relationships ABC CLIO p 148 ISBN 9781598841343 The government as a whole treats religion well and allows missionaries to freely enter and move around the country Only the Catholic holy days are recognized as holidays but the state generally allows people time to celebrate their holy days if they are of another religion The public schools provide religious education but parents can opt their children out if they choose Warburg Margit Christoffersen Lisbet Petersen Hanne Hans Raun Iversen 28 June 2013 Religion in the 21st Century Ashgate Publishing Ltd p 85 ISBN 9781409480860 Kunker Auktion 121 The De Wit Collection of Medieval Coins Numismatischer Verlag Kunker p 206 Sweyn brought about Denmark s transition from a tribal civilisation to an early Christian state and furthermore modernised the organisation of the Christian church The Lutheran Standard Volume 27 Augsburg Publishing House 1987 The state church of Denmark is Lutheran and a member of the Lutheran World Federation a b Juergensmeyer Mark Roof Wade Clark 18 October 2011 Encyclopedia of Global Religion SAGE Publications p 292 ISBN 9781452266565 A majority of Danes 82 1 as of January 2008 are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark by Section 4 of the constitution the state church officially headed by the queen of Denmark Pastors in the Church of Denmark are civil servants employed by the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs which also constitutes the head of administration The economic base of the Church of Denmark is state collected church taxes combined with a direct state subsidiary 12 which symbolically covers the expenses of the Church of Denmark to run the civil registration and the burial system for all citizens Yorke Dr Barbara 1 November 2002 Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo Saxon England Routledge p 176 ISBN 9781134707256 The Carolingian Renaissance heightened appreciation within England of the role of king and church in a Christian state Eberle Professor Edward J 28 February 2013 Church and State in Western Society Established Church Cooperation and Separation Ashgate Publishing Ltd p 6 ISBN 9781409497806 In the UK the state church is the Church of England a Protestant church Under the established church approach the government will assist the state church and likewise the church will assist the government Religious education is mandated by law to be taught in all schools public or private Lopez Muniz Jose Luis Martinez Groof Jan De Lauwers Gracienne 17 January 2006 Religious Education in Public Schools Study of Comparative Law Springer Science amp Business Media p 163 ISBN 9781402038631 The requirement that the collective worship be of a broadly Christian character is satisfied if it reflects the broad traditions of Christian belief without being distinctive of any particular Christian denomination Furthermore it is expressly provided that not every act of collective worship be of a broadly Christian character the requirement is satisfied provided that taking any school term as a whole the majority of acts of collective worship are broadly Christian in character State schools ignoring assembly despite legal requirement The Telegraph 6 September 2011 Retrieved 1 May 2020 Caucasus Barometer 2013 Georgia Georgian church more trusted than parliament president and PM together 11 May 2018 Patriarch Ilia II Most trusted man in Georgia CNN Politicians Ratings in NDI Commissioned Poll Civil ge Enyedi Zsolt Madeley John T S 2 August 2004 Church and State in Contemporary Europe Routledge p 119 ISBN 9781135761417 Greece is the only Orthodox country in the EU Meyendorff John 1981 The Orthodox Church Its Past and Its Role in the World Today St Vladimir s Seminary Press p 155 ISBN 9780913836811 Greece therefore is today the only country where the Orthodox Church remains a state church and plays a dominant role in the life of the country Constitution of Denmark PDF Kendrick T D 15 March 2012 A History of the Vikings Courier Corporation p 350 ISBN 9780486123424 In becoming a Christian state then Iceland had avoided the chaos that was threatened by the secession of the Christian party from Althing and had cemented her friendship with the mother country of Norway Jonathan Fox 2008 A World Survey of Religion and the State Cambridge Studies in Social Theory Religion and Politics Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 70758 9 All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity Formally only the Minister of Education has the power to exempt students from this but individual schools usually grant informal exemptions a b Gozdecka Dorota Anna 27 August 2015 Rights Religious Pluralism and the Recognition of Difference Off the Scales of Justice Routledge p 59 ISBN 9781317629801 According to Section 2 of the Maltese Constitution from the year 1964 amended in 1994 and 1996 the state church of Malta is the Roman Catholic Church According to the same section it is endowed with a legal right to determine moral rights and wrongs and is privileged in public education 1 The religion of Malta is the Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion 2 The authorities of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Church have the duty to teach which principles are right and which are wrong Religious teaching of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Faith shall be provided in all State schools as part of compulsory education Durham W Cole Lindholm Tore Sam Tahzib Lie Bahia 11 December 2013 Facilitating Freedom of Religion or Belief Springer pp 778 ISBN 9789401756167 The Constitution of Norway Article 16 English translation published by the Norwegian Parliament Archived September 8 2015 at the Wayback Machine a b Eriksen Tore Linne Afrikainstitutet Nordiska 2000 Norway and National Liberation in Southern Africa Nordic Africa Institute p 271 ISBN 9789171064479 Singh Vikram 1 January 2008 Norway The Champion of World Peace Northern Book Centre p 81 ISBN 9788172112455 Fahlbusch Erwin 2003 The Encyclopedia of Christianity Wm B Eerdmans Publishing p 796 ISBN 9780802824158 Country Profile Norway The Unit 1994 p 9 Flint John T 1957 State church and laity in Norwegian society a typological study of institutional change University of Wisconsin Madison p 10 PART III SERVIA Article 11 Constitution of Serbia Parlament of Serbia PDF Cultural Atlas Serbian Culture and Religion The Serbian Church is Privileged in Society Today Balkan Insight Georgetown University Berkley Center Religion as a Political Vehicle An Examination of the Influence of Orthodoxy in Serbia by Russia Oliver Douglas L 1 January 1989 The Pacific Islands University of Hawaii Press p 118 ISBN 9780824812331 Tonga according to its mission friends exemplified how grace and selfless devotion to the task could transform a feuding array of heathen communities into a unified Christian state Bell Daphne 26 April 2005 New to New Zealand a guide to ethnic groups in New Zealand Reed Books ISBN 9780790009988 Nearly all Tongans are Christian and about 30 percent belong to the Free Wesleyan Church the official state church Ferrari Silvio 3 May 2015 Routledge Handbook of Law and Religion Routledge p 217 ISBN 9781135045555 Recent trends have moved in opposite directions while the parliament of Tuvalu in 1991 approved legislation establishing the Congregationalist Church of Tuvalu as the State Church at the end of 2007 Nepal s provisional parliamentary assembly voted to abolish the monarchy whose kings were popularly held to be reincarnations of the Hindu god Vishnu Temperman Jeroen 2010 State Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law Brill Academic Publishers p 18 ISBN 9789004181489 John Gunter Inside Latin America 1941 p 166 The Constitution of Finland PDF Ministry of Justice Finland Archived PDF from the original on 27 August 2019 Retrieved 11 January 2020 a b Kirkkolaki 1054 1993 in Finnish Ministry of Justice Finland Archived from the original on 14 December 2019 Retrieved 11 January 2020 a b 1 THE CONSTITUTION OF GREECE SECTION II RELATIONS OF CHURCH AND STATE Article 3 Hellenic Resources network 2 THE CONSTITUTION OF GREECE PART TWO INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL RIGHTS Article 13 Constitution of the Republic of Hungary at the Wayback Machine archived 20 February 2008 archived from the original on 2008 02 20 The right of thought the freedom of conscience and religion Hungary hu at the Wayback Machine archived 23 May 2007 archived from the original on 2007 05 23 a b Livingstone E A Sparks M W D Peacocke R W 2013 09 12 Ireland The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church Oxford University Press p 286 ISBN 9780199659623 Retrieved 3 December 2014 CONSTITUTION OF IRELAND Irish Statute Book pp Article 44 Retrieved 3 December 2014 Keogh Dermot McCarthy Dr Andrew 2007 01 01 The Making of the Irish Constitution 1937 Bunreacht Na HEireann Mercier Press p 172 ISBN 9781856355612 Fifth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1972 Irish Statute Book Retrieved 3 December 2014 Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland Wikipedia 2020 02 16 retrieved 2020 09 28 Constitution Religion at the Wayback Machine archived 26 March 2009 archived from the original on 2009 03 26 Norway s church and state to divorce after almost 500 years christiandaily com Retrieved 2017 01 02 2017 et kirkehistorisk merkear Den norske kirke Kirkeradet 2017 12 30 Retrieved 2017 01 02 Under the 1967 Constitution Catholicism was the state religion as stated in Article 6 The Catholic Apostolic religion is the state religion without prejudice to religious freedom which is guaranteed in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution Official relations of the republic with the Holy See shall be governed by concordats or other bilateral agreements The 1992 Constitution which replaced the 1967 one establishes Paraguay as a secular state as mentioned in section 1 of Article 24 Freedom of religion worship and ideology is recognized without any restrictions other than those established in this Constitution and the law The State has no official religion The modern Church of Scotland has always disclaimed recognition as an established church The Church of Scotland Act 1921 formally recognised the Kirk s independence from the state Sources Edit Legal documentsNational Constituent Convention 22 August 1994 Constitution of the Argentine Nation Santa Fe archived from the original on 9 May 2004 a href wiki Template Citation title Template Citation citation a CS1 maint uses authors parameter link External links Edit Quotations related to Christian state at Wikiquote Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Christian state amp oldid 1068818245, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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