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State of East Indonesia

The State of East Indonesia (Indonesian: Negara Indonesia Timur, old spelling: Negara Indonesia Timoer) was a post–World War II federal state (negara bagian) formed in the eastern Dutch East Indies by the Netherlands. It was established in 1946, became part of the United States of Indonesia in 1949 at the end of the Indonesian National Revolution, and was dissolved in 1950 with the end of the USI. It comprised all the islands to the east of Borneo (Celebes, and the Moluccas, with their offshore islands) and of Java (Bali and the Lesser Sunda Islands).

State of East Indonesia
Negara Indonesia Timur
State of the United States of Indonesia
1946 – 1950
(Sovereign state until 27 December 1949)
Flag
Coat of arms

East Indonesia in the United States of Indonesia
Anthem
Indonesia Raya
CapitalMakassar
Area
• 1946
349,088 km2 (134,784 sq mi)
Population
• 1946
10,290,000
History
Government
• TypeParliamentary federated state
President
• 1946–1950
Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati
Prime Minister
• 1946
Nadjamoeddin Daeng Malewa (First)
• 1950
J. Poetoehena (Last)
Legislature
• Upper house
Provisional Senate
• Lower house
Provisional Representative Body
History
24 December 1946
17 August 1950
Preceded by
Succeeded by

Contents

The Dutch authorities, after various changes to the administration of the eastern islands of the East Indies, established the Great East region in 1938. Four years later, the Japanese invaded, and this area was placed under the control of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Following the Japanese surrender and the Indonesian declaration of independence in August 1945, Indonesian republicans began fighting to secure Indonesian independence from Dutch colonial control. However, Dutch administrators backed by Australian troops arrived in the area previously controlled by the Japanese Navy, and prevented republicans from establishing an administration.

From 16 to 25 July 1946, the Dutch organised a conference in the town of Malino on Celebes (Sulawesi) as part of their attempt to arrange a federal solution for Indonesia. The Malino Conference resulted in plans for a state in Borneo and another for East Indonesia (then called the "Great East"), areas where the Dutch held both de facto and de jure control. Later that year, Republic of Indonesia agreed to the principle of a federal Indonesia with the Linggadjati Agreement of 15 November. The Denpasar Conference of 18–24 December was held to work out the specifics of a state to be called the State of the Great East. (Indonesian: Negara Timoer Besar). That state was established on 24 December and, on 27 December, renamed the State of East Indonesia (Negara Indonesia Timoer or NIT which some opponents joked stood for negara ikoet toean or "state which goes along with the master", i.e. the Dutch).

With the realisation of the United States of Indonesia on 27 December 1949, East Indonesia became a constituent of the new federation. In much of Indonesia, the federal USI was seen as an illegitimate regime foisted on the islands by the Dutch, and many of the federal states began to merge with the Republic of Indonesia. However many in East Indonesia, with its non-Javanese population and greater number of Christians, opposed moves toward a unitary state. East Indonesia had already dealt with the "Twelfth Province" secessionist movement in Minahasa in 1948.

The formation of East Indonesia's last cabinet in May 1950 with the intention of dissolving the state into the Republic of Indonesia led to open rebellion in the largely Christian Moluccas and the proclamation of an independent Republic of the South Moluccas (RMS). The USI was dissolved on 17 August 1950 and the rebellion in the Moluccas was crushed in November of the same year.

The Denpasar Conference of 18–24 December 1946 approved the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia (Peratoeran Pembentoekan Negara Indonesia Timoer) which supplemented the 1927 Dutch colonial law and established the provisional governmental framework of the new state until a constitution could be approved. Although the draft constitution was passed by the legislative on 1 March 1949, it was never adopted and the 1946 regulations remained n place until the state was dissolved. The state was to have an executive president who would appoint a cabinet and a legislature. A number of powers were explicitly reserved for the future United States of Indonesia, of which East Indonesia would be a constituent member.

President

President Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati of the State of East Indonesia and his wife, Gilberte Vincent, during a visit to North Celebes in 1948

Balinese nobleman Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati was elected president (presiden) at the Denpasar Conference that established the state, and held that position for the duration of the state's existence (24 December 1946 – 17 August 1950).

State Name Title Term of office Duration

Presidential Flag
Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati President 24 December 1946 17 August 1950 3 years, 236 days

Legislature

The Provisional Representative Body for the State of East Indonesia (Dewan Perwakilan Sementara Negara Indonesia Timoer), initially consisting of the 70 participants of the Denpasar Conference, opened its first session on 22 April 1947 in the presence of Lieutenant Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies Hubertus van Mook. In May 1949, following elections, a Provisional Senate was established

Prime ministers and cabinets

The Construction Cabinet of East Indonesia, which was installed at 4 o'clock in the afternoon in the former building of the Council of Indies in Batavia.

The state had a parliamentary cabinet appointed by the president but much real power remained with the Dutch East Indies authorities.

  • 13 Jan 1947 – 2 Jun 1947 — Nadjamoedin Daeng Malewa – First Cabinet
  • 2 Jun 1947 – 11 Oct 1947 — Nadjamoedin Daeng Malewa – Second Cabinet
  • 11 Oct 1947 – 15 Dec 1947 — Warouw Cabinet
  • 15 Dec 1947 – 12 Jan 1949 — Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung – First Cabinet
  • 12 Jan 1949 – 27 Dec 1949 — Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung – Second Cabinet
  • 27 Dec 1949 – 14 Mar 1950 — J.E. Tatengkeng Cabinet
  • 14 Mar 1950 – 10 May 1950 — D. P. Diapari Cabinet
  • 10 May 1950 – 17 Aug 1950 — J. Poetoehena Cabinet

The State of East Indonesia was divided into five residencies which were in turn divided into districts (afdeling) and subdistricts (onderafdeling), an administrative structure inherited from the Dutch. Within the residencies were 13 autonomous regions. These regions, listed in Article 14 of the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia (Peratoeran Pembentoekan Negara Indonesia Timoer), were South Celebes, Minahasa, Sangihe and Talaoed, North Celebes, Central Celebes, Bali, Lombok, Soembawa, Flores, Soemba, Timor and surrounding islands, South Moluccas, and North Moluccas. The residencies were to be eliminated after the construction of functioning administration in the 13 regions.

Complicating this structure was the fact that

More than 75% of the State of East Indonesia comprised autonomous regions, in total 115 autonomous regional governments under the rule of rajas (swaprajas). The position of these autonomous governmental heads was regulated by what were called korte verklaring (short-term declarations) and lange kontrakten (long-term contracts); these were actually intended as a recognition by the Dutch Indies Government of the special position of the rajas, whose power to govern the autonomous regions was handed down from one generation to the next.

The Autonomous Region Regulation of 1938 gave the swaprajas wide de jure autonomy but most of the rajas were puppets of Dutch administrators.The State of East Indonesia sought to curtail the power of these raja-ruled regions, but the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia obliged the state to recognise their special status.

The remaining area of the state not part of the swaprajas comprised directly governed regions (rechtstreeks bestuurd gebied). Directly governed areas included Minahasa, the South Moluccas, Gorontalo, the districts of Macassar and Bonthain, and Lombok.

Residencies and autonomous regions

The regions of the State of East Indonesia

The following were the residencies and their autonomous regions.

  1. Date of the dissolution of the State of East Indonesia.
  1. Cribb 2000, pp. 130–131.
  2. Ricklefs 2001, p. 276.
  3. Ricklefs 2001, p. 348.
  4. Anak Agung 1995, p. 107. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  5. Anak Agung 1995, p. 97. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  6. Anak Agung 1995, p. 112. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  7. Reid 1974, p. 96.
  8. Anak Agung 1995, p. 117. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  9. Putra Agung 2007, p. 37. sfn error: no target: CITEREFPutra_Agung2007 (help)
  10. Kahin 1952, p. 364.
  11. Ricklefs 2001, p. 285.
  12. de Jong 1994, pp. 1–2.
  13. Schiller 1955, pp. 97–98.
  14. Anak Agung 1995, p. 163. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  15. Anak Agung 1995, p. 131. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  16. Anak Agung 1995, p. 120. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  17. Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia 1981, p. 122 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMinistry_of_Education_and_Culture_of_Indonesia1981 (help)
  18. Anak Agung 1995, pp. 153, 591–592. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  19. Wehl 1948, p. 164.
  20. Anak Agung 1995, p. 146. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  21. Anak Agung 1995, p. 147. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  22. Anak Agung 1995, p. 180. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  23. Anak Agung 1995, p. 121. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  24. Anak Agung 1995, p. 166. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)
  25. Anak Agung 1995, p. 181. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnak_Agung1995 (help)

Sources

Wikimedia Commons has media related toState of East Indonesia.



State of East Indonesia
State of East Indonesia Language Watch Edit The State of East Indonesia Indonesian Negara Indonesia Timur old spelling Negara Indonesia Timoer was a post World War II federal state negara bagian formed in the eastern Dutch East Indies by the Netherlands It was established in 1946 became part of the United States of Indonesia in 1949 at the end of the Indonesian National Revolution and was dissolved in 1950 with the end of the USI It comprised all the islands to the east of Borneo Celebes and the Moluccas with their offshore islands and of Java Bali and the Lesser Sunda Islands State of East IndonesiaNegara Indonesia TimurState of the United States of Indonesia1946 1950 Sovereign state until 27 December 1949 Flag Coat of armsEast Indonesia in the United States of IndonesiaAnthemIndonesia RayaCapitalMakassarArea 1946349 088 km2 134 784 sq mi Population 194610 290 000HistoryGovernment TypeParliamentary federated statePresident 1946 1950Tjokorda Gde Raka SoekawatiPrime Minister 1946Nadjamoeddin Daeng Malewa First 1950J Poetoehena Last Legislature Upper houseProvisional Senate Lower houseProvisional Representative BodyHistory State Established24 December 1946 State dissolved17 August 1950Preceded by Succeeded byGreat East Republic of Indonesia Contents 1 History 2 Government 2 1 President 2 2 Legislature 2 3 Prime ministers and cabinets 3 Administration 3 1 Residencies and autonomous regions 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 6 1 Sources 7 External linksHistory EditThe Dutch authorities after various changes to the administration of the eastern islands of the East Indies established the Great East region in 1938 1 Four years later the Japanese invaded and this area was placed under the control of the Imperial Japanese Navy 2 Following the Japanese surrender and the Indonesian declaration of independence in August 1945 Indonesian republicans began fighting to secure Indonesian independence from Dutch colonial control However Dutch administrators backed by Australian troops arrived in the area previously controlled by the Japanese Navy and prevented republicans from establishing an administration 3 From 16 to 25 July 1946 the Dutch organised a conference in the town of Malino on Celebes Sulawesi as part of their attempt to arrange a federal solution for Indonesia The Malino Conference resulted in plans for a state in Borneo and another for East Indonesia then called the Great East 4 areas where the Dutch held both de facto and de jure control 5 Later that year Republic of Indonesia agreed to the principle of a federal Indonesia with the Linggadjati Agreement of 15 November 6 7 The Denpasar Conference of 18 24 December was held to work out the specifics of a state to be called the State of the Great East Indonesian Negara Timoer Besar 8 9 10 That state was established on 24 December and on 27 December renamed the State of East Indonesia Negara Indonesia Timoer or NIT which some opponents joked stood for negara ikoet toean or state which goes along with the master i e the Dutch 2 With the realisation of the United States of Indonesia on 27 December 1949 East Indonesia became a constituent of the new federation In much of Indonesia the federal USI was seen as an illegitimate regime foisted on the islands by the Dutch and many of the federal states began to merge with the Republic of Indonesia 11 However many in East Indonesia with its non Javanese population and greater number of Christians opposed moves toward a unitary state 11 East Indonesia had already dealt with the Twelfth Province secessionist movement in Minahasa in 1948 The formation of East Indonesia s last cabinet in May 1950 with the intention of dissolving the state into the Republic of Indonesia led to open rebellion in the largely Christian Moluccas and the proclamation of an independent Republic of the South Moluccas RMS 11 The USI was dissolved on 17 August 1950 and the rebellion in the Moluccas was crushed in November of the same year 11 Government EditThe Denpasar Conference of 18 24 December 1946 approved the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia Peratoeran Pembentoekan Negara Indonesia Timoer which supplemented the 1927 Dutch colonial law and established the provisional governmental framework of the new state until a constitution could be approved Although the draft constitution was passed by the legislative on 1 March 1949 it was never adopted and the 1946 regulations remained n place until the state was dissolved 12 13 The state was to have an executive president who would appoint a cabinet and a legislature A number of powers were explicitly reserved for the future United States of Indonesia of which East Indonesia would be a constituent member 14 President Edit President Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati of the State of East Indonesia and his wife Gilberte Vincent during a visit to North Celebes in 1948 Balinese nobleman Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati was elected president presiden at the Denpasar Conference that established the state and held that position for the duration of the state s existence 24 December 1946 17 August 1950 15 16 State Name Title Term of office Duration Presidential Flag Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati President 24 December 1946 17 17 August 1950 a 3 years 236 daysLegislature Edit The Provisional Representative Body for the State of East Indonesia Dewan Perwakilan Sementara Negara Indonesia Timoer initially consisting of the 70 participants of the Denpasar Conference opened its first session on 22 April 1947 in the presence of Lieutenant Governor General of the Dutch East Indies Hubertus van Mook In May 1949 following elections a Provisional Senate was established 18 19 Prime ministers and cabinets Edit The Construction Cabinet of East Indonesia which was installed at 4 o clock in the afternoon in the former building of the Council of Indies in Batavia The state had a parliamentary cabinet appointed by the president but much real power remained with the Dutch East Indies authorities 20 13 Jan 1947 2 Jun 1947 Nadjamoedin Daeng Malewa First Cabinet 2 Jun 1947 11 Oct 1947 Nadjamoedin Daeng Malewa Second Cabinet 11 Oct 1947 15 Dec 1947 Warouw Cabinet 15 Dec 1947 12 Jan 1949 Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung First Cabinet 12 Jan 1949 27 Dec 1949 Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung Second Cabinet 27 Dec 1949 14 Mar 1950 J E Tatengkeng Cabinet 14 Mar 1950 10 May 1950 D P Diapari Cabinet 10 May 1950 17 Aug 1950 J Poetoehena CabinetAdministration EditThe State of East Indonesia was divided into five residencies which were in turn divided into districts afdeling and subdistricts onderafdeling an administrative structure inherited from the Dutch 21 Within the residencies were 13 autonomous regions 22 These regions listed in Article 14 of the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia Peratoeran Pembentoekan Negara Indonesia Timoer were South Celebes Minahasa Sangihe and Talaoed North Celebes Central Celebes Bali Lombok Soembawa Flores Soemba Timor and surrounding islands South Moluccas and North Moluccas 22 The residencies were to be eliminated after the construction of functioning administration in the 13 regions 22 Complicating this structure was the fact thatMore than 75 of the State of East Indonesia comprised autonomous regions in total 115 autonomous regional governments under the rule of rajas swaprajas The position of these autonomous governmental heads was regulated by what were called korte verklaring short term declarations and lange kontrakten long term contracts these were actually intended as a recognition by the Dutch Indies Government of the special position of the rajas whose power to govern the autonomous regions was handed down from one generation to the next 23 The Autonomous Region Regulation of 1938 gave the swaprajas wide de jure autonomy but most of the rajas were puppets of Dutch administrators 23 The State of East Indonesia sought to curtail the power of these raja ruled regions but the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia obliged the state to recognise their special status 24 The remaining area of the state not part of the swaprajas comprised directly governed regions rechtstreeks bestuurd gebied 25 Directly governed areas included Minahasa the South Moluccas Gorontalo the districts of Macassar and Bonthain and Lombok 25 Residencies and autonomous regions Edit The regions of the State of East Indonesia The following were the residencies and their autonomous regions 22 North Celebes Soelawesi Oetara Sangihe and Talaoed Minahasa North Celebes Central Celebes Soelawesi Tengah South Sulawesi Soelawesi Selatan South Celebes Bali Lombok Bali Lombok Moluccas Maloekoe North Moluccas Maloekoe Oetara South Moluccas Maloekoe Selatan Timor Flores Soemba Soembawa Timor and surrounding islandsSee also EditHistory of Indonesia Indonesian National Revolution Indonesian regionsNotes Edit Date of the dissolution of the State of East Indonesia References Edit Cribb 2000 pp 130 131 a b Ricklefs 2001 p 276 Ricklefs 2001 p 348 Anak Agung 1995 p 107 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Anak Agung 1995 p 97 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Anak Agung 1995 p 112 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Reid 1974 p 96 Anak Agung 1995 p 117 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Putra Agung 2007 p 37 sfn error no target CITEREFPutra Agung2007 help Kahin 1952 p 364 a b c d Ricklefs 2001 p 285 de Jong 1994 pp 1 2 Schiller 1955 pp 97 98 Anak Agung 1995 p 163 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Anak Agung 1995 p 131 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Anak Agung 1995 p 120 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia 1981 p 122harvnb error no target CITEREFMinistry of Education and Culture of Indonesia1981 help Anak Agung 1995 pp 153 591 592 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Wehl 1948 p 164 Anak Agung 1995 p 146 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Anak Agung 1995 p 147 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help a b c d Anak Agung 1995 p 180 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help a b Anak Agung 1995 p 121 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Anak Agung 1995 p 166 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help a b Anak Agung 1995 p 181 sfn error no target CITEREFAnak Agung1995 help Sources Edit Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung 1996 1995 From the Formation of the State of East Indonesia Towards the Establishment of the United States of Indonesia Translated by Owens Linda Yayasan Obor ISBN 979 461 216 2 Cribb Robert 2000 Historical Atlas of Indonesia Curzon Press ISBN 0 7007 0985 1 de Jong Christiaan G F 1994 translated by Daalder Broekman Truus Religion and state in Negara Indonesia Timur The question of religion in the Parliament of the State of East Indonesia in 1949 illustrated by the situation on Bali PDF Documentatieblad voor de Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Zending en Overzeese Kerken Journal for the History of Dutch Mission and Overseas Churches 1 2 Kahin George McTurnan 1952 Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia Cornell University Press Putra Agung Yayasan Masyarakat Sejarawan Indonesia Jurnal sejarah pemikiran rekonstruksi persepsi 13 2007 ISSN 1858 2117 in Indonesian Reid Anthony J S 1974 The Indonesian National Revolution 1945 1950 Hawthorn Victoria Australia Longman ISBN 0 582 71047 2 Ricklefs M C 2001 1981 A History of Modern Indonesia Since c 1300 3rd ed Palgrave ISBN 978 0 230 54685 1 Schiller A Arthur 1955 The Formation of Federal Indonesia W van Hoeve Ltd Wehl David 1948 The Birth of Indonesia London George Allen amp Unwin Ltd External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to State of East Indonesia History and rulers of Indonesian states 1946 1950 at WorldStatesmen org William H Frederick and Robert L Worden ed November 1992 Indonesia A country study Federal Research Division The National Revolution 1945 50 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title State of 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