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State legislature (United States)

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For the documentary film, see State Legislature (film). For a list of US state legislatures, see List of United States state legislatures.

A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U.S. states. The formal name varies from state to state. In 27 states the legislature is simply called the Legislature or the State Legislature, while in 19 states the legislature is called the General Assembly. In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the legislature is called the General Court, while North Dakota and Oregon designate the legislature the Legislative Assembly.

Contents

Every state except Nebraska has a bicameral legislature, meaning that the legislature consists of two separate legislative chambers or houses. In each case the smaller chamber is called the Senate and is usually referred to as the upper house. This chamber typically, but not always, has the exclusive power to confirm appointments made by the governor and to try articles of impeachment. (In a few states, a separate Executive Council, composed of members elected from large districts, performs the confirmation function.) Members of the smaller chamber represent more citizens and usually serve for longer terms than members of the larger chamber, generally four years. In 41 states, the larger chamber is called the House of Representatives. Five states designate the larger chamber the Assembly and three states call it the House of Delegates. Members of the larger chamber usually serve for terms of two years. The larger chamber customarily has the exclusive power to initiate taxing legislation and articles of impeachment.

Prior to the United States Supreme Court decisions Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964), the basis of representation in most state legislatures was modeled on that of the U.S. Congress: the state senators represented geographical units, while members of the larger chamber represented population. In Reynolds v. Sims the Supreme Court decided upon the one man, one vote standard for state legislatures and invalidated representation based on geographical units regardless of population. (The ruling does not affect the U.S. Senate, because that chamber's makeup is prescribed by the U.S. Constitution.)

Nebraska originally had a bicameral legislature like the other states, but the lower house was abolished following a referendum, effective with the 1936 elections. The remaining unicameral (one-chamber) legislature is called the Nebraska Legislature, but its members are called state senators.

The Iowa State Capitol building, where the Iowa General Assembly convenes

As a legislative branch of government, a legislature generally performs state duties for a state in the same way that the United States Congress performs national duties at the national level. Generally, the same system of checks and balances that exists at the Federal level also exists between the state legislature, the state executive officer (governor) and the state judiciary, though the degree to which this is so varies from one state to the next, nor is this a requirement for state governments (i.e. a state is permitted to use a parliamentary system, or any other system of government, if it so desired).

During a legislative session, the legislature considers matters introduced by its members or submitted by the governor. Businesses and other special interest organizations often lobby the legislature to obtain beneficial legislation, defeat unfavorably perceived measures, or influence other legislative action. A legislature also approves the state's operating and capital budgets, which may begin as a legislative proposal or a submission by the governor.

Under the terms of Article V of the U.S. Constitution, state lawmakers retain the power to ratify Constitutional amendments which have been proposed by both houses of Congress and they also retain the ability to call for a national convention to propose amendments to the U.S. Constitution. After the convention has concluded its business 75% of the states will then be required to ratify what the convention has proposed. Under Article II, state legislatures choose the manner of appointing the state's presidential electors. Formerly, state legislatures appointed the U.S. Senators from their respective states until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913 required the direct election of Senators by the state's voters.

Lawmaking process

Generally, the legislative bodies and their committees use either Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure or an amended form thereof. During official meetings, a professional parliamentarian is available to ensure that legislation and accompanying discussion proceed as orderly as possible without bias.

Beginnings

The lawmaking process begins with the introduction of a bill in either the House of Representatives or the Senate. Bills may be introduced in either house, sometimes with the exception of bills increasing or decreasing revenue, which must originate in the House of Representatives. The order of business in each house provides a proper time for the introduction of bills.

Bills are usually assigned consecutive numbers, given in the order of their introduction, to facilitate identification. Usually a bill cannot become enacted until it has been read on a certain number of days in each house. Upon introduction, a bill is usually read by its title only, constituting the first reading of the bill. Because a bill is usually read by title only, it is important that the title give the members notice of the subject matter contained in the bill.

Committees

General information

As with other legislative bodies throughout the world, U. S. state legislatures operate mainly through committees when considering proposed bills. Thus, committee action is probably the most important phase of the legislative process. Most bills cannot be enacted into law until it has been referred to, acted upon by, and returned from, a standing committee in each house. Reference to committee usually follows the first reading of the bill.

Each committee is set up to consider bills relating to a particular subject.

Standing committees are charged with the important responsibility of examining bills and recommending action to the Senate or House. Often on days when a legislature is not in session, the committees of each house meet and consider the bills that have been referred to them to decide if the assigned bills should be reported for further action.

For most bills, the recommendations of the committee are followed, although either house is free to accept or reject the action of the committee. Bills reported favorably by a committee may be placed on a regular calendar (the agenda of the deliberative body).

Most of the work of the legislature is done by committees. The legislature as a whole relies on its committees to report out only those bills deserving the consideration of the entire house.

Through standing committees, each bill is addressed by a group of members who have special knowledge of its subject. Some members of the legislature have expert knowledge of particular subjects of legislation, and these members are usually placed on committees to take full advantage of this specialized knowledge. For this reason, the legislature often accepts the final recommendations of its standing committees. As has been noted, however, the legislature does not completely abdicate its responsibility for the consideration of pending bills. If the need arises, the members of either house can force a committee to take action on a bill, or they can ignore the committee's recommendations.[citation needed]

Pocket veto and discharge petitions

Across the country, pocket veto powers are not uncommon in state legislatures, which allows a committee to "kill" a bill, sometimes without even a public vote; in Colorado, the power was notably repealed in a citizen initiative constitutional amendment in 1988 driven by various reform groups.

When a committee refuses to vote a bill out of committee, a discharge petition can be passed by the broader membership. The specifics vary from state to state; for example, in 2004, a report found that New York State "places more restrictions than any other state legislature on motions to discharge a bill from a committee", which led to subsequent reforms.

Post-committee

Reports of Committee

After a committee has completed work on a bill, it reports the bill to the appropriate house during the "reports of committees" in the daily order of business. Reported bills are immediately given a second reading. The houses do not vote on a bill at the time it is reported; however, reported bills are placed on the calendar for the next legislative day. This second reading is made by title only.

The regular calendar is a list of bills that have been favorably reported from committee and are ready for consideration by the membership of the entire house.

Third reading

Regardless of how a bill is placed on the calendar, once the bill is considered and adopted, this is called the third reading. It is at this third reading of the bill that the entire legislature gives consideration to its passage. At this time, the bill may be studied in detail, debated, amended, and read at length before final passage.

If the majority vote in favor of the bill, it is recorded as passed.

Transmission to second house

A bill that is passed in one house is transmitted, along with a formal message, to the other house. If the bill is not reported from committee or is not considered by the full house, the bill is defeated.

The house of origin, upon return of its amended bill, may take any one of several courses of action. It may concur in the amendment by the adoption of a motion to that effect; then the bill, having been passed by both houses in identical form, is ready for enrollment. Another possibility is that the house of origin may adopt a motion to non-concur in the amendment, at which point the bill dies. Finally, the house of origin may refuse to accept the amendment but request that a conference committee be appointed. The other house usually agrees to the request, and the presiding officer of each house appoints members to the conference committee.

Conference committees

A conference committee is often empaneled to discuss the points of difference between the two houses' versions of the same bill, and tries to reach an agreement between them so that the identical bill can be passed by both houses. If an agreement is reached and if both houses adopt the conference committee's report, the bill is passed. If either house refuses to adopt the report of the conference committee, a motion may be made for further conference. If a conference committee is unable to reach an agreement, it may be discharged, and a new conference committee may be appointed. Some highly controversial bills may be referred to several different conference committees. If an agreement is never reached in conference prior to the end of the legislative session, the bill is lost.

When a bill has passed both houses in identical form, it is then ready for transmittal to the governor.

Presentation to the governor

Once a bill reaches the governor, he or she may sign it, which completes its enactment into law. From this point, the bill becomes an act, and remains the law of the state unless repealed by legislative action or overturned by a court decision. If the governor does not approve of the bill, he or she may veto it. In the event of a veto, the governor returns the bill to the house in which it originated with a message explaining his or her objections and suggesting any amendments (if applicable) which might remove those objections. The bill is then reconsidered, and if a simple majority of the members of both houses agrees to the proposed executive amendments, it is returned to the governor, as he or she revised it, for his or her signature.

On the other hand, a qualified majority (two-thirds) of the members of each house can choose to approve a vetoed bill precisely as the legislature originally passed it, in which case it becomes a law over the governor's veto. If the governor fails to return a bill to the legislative house in which it originated within a specified number of days after it was presented to him or her, it becomes a law without their signature.

The bills that reach the governor less than a specified number of days before the end of the session may be approved by him or her within ten days after adjournment. The bills not approved within that time do not become law. This is known as a "pocket veto". This is the most conclusive form of veto, for the legislature (having adjourned) has no chance to reconsider the vetoed measure.

Constitutional amendments

Sometimes what the legislature wishes to accomplish cannot be done simply by the passage of a bill, but rather requires amending the state constitution. Each state has specified steps intended to make it difficult to alter the constitution without the sufficient support of either the legislature, or the people, or both.

In most states, a new state legislature convenes in January of the odd-numbered year after the election of members to the larger chamber. The period during which the legislature remains in session varies by state. In states where the legislature is considered part-time, a session may last several months; where the legislature is considered full-time, the session may last all year, with periodic breaks for district work.

Some states have varying lengths for odd-numbered and even-numbered years, or allow for a fixed number of either legislative or calendar days. Georgia for example, allows only 40 legislative days per year, and Wyoming allows 60 legislative days per term and no more than 40 per one calendar year. Whereas in Michigan, New Jersey, New York (in odd-numbered years), Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin (in odd-numbered years), the sessions usually last all year.

Four state legislatures - Montana, Nevada, North Dakota and Texas meet only biennially. In early 1960s, only 19 legislatures met annually, but by mid-1970s, it had increased to 41. The latest legislature to switch to annual sessions was Oregon in 2011, following a voter-approved ballot measure.

Currently, there are 7,383 state legislators in the United States. They are usually assisted by staff aides to help prepare and analyze legislation, to review and amend submitted budgets, and to help solve constituents' grievances with the state government.

Many state legislators meet every year at the National Conference of The Council of State Governments (CSG), headquartered in Lexington, Kentucky, with offices in Washington, DC; New York City; Chicago; Atlanta; and Sacramento, and at the annual meetings of CSG's regions, The Southern Legislative Conference, The Midwestern Legislative Conference, the Eastern Regional Conference and CSG West, and at the Legislative Summit of the National Conference of State Legislatures, which is headquartered in Denver, Colorado and has a lobbying office in Washington, D.C.

Additionally, privately funded organizations with ideological leans have annual meetings attracting many legislators. These include the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), a conservative organization, and the State Innovation Exchange (SiX), its progressive counterpart.

As of 2017, 24 of 99 chambers have limits on the number of bills that a legislator can introduce per year.

When a bill passes based on votes mostly from the minority party and "moderate" members of a majority party, it is referred to as the majority being "rolled". Political scientists study "roll rates" as a measure of the ability of the majority party to avoid votes on bills which a majority of the majority oppose. An empirical analysis of state legislatures found that of the 99 studied, 53 had roll rates below 5% and 83 have roll rates below 10%.

The first bicameral American legislature was formed in 1619 by the Virginia House of Burgesses.

  1. National Conference of State Legislatures
  2. Cox, Gary W.; Kousser, Thad; McCubbins, Mathew D. (2010). "Party Power or Preferences? Quasi-Experimental Evidence from American State Legislatures". The Journal of Politics. 72 (3): 799–811. doi:10.1017/s0022381610000174. ISSN 0022-3816. JSTOR 10.1017/s0022381610000174.
  3. "The New York State Legislative Process: An Evaluation and Blueprint for Reform | Brennan Center for Justice". www.brennancenter.org. RetrievedJune 9, 2019.
  4. "Testimony of Lawrence Norden Regarding New York State Senate Rules Reform | Brennan Center for Justice". www.brennancenter.org. RetrievedJune 9, 2019.
  5. "Art. III". Justia Law. RetrievedJuly 29, 2021.
  6. "Article 3, Wyoming Constitution". Ballotpedia. RetrievedJuly 29, 2021.
  7. "State legislative sessions". Ballotpedia.
  8. "Annual vs. Biennial Legislative Sessions". www.ncsl.org. RetrievedJuly 29, 2021.
  9. "Oregon Legislature Annual Sessions Amendment, Measure 71 (2010)". Ballotpedia. RetrievedJuly 29, 2021.
  10. "Limiting Bill Introductions". www.ncsl.org. RetrievedSeptember 4, 2019.
  11. Anzia, Sarah F.; Jackman, Molly C. (January 1, 2013). "Legislative Organization and the Second Face of Power: Evidence from U.S. State Legislatures". The Journal of Politics. 75 (1): 210–224. doi:10.1017/S0022381612000977. ISSN 0022-3816.
  12. Hodson, Tim; Tucker, Harvey J.; Garrett, John; Vanlandingham, Gary R.; Mo, Stephen Davis; Nv, Kathy Fosnaugh; Mo, Jackie Hord; Va, Bruce Jamerson (2005). JUDGING LEGISLATURES(PDF). Journal of the American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries.

State legislature (United States)
State legislature United States Language Watch Edit This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article relies largely or entirely on a single source Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources Find sources State legislature United States news newspapers books scholar JSTOR June 2018 This article relies too much on references to primary sources Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources June 2018 Learn how and when to remove this template message Learn how and when to remove this template message For the documentary film see State Legislature film For a list of US state legislatures see List of United States state legislatures A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U S states The formal name varies from state to state In 27 states the legislature is simply called the Legislature or the State Legislature while in 19 states the legislature is called the General Assembly In Massachusetts and New Hampshire the legislature is called the General Court while North Dakota and Oregon designate the legislature the Legislative Assembly Contents 1 Composition 2 Duties and influence 2 1 Lawmaking process 2 1 1 Beginnings 2 1 2 Committees 2 1 2 1 General information 2 1 2 2 Pocket veto and discharge petitions 2 1 3 Post committee 2 1 3 1 Reports of Committee 2 1 3 2 Third reading 2 1 3 3 Transmission to second house 2 1 3 4 Conference committees 2 1 3 5 Presentation to the governor 2 1 4 Constitutional amendments 3 Aspects of the career of the state legislator 4 Bill introduction limits 5 Roll rates 6 History 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksComposition EditEvery state except Nebraska has a bicameral legislature meaning that the legislature consists of two separate legislative chambers or houses In each case the smaller chamber is called the Senate and is usually referred to as the upper house This chamber typically but not always has the exclusive power to confirm appointments made by the governor and to try articles of impeachment In a few states a separate Executive Council composed of members elected from large districts performs the confirmation function Members of the smaller chamber represent more citizens and usually serve for longer terms than members of the larger chamber generally four years In 41 states the larger chamber is called the House of Representatives Five states designate the larger chamber the Assembly and three states call it the House of Delegates Members of the larger chamber usually serve for terms of two years The larger chamber customarily has the exclusive power to initiate taxing legislation and articles of impeachment Prior to the United States Supreme Court decisions Baker v Carr 1962 and Reynolds v Sims 1964 the basis of representation in most state legislatures was modeled on that of the U S Congress the state senators represented geographical units while members of the larger chamber represented population In Reynolds v Sims the Supreme Court decided upon the one man one vote standard for state legislatures and invalidated representation based on geographical units regardless of population The ruling does not affect the U S Senate because that chamber s makeup is prescribed by the U S Constitution Nebraska originally had a bicameral legislature like the other states but the lower house was abolished following a referendum effective with the 1936 elections The remaining unicameral one chamber legislature is called the Nebraska Legislature but its members are called state senators Duties and influence Edit The Iowa State Capitol building where the Iowa General Assembly convenes As a legislative branch of government a legislature generally performs state duties for a state in the same way that the United States Congress performs national duties at the national level Generally the same system of checks and balances that exists at the Federal level also exists between the state legislature the state executive officer governor and the state judiciary though the degree to which this is so varies from one state to the next nor is this a requirement for state governments i e a state is permitted to use a parliamentary system or any other system of government if it so desired During a legislative session the legislature considers matters introduced by its members or submitted by the governor Businesses and other special interest organizations often lobby the legislature to obtain beneficial legislation defeat unfavorably perceived measures or influence other legislative action A legislature also approves the state s operating and capital budgets which may begin as a legislative proposal or a submission by the governor Under the terms of Article V of the U S Constitution state lawmakers retain the power to ratify Constitutional amendments which have been proposed by both houses of Congress and they also retain the ability to call for a national convention to propose amendments to the U S Constitution After the convention has concluded its business 75 of the states will then be required to ratify what the convention has proposed Under Article II state legislatures choose the manner of appointing the state s presidential electors Formerly state legislatures appointed the U S Senators from their respective states until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913 required the direct election of Senators by the state s voters Lawmaking process Edit Generally the legislative bodies and their committees use either Mason s Manual of Legislative Procedure or an amended form thereof 1 During official meetings a professional parliamentarian is available to ensure that legislation and accompanying discussion proceed as orderly as possible without bias Beginnings Edit The lawmaking process begins with the introduction of a bill in either the House of Representatives or the Senate Bills may be introduced in either house sometimes with the exception of bills increasing or decreasing revenue which must originate in the House of Representatives The order of business in each house provides a proper time for the introduction of bills Bills are usually assigned consecutive numbers given in the order of their introduction to facilitate identification Usually a bill cannot become enacted until it has been read on a certain number of days in each house Upon introduction a bill is usually read by its title only constituting the first reading of the bill Because a bill is usually read by title only it is important that the title give the members notice of the subject matter contained in the bill Committees Edit General information Edit As with other legislative bodies throughout the world U S state legislatures operate mainly through committees when considering proposed bills Thus committee action is probably the most important phase of the legislative process Most bills cannot be enacted into law until it has been referred to acted upon by and returned from a standing committee in each house Reference to committee usually follows the first reading of the bill Each committee is set up to consider bills relating to a particular subject Standing committees are charged with the important responsibility of examining bills and recommending action to the Senate or House Often on days when a legislature is not in session the committees of each house meet and consider the bills that have been referred to them to decide if the assigned bills should be reported for further action For most bills the recommendations of the committee are followed although either house is free to accept or reject the action of the committee Bills reported favorably by a committee may be placed on a regular calendar the agenda of the deliberative body Most of the work of the legislature is done by committees The legislature as a whole relies on its committees to report out only those bills deserving the consideration of the entire house Through standing committees each bill is addressed by a group of members who have special knowledge of its subject Some members of the legislature have expert knowledge of particular subjects of legislation and these members are usually placed on committees to take full advantage of this specialized knowledge For this reason the legislature often accepts the final recommendations of its standing committees As has been noted however the legislature does not completely abdicate its responsibility for the consideration of pending bills If the need arises the members of either house can force a committee to take action on a bill or they can ignore the committee s recommendations citation needed Pocket veto and discharge petitions Edit Across the country pocket veto powers are not uncommon in state legislatures which allows a committee to kill a bill sometimes without even a public vote in Colorado the power was notably repealed in a citizen initiative constitutional amendment in 1988 driven by various reform groups 2 When a committee refuses to vote a bill out of committee a discharge petition can be passed by the broader membership The specifics vary from state to state for example in 2004 a report found that New York State places more restrictions than any other state legislature on motions to discharge a bill from a committee 3 which led to subsequent reforms 4 Post committee Edit Reports of Committee Edit After a committee has completed work on a bill it reports the bill to the appropriate house during the reports of committees in the daily order of business Reported bills are immediately given a second reading The houses do not vote on a bill at the time it is reported however reported bills are placed on the calendar for the next legislative day This second reading is made by title only The regular calendar is a list of bills that have been favorably reported from committee and are ready for consideration by the membership of the entire house Third reading Edit Regardless of how a bill is placed on the calendar once the bill is considered and adopted this is called the third reading It is at this third reading of the bill that the entire legislature gives consideration to its passage At this time the bill may be studied in detail debated amended and read at length before final passage If the majority vote in favor of the bill it is recorded as passed Transmission to second house Edit A bill that is passed in one house is transmitted along with a formal message to the other house If the bill is not reported from committee or is not considered by the full house the bill is defeated The house of origin upon return of its amended bill may take any one of several courses of action It may concur in the amendment by the adoption of a motion to that effect then the bill having been passed by both houses in identical form is ready for enrollment Another possibility is that the house of origin may adopt a motion to non concur in the amendment at which point the bill dies Finally the house of origin may refuse to accept the amendment but request that a conference committee be appointed The other house usually agrees to the request and the presiding officer of each house appoints members to the conference committee Conference committees Edit A conference committee is often empaneled to discuss the points of difference between the two houses versions of the same bill and tries to reach an agreement between them so that the identical bill can be passed by both houses If an agreement is reached and if both houses adopt the conference committee s report the bill is passed If either house refuses to adopt the report of the conference committee a motion may be made for further conference If a conference committee is unable to reach an agreement it may be discharged and a new conference committee may be appointed Some highly controversial bills may be referred to several different conference committees If an agreement is never reached in conference prior to the end of the legislative session the bill is lost When a bill has passed both houses in identical form it is then ready for transmittal to the governor Presentation to the governor Edit Once a bill reaches the governor he or she may sign it which completes its enactment into law From this point the bill becomes an act and remains the law of the state unless repealed by legislative action or overturned by a court decision If the governor does not approve of the bill he or she may veto it In the event of a veto the governor returns the bill to the house in which it originated with a message explaining his or her objections and suggesting any amendments if applicable which might remove those objections The bill is then reconsidered and if a simple majority of the members of both houses agrees to the proposed executive amendments it is returned to the governor as he or she revised it for his or her signature On the other hand a qualified majority two thirds of the members of each house can choose to approve a vetoed bill precisely as the legislature originally passed it in which case it becomes a law over the governor s veto If the governor fails to return a bill to the legislative house in which it originated within a specified number of days after it was presented to him or her it becomes a law without their signature The bills that reach the governor less than a specified number of days before the end of the session may be approved by him or her within ten days after adjournment The bills not approved within that time do not become law This is known as a pocket veto This is the most conclusive form of veto for the legislature having adjourned has no chance to reconsider the vetoed measure Constitutional amendments Edit Sometimes what the legislature wishes to accomplish cannot be done simply by the passage of a bill but rather requires amending the state constitution Each state has specified steps intended to make it difficult to alter the constitution without the sufficient support of either the legislature or the people or both Aspects of the career of the state legislator EditIn most states a new state legislature convenes in January of the odd numbered year after the election of members to the larger chamber The period during which the legislature remains in session varies by state In states where the legislature is considered part time a session may last several months where the legislature is considered full time the session may last all year with periodic breaks for district work Some states have varying lengths for odd numbered and even numbered years or allow for a fixed number of either legislative or calendar days Georgia for example allows only 40 legislative days per year and Wyoming allows 60 legislative days per term and no more than 40 per one calendar year 5 6 Whereas in Michigan New Jersey New York in odd numbered years Ohio Pennsylvania and Wisconsin in odd numbered years the sessions usually last all year 7 Four state legislatures Montana Nevada North Dakota and Texas meet only biennially In early 1960s only 19 legislatures met annually but by mid 1970s it had increased to 41 8 The latest legislature to switch to annual sessions was Oregon in 2011 following a voter approved ballot measure 9 Currently there are 7 383 state legislators in the United States They are usually assisted by staff aides to help prepare and analyze legislation to review and amend submitted budgets and to help solve constituents grievances with the state government Many state legislators meet every year at the National Conference of The Council of State Governments CSG headquartered in Lexington Kentucky with offices in Washington DC New York City Chicago Atlanta and Sacramento and at the annual meetings of CSG s regions The Southern Legislative Conference The Midwestern Legislative Conference the Eastern Regional Conference and CSG West and at the Legislative Summit of the National Conference of State Legislatures which is headquartered in Denver Colorado and has a lobbying office in Washington D C Additionally privately funded organizations with ideological leans have annual meetings attracting many legislators These include the American Legislative Exchange Council ALEC a conservative organization and the State Innovation Exchange SiX its progressive counterpart Bill introduction limits EditAs of 2017 24 of 99 chambers have limits on the number of bills that a legislator can introduce per year 10 Roll rates EditWhen a bill passes based on votes mostly from the minority party and moderate members of a majority party it is referred to as the majority being rolled 11 Political scientists study roll rates as a measure of the ability of the majority party to avoid votes on bills which a majority of the majority oppose 11 An empirical analysis of state legislatures found that of the 99 studied 53 had roll rates below 5 and 83 have roll rates below 10 11 History EditThe first bicameral American legislature was formed in 1619 by the Virginia House of Burgesses 12 See also EditList of United States state legislatures List of current U S state legislators Comparison of U S state governments United States state legislatures partisan trend Legislative Assemblies of Canada s provinces and territories Parliaments of the Australian states and territories Legislative Assemblies of Brazilian statesReferences Edit National Conference of State Legislatures Cox Gary W Kousser Thad McCubbins Mathew D 2010 Party Power or Preferences Quasi Experimental Evidence from American State Legislatures The Journal of Politics 72 3 799 811 doi 10 1017 s0022381610000174 ISSN 0022 3816 JSTOR 10 1017 s0022381610000174 The New York State Legislative Process An Evaluation and Blueprint for Reform Brennan Center for Justice www brennancenter org Retrieved June 9 2019 Testimony of Lawrence Norden Regarding New York State Senate Rules Reform Brennan Center for Justice www brennancenter org Retrieved June 9 2019 Art III Justia Law Retrieved July 29 2021 Article 3 Wyoming Constitution Ballotpedia Retrieved July 29 2021 State legislative sessions Ballotpedia Annual vs Biennial Legislative Sessions www ncsl org Retrieved July 29 2021 Oregon Legislature Annual Sessions Amendment Measure 71 2010 Ballotpedia Retrieved July 29 2021 Limiting Bill Introductions www ncsl org Retrieved September 4 2019 a b c Anzia Sarah F Jackman Molly C January 1 2013 Legislative Organization and the Second Face of Power Evidence from U S State Legislatures The Journal of Politics 75 1 210 224 doi 10 1017 S0022381612000977 ISSN 0022 3816 Hodson Tim Tucker Harvey J Garrett John Vanlandingham Gary R Mo Stephen Davis Nv Kathy Fosnaugh Mo Jackie Hord Va Bruce Jamerson 2005 JUDGING LEGISLATURES PDF Journal of the American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries External links EditNational Conference of State Legislatures Women in State Legislatures Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title State legislature United States amp oldid 1045383527, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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