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This article is about the U.S. state. For other uses, see Arizona (disambiguation).

Arizona (() ; Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo Navajo pronunciation: ; O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the Western United States, grouped in the Southwestern and occasionally Mountain subregions. It is the 6th largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah to the north, Colorado to the northeast, and New Mexico to the east; its other neighboring states are Nevada to the northwest and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.

Arizona
State of Arizona
Nicknames:
The Grand Canyon State;
The Copper State;
The Valentine State
Motto(s):
Ditat Deus (God enriches)
Anthem: "The Arizona March Song" and "Arizona"
Map of the United States with Arizona highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodArizona Territory
Admitted to the UnionFebruary 14, 1912 (48th)
Capital
(and largest city)
Phoenix
Largest metro and urban areasGreater Phoenix
Government
GovernorDoug Ducey (R)
Secretary of StateKatie Hobbs (D)
LegislatureArizona Legislature
Upper houseSenate
Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryArizona Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsKyrsten Sinema (D)
Mark Kelly (D)
U.S. House delegation5 Democrats
4 Republicans (list)
Area
• Total113,990 sq mi (295,234 km2)
• Rank6th
Dimensions
• Length400 mi (645 km)
• Width310 mi (500 km)
Elevation
4,100 ft (1,250 m)
Highest elevation12,637 ft (3,852 m)
Lowest elevation72 ft (22 m)
Population
(2020)
• Total7,151,502
• Rank14th
• Density57/sq mi (22/km2)
• Rank33rd
Median household income
$61,500
• Income rank
28th
Demonym(s)Arizonan
Language
Official languageEnglish
Spoken languageAs of 2010
  • English 74.1%
  • Spanish 19.5%
  • Navajo 1.9%
  • Other 4.5%
Time zones
Most of stateUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
Navajo NationUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
• Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
AZ
ISO 3166 codeUS-AZ
Traditional abbreviationAriz.
Latitude31°20′ N to 37° N
Longitude109°03′ W to 114°49′ W
Websiteaz.gov

Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase.

Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, and Tucson. In addition to the internationally known Grand Canyon National Park, which is one of the world's seven natural wonders, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.

Since the 1950s, Arizona's population and economy have grown dramatically because of migration into the state, and now the state is a major hub of the Sun Belt. Cities such as Phoenix and Tucson have developed large, sprawling suburban areas. Many large companies, such as PetSmart and Circle K, have headquarters in the state, and Arizona is home to major universities, including the University of Arizona and Arizona State University. Traditionally, the state is politically known for national conservative figures such as Barry Goldwater and John McCain, though it voted Democratic in the 1996 presidential race and in the 2020 presidential and senatorial elections.

Arizona is home to a diverse population. About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Since the 1980s, the proportion of Hispanics in the state's population has grown significantly owing to migration from Mexico. In terms of religion, a substantial portion of the population are followers of the Catholic Church and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

Contents

The state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name,Arizonac, derived from the O'odham namealĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring". Initially this term was applied by Spanish colonists only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, the O'odham pronunciation sounded like Arissona. The area is still known asalĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language.

Another possible origin is the Basque phraseharitz ona ("the good oak"), as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque ancestry established theranchería (village) of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora. It became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c. 1737.

The misconception that the state's name purportedly originated from the Spanish termÁrida Zona ("Arid Zone") is considered a case of folk etymology.

Main article: History of Arizona

For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to many ancient Native American civilizations. Hohokam, Mogollon, and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among those that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived and attract thousands of tourists each year.

La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition

In 1539, Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, became the first European to contact Native Americans. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar.

Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus ("Jesuits"), he led the development of a chain of missions in the region. He converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 18th century. Spain founded presidios ("fortified towns") at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775.

When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California, ("New California"), also known as Alta California ("Upper California"). Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of later European-American migrants from the United States.

Mexico in 1824. Alta California is the northwesternmost state.

During the Mexican–American War (1847–1848), the U.S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what later became Arizona Territory in 1863 and later the State of Arizona in 1912. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of $15million in compensation (equivalent to $469,788,461.54 in 2021) be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U.S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.

What is now known as the state of Arizona was initially administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the federal government of the Confederate States on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona". The Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men, horses, and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Arizona has the westernmost military engagement on record during the Civil War with the Battle of Picacho Pass (1862).

Geronimo (far right) and his Apache warriors fought against both Mexican and American settlers.

The Federal government declared a new U.S. Arizona Territory, consisting of the western half of earlier New Mexico Territory, in Washington, D.C., on February 24, 1863. These new boundaries would later form the basis of the state. The first territorial capital, Prescott, was founded in 1864 following a gold rush to central Arizona. The capital was later moved to Tucson, back to Prescott, and then to its final location in Phoenix in a series of controversial moves as different regions of the territory gained and lost political influence with the growth and development of the territory.

Although names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma" and "Arizuma" had been considered for the territory, when 16th President Abraham Lincoln signed the final bill, it read "Arizona", and that name was adopted. (Montezuma was not derived from the Aztec emperor, but was the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pima people of the Gila River Valley. It was probably considered – and rejected – for its sentimental value before Congress settled on the name "Arizona".)

Brigham Young, patriarchal leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City in Utah, sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid- to late 19th century. They founded Mesa, Snowflake, Heber, Safford, and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, and other areas. The Mormons settled what became northern Arizona and northern New Mexico. At the time these areas were in a part of the former New Mexico Territory.

During the nineteenth century, a series of gold and silver rushes occurred in the territory, the best known being the 1870s stampede to the silver bonanzas of Tombstone, Arizona in southeast Arizona, also known for its legendary outlaws and lawmen. By the late 1880s, copper production eclipsed the precious metals with the rise of copper camps like Bisbee, Arizona and Jerome, Arizona. The boom and bust economy of mining also left hundreds of ghost towns across the territory, but copper mining continued to prosper with the territory producing more copper than any other state by 1907, which earned Arizona the nickname "the Copper State" at the time of statehood. During the first years of statehood the industry experienced growing pains and labor disputes with the Bisbee Deportation of 1917 the result of a copper miners' strike.

Children of Depression-era migrant workers, Pinal County, 1937

20th century to present

During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, several battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona settlements. Throughout the revolution, many Arizonans enlisted in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. Only two significant engagements took place on U.S. soil between U.S. and Mexican forces: Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, and the Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918 in Arizona. The Mexicans won the first battle and the Americans won the latter.

After Mexican federal troops fired on U.S. soldiers, the American garrison launched an assault into Nogales, Mexico. The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just west of Nogales, an Indian War battle had occurred, considered the last engagement in the American Indian Wars, which lasted from 1775 to 1918. U.S. soldiers stationed on the border confronted Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico.

Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. Arizona was the 48th state admitted to the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted.

Eleanor Roosevelt at the Gila River relocation center, April 23, 1943

Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression. But during the 1920s and even the 1930s, tourism began to develop as the important Arizonan industry it is today. Dude ranches, such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to take part in the flavor and activities of the "Old West". Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws. They include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936).

Arizona was the site of German prisoner of war camps during World WarII and Japanese American internment camps. Because of wartime fears of a Japanese invasion of the U.S. West Coast (which in fact materialized in the Aleutian Islands Campaign in June 1942). From 1942 to 1945, they were forced to reside in internment camps built in the interior of the country. Many lost their homes and businesses. The camps were abolished after World WarII.

The Phoenix-area German P.O.W. site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family (of major home appliance fame). It was developed as the site of the Phoenix Zoo. A Japanese-American internment camp was on Mount Lemmon, just outside the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County. Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School, one of several federal Indian boarding schools designed to assimilate Native American children into mainstream European-American culture. Children were often enrolled in these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair, to take and use English names, to speak only English, and to practice Christianity rather than their native religions.

Numerous Native Americans from Arizona fought for the United States during World WarII. Their experiences resulted in a rising activism in the postwar years to achieve better treatment and civil rights after their return to the state. After Maricopa County did not allow them to register to vote, in 1948 veteran Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, of the Mojave-Apache Tribe at Fort McDowell Indian Reservation, brought a legal suit, Harrison and Austin v. Laveen, to challenge this exclusion. The Arizona Supreme Court ruled in their favor.

Arizona's population grew tremendously with residential and business development after World WarII, aided by the widespread use of air conditioning, which made the intensely hot summers more comfortable. According to the Arizona Blue Book (published by the Arizona Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades, and about 60% each decade thereafter.

In the 1960s, retirement communities were developed. These age-restricted subdivisions catered exclusively to the needs of senior citizens and attracted many retirees who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast. Sun City, established by developer Del Webb and opened in 1960, was one of the first such communities. Green Valley, south of Tucson, was another such community, designed as a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. Many senior citizens from across the U.S. and Canada come to Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds.

In March 2000, Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election ever held over the internet to nominate a candidate for public office. In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley. Voter turnout in this state primary increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary.

In the 21st century, Arizona has frequently garnered national attention for its efforts to quell illegal immigration into the state. In 2004, voters passed Proposition 200, requiring proof of citizenship to register to vote. The Supreme Court of the United States struck this restriction down in 2013. In 2010, Arizona enacted SB 1070 which required all immigrants to carry immigration papers at all times, but the Supreme Court also invalidated parts of this law in Arizona v. United States in 2012.

On January 8, 2011, a gunman shot congresswoman Gabby Giffords and 18 others at a gathering in Tucson. Giffords was critically wounded. The incident sparked national attention regarding incendiary political rhetoric.

Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved.

Main article: Geography of Arizona

Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state by area, ranked after New Mexico and before Nevada. Of the state's 113,998 square miles (295,000 km2), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land and Native American reservations. There are 24 National Park Service maintained sites in Arizona, including the three national parks of Grand Canyon National Park, Saguaro National Park, and the Petrified Forest National Park.

Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the state's southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This region's topography was shaped by prehistoric volcanism, followed by the cooling-off and related subsidence. Its climate has exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. The state is less well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau (see Arizona Mountains forests).

Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona is marked by high mountains, the Colorado plateau, and mesas. Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest, a percentage comparable to modern-day Romania or Greece. The world's largest stand of ponderosa pine trees is in Arizona.

The Mogollon Rim (/ ˌmoʊ gəˈyoʊn /), a 1,998-foot (609 m) escarpment, cuts across the state's central section and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau. In 2002, this was an area of the Rodeo–Chediski Fire, the worst fire in state history until 2011.

Located in northern Arizona, the Grand Canyon is a colorful, deep, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River. The canyon is one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park – one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area as a National Park, often visiting to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly twobillion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateau uplifted.

Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. Created around 50,000 years ago, the Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a mile (1.6 kilometers) wide and 570 feet (170 m) deep.

Arizona is one of two U.S. states, along with Hawaii, that does not observe Daylight Saving Time, though the large Navajo Nation in the state's northeastern region does.

Adjacent states

Further information: Climate change in Arizona

Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and extremely hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (16 °C). November through February are the coldest months, with temperatures typically ranging from 40 to 75 °F (4 to 24 °C), with occasional frosts.

About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise, with warm days, and cool, breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat from 90 to 120 °F (32 to 49 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area. Arizona's all-time record high is 128 °F (53 °C) recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 29, 1994, and July 5, 2007; the all-time record low of −40 °F (−40 °C) was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971.

Due to the primarily dry climate, large diurnal temperature variations occur in less-developed areas of the desert above 2,500 ft (760 m). The swings can be as large as 83°F (46°C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured night-time lows than in the recent past.

Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 in (323 mm), which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer. The monsoon season occurs toward the end of summer. In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor. Dewpoints as high as 81°F (27°C) have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. These downpours often cause flash floods, which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature enacted the Stupid Motorist Law. It is rare for tornadoes or hurricanes to occur in Arizona.

Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid. Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the state's northern parts.

Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (38 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Arizona
Location July (°F) July (°C) December (°F) December (°C)
Phoenix 106/83 41/28 66/45 19/7
Tucson 100/74 38/23 65/39 18/4
Yuma 107/82 42/28 68/46 20/8
Flagstaff 81/51 27/11 42/17 6/−8
Prescott 89/60 32/16 51/23 11/−5
Kingman 98/66 37/19 56/32 13/0

Cities and towns

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View of suburban development in Scottsdale, 2006

Phoenix, in Maricopa County, is Arizona's capital and largest city. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (Arizona's third largest city), Chandler (Arizona's fourth largest city), Glendale, Peoria, Buckeye, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe, Tolleson and Scottsdale, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4.7million. The average high temperature in July, 106 °F (41 °C), is one of the highest of any metropolitan area in the United States, offset by an average January high temperature of 67 °F (19 °C), the basis of its winter appeal.

Tucson, with a metro population of just over onemillion, is the state's second-largest city. Located in Pima County, approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of Phoenix, it was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona. It is home to the University of Arizona. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. It has an average July temperature of 100°F (38°C) and winter temperatures averaging 65°F (18°C). Saguaro National Park, just west of the city in the Tucson Mountains, is the site of the world's largest collection of Saguaro cacti.

The Prescott metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott, Cottonwood, Camp Verde and many other towns in the 8,123 square miles (21,000 km2) of Yavapai County area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns is the state's third largest metropolitan area. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (160 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,700 m), Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs around 88 °F (31 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 50 °F (10 °C).

Yuma is the center of the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Arizona. Located in Yuma County, it is near the borders of California and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States, with an average July high of 107 °F (42 °C). (The same month's average in Death Valley is 115 °F (46 °C).) The city features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000. Yuma attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States.

Flagstaff, in Coconino County, is the largest city in northern Arizona, and is at an elevation of nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m). With its large Ponderosa pine forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It is sited at the base of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, which contains Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m). Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including: Grand Canyon National Park, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon. Historic U.S. Route 66 is the main east–west street in the town. The Flagstaff metropolitan area is home to 134,421 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University.

Lake Havasu City, in Mohave County, known as "Arizona's playground", was developed on the Colorado River and is named after Lake Havasu. Lake Havasu City has a population of about 53,000 people. It is famous for huge spring break parties, sunsets and the London Bridge, relocated from London, England. Lake Havasu City was founded by real estate developer Robert P. McCulloch in 1963. It has two colleges, Mohave Community College and ASU Colleges in Lake Havasu City.

Largest cities or towns in Arizona
Source:
Rank Name County Pop. Rank Name County Pop.

Phoenix

Tucson
1 Phoenix Maricopa 1,660,272 11 Yuma Yuma 97,908
Mesa

Chandler
2 Tucson Pima 545,975 12 San Tan Valley Pinal 90,665
3 Mesa Maricopa 508,958 13 Avondale Maricopa 85,835
4 Chandler Maricopa 257,165 14 Goodyear Maricopa 82,835
5 Scottsdale Maricopa 255,310 15 Buckeye Maricopa 74,370
6 Glendale Maricopa 250,702 16 Flagstaff Coconino 73,964
7 Gilbert Maricopa 248,279 17 Casas Adobes Pima 68,919
8 Tempe Maricopa 192,364 18 Casa Grande Pinal 57,232
9 Peoria Maricopa 172,259 19 Lake Havasu City Mohave 55,090
10 Surprise Maricopa 138,161 20 Catalina Foothills Pima 50,202
A population density map of Arizona
Historical population
Census Pop.
18606,482
18709,65849.0%
188040,440318.7%
189088,243118.2%
1900122,93139.3%
1910204,35466.2%
1920334,16263.5%
1930435,57330.3%
1940499,26114.6%
1950749,58750.1%
19601,302,16173.7%
19701,770,90036.0%
19802,718,21553.5%
19903,665,22834.8%
20005,130,63240.0%
20106,392,01724.6%
20207,151,50211.9%
Sources: 1910–2020
Note that early censuses
may not include
Native Americans in Arizona

The United States Census Bureau records Arizona's population as 7,151,502 in the 2020 Census, a 12% increase since the 2010 United States Census.

Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century. The 1860 census reported the population of "Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored", and 2,421 as "white". Arizona's continued population growth puts an enormous stress on the state's water supply. As of 2011[update], 61% of Arizona's children under age one belonged to racial groups of color.

The population of metropolitan Phoenix increased by 45% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada). As of July 2018[update], the population of the Phoenix area is estimated to be over 4.9million.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Arizona had a population of 6,392,017. In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 8% of the population. This was the second highest percentage of any state in the U.S. Arizona has banned sanctuary cities.

Metropolitan Phoenix (4.7million) and Tucson (1.0million) are home to about five-sixths of Arizona's people (as of the 2010 census). Metro Phoenix alone accounts for two-thirds of the state's population.

Race and ethnicity

Ethnic composition as of the 2020 census
Race and Ethnicity Alone Total
White (non-Hispanic) 53.4% 53.4
56.8% 56.8
Hispanic or Latino 30.7% 30.7
African American (non-Hispanic) 4.4% 4.4
5.5% 5.5
Native American (non-Hispanic) 3.7% 3.7
4.9% 4.9
Asian 3.5% 3.5
4.5% 4.5
Pacific Islander 0.2% 0.2
0.4% 0.4
Other 0.4% 0.4
1.2% 1.2
Historical racial demographics
Racial composition 1970 1990 2000 2010
White (non-Hispanic) 74.3% 71.7% 63.8% 57.8%
Native (non-Hispanic) 5.4% 5.6% 5.0% 4.6%
Black (non-Hispanic) - - - 4.1%
Asian - - - 2.8%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
- 0.2%
Other race - - - 11.6%
Two or more races - 3.4%

Arizona's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2019[update], were:

  1. English (58%)
  2. German (9%)
  3. Asian (7%)
  4. African (12%)
  5. Irish (7%)

Languages

Extent of the Spanish language in the state of Arizona
Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Arizona
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)
Spanish 21%
Navajo 2%
German <1%
Chinese (including Mandarin) <1%
Tagalog <1%
Vietnamese <1%
Other North American indigenous languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona) <1%
French <1%
Arabic <1%
Apache <1%
Korean <1%
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley

As of 2010[update], 73% (4,215,749) of Arizona residents age five and older spoke only English at home, while 21% (1,202,638) spoke Spanish, 2% (85,602) Navajo, <1% (22,592) German, <1% (22,426) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), <1% (19,015) Tagalog, <1% (17,603) Vietnamese, <1% (15,707) Other North American Indigenous Languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona), and French was spoken as a main language by <1% (15,062) of the population over the age of five. In total, 27% (1,567,548) of Arizona's population age five and older spoke a mother language other than English.

Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states, as more than 85,000 individuals reported speaking Navajo, and 10,403 people reported Apache, as a language spoken at home in 2005. Arizona's Apache County has the highest concentration of speakers of Native American Indian languages in the United States.

Religion

The Spanish mission of San Xavier del Bac, founded in 1700
Religion in Arizona (2014)
Religion Percent
Protestant
39%
Unaffiliated
27%
Catholic
21%
Mormon
5%
Jewish
2%
Jehovah's Witness
1%
Hindu
1%
Buddhist
1%
Muslim
1%
Other
2%

In 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona were the Catholic Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants. The Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Arizona (at 930,001), followed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 410,263 members reported and then non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, reporting 281,105 adherents. The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 836 congregations) followed by the Southern Baptist Convention (with 323 congregations).

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the fifteen largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 and 2000 were:

Hinduism became the largest non-Christian religion (when combining all denominations) in 2010 with more than 32,000 adherents, followed by Judaism with more than 20,000 and Buddhism with more than 19,000.

Arizona's Meteor Crater is a tourist attraction.

The 2020 total gross state product was 373billion. The composition of the state's economy is moderately diverse; although health care, transportation and the government remain the largest sectors.

The state's per capita income is $40,828, ranking 39th in the U.S. The state had a median household income of $50,448, making it 22nd in the country and just below the U.S. national mean. Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate (tourism). Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.

Employment

  • Total employment (2016): 2,379,409
  • Total employer establishments (2016): 139,134

The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Banner Health is the state's largest private employer, with more than 39,000 employees (2016). As of August 2020[update], the state's unemployment rate was 5.9%.

The largest employment sectors in Arizona are (August 2020, Nonfarm Employment):

Sector Employees
Trade, transportation, and utilities 553,300
Education and health services 459,400
Government 430,400
Professional and business services 419,200
Leisure and hospitality 269,400
Financial activities 231,900
Manufacturing 170,900
Construction 169,900
Other services 95,600
Information 46,100
Mining and logging 13,300

Largest employers

According to The Arizona Republic, the largest private employers in the state as of 2019[update] were:

Rank Company Employees Industry
1 Banner Health 44,718 Healthcare
2 Walmart Stores, Inc. 34,071 Discount retailer
3 Kroger Co. 20,530 Grocery stores
4 Wells Fargo & Co. 16,161 Financial services
5 Albertsons Inc. 14,500 Grocery stores, retail drugstores
6 McDonald's Corp. 13,000 Food service
7 CVS Health 12,100 Healthcare
8 Raytheon Co. 12,000 Defense
9 HonorHealth 11,919 Healthcare
10 Dignity Health 10,562 Healthcare
11 Intel Corp. 10,400 Semiconductor manufacturing
12 Home Depot Inc. 10,200 Retail home improvement
13 (tie) JP Morgan Chase & Co. 10,000 Financial services
American Airlines 10,000 Airline
15 Tenet Healthcare 9,483 Healthcare
16 Bank of America Corp. 9,200 Financial services
17 Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. 8,759 Mining
18 Bashas' Supermarkets 8,519 Grocery stores
19 Amazon.com 8,500 Online Shopping
20 Target Corp. 8,400 Discount retailer
21 Honeywell International Inc. 7,792 Aerospace manufacturing
22 Circle K Corp. 7,478 Convenience stores
23 Mayo Foundation 7,436 Healthcare
24 State Farm 7,200 Insurance
25 UnitedHealthcare 7,194 Healthcare

Taxation

Tax is collected by the Arizona Department of Revenue.

Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.59%, 2.88%, 3.36%, 4.24% and 4.54%. The state transaction privilege tax is 5.6%; however, county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2%.

In 2020, Arizona voters approved Proposition 208 to create an additional income tax bracket of 8% for incomes over $250,000 (single filers) and $500,000 (joint filers). The Goldwater Institute filed a lawsuit challenging it, but it was rejected by Maricopa County Arizona Superior Court judge John Hannah Jr.

The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption.

All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.[citation needed]

Single Tax rate Joint Tax rate
0 – $10,000 2.59% 0 – $20,000 2.59%
$10,000 – $25,000 2.88% $20,001 – $50,000 2.88%
$25,000 – $50,000 3.36% $50,001 – $100,000 3.36%
$50,000 – $150,001 4.24% $100,000 – $300,001 4.24%
$150,001 + 4.54% $300,001 + 4.54%
Entering Arizona on I-10 from New Mexico

Highways

Interstate highways

I-8 | I-10 | Future I-11 | I-15 | I-17 | I-19 | I-40

U.S. routes

US 60 | US 64 | Historic US 66 | US 70 | Historic US 80 | US 89 | US 89A | US 91 | US 93 | US 95 | US 160 | US 163 | US 180 | US 191

Main Interstate routes include I-17, and I-19 traveling north–south, I-8, I-10, and I-40, traveling east–west, and a short stretch of I-15 traveling northeast–southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101, which is part of Phoenix's vast freeway system.

Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus

The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.

A light rail system, called Valley Metro Rail, was completed in December 2008; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe.

In Tucson, the Sun Link streetcar system travels through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with Mercado San Agustin on the western edge of downtown Tucson. Sun Link, loosely based on the Portland Streetcar, launched in July 2014.

Amtrak Southwest Chief route serves the northern part of the state, stopping at Winslow, Flagstaff, Williams and Kingman. The Texas Eagle and Sunset Limited routes serve South-Central Arizona, stopping at Tucson, Maricopa, Yuma and Benson. Phoenix lost Amtrak service in 1996 with the rerouting of the Sunset Limited, and now an Amtrak bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa. As of 2021, Amtrak has proposed to restore rail service between Phoenix and Tucson.

Main article: Government of Arizona
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Capitol complex

The capital of Arizona is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900) when the area was a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.

The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.

The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. The site also includes many monuments and memorials, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor) and a granite version of the Ten Commandments.

State legislative branch

The Arizona Legislature is bicameral and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms.

Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can be extended only by a majority vote of members present of each house.

The majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power in both houses since 1993. The Democratic Party picked up several legislative seats in recent elections, bringing both chambers one seat away from being equally divided as of 2021.

Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two-year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is common for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.

The fiscal year 2006–07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006, was slightly less than $10billion. Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also included more than $500million in income and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K–12 education system.

State executive branch

Arizona's executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona is one of the few states that has no governor's mansion. During their term, the governors reside within their private residence, with executive offices housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The governor of Arizona is Doug Ducey (R).

Governor Jan Brewer assumed office in 2009 after Janet Napolitano had her nomination by Barack Obama for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the United States Senate. Arizona has had four female governors, more than any other state.

Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Mine Inspector and a five-member Corporation Commission. All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the State Mine Inspector, which is limited to four terms).

Arizona is one of five states that do not have a lieutenant governor. The elected secretary of state is first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. If appointed, the Secretary of State is not eligible and the next governor is selected from the next eligible official in the line of succession, including the attorney general, state treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have succeeded to Arizona's governorship.

State judicial branch

The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona, consisting of a chief justice, a vice chief justice, and five associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission and must be sustained in office by election after the first two years following their appointment. Subsequent sustaining elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but nearly all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals first. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza).

The Arizona Court of Appeals, subdivided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of sixteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of six judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices.

Each county of Arizona has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county.

Counties

Art Deco doors of the Cochise County Courthouse in Bisbee

Arizona is divided into 15 counties, ranging in size from 1,238 square miles (3,210 km2) to 18,661 square miles (48,330 km2).

Arizona counties
County name County seat Founded 2020 population Percent of total Area (sq. mi.) Percent of total
Apache St. Johns February 24, 1879 66,021 0.9% 11,218 9.8%
Cochise Bisbee February 1, 1881 125,447 1.8% 6,219 5.5%
Coconino Flagstaff February 18, 1891 145,101 2.0% 18,661 16.4%
Gila Globe February 8, 1881 53,272 0.7% 4,796 4.2%
Graham Safford March 10, 1881 38,533 0.5% 4,641 4.1%
Greenlee Clifton March 10, 1909 9,563 0.1% 1,848 1.6%
La Paz Parker January 1, 1983 16,557 0.2% 4,513 4.0%
Maricopa Phoenix February 14, 1871 4,420,568 61.8% 9,224 8.1%
Mohave Kingman November 9, 1864 213,267 3.0% 13,470 11.8%
Navajo Holbrook March 21, 1895 106,717 1.5% 9,959 8.7%
Pima Tucson November 9, 1864 1,043,433 14.6% 9,189 8.1%
Pinal Florence February 1, 1875 425,264 6.0% 5,374 4.7%
Santa Cruz Nogales March 15, 1899 47,669 0.7% 1,238 1.1%
Yavapai Prescott November 9, 1864 236,209 3.3% 8,128 7.1%
Yuma Yuma November 9, 1864 203,881 2.9% 5,519 4.8%
Totals: 15 7,151,502 113,997

Federal representation

Arizona's two United States Senators are Kyrsten Sinema (D) and Mark Kelly (D). Kelly succeeded Martha McSally who was appointed by Governor Doug Ducey following the resignation of Jon Kyl who himself was appointed by Ducey after the death of John McCain in late 2018.

As of the start of the 115th Congress, Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Tom O'Halleran (D-1), Ann Kirkpatrick (D-2), Raul Grijalva (D-3), Paul Gosar (R-4), Andy Biggs (R-5), David Schweikert (R-6), Ruben Gallego (D-7), Debbie Lesko (R-8), and Greg Stanton (D-9). Arizona gained a ninth seat in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2010.

Political culture

Voter Registration as of April 2022
Party Number of voters Percentage
Republican 1,478,781 34.5%
Other 1,442,813 33.6%
Democratic 1,334,001 31.1%
Libertarian 34,753 0.8%
Total 4,290,348 100%
Party registration by county: (January 2021)
Democrat >= 30%
Democrat >= 40%
Democrat >= 50%
Republican >= 30%
Republican >= 40%
Republican >= 50%
Unaffiliated >= 30%

From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party. During this time, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, the only exceptions being the elections of 1920, 1924 and 1928 – all three were national Republican landslides.

In 1924, Congress had passed a law granting citizenship and suffrage to all Native Americans, some of whom had previously been excluded as members of tribes on reservations. Legal interpretations of Arizona's constitution prohibited Native Americans living on reservations from voting, classifying them as being under "guardianship". This interpretation was overturned as being incorrect and unconstitutional in 1948 by the Arizona Supreme Court, following a suit by World WarII Indian veterans Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, both of the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation. The landmark case is Harrison and Austin v. Laveen. After the men were refused the opportunity to register in Maricopa County, they filed suit against the registrar. The National Congress of American Indians, the Department of Justice, the Department of the Interior, and the American Civil Liberties Union all filed amicus curiae (friends of the court) briefs in the case. The State Supreme Court established the rights of Native Americans to vote in the state; at the time, they comprised about 11% of the population. That year, a similar provision was overturned in New Mexico when challenged by another Indian veteran in court. These were the only two states that had continued to prohibit Native Americans from voting.

Arizona voted Republican in every presidential election from 1952 to 1992, with Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan winning the state by particularly large margins. During this forty-year span, it was the only state not to be carried by a Democrat at least once.

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2020 49.0% 1,661,686 49.4% 1,672,143
2016 48.1% 1,252,401 44.6% 1,161,167
2012 53.5% 1,233,654 44.5% 1,025,232
2008 53.4% 1,230,111 44.9% 1,034,707
2004 54.7% 1,104,294 44.3% 893,524
2000 50.9% 781,652 44.7% 685,341
1996 44.3% 622,073 46.5% 653,288
1992 38.4% 572,086 36.5% 543,050
1988 59.9% 702,541 38.7% 454,029
1984 66.4% 681,416 32.5% 333,854
1980 60.6% 529,688 28.2% 246,843
1976 56.3% 418,642 39.8% 295,602

Democrat Lyndon Johnson, in 1964, lost the state by fewer than 5,000 votes to Arizona Senator and native Barry Goldwater. (This was the most closely contested state in what was otherwise a landslide victory for Johnson that year.) Democrat Bill Clinton ended this streak in 1996, when he won Arizona by a little over two percentage points (Clinton had previously come within less than two percent of winning Arizona's electoral votes in 1992). From 2000 until 2016, the majority of the state continued to support Republican presidential candidates by solid margins. In the 2020 United States presidential election, Joe Biden again broke the streak by becoming the first Democratic presidential candidate to win Arizona since 1996.

Since the mid 20th century, the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona politics in general. The fast-growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became reliably Republicans areas from the 1950s onward. During this time, many "Pinto Democrats", or conservative Democrats from rural areas, became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level. While the state normally supports Republicans at the federal level, Democrats are often competitive in statewide elections. Two of the last six governors have been Democrats.

On March 4, 2008, Senator John McCain effectively clinched the Republican nomination for 2008, becoming the first major party presidential nominee from the state since Barry Goldwater in 1964.

Arizona politics are dominated by a longstanding rivalry between its two largest counties, Maricopa and Pima – home to Phoenix and Tucson, respectively. The two counties have almost 75 percent of the state's population and cast almost 80 percent of the state's vote. They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature.

Maricopa County is home to almost 60 percent of the state's population, and most of the state's elected officials live there. Before Joe Biden won Maricopa County in 2020, it had voted Republican in every presidential election since 1948. This includes the 1964 run of native son Barry Goldwater; he would not have carried his home state without his 20,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Similarly, while McCain won Arizona by eight percentage points in 2008, aided by his 130,000-vote margin in Maricopa County

In contrast, Pima County, home to Tucson, and most of southern Arizona have historically voted more Democratic. While Tucson's suburbs lean Republican, they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area.

Arizona teacher's strike and rally on April 26, 2018

Arizona rejected a same-sex marriage ban in a referendum as part of the 2006 elections. Arizona was the first state in the nation to do so. Same-sex marriage was not recognized in Arizona, but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples. In 2008, Arizona voters passed Proposition 102, an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman. It passed by a more narrow majority than similar votes in a number of other states.

In 2010, Arizona passed SB 1070, called the toughest illegal immigration legislation in the nation. A fierce debate erupted between supporters and detractors of the law. The United States Supreme Court struck down portions of the Arizona law, which required all immigrants to carry immigration papers at all times, in Arizona v. United States.

The West Virginia teachers' strike in 2018 inspired teachers in other states, including Arizona, to take similar action.

In a 2020 study, Arizona was ranked as the 21st hardest state for citizens to vote in.

Same-sex marriage and civil unions

In 2006, Arizona became the first state in the United States to reject a proposition, Prop 107, that would have banned same-sex marriage and civil unions. However, in 2008, Arizona voters approved of Prop 102, a constitutional amendment that prohibited same-sex marriage but not other unions. Prior to same-sex marriage being legal, the City of Bisbee became the first jurisdiction in Arizona to approve of civil unions. The state's Attorney General at the time, Tom Horne, threatened to sue, but rescinded the threat once Bisbee amended the ordinance; Bisbee approved of civil unions in 2013. The municipalities of Clarkdale, Cottonwood, Jerome, Sedona, and Tucson also passed civil unions.

A November 2011 Public Policy Polling survey found 44% of Arizona voters supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 45% opposed it and 12% were not sure. A separate question on the same survey found 72% of respondents supported legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 40% supporting same-sex marriage, 32% supporting civil unions, 27% opposing all legal recognition and 1% not sure. Arizona Proposition 102, known by its supporters as the Marriage Protection Amendment, appeared as a legislatively referred constitutional amendment on the November 4, 2008 ballot in Arizona, where it was approved: 56–43%. It amended the Arizona Constitution to define marriage as between one man and one woman.

On October 17, 2014, Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne announced his office would no longer object to same-sex marriage, in response to a U.S. District Court Ruling on Arizona Proposition 102. On that day, each county's Clerk of the Superior Court began to issue same-sex marriage licenses, and Arizona became the 31st state to legalize same-sex marriage.

Elementary and secondary education

Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education and the Arizona Department of Education. A state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term). In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts.

Higher education

The University of Arizona (the Mall) in Tucson
Arizona State University (a biodesign building) in Tempe

Arizona is served by three public universities: The University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and Northern Arizona University. These schools are governed by the Arizona Board of Regents.

Private higher education in Arizona is dominated by a large number of for-profit and "chain" (multi-site) universities.

Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott and Prescott College are Arizona's only non-profit four-year private colleges.

Arizona has a wide network of two-year vocational schools and community colleges. These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide board of directors but, in 2002, the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts. The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation.

Public universities in Arizona

Private colleges and universities in Arizona

Community colleges

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Visual arts and museums

Phoenix Art Museum, on the historic Central Avenue Corridor in Phoenix, is the Southwest's largest collection of visual art from across the world. The museum displays international exhibitions alongside the museum's collection of more than 18,000 works of American, Asian, European, Latin American, Western American, modern and contemporary art, and fashion design. With a community education mandate since 1951, Phoenix Art Museum holds a year-round program of festivals, live performances, independent art films and educational programs. The museum also has PhxArtKids, an interactive space for children; photography exhibitions through the museum's partnership with the Center for Creative Photography; the landscaped Sculpture Garden and dining at Arcadia Farms.

Arizona is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries showcasing historical and contemporary works. The Heard Museum, also in Phoenix, is a major repository of Native American art. Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan, the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry, the Barry Goldwater Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls, and an exhibit on the 19th-century boarding school experiences of Native Americans. The Heard Museum has about 250,000 visitors a year.

Sedona, Jerome, and Tubac are known as budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities.

Film

View of Monument Valley from John Ford's Point

Several major Hollywood films, such as Billy Jack, U Turn, Waiting to Exhale, Just One of the Guys, Can't Buy Me Love, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Scorpion King, The Banger Sisters, Used Cars, and Raising Arizona have been made there (as have many Westerns). The 1993 science fiction movie Fire in the Sky, based on a reported alien abduction in the town of Snowflake, was set in Snowflake. It was filmed in the Oregon towns of Oakland, Roseburg, and Sutherlin.

The 1974 film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, for which Ellen Burstyn won the Academy Award for Best Actress, and also starring Kris Kristofferson, was set in Tucson. The climax of the 1977 Clint Eastwood film The Gauntlet takes place in downtown Phoenix. The final segments of the 1984 film Starman take place at Meteor Crater outside Winslow. The Jeff Foxworthy comedy documentary movie Blue Collar Comedy Tour was filmed almost entirely at the Dodge Theatre. Some of Alfred Hitchcock's classic film Psycho was shot in Phoenix, the ostensible home town of the main character.

Some of the television shows filmed or set in Arizona include The New Dick Van Dyke Show, Medium, Alice, The First 48, Insomniac with Dave Attell, Cops, and America's Most Wanted. The TV sitcom Alice, which was based on the movie was set in Phoenix. Twilight had passages set in Phoenix at the beginning and the end of the film.

Music

Main article: Music of Arizona

Arizona is prominently featured in the lyrics of many Country and Western songs, such as Jamie O'Neal's hit ballad "There Is No Arizona". George Strait's "Oceanfront Property" uses "ocean front property in Arizona" as a metaphor for a sucker proposition. The line "see you down in Arizona Bay" is used in a Tool song in reference to the possibility (expressed as a hope by comedian Bill Hicks) that Southern California will one day fall into the ocean. Glen Campbell, a notable resident, popularized the song "By The Time I Get To Phoenix".

"Arizona" was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay. Arizona is mentioned by the hit song "Take It Easy", written by Jackson Browne and Glenn Frey and performed by the Eagles. Arizona is also mentioned in the Beatles' song "Get Back", credited to John Lennon and Paul McCartney; McCartney sings: "JoJo left his home in Tucson, Arizona, for some California grass." "Carefree Highway", released in 1974 by Gordon Lightfoot, takes its name from Arizona State Route 74 north of Phoenix.

Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists. The Gin Blossoms, Chronic Future, Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers, Jimmy Eat World, Caroline's Spine, and others began their careers in Arizona. Also, a number of punk and rock bands got their start in Arizona, including JFA, The Feederz, Sun City Girls, The Meat Puppets, The Maine, The Summer Set, and more recently Authority Zero and Digital Summer.

Arizona also has many singers and other musicians. Singer, songwriter and guitarist Michelle Branch is from Sedona. Chester Bennington, the former lead vocalist of Linkin Park, and mash-up artist DJ Z-Trip are both from Phoenix. One of Arizona's better known musicians is shock rocker Alice Cooper, who helped define the genre. Maynard James Keenan, the lead singer of the bands Tool, A Perfect Circle, and Puscifer, calls the town of Cornville home.

Other notable singers include country singers Dierks Bentley and Marty Robbins, folk singer Katie Lee, Fleetwood Mac's Stevie Nicks, CeCe Peniston, Rex Allen, 2007 American Idol winner Jordin Sparks, and Linda Ronstadt.

Arizona is also known for its heavy metal scene, which is centered in and around Phoenix. In the early to mid-1990s, it included bands such as Job for a Cowboy, Knights of the Abyss, Greeley Estates, Eyes Set To Kill, blessthefall, The Word Alive, The Dead Rabbitts, and Abigail Williams. The band Soulfly calls Phoenix home and Megadeth lived in Phoenix for about a decade. Beginning in and around 2009, Phoenix began to host a burgeoning desert rock and sludge metal underground, (ala' Kyuss in 1990s California) led by bands like Wolves of Winter, Asimov, and Dead Canyon.

American composer Elliott Carter composed his first String Quartet (1950–51) while on sabbatical (from New York) in Arizona. The quartet won a Pulitzer Prize and other awards and is now a staple of the string quartet repertoire.[citation needed]

Sports

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Main article: Sports in Arizona

State Farm Stadium hosted Super Bowl XLII on February 3, 2008, and Super Bowl XLIX on February 1, 2015. The stadium is also scheduled to host Super Bowl LVII tentatively scheduled for February 12, 2023.

Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona is home to several stops on the PGA Tour, most notably the Phoenix Open, held at the TPC of Scottsdale, and the WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship at the Ritz-Carlton Golf Club in Marana.

Auto racing is another sport known in the state. Phoenix Raceway in Avondale is home to NASCAR race weekends twice a year. Firebird International Raceway near Chandler is home to drag racing and other motorsport events.

College sports

College sports are also prevalent in Arizona. The Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats belong to the Pac-12 Conference while the Northern Arizona Lumberjacks compete in the Big Sky Conference and the Grand Canyon Antelopes compete in the Western Athletic Conference. The rivalry between Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats predates Arizona's statehood, and is the oldest rivalry in the NCAA. The Territorial Cup, first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football, is awarded to the winner of the annual football game between the two schools.

Arizona also hosts several college football bowl games. The Fiesta Bowl, originally held at Sun Devil Stadium, is now held at State Farm Stadium in Glendale. The Fiesta Bowl is part of the new College Football Playoff (CFP). University of Phoenix Stadium was also home to the 2007 and 2011 BCS National Championship Games.

A spring training game between the Cubs and White Sox at HoHoKam Park

State Farm Stadium hosted the Final Four of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament in 2017 and is scheduled to host it again in 2024.

Baseball

Arizona is a popular location for Major League Baseball spring training, as it is the site of the Cactus League. Spring training was first started in Arizona in 1947 when Brewers owner Veeck sold them in 1945 but went onto purchase the Cleveland Indians in 1946. He decided to train the Cleveland Indians in Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try. Thus the Cactus League was born.

On March 9, 1995, Arizona was awarded a franchise to begin to play for the 1998 season. A $130million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball and on January 16, 1997, the Diamondbacks were officially voted into the National League.

Since their debut, the Diamondbacks have won five National League West titles, one National League Championship pennant, and the 2001 World Series.

For a more comprehensive list, see List of people from Arizona.
  1. Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin are not distinguished between total and partial ancestry
  2. In 2000, this designation was broken into two groups: Independent, Non-Charismatic Churches (34,130 adherents) and Independent, Charismatic Churches (29,755 adherents)
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Arizonaat Wikipedia's sister projects
Preceded by List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Admitted on February 14, 1912 (48th)
Succeeded by

Coordinates:34°16′28″N111°39′37″W /34.2744°N 111.6602°W /34.2744; -111.6602 (State of Arizona)

Arizona Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from State of Arizona This article is about the U S state For other uses see Arizona disambiguation Arizona ˌ aer ɪ ˈ z oʊ n e listen ARR iz OH ne Navajo Hoozdo Hahoodzo Navajo pronunciation hoː z to ha hoː tso 11 O odham Alĭ ṣonak 12 is a state in the Western United States grouped in the Southwestern and occasionally Mountain subregions It is the 6th largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states Its capital and largest city is Phoenix Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah to the north Colorado to the northeast and New Mexico to the east its other neighboring states are Nevada to the northwest and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest ArizonaStateState of ArizonaFlagSealNicknames The Grand Canyon State 1 The Copper State 2 The Valentine State 3 Motto s Ditat Deus God enriches Anthem The Arizona March Song and Arizona Map of the United States with Arizona highlightedCountryUnited StatesBefore statehoodArizona TerritoryAdmitted to the UnionFebruary 14 1912 48th Capital and largest city PhoenixLargest metro and urban areasGreater PhoenixGovernment GovernorDoug Ducey R Secretary of StateKatie Hobbs D LegislatureArizona Legislature Upper houseSenate Lower houseHouse of RepresentativesJudiciaryArizona Supreme CourtU S senatorsKyrsten Sinema D Mark Kelly D U S House delegation5 Democrats 4 Republicans list Area Total113 990 4 sq mi 295 234 km2 Rank6thDimensions Length400 mi 645 km Width310 mi 500 km Elevation4 100 ft 1 250 m Highest elevation Humphreys Peak 5 6 7 12 637 ft 3 852 m Lowest elevation Colorado River at the Mexico border 6 7 72 ft 22 m Population 2020 Total7 151 502 8 Rank14th Density57 sq mi 22 km2 Rank33rd Median household income 61 500 9 Income rank28thDemonym s Arizonan 10 Language Official languageEnglish Spoken languageAs of 2010 English 74 1 Spanish 19 5 Navajo 1 9 Other 4 5 Time zonesMost of stateUTC 07 00 Mountain Navajo NationUTC 07 00 Mountain Summer DST UTC 06 00 MDT USPS abbreviationAZISO 3166 codeUS AZTraditional abbreviationAriz Latitude31 20 N to 37 NLongitude109 03 W to 114 49 WWebsiteaz wbr gov Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union achieving statehood on February 14 1912 Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain it became part of independent Mexico in 1821 After being defeated in the Mexican American War Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848 The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate with very hot summers and mild winters Northern Arizona features forests of pine Douglas fir and spruce trees the Colorado Plateau mountain ranges such as the San Francisco Mountains as well as large deep canyons with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff Alpine and Tucson In addition to the internationally known Grand Canyon National Park which is one of the world s seven natural wonders there are several national forests national parks and national monuments Since the 1950s Arizona s population and economy have grown dramatically because of migration into the state and now the state is a major hub of the Sun Belt Cities such as Phoenix and Tucson have developed large sprawling suburban areas Many large companies such as PetSmart and Circle K 13 have headquarters in the state and Arizona is home to major universities including the University of Arizona and Arizona State University Traditionally the state is politically known for national conservative figures such as Barry Goldwater and John McCain though it voted Democratic in the 1996 presidential race and in the 2020 presidential and senatorial elections Arizona is home to a diverse population About one quarter of the state 14 15 is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes including the Navajo Nation the largest in the state and the United States with more than 300 000 citizens Since the 1980s the proportion of Hispanics in the state s population has grown significantly owing to migration from Mexico In terms of religion a substantial portion of the population are followers of the Catholic Church and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints LDS Church Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2 1 20th century to present 3 Geography 3 1 Adjacent states 4 Climate 4 1 Cities and towns 5 Demographics 5 1 Race and ethnicity 5 2 Languages 5 3 Religion 6 Economy 6 1 Employment 6 2 Largest employers 6 3 Taxation 7 Transportation 7 1 Highways 7 1 1 Interstate highways 7 1 2 U S routes 7 2 Public transportation Amtrak and intercity bus 8 Law and government 8 1 Capitol complex 8 2 State legislative branch 8 3 State executive branch 8 4 State judicial branch 8 5 Counties 8 6 Federal representation 8 7 Political culture 8 8 Same sex marriage and civil unions 9 Education 9 1 Elementary and secondary education 9 2 Higher education 9 3 Public universities in Arizona 9 4 Private colleges and universities in Arizona 9 5 Community colleges 10 Art and culture 10 1 Visual arts and museums 10 2 Film 10 3 Music 10 4 Sports 10 4 1 College sports 10 4 2 Baseball 11 Notable people 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External linksEtymology EditThe state s name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name Arizonac derived from the O odham name alĭ ṣonak meaning small spring Initially this term was applied by Spanish colonists only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata Sonora 16 17 18 19 To the European settlers the O odham pronunciation sounded like Arissona 20 The area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O odham language 12 Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona the good oak as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area 21 22 23 A native Mexican of Basque ancestry established the rancheria village of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora It became notable after a significant discovery of silver there c 1737 24 The misconception that the state s name purportedly originated from the Spanish term Arida Zona Arid Zone is considered a case of folk etymology 20 History EditMain article History of Arizona For thousands of years before the modern era Arizona was home to many ancient Native American civilizations Hohokam Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among those that flourished throughout the state Many of their pueblos cliffside dwellings rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived and attract thousands of tourists each year La conquista del Colorado by Augusto Ferrer Dalmau depicts Francisco Vazquez de Coronado s 1540 1542 expedition In 1539 Marcos de Niza a Spanish Franciscan became the first European to contact Native Americans He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants probably the Sobaipuri The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540 1542 during its search for Cibola 25 Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona One of the first settlers in Arizona was Jose Romo de Vivar 26 Father Kino was the next European in the region A member of the Society of Jesus Jesuits he led the development of a chain of missions in the region He converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimeria Alta now southern Arizona and northern Sonora in the 1690s and early 18th century Spain founded presidios fortified towns at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775 27 When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821 what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California New California also known as Alta California Upper California 28 Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of later European American migrants from the United States Mexico in 1824 Alta California is the northwesternmost state During the Mexican American War 1847 1848 the U S Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico including what later became Arizona Territory in 1863 and later the State of Arizona in 1912 29 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 specified that in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable the sum of 15 million in compensation equivalent to 469 788 461 54 in 2021 be paid to the Republic of Mexico 30 In 1853 the U S acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway 31 What is now known as the state of Arizona was initially administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona 32 This newly established territory was formally organized by the federal government of the Confederate States on Saturday January 18 1862 when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona 33 marking the first official use of the name Territory of Arizona The Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men horses and equipment Formed in 1862 Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War Arizona has the westernmost military engagement on record during the Civil War with the Battle of Picacho Pass 1862 Geronimo far right and his Apache warriors fought against both Mexican and American settlers The Federal government declared a new U S Arizona Territory consisting of the western half of earlier New Mexico Territory in Washington D C on February 24 1863 34 These new boundaries would later form the basis of the state The first territorial capital Prescott was founded in 1864 following a gold rush to central Arizona 35 The capital was later moved to Tucson back to Prescott and then to its final location in Phoenix in a series of controversial moves as different regions of the territory gained and lost political influence with the growth and development of the territory 36 Although names including Gadsonia Pimeria Montezuma and Arizuma had been considered for the territory 37 when 16th President Abraham Lincoln signed the final bill it read Arizona and that name was adopted Montezuma was not derived from the Aztec emperor but was the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pima people of the Gila River Valley It was probably considered and rejected for its sentimental value before Congress settled on the name Arizona Brigham Young patriarchal leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints in Salt Lake City in Utah sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid to late 19th century They founded Mesa Snowflake Heber Safford and other towns They also settled in the Phoenix Valley or Valley of the Sun Tempe Prescott and other areas The Mormons settled what became northern Arizona and northern New Mexico At the time these areas were in a part of the former New Mexico Territory During the nineteenth century a series of gold and silver rushes occurred in the territory the best known being the 1870s stampede to the silver bonanzas of Tombstone Arizona in southeast Arizona also known for its legendary outlaws and lawmen 38 By the late 1880s copper production eclipsed the precious metals with the rise of copper camps like Bisbee Arizona and Jerome Arizona 39 40 The boom and bust economy of mining also left hundreds of ghost towns across the territory but copper mining continued to prosper with the territory producing more copper than any other state by 1907 which earned Arizona the nickname the Copper State at the time of statehood 41 42 During the first years of statehood the industry experienced growing pains and labor disputes with the Bisbee Deportation of 1917 the result of a copper miners strike 43 Children of Depression era migrant workers Pinal County 1937 20th century to present Edit During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920 several battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona settlements Throughout the revolution many Arizonans enlisted in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico Only two significant engagements took place on U S soil between U S and Mexican forces Pancho Villa s 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico and the Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918 in Arizona The Mexicans won the first battle and the Americans won the latter After Mexican federal troops fired on U S soldiers the American garrison launched an assault into Nogales Mexico The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties A few months earlier just west of Nogales an Indian War battle had occurred considered the last engagement in the American Indian Wars which lasted from 1775 to 1918 U S soldiers stationed on the border confronted Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements as part of their wars against Mexico Arizona became a U S state on February 14 1912 Arizona was the 48th state admitted to the U S and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted 44 Eleanor Roosevelt at the Gila River relocation center April 23 1943 Cotton farming and copper mining two of Arizona s most important statewide industries suffered heavily during the Great Depression 45 But during the 1920s and even the 1930s tourism began to develop as the important Arizonan industry it is today Dude ranches such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson gave tourists the chance to take part in the flavor and activities of the Old West Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period some of which are still top tourist draws They include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix opened 1929 and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area opened 1936 46 47 Arizona was the site of German prisoner of war camps during World War II and Japanese American internment camps 48 Because of wartime fears of a Japanese invasion of the U S West Coast which in fact materialized in the Aleutian Islands Campaign in June 1942 From 1942 to 1945 they were forced to reside in internment camps built in the interior of the country Many lost their homes and businesses The camps were abolished after World War II 49 The Phoenix area German P O W site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family of major home appliance fame It was developed as the site of the Phoenix Zoo A Japanese American internment camp was on Mount Lemmon just outside the state s southeastern city of Tucson Another POW camp was near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School one of several federal Indian boarding schools designed to assimilate Native American children into mainstream European American culture Children were often enrolled in these schools against the wishes of their parents and families Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair to take and use English names to speak only English and to practice Christianity rather than their native religions 50 Numerous Native Americans from Arizona fought for the United States during World War II Their experiences resulted in a rising activism in the postwar years to achieve better treatment and civil rights after their return to the state After Maricopa County did not allow them to register to vote in 1948 veteran Frank Harrison and Harry Austin of the Mojave Apache Tribe at Fort McDowell Indian Reservation brought a legal suit Harrison and Austin v Laveen to challenge this exclusion The Arizona Supreme Court ruled in their favor 51 Arizona s population grew tremendously with residential and business development after World War II aided by the widespread use of air conditioning which made the intensely hot summers more comfortable According to the Arizona Blue Book published by the Arizona Secretary of State s office each year the state population in 1910 was 294 353 By 1970 it was 1 752 122 The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20 in the earlier decades and about 60 each decade thereafter In the 1960s retirement communities were developed These age restricted subdivisions catered exclusively to the needs of senior citizens and attracted many retirees who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast Sun City established by developer Del Webb and opened in 1960 was one of the first such communities Green Valley south of Tucson was another such community designed as a retirement subdivision for Arizona s teachers Many senior citizens from across the U S and Canada come to Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months they are referred to as snowbirds In March 2000 Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election ever held over the internet to nominate a candidate for public office 52 In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary under worldwide attention Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley Voter turnout in this state primary increased more than 500 over the 1996 primary In the 21st century Arizona has frequently garnered national attention for its efforts to quell illegal immigration into the state In 2004 voters passed Proposition 200 requiring proof of citizenship to register to vote The Supreme Court of the United States struck this restriction down in 2013 53 In 2010 Arizona enacted SB 1070 which required all immigrants to carry immigration papers at all times but the Supreme Court also invalidated parts of this law in Arizona v United States in 2012 54 On January 8 2011 a gunman shot congresswoman Gabby Giffords and 18 others at a gathering in Tucson Giffords was critically wounded The incident sparked national attention regarding incendiary political rhetoric 55 Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state although only USS Arizona BB 39 was so named after statehood was achieved Geography EditMain article Geography of Arizona Koppen climate types of Arizona The Grand Canyon Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states Arizona is the sixth largest state by area ranked after New Mexico and before Nevada Of the state s 113 998 square miles 295 000 km2 approximately 15 is privately owned The remaining area is public forest and park land state trust land and Native American reservations There are 24 National Park Service maintained sites in Arizona including the three national parks of Grand Canyon National Park Saguaro National Park and the Petrified Forest National Park 56 Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the state s southern portions which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus This region s topography was shaped by prehistoric volcanism followed by the cooling off and related subsidence Its climate has exceptionally hot summers and mild winters The state is less well known for its pine covered north central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau see Arizona Mountains forests Like other states of the Southwest United States Arizona is marked by high mountains the Colorado plateau and mesas Despite the state s aridity 27 of Arizona is forest 57 a percentage comparable to modern day Romania or Greece 58 The world s largest stand of ponderosa pine trees is in Arizona 59 The Mogollon Rim ˌmoʊ geˈyoʊn a 1 998 foot 609 m escarpment cuts across the state s central section and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau In 2002 this was an area of the Rodeo Chediski Fire the worst fire in state history until 2011 Located in northern Arizona the Grand Canyon is a colorful deep steep sided gorge carved by the Colorado River The canyon is one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park one of the first national parks in the United States President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area as a National Park often visiting to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years and is about 277 miles 446 km long ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles 6 to 29 km and attains a depth of more than 1 mile 1 6 km Nearly two billion years of the Earth s history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateau uplifted Arizona is home to one of the most well preserved meteorite impact sites in the world Created around 50 000 years ago the Barringer Meteorite Crater better known simply as Meteor Crater is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau about 25 miles 40 km west of Winslow A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders some of them the size of small houses rises 150 feet 46 m above the level of the surrounding plain The crater itself is nearly a mile 1 6 kilometers wide and 570 feet 170 m deep Arizona is one of two U S states along with Hawaii that does not observe Daylight Saving Time though the large Navajo Nation in the state s northeastern region does Adjacent states Edit Utah north Colorado northeast Nevada northwest Sonora Mexico south Baja California Mexico southwest New Mexico east California west Climate EditFurther information Climate change in Arizona Due to its large area and variations in elevation the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions In the lower elevations the climate is primarily desert with mild winters and extremely hot summers Typically from late fall to early spring the weather is mild averaging a minimum of 60 F 16 C November through February are the coldest months with temperatures typically ranging from 40 to 75 F 4 to 24 C with occasional frosts 60 About midway through February the temperatures start to rise with warm days and cool breezy nights The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat from 90 to 120 F 32 to 49 C with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 F 52 C having been observed in the desert area 60 Arizona s all time record high is 128 F 53 C recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 29 1994 and July 5 2007 the all time record low of 40 F 40 C was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7 1971 61 Due to the primarily dry climate large diurnal temperature variations occur in less developed areas of the desert above 2 500 ft 760 m The swings can be as large as 83 F 46 C in the summer months In the state s urban centers the effects of local warming result in much higher measured night time lows than in the recent past Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12 7 in 323 mm 62 which comes during two rainy seasons with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer 63 The monsoon season occurs toward the end of summer In July or August the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period During this time the air contains large amounts of water vapor Dewpoints as high as 81 F 27 C 64 have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season This hot moisture brings lightning thunderstorms wind and torrential if usually brief downpours These downpours often cause flash floods which can turn deadly In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams the Arizona Legislature enacted the Stupid Motorist Law It is rare for tornadoes or hurricanes to occur in Arizona Arizona s northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert and has an appreciably cooler climate with cold winters and mild summers though the climate remains semiarid to arid Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state bringing temperatures below 0 F 18 C to the state s northern parts Indicative of the variation in climate Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 F 38 C Phoenix and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with the most days with a low temperature below freezing Flagstaff 65 Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Arizona 66 Location July F July C December F December C Phoenix 106 83 41 28 66 45 19 7Tucson 100 74 38 23 65 39 18 4Yuma 107 82 42 28 68 46 20 8Flagstaff 81 51 27 11 42 17 6 8Prescott 89 60 32 16 51 23 11 5Kingman 98 66 37 19 56 32 13 0Cities and towns Edit See also List of places in Arizona List of cities and towns in Arizona and List of Arizona counties This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed February 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message View of suburban development in Scottsdale 2006 Phoenix in Maricopa County is Arizona s capital and largest city Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa Arizona s third largest city Chandler Arizona s fourth largest city Glendale Peoria Buckeye Sun City Sun City West Fountain Hills Surprise Gilbert El Mirage Avondale Tempe Tolleson and Scottsdale with a total metropolitan population of just over 4 7 million 67 The average high temperature in July 106 F 41 C is one of the highest of any metropolitan area in the United States offset by an average January high temperature of 67 F 19 C the basis of its winter appeal Tucson with a metro population of just over one million is the state s second largest city Located in Pima County approximately 110 miles 180 km southeast of Phoenix it was incorporated in 1877 making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona It is home to the University of Arizona Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city Sahuarita south of the city and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown It has an average July temperature of 100 F 38 C and winter temperatures averaging 65 F 18 C Saguaro National Park just west of the city in the Tucson Mountains is the site of the world s largest collection of Saguaro cacti The Prescott metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott Cottonwood Camp Verde and many other towns in the 8 123 square miles 21 000 km2 of Yavapai County area With 212 635 residents this cluster of towns is the state s third largest metropolitan area The city of Prescott population 41 528 lies approximately 100 miles 160 km northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5 500 feet 1 700 m Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix with average summer highs around 88 F 31 C and winter temperatures averaging 50 F 10 C Yuma is the center of the fourth largest metropolitan area in Arizona Located in Yuma County it is near the borders of California and Mexico It is one of the hottest cities in the United States with an average July high of 107 F 42 C The same month s average in Death Valley is 115 F 46 C The city features sunny days about 90 of the year The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160 000 Yuma attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States Flagstaff in Coconino County is the largest city in northern Arizona and is at an elevation of nearly 7 000 feet 2 100 m With its large Ponderosa pine forests snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona It is sited at the base of the San Francisco Peaks the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona which contains Humphreys Peak the highest point in Arizona at 12 633 feet 3 851 m Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including Grand Canyon National Park Sedona and Oak Creek Canyon Historic U S Route 66 is the main east west street in the town The Flagstaff metropolitan area is home to 134 421 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University Lake Havasu City in Mohave County known as Arizona s playground was developed on the Colorado River and is named after Lake Havasu Lake Havasu City has a population of about 53 000 people It is famous for huge spring break parties sunsets and the London Bridge relocated from London England Lake Havasu City was founded by real estate developer Robert P McCulloch in 1963 68 It has two colleges Mohave Community College and ASU Colleges in Lake Havasu City 69 Largest cities or towns in Arizona Source 70 Rank Name County Pop Rank Name County Pop Phoenix Tucson 1 Phoenix Maricopa 1 660 272 11 Yuma Yuma 97 908 Mesa Chandler2 Tucson Pima 545 975 12 San Tan Valley Pinal 90 6653 Mesa Maricopa 508 958 13 Avondale Maricopa 85 8354 Chandler Maricopa 257 165 14 Goodyear Maricopa 82 8355 Scottsdale Maricopa 255 310 15 Buckeye Maricopa 74 3706 Glendale Maricopa 250 702 16 Flagstaff Coconino 73 9647 Gilbert Maricopa 248 279 17 Casas Adobes Pima 68 9198 Tempe Maricopa 192 364 18 Casa Grande Pinal 57 2329 Peoria Maricopa 172 259 19 Lake Havasu City Mohave 55 09010 Surprise Maricopa 138 161 20 Catalina Foothills Pima 50 202Demographics EditMain article Demographics of Arizona A population density map of Arizona Historical populationCensus Pop 18606 482 18709 65849 0 188040 440318 7 189088 243118 2 1900122 93139 3 1910204 35466 2 1920334 16263 5 1930435 57330 3 1940499 26114 6 1950749 58750 1 19601 302 16173 7 19701 770 90036 0 19802 718 21553 5 19903 665 22834 8 20005 130 63240 0 20106 392 01724 6 20207 151 50211 9 Sources 1910 2020 71 Note that early censuses may not include Native Americans in Arizona The United States Census Bureau records Arizona s population as 7 151 502 in the 2020 Census 8 a 12 increase since the 2010 United States Census 71 Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century 72 The 1860 census reported the population of Arizona County to be 6 482 of whom 4 040 were listed as Indians 21 as free colored and 2 421 as white 73 74 Arizona s continued population growth puts an enormous stress on the state s water supply 75 As of 2011 update 61 of Arizona s children under age one belonged to racial groups of color 76 The population of metropolitan Phoenix increased by 45 from 1991 through 2001 helping to make Arizona the second fastest growing state in the U S in the 1990s the fastest was Nevada 77 As of July 2018 update the population of the Phoenix area is estimated to be over 4 9 million According to the 2010 United States Census Arizona had a population of 6 392 017 In 2010 illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 8 of the population This was the second highest percentage of any state in the U S 78 79 Arizona has banned sanctuary cities 80 Metropolitan Phoenix 4 7 million and Tucson 1 0 million are home to about five sixths of Arizona s people as of the 2010 census Metro Phoenix alone accounts for two thirds of the state s population Race and ethnicity Edit Ethnic composition as of the 2020 census Race and Ethnicity 81 Alone TotalWhite non Hispanic 53 4 53 4 56 8 56 8 Hispanic or Latino a 30 7 30 7 African American non Hispanic 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 Native American non Hispanic 3 7 3 7 4 9 4 9 Asian 3 5 3 5 4 5 4 5 Pacific Islander 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 4 Other 0 4 0 4 1 2 1 2 Historical racial demographics Racial composition 1970 82 1990 82 2000 83 2010 84 White non Hispanic 74 3 71 7 63 8 57 8 Native non Hispanic 5 4 5 6 5 0 4 6 Black non Hispanic 4 1 Asian 2 8 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander 0 2 Other race 11 6 Two or more races 3 4 Arizona s five largest ancestry groups as of 2019 update were 85 English 58 German 9 Asian 7 African 12 Irish 7 Languages Edit Extent of the Spanish language in the state of Arizona Top 10 non English languages spoken in Arizona Language Percentage of population as of 2010 86 Spanish 21 Navajo 2 German lt 1 Chinese including Mandarin lt 1 Tagalog lt 1 Vietnamese lt 1 Other North American indigenous languages especially indigenous languages of Arizona lt 1 French lt 1 Arabic lt 1 Apache lt 1 Korean lt 1 A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley As of 2010 update 73 4 215 749 of Arizona residents age five and older spoke only English at home while 21 1 202 638 spoke Spanish 2 85 602 Navajo lt 1 22 592 German lt 1 22 426 Chinese which includes Mandarin lt 1 19 015 Tagalog lt 1 17 603 Vietnamese lt 1 15 707 Other North American Indigenous Languages especially indigenous languages of Arizona and French was spoken as a main language by lt 1 15 062 of the population over the age of five In total 27 1 567 548 of Arizona s population age five and older spoke a mother language other than English 86 Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states as more than 85 000 individuals reported speaking Navajo 87 and 10 403 people reported Apache as a language spoken at home in 2005 87 Arizona s Apache County has the highest concentration of speakers of Native American Indian languages in the United States 88 Religion Edit The Spanish mission of San Xavier del Bac founded in 1700 Religion in Arizona 2014 89 Religion PercentProtestant 39 Unaffiliated 27 Catholic 21 Mormon 5 Jewish 2 Jehovah s Witness 1 Hindu 1 Buddhist 1 Muslim 1 Other 2 In 2010 the Association of Religion Data Archives reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona were the Catholic Church The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and non denominational Evangelical Protestants The Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Arizona at 930 001 followed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints with 410 263 members reported 90 and then non denominational Evangelical Protestants reporting 281 105 adherents 91 The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints with 836 congregations 92 followed by the Southern Baptist Convention with 323 congregations According to the Association of Religion Data Archives the fifteen largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 and 2000 were 93 94 Religion 2010 Population 2000 PopulationCatholic Church 930 001 974 884The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints 410 263 251 974Non denominational Christianity 281 105 63 885 b Southern Baptist Convention 126 830 138 516Assemblies of God 123 713 82 802United Methodist Church 54 977 53 232Christian Churches and Churches of Christ 48 386 33 162Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 42 944 69 393Lutheran Church Missouri Synod 26 322 24 977Presbyterian Church U S A 26 078 33 554Episcopal Church United States 24 853 31 104Seventh day Adventist Church 20 924 11 513Church of the Nazarene 16 991 18 143Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ 14 350 0Churches of Christ 14 151 14 471 Hinduism became the largest non Christian religion when combining all denominations in 2010 with more than 32 000 adherents followed by Judaism with more than 20 000 and Buddhism with more than 19 000 93 95 96 Economy EditSee also Economy of Arizona and Arizona locations by per capita income Arizona s Meteor Crater is a tourist attraction The 2020 total gross state product was 373 billion The composition of the state s economy is moderately diverse although health care transportation and the government remain the largest sectors 97 The state s per capita income is 40 828 ranking 39th in the U S The state had a median household income of 50 448 making it 22nd in the country and just below the U S national mean 98 Early in its history Arizona s economy relied on the five C s copper see Copper mining in Arizona cotton cattle citrus and climate tourism Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open pit and underground mines accounting for two thirds of the nation s output Employment Edit Total employment 2016 2 379 409 Total employer establishments 2016 139 134 99 The state government is Arizona s largest employer while Banner Health is the state s largest private employer with more than 39 000 employees 2016 As of August 2020 update the state s unemployment rate was 5 9 100 The largest employment sectors in Arizona are August 2020 Nonfarm Employment 100 Sector EmployeesTrade transportation and utilities 553 300Education and health services 459 400Government 430 400Professional and business services 419 200Leisure and hospitality 269 400Financial activities 231 900Manufacturing 170 900Construction 169 900Other services 95 600Information 46 100Mining and logging 13 300Arizona state symbols Flag of Arizona Living insigniaAmphibianArizona tree frogBirdCactus wrenButterflyTwo tailed swallowtailFishApache troutFlowerSaguaro cactus blossomMammalRingtailReptileArizona ridge nosed rattlesnakeTreePalo verdeInanimate insigniaColorsBlue old goldDinosaurSonorasaurusFirearmColt Single Action Army revolverFossilPetrified woodGemstoneTurquoiseMineralCopperRockPetrified woodShipUSS ArizonaSloganThe Grand Canyon StateState route marker State quarter Released in 2008Lists of United States state symbolsLargest employers Edit According to The Arizona Republic the largest private employers in the state as of 2019 update were 101 Rank Company Employees Industry1 Banner Health 44 718 Healthcare2 Walmart Stores Inc 34 071 Discount retailer3 Kroger Co 20 530 Grocery stores4 Wells Fargo amp Co 16 161 Financial services5 Albertsons Inc 14 500 Grocery stores retail drugstores6 McDonald s Corp 13 000 Food service7 CVS Health 12 100 Healthcare8 Raytheon Co 12 000 Defense9 HonorHealth 11 919 Healthcare10 Dignity Health 10 562 Healthcare11 Intel Corp 10 400 Semiconductor manufacturing12 Home Depot Inc 10 200 Retail home improvement13 tie JP Morgan Chase amp Co 10 000 Financial servicesAmerican Airlines 10 000 Airline15 Tenet Healthcare 9 483 Healthcare16 Bank of America Corp 9 200 Financial services17 Freeport McMoRan Copper amp Gold Inc 8 759 Mining18 Bashas Supermarkets 8 519 Grocery stores19 Amazon com 8 500 Online Shopping20 Target Corp 8 400 Discount retailer21 Honeywell International Inc 7 792 Aerospace manufacturing22 Circle K Corp 7 478 Convenience stores23 Mayo Foundation 7 436 Healthcare24 State Farm 7 200 Insurance25 UnitedHealthcare 7 194 HealthcareTaxation Edit Tax is collected by the Arizona Department of Revenue 102 Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets 2 59 2 88 3 36 4 24 and 4 54 103 The state transaction privilege tax is 5 6 however county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2 In 2020 Arizona voters approved Proposition 208 to create an additional income tax bracket of 8 for incomes over 250 000 single filers and 500 000 joint filers 104 The Goldwater Institute filed a lawsuit challenging it but it was rejected by Maricopa County Arizona Superior Court judge John Hannah Jr 105 106 The state rate on transient lodging hotel motel is 7 27 The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist However some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which with the exception of their hotel motel tax are generally in the range of 1 to 3 These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10 7 citation needed Single Tax rate Joint Tax rate0 10 000 2 59 0 20 000 2 59 10 000 25 000 2 88 20 001 50 000 2 88 25 000 50 000 3 36 50 001 100 000 3 36 50 000 150 001 4 24 100 000 300 001 4 24 150 001 4 54 300 001 4 54 Transportation EditMain article Transportation in Arizona Entering Arizona on I 10 from New Mexico Highways Edit Interstate highways Edit I 8 I 10 Future I 11 I 15 I 17 I 19 I 40 U S routes Edit US 60 US 64 Historic US 66 US 70 Historic US 80 US 89 US 89A US 91 US 93 US 95 US 160 US 163 US 180 US 191 Main Interstate routes include I 17 and I 19 traveling north south I 8 I 10 and I 40 traveling east west and a short stretch of I 15 traveling northeast southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state In addition the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways such as the Loop 101 which is part of Phoenix s vast freeway system 107 Public transportation Amtrak and intercity bus Edit See also List of passenger train stations in Arizona The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix Tucson Flagstaff Yuma and several smaller communities statewide A light rail system called Valley Metro Rail was completed in December 2008 it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe 108 In Tucson the Sun Link streetcar system travels through the downtown area connecting the main University of Arizona campus with Mercado San Agustin on the western edge of downtown Tucson Sun Link loosely based on the Portland Streetcar launched in July 2014 109 Amtrak Southwest Chief route serves the northern part of the state stopping at Winslow Flagstaff Williams and Kingman The Texas Eagle and Sunset Limited routes serve South Central Arizona stopping at Tucson Maricopa Yuma and Benson Phoenix lost Amtrak service in 1996 with the rerouting of the Sunset Limited and now an Amtrak bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa As of 2021 Amtrak has proposed to restore rail service between Phoenix and Tucson 110 Law and government EditMain article Government of Arizona This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed February 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message See also Arizona Constitution United States congressional delegations from Arizona List of Arizona Governors Political party strength in Arizona and Arizona Revised Statutes Capitol complex Edit The original Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix The capital of Arizona is Phoenix The original Capitol building with its distinctive copper dome was dedicated in 1901 construction was completed for 136 000 in 1900 when the area was a territory Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona s admission to the union in 1912 111 The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960 and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located The original Capitol building was converted into a museum The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza named after Wesley Bolin a governor who died in office in the 1970s The site also includes many monuments and memorials including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona one of the U S Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor and a granite version of the Ten Commandments State legislative branch Edit The Arizona Legislature is bicameral and consists of a thirty member Senate and a 60 member House of Representatives Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives Legislators are elected for two year terms Each Legislature covers a two year period The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die terminates for the year no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House by rule may extend the session up to seven additional days Thereafter the session can be extended only by a majority vote of members present of each house The majority party is the Republican Party which has held power in both houses since 1993 The Democratic Party picked up several legislative seats in recent elections bringing both chambers one seat away from being equally divided as of 2021 Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber though there is no limit on the total number of terms When a lawmaker is term limited from office it is common for him or her to run for election in the other chamber The fiscal year 2006 07 general fund budget approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006 was slightly less than 10 billion Besides the money spent on state agencies it also included more than 500 million in income and property tax cuts pay raises for government employees and additional funding for the K 12 education system State executive branch Edit State of Arizona elected officialsGovernor Doug Ducey R Secretary of State Katie Hobbs D Attorney General Mark Brnovich R State Treasurer Kimberley Yee R Superintendent of Public Instruction Kathy Hoffman D State Mine Inspector Joe Hart R Corporation Commissioner Sandra Kennedy D Bob Burns R Lea Marquez Peterson R Anna Tovar D Justin Olson R Speaker of the House Rusty Bowers R President of the Senate Karen Fann R Arizona s executive branch is headed by a governor who is elected to a four year term The governor may serve any number of terms though no more than two in a row Arizona is one of the few states that has no governor s mansion During their term the governors reside within their private residence with executive offices housed in the executive tower at the state capitol The governor of Arizona is Doug Ducey R Governor Jan Brewer assumed office in 2009 after Janet Napolitano had her nomination by Barack Obama for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the United States Senate 112 Arizona has had four female governors more than any other state Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State State Treasurer State Attorney General Superintendent of Public Instruction State Mine Inspector and a five member Corporation Commission All elected officials hold a term of four years and are limited to two consecutive terms except the office of the State Mine Inspector which is limited to four terms 113 Arizona is one of five states that do not have a lieutenant governor The elected secretary of state is first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death disability resignation or removal from office If appointed the Secretary of State is not eligible and the next governor is selected from the next eligible official in the line of succession including the attorney general state treasurer and superintendent of public instruction Since 1977 four secretaries of state and one attorney general have succeeded to Arizona s governorship State judicial branch Edit The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona consisting of a chief justice a vice chief justice and five associate justices Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission and must be sustained in office by election after the first two years following their appointment Subsequent sustaining elections occur every six years The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases but nearly all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals first The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances as outlined in the state constitution The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza The Arizona Court of Appeals subdivided into two divisions is the intermediate court in the state Division One is based in Phoenix consists of sixteen judges and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state along with the greater Phoenix area Division Two is based in Tucson consists of six judges and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state including the Tucson area Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices Each county of Arizona has a superior court the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county Counties Edit Art Deco doors of the Cochise County Courthouse in Bisbee Arizona is divided into 15 counties ranging in size from 1 238 square miles 3 210 km2 to 18 661 square miles 48 330 km2 Arizona countiesCounty name County seat Founded 2020 population 114 Percent of total Area sq mi Percent of totalApache St Johns February 24 1879 66 021 0 9 11 218 9 8 Cochise Bisbee February 1 1881 125 447 1 8 6 219 5 5 Coconino Flagstaff February 18 1891 145 101 2 0 18 661 16 4 Gila Globe February 8 1881 53 272 0 7 4 796 4 2 Graham Safford March 10 1881 38 533 0 5 4 641 4 1 Greenlee Clifton March 10 1909 9 563 0 1 1 848 1 6 La Paz Parker January 1 1983 16 557 0 2 4 513 4 0 Maricopa Phoenix February 14 1871 4 420 568 61 8 9 224 8 1 Mohave Kingman November 9 1864 213 267 3 0 13 470 11 8 Navajo Holbrook March 21 1895 106 717 1 5 9 959 8 7 Pima Tucson November 9 1864 1 043 433 14 6 9 189 8 1 Pinal Florence February 1 1875 425 264 6 0 5 374 4 7 Santa Cruz Nogales March 15 1899 47 669 0 7 1 238 1 1 Yavapai Prescott November 9 1864 236 209 3 3 8 128 7 1 Yuma Yuma November 9 1864 203 881 2 9 5 519 4 8 Totals 15 7 151 502 113 997Federal representation Edit Arizona s two United States Senators are Kyrsten Sinema D and Mark Kelly D Kelly succeeded Martha McSally who was appointed by Governor Doug Ducey following the resignation of Jon Kyl who himself was appointed by Ducey after the death of John McCain in late 2018 As of the start of the 115th Congress Arizona s representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Tom O Halleran D 1 Ann Kirkpatrick D 2 Raul Grijalva D 3 Paul Gosar R 4 Andy Biggs R 5 David Schweikert R 6 Ruben Gallego D 7 Debbie Lesko R 8 and Greg Stanton D 9 Arizona gained a ninth seat in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2010 Political culture Edit See also Elections in Arizona Political party strength in Arizona and United States presidential elections in Arizona Voter Registration as of April 2022 115 Party Number of voters PercentageRepublican 1 478 781 34 5 Other 1 442 813 33 6 Democratic 1 334 001 31 1 Libertarian 34 753 0 8 Total 4 290 348 100 Party registration by county January 2021 Democrat gt 30 Democrat gt 40 Democrat gt 50 Republican gt 30 Republican gt 40 Republican gt 50 Unaffiliated gt 30 From statehood through the late 1940s Arizona was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party During this time the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election the only exceptions being the elections of 1920 1924 and 1928 all three were national Republican landslides In 1924 Congress had passed a law granting citizenship and suffrage to all Native Americans some of whom had previously been excluded as members of tribes on reservations Legal interpretations of Arizona s constitution prohibited Native Americans living on reservations from voting classifying them as being under guardianship 51 This interpretation was overturned as being incorrect and unconstitutional in 1948 by the Arizona Supreme Court following a suit by World War II Indian veterans Frank Harrison and Harry Austin both of the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation The landmark case is Harrison and Austin v Laveen After the men were refused the opportunity to register in Maricopa County they filed suit against the registrar The National Congress of American Indians the Department of Justice the Department of the Interior and the American Civil Liberties Union all filed amicus curiae friends of the court briefs in the case The State Supreme Court established the rights of Native Americans to vote in the state at the time they comprised about 11 of the population 51 That year a similar provision was overturned in New Mexico when challenged by another Indian veteran in court These were the only two states that had continued to prohibit Native Americans from voting 116 51 Arizona voted Republican in every presidential election from 1952 to 1992 with Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan winning the state by particularly large margins During this forty year span it was the only state not to be carried by a Democrat at least once Presidential elections results Year Republican Democratic2020 49 0 1 661 686 49 4 1 672 1432016 48 1 1 252 401 44 6 1 161 1672012 53 5 1 233 654 44 5 1 025 2322008 53 4 1 230 111 44 9 1 034 7072004 54 7 1 104 294 44 3 893 5242000 50 9 781 652 44 7 685 3411996 44 3 622 073 46 5 653 2881992 38 4 572 086 36 5 543 0501988 59 9 702 541 38 7 454 0291984 66 4 681 416 32 5 333 8541980 60 6 529 688 28 2 246 8431976 56 3 418 642 39 8 295 602 Democrat Lyndon Johnson in 1964 lost the state by fewer than 5 000 votes to Arizona Senator and native Barry Goldwater This was the most closely contested state in what was otherwise a landslide victory for Johnson that year Democrat Bill Clinton ended this streak in 1996 when he won Arizona by a little over two percentage points Clinton had previously come within less than two percent of winning Arizona s electoral votes in 1992 From 2000 until 2016 the majority of the state continued to support Republican presidential candidates by solid margins In the 2020 United States presidential election Joe Biden again broke the streak by becoming the first Democratic presidential candidate to win Arizona since 1996 117 Since the mid 20th century the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona politics in general The fast growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became reliably Republicans areas from the 1950s onward During this time many Pinto Democrats or conservative Democrats from rural areas became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level While the state normally supports Republicans at the federal level Democrats are often competitive in statewide elections Two of the last six governors have been Democrats On March 4 2008 Senator John McCain effectively clinched the Republican nomination for 2008 becoming the first major party presidential nominee from the state since Barry Goldwater in 1964 Arizona politics are dominated by a longstanding rivalry between its two largest counties Maricopa and Pima home to Phoenix and Tucson respectively The two counties have almost 75 percent of the state s population and cast almost 80 percent of the state s vote They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature Maricopa County is home to almost 60 percent of the state s population and most of the state s elected officials live there Before Joe Biden won Maricopa County in 2020 it had voted Republican in every presidential election since 1948 This includes the 1964 run of native son Barry Goldwater he would not have carried his home state without his 20 000 vote margin in Maricopa County Similarly while McCain won Arizona by eight percentage points in 2008 aided by his 130 000 vote margin in Maricopa County In contrast Pima County home to Tucson and most of southern Arizona have historically voted more Democratic While Tucson s suburbs lean Republican they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area Arizona teacher s strike and rally on April 26 2018 Arizona rejected a same sex marriage ban in a referendum as part of the 2006 elections Arizona was the first state in the nation to do so Same sex marriage was not recognized in Arizona but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples 118 In 2008 Arizona voters passed Proposition 102 an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman It passed by a more narrow majority than similar votes in a number of other states 119 In 2010 Arizona passed SB 1070 called the toughest illegal immigration legislation in the nation A fierce debate erupted between supporters and detractors of the law 120 The United States Supreme Court struck down portions of the Arizona law which required all immigrants to carry immigration papers at all times in Arizona v United States 121 The West Virginia teachers strike in 2018 inspired teachers in other states including Arizona to take similar action 122 In a 2020 study Arizona was ranked as the 21st hardest state for citizens to vote in 123 Same sex marriage and civil unions Edit In 2006 Arizona became the first state in the United States to reject a proposition Prop 107 that would have banned same sex marriage and civil unions 124 However in 2008 Arizona voters approved of Prop 102 a constitutional amendment that prohibited same sex marriage but not other unions 125 Prior to same sex marriage being legal the City of Bisbee became the first jurisdiction in Arizona to approve of civil unions 126 The state s Attorney General at the time Tom Horne threatened to sue but rescinded the threat once Bisbee amended the ordinance Bisbee approved of civil unions in 2013 127 The municipalities of Clarkdale Cottonwood Jerome Sedona and Tucson also passed civil unions 128 A November 2011 Public Policy Polling survey found 44 of Arizona voters supported the legalization of same sex marriage while 45 opposed it and 12 were not sure A separate question on the same survey found 72 of respondents supported legal recognition of same sex couples with 40 supporting same sex marriage 32 supporting civil unions 27 opposing all legal recognition and 1 not sure Arizona Proposition 102 known by its supporters as the Marriage Protection Amendment appeared as a legislatively referred constitutional amendment on the November 4 2008 ballot in Arizona where it was approved 56 43 It amended the Arizona Constitution to define marriage as between one man and one woman 129 On October 17 2014 Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne announced his office would no longer object to same sex marriage in response to a U S District Court Ruling on Arizona Proposition 102 On that day each county s Clerk of the Superior Court began to issue same sex marriage licenses and Arizona became the 31st state to legalize same sex marriage 130 Education EditElementary and secondary education Edit Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education and the Arizona Department of Education A state Superintendent of Public Instruction elected in partisan elections every even numbered year when there is not a presidential election for a four year term In 2005 a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts 131 Higher education Edit The University of Arizona the Mall in Tucson Arizona State University a biodesign building in Tempe Northern Arizona University The Skydome in Flagstaff Arizona is served by three public universities The University of Arizona Arizona State University and Northern Arizona University These schools are governed by the Arizona Board of Regents Private higher education in Arizona is dominated by a large number of for profit and chain multi site universities 132 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Prescott and Prescott College are Arizona s only non profit four year private colleges 133 Arizona has a wide network of two year vocational schools and community colleges These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide board of directors but in 2002 the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts 134 The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation Public universities in Arizona Edit Arizona State University Sun Devils Tempe Phoenix Mesa Glendale Lake Havasu Northern Arizona University Lumberjacks Flagstaff Yuma Prescott University of Arizona Wildcats Tucson Sierra Vista MD college in downtown Phoenix and UA Agricultural Center in Yuma MaricopaPrivate colleges and universities in Arizona Edit American Indian College Carrington College Arizona Christian University Art Center College of Design Art Institute of Tucson Art Institute of Phoenix A T Still University Brookline College Brown Mackie College Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Grand Canyon University International Baptist College Midwestern University Northcentral University Ottawa University Park University University of Phoenix Penn Foster College 135 Prescott College Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine Thunderbird School of Global Management University of Advancing Technology Western Governors University Western International University Conservatory of Recording Arts and Sciences Community colleges Edit Arizona Western College Central Arizona College Cochise College Coconino Community College Dine College Eastern Arizona College Chandler Gilbert Community College Estrella Mountain Community College GateWay Community College Glendale Community College Maricopa County Community College District Mesa Community College Mohave Community College Northland Pioneer College Paradise Valley Community College Phoenix College Pima Community College Rio Salado Community College Scottsdale Community College South Mountain Community College Yavapai CollegeArt and culture EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed February 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Visual arts and museums Edit See also List of museums in Arizona Phoenix Art Museum on the historic Central Avenue Corridor in Phoenix is the Southwest s largest collection of visual art from across the world The museum displays international exhibitions alongside the museum s collection of more than 18 000 works of American Asian European Latin American Western American modern and contemporary art and fashion design With a community education mandate since 1951 Phoenix Art Museum holds a year round program of festivals live performances independent art films and educational programs The museum also has PhxArtKids an interactive space for children photography exhibitions through the museum s partnership with the Center for Creative Photography the landscaped Sculpture Garden and dining at Arcadia Farms 136 Arizona is a recognized center of Native American art with a number of galleries showcasing historical and contemporary works The Heard Museum also in Phoenix is a major repository of Native American art Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry the Barry Goldwater Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls and an exhibit on the 19th century boarding school experiences of Native Americans The Heard Museum has about 250 000 visitors a year Sedona Jerome and Tubac are known as budding artist colonies and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities 137 Film Edit See also List of films shot in Arizona View of Monument Valley from John Ford s Point Several major Hollywood films such as Billy Jack U Turn Waiting to Exhale Just One of the Guys Can t Buy Me Love Bill amp Ted s Excellent Adventure The Scorpion King The Banger Sisters Used Cars and Raising Arizona have been made there as have many Westerns The 1993 science fiction movie Fire in the Sky based on a reported alien abduction in the town of Snowflake was set in Snowflake It was filmed in the Oregon towns of Oakland Roseburg and Sutherlin The 1974 film Alice Doesn t Live Here Anymore for which Ellen Burstyn won the Academy Award for Best Actress and also starring Kris Kristofferson was set in Tucson The climax of the 1977 Clint Eastwood film The Gauntlet takes place in downtown Phoenix The final segments of the 1984 film Starman take place at Meteor Crater outside Winslow The Jeff Foxworthy comedy documentary movie Blue Collar Comedy Tour was filmed almost entirely at the Dodge Theatre Some of Alfred Hitchcock s classic film Psycho was shot in Phoenix the ostensible home town of the main character Some of the television shows filmed or set in Arizona include The New Dick Van Dyke Show Medium Alice The First 48 Insomniac with Dave Attell Cops and America s Most Wanted The TV sitcom Alice which was based on the movie was set in Phoenix Twilight had passages set in Phoenix at the beginning and the end of the film Music Edit Main article Music of Arizona Arizona is prominently featured in the lyrics of many Country and Western songs such as Jamie O Neal s hit ballad There Is No Arizona George Strait s Oceanfront Property uses ocean front property in Arizona as a metaphor for a sucker proposition The line see you down in Arizona Bay is used in a Tool song in reference to the possibility expressed as a hope by comedian Bill Hicks that Southern California will one day fall into the ocean Glen Campbell a notable resident popularized the song By The Time I Get To Phoenix Standin on the Corner Park and mural in Winslow Arizona Arizona was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay Arizona is mentioned by the hit song Take It Easy written by Jackson Browne and Glenn Frey and performed by the Eagles Arizona is also mentioned in the Beatles song Get Back credited to John Lennon and Paul McCartney McCartney sings JoJo left his home in Tucson Arizona for some California grass Carefree Highway released in 1974 by Gordon Lightfoot takes its name from Arizona State Route 74 north of Phoenix 138 Arizona s budding music scene is helped by emerging bands as well as some well known artists The Gin Blossoms Chronic Future Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers Jimmy Eat World Caroline s Spine and others began their careers in Arizona Also a number of punk and rock bands got their start in Arizona including JFA The Feederz Sun City Girls The Meat Puppets The Maine The Summer Set and more recently Authority Zero and Digital Summer Arizona also has many singers and other musicians Singer songwriter and guitarist Michelle Branch is from Sedona Chester Bennington the former lead vocalist of Linkin Park and mash up artist DJ Z Trip are both from Phoenix One of Arizona s better known musicians is shock rocker Alice Cooper who helped define the genre Maynard James Keenan the lead singer of the bands Tool A Perfect Circle and Puscifer calls the town of Cornville home Other notable singers include country singers Dierks Bentley and Marty Robbins folk singer Katie Lee Fleetwood Mac s Stevie Nicks CeCe Peniston Rex Allen 2007 American Idol winner Jordin Sparks and Linda Ronstadt Arizona is also known for its heavy metal scene which is centered in and around Phoenix In the early to mid 1990s it included bands such as Job for a Cowboy Knights of the Abyss Greeley Estates Eyes Set To Kill blessthefall The Word Alive The Dead Rabbitts and Abigail Williams The band Soulfly calls Phoenix home and Megadeth lived in Phoenix for about a decade Beginning in and around 2009 Phoenix began to host a burgeoning desert rock and sludge metal underground ala Kyuss in 1990s California led by bands like Wolves of Winter Asimov and Dead Canyon American composer Elliott Carter composed his first String Quartet 1950 51 while on sabbatical from New York in Arizona The quartet won a Pulitzer Prize and other awards and is now a staple of the string quartet repertoire citation needed Sports Edit This section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed December 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Main article Sports in Arizona Club Sport League ChampionshipsArizona Cardinals American football National Football League 2 1925 1947 Phoenix Suns Basketball National Basketball Association 0Arizona Diamondbacks Baseball Major League Baseball 1 2001 Arizona Coyotes Ice hockey National Hockey League 0Arizona Rattlers Indoor football Indoor Football League 6 1994 1997 2012 2013 2014 2017 Phoenix Rising FC Soccer USL Championship 0Phoenix Mercury Basketball Women s National Basketball Association 3 2007 2009 2014 Tucson Roadrunners Ice hockey American Hockey League 0 State Farm Stadium in Glendale State Farm Stadium hosted Super Bowl XLII on February 3 2008 and Super Bowl XLIX on February 1 2015 The stadium is also scheduled to host Super Bowl LVII tentatively scheduled for February 12 2023 Due to its numerous golf courses Arizona is home to several stops on the PGA Tour most notably the Phoenix Open held at the TPC of Scottsdale and the WGC Accenture Match Play Championship at the Ritz Carlton Golf Club in Marana Auto racing is another sport known in the state Phoenix Raceway in Avondale is home to NASCAR race weekends twice a year Firebird International Raceway near Chandler is home to drag racing and other motorsport events College sports Edit College sports are also prevalent in Arizona The Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats belong to the Pac 12 Conference while the Northern Arizona Lumberjacks compete in the Big Sky Conference and the Grand Canyon Antelopes compete in the Western Athletic Conference The rivalry between Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats predates Arizona s statehood and is the oldest rivalry in the NCAA 139 The Territorial Cup first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football 140 is awarded to the winner of the annual football game between the two schools Arizona also hosts several college football bowl games The Fiesta Bowl originally held at Sun Devil Stadium is now held at State Farm Stadium in Glendale The Fiesta Bowl is part of the new College Football Playoff CFP University of Phoenix Stadium was also home to the 2007 and 2011 BCS National Championship Games A spring training game between the Cubs and White Sox at HoHoKam Park State Farm Stadium hosted the Final Four of the NCAA Division I Men s Basketball Tournament in 2017 and is scheduled to host it again in 2024 Baseball Edit Arizona is a popular location for Major League Baseball spring training as it is the site of the Cactus League Spring training was first started in Arizona in 1947 when Brewers owner Veeck sold them in 1945 but went onto purchase the Cleveland Indians in 1946 He decided to train the Cleveland Indians in Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try Thus the Cactus League was born 141 On March 9 1995 Arizona was awarded a franchise to begin to play for the 1998 season A 130 million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball and on January 16 1997 the Diamondbacks were officially voted into the National League Since their debut the Diamondbacks have won five National League West titles one National League Championship pennant and the 2001 World Series Notable people EditFor a more comprehensive list see List of people from Arizona See also Edit Arizona portal Outline of Arizona Index of Arizona related articlesNotes Edit Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin are not distinguished between total and partial ancestry In 2000 this designation was broken into two groups Independent Non Charismatic Churches 34 130 adherents and Independent Charismatic Churches 29 755 adherents References Edit usa state Grand caynon state statesymbolusa Archived from the original on December 13 2021 Retrieved December 2 2021 kgg org November 25 2019 Grand caynon state kgj Archived from the original on December 28 2021 Retrieved December 2 2021 Jackie Jackie February 15 2017 Valentine 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Divisions and States Archived December 24 2014 at the Wayback Machine Table 17 Arizona Race and Hispanic Origin 1860 to 1990 Archived May 14 2015 at the Wayback Machine PDF Population of Arizona Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map Demographics Statistics Quick Facts CensusViewer censusviewer com Archived from the original on January 26 2017 Retrieved January 6 2014 2010 Census Data Archived from the original on May 22 2017 Retrieved February 18 2018 Cenuseas ancetry United states of america Arizonas demographics that equal 100 but most of it is under 3 also updated namecensus Archived from the original on December 28 2021 Retrieved December 2 2021 a b Arizona Modern Language Association Archived from the original on December 1 2007 Retrieved October 15 2013 a b 2005 American Community Survey Retrieved from the data of the MLA Archived December 1 2007 at the Wayback Machine July 13 2010 Arizona has most Indian language speakers Archived December 12 2011 at the Wayback Machine upi com Accessed December 12 2011 Religious Landscape Study May 11 2015 Archived from the original on January 1 2016 Retrieved December 18 2015 LDS Facts and Statistics USA Arizona Mormon Newsroom The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints Archived from the original on December 20 2019 Retrieved November 30 2014 The Association of Religion Data Archives State membership Report www Thearda com Archived from the original on December 7 2014 Retrieved November 7 2013 Facts and Statistics USA Arizona ChurchofJesusChrist org Archived from the original on December 20 2019 Retrieved April 30 2012 a b Arizona Religious Traditions 2010 Association of Religion Data Archives Archived from the original on August 2 2017 Retrieved August 2 2017 Arizona Religious Traditions 2010 Association of Religion Data Archives Archived from the original on August 2 2017 Retrieved August 2 2017 How Hindus Grew into Second Largest Faith in Arizona amp Delaware NBC News June 24 2014 Archived from the original on August 2 2017 Retrieved August 2 2017 U S Religion Census 2010 Summary Findings PDF Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies May 1 2012 p 16 Archived from the original PDF on February 1 2017 Retrieved August 2 2017 Research Economy January 1997 Arizona gross production stlouisfed Archived from the original on December 16 2021 Retrieved December 2 2021 News Release PDF Archived from the original PDF on September 21 2012 Retrieved December 28 2011 QuickFacts Arizona Archived from the original on November 9 2019 Retrieved November 11 2019 a b Arizona Economy at a Glance Bls gov Archived from the original on October 24 2020 Retrieved October 28 2020 Arizona Republic 100 State s biggest employers Archived February 20 2021 at the Wayback Machine The Arizona Republic Arizona Department of Revenue azdor gov Archived from the original on November 24 2019 Retrieved January 3 2020 Arizona Income Tax Rates for 2017 www tax rates org Archived from the original on February 27 2017 Retrieved February 26 2017 Arizona Proposition 208 Increase Income Tax Election Results The Arizona Republic www azcentral com Archived from the original on May 9 2022 Retrieved January 4 2021 Goldwater Institute My Sister s Closet file lawsuits challenging Prop 208 KTAR com December 1 2020 Archived from the original on December 3 2020 Retrieved January 4 2021 Judge refuses to block Arizona s new education tax AP NEWS February 9 2021 Archived from the original on February 20 2021 Retrieved February 16 2021 Arizonas Interstate Highways azdot Archived from the original on December 31 2019 Retrieved March 5 2014 Metro Valley May 19 2021 Valley metro rail opens ValleyMetro Archived from the original on February 7 2022 Retrieved January 31 2022 Tucson Streetcar Plan Wins With 60 of Vote Lightrailnow org Archived from the original on January 4 2012 Retrieved December 28 2011 Cortez Alexis Amtrak plan would include stations in Queen Creek Phoenix Tempe Goodyear azfamily com Archived from the original on August 12 2021 Retrieved August 12 2021 Arizona government artsandculture Archived from the original on December 28 2021 Retrieved December 2 2021 Ariz GOP would gain if Napolitano gets Obama post KTAR Associated Press November 20 2008 Archived from the original on November 21 2011 Retrieved December 28 2011 Format Document Azleg gov January 1 1993 Archived from the original on September 17 2016 Retrieved September 9 2016 QuickFacts U S Census Bureau Retrieved August 12 2021 Archived from the original on February 3 2020 Retrieved May 31 2018 Voter Registration Statistics Arizona Secretary of State Elections Bureau Archived from the original on August 2 2019 Retrieved February 4 2022 Dr Dean Chavers History of Indian voting rights and why it s important Archived July 7 2016 at the Wayback Machine Indian Country Today October 29 2012 accessed July 17 2016 See Trujillo v Garley 1948 Merica Dan November 13 2020 Biden carries Arizona flipping a longtime Republican stronghold CNN Archived from the original on November 13 2020 Retrieved November 13 2020 Arizona stands alone against marriage ban Queer Lesbian Gay News Gay com Archived from the original on January 8 2007 Retrieved July 25 2010 Ban on gay unions solidly supported in most of Arizona Archived from the original on November 8 2008 Archibold Randal C April 23 2010 Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration The New York Times Archived from the original on January 1 2012 Retrieved December 28 2011 High court to weigh Arizona voter registration case Reuters March 15 2013 Archived from the original on March 17 2013 Retrieved March 17 2013 Inspired by West Virginia Strike Teachers in Oklahoma and Kentucky Plan Walk Out KTLA April 2 2018 Archived from the original on August 12 2019 Retrieved September 4 2019 J Pomante II Michael Li Quan December 15 2020 Cost of Voting in the American States 2020 Election Law Journal Rules Politics and Policy 19 4 503 509 doi 10 1089 elj 2020 0666 S2CID 225139517 Archived from the original on October 25 2021 Retrieved January 14 2022 Why Arizona Flipped on Gay Marriage Archived from the original on November 15 2017 Retrieved November 15 2017 McKinley Jesse Goodstein Laurie November 5 2008 Bans in 3 States on Gay Marriage The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Archived from the original on January 5 2018 Retrieved November 15 2017 Arizona city poised to pass state s first civil union ordinance Reuters April 2 2013 Archived from the original on November 15 2017 Retrieved November 15 2017 Bisbee Arizona same sex marriage Council approves civil unions measure KNXV Associated Press June 5 2013 Archived from the original on November 15 2017 Retrieved November 15 2017 Legal Recognition of Same Sex Relationships PDF samesexrelationshipguide com August 31 2015 Archived from the original PDF on September 24 2015 Retrieved October 14 2017 AZ pro civil unions remembers Goldwater fondly PDF Archived PDF from the original on May 13 2012 Retrieved April 5 2012 Rau Alia Same sex marriage legal in Arizona azcentral Archived from the original on May 9 2022 Retrieved January 31 2022 Roberts Laurie Number of schools in arizona azcentreal Retrieved December 2 2021 College Navigator Search Results nces ed gov Archived from the original on May 11 2011 Retrieved February 3 2009 College Navigator Prescott College nces ed gov Archived from the original on May 11 2011 Retrieved February 3 2009 2002 Legislature HB 2710 which later became ARS 15 1444 AZ Private Postsecondary Institutions Azhighered org Archived from the original on October 18 2016 Retrieved September 9 2016 ART PHOENIX Art history phxart Archived from the original on December 27 2021 Retrieved December 2 2021 Arizonas Budding Art Colonists visitarizona Archived from the original on January 25 2021 Retrieved March 1 2021 Crawdaddy April 1975 Knauer Tom November 22 2006 What is the Territorial Cup The Wildcat Online Archived from the original on October 8 2008 Retrieved April 2 2007 Official 2007 NCAA Division I Football Records Book PDF National Collegiate Athletic Association 2007 Archived from the original PDF on June 25 2008 Buckhorn Baths A unique Mesa landmark www azcentral com Archived from the original on February 20 2021 Retrieved December 7 2019 Further reading EditBayless Betsy 1998 Arizona Blue Book 1997 1998 Phoenix Office of the Arizona Secretary of State McIntyre Allan J 2008 The Tohono O odham and Pimeria Alta Charleston SC Arcadia Publishing ISBN 978 0738556338 Miller Tom editor 1986 Arizona The Land and the People Tucson University of Arizona Press ISBN 978 0816510047 Officer James E 1987 Hispanic Arizona 1536 1856 Tucson University of Arizona Press ISBN 978 0816509812 Plascencia Luis F B and Gloria H Cuadraz eds 2018 Mexican Workers and the Making of Arizona Tucson University of Arizona Press Thomas David M editor 2003 Arizona Legislative Manual In Arizona Phoenix Arizona Legislative Council Google Print Retrieved January 16 2006 Trimble Marshall 1998 Arizona A Cavalcade of History Tucson Treasure Chest Publications ISBN 978 0918080431 Woosley Anne I 2008 Early Tucson Charleston SC Arcadia Publishing ISBN 978 0738556468 External links EditArizonaat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Official Website Arizona State Guide Arizona Regional Accounts Data Archived from the original on August 19 2002 Retrieved February 19 2003 Arizona Demographic Data from FedStats Arizona USDA State Fact Sheet Arizona Indicators Energy Data amp Statistics for Arizona Arizona State Databases Arizona State Library Archives and Public Records Arizona at Ballotpedia Arizona at Curlie Geographic data related to Arizona at OpenStreetMap Official Arizona Office of Tourism Arizona Game amp Fish Department Arizona State Parks National Park Service Travel Itinerary Arizona at CurliePreceded byNew Mexico List of U S states by date of admission to the Union Admitted on February 14 1912 48th Succeeded byAlaska Coordinates 34 16 28 N 111 39 37 W 34 2744 N 111 6602 W 34 2744 111 6602 State of Arizona Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Arizona amp oldid 1087156716, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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