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For the most recent State of the Union address, see 2022 State of the Union Address. For other uses, see State of the Union (disambiguation).

The State of the Union Address (sometimes abbreviated to SOTU) is an annual message delivered by the president of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress near the beginning of each calendar year on the current condition of the nation. The State of the Union Address generally includes reports on the nation's budget, economy, news, agenda, achievements and the president's priorities and legislative proposals.

The address fulfills the requirement in Article II, Section 3, Clause 1 of the U.S. Constitution for the president to periodically "give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient." During most of the country's first century, the president primarily submitted only a written report to Congress. After 1913, Woodrow Wilson, the 28th U.S. president, began the regular practice of delivering the address to Congress in person as a way to rally support for the president's agenda. With the advent of radio and television, the address is now broadcast live in all United States time zones on many networks.

Starting 1981, Ronald Reagan, the 40th U.S. president, began the practice of newly inaugurated presidents delivering an address to Congress in the first year of their term, but not designating that speech an official "State of the Union".

Contents

The practice arises from a duty of the president under the State of the Union Clause of the U.S. Constitution:

He shall from time to time give to Congress information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.

Article II, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution

Though the language of the clause is not specific, since the 1930s, the president has made this report annually in late January or early February. Between 1934 and 2022 the date has been as early as January 3, and as late as March 1.

While not required to deliver a speech, every president since Woodrow Wilson, with the notable exception of Herbert Hoover, has made at least one State of the Union report as a speech delivered before a joint session of Congress. Before then, most presidents delivered the State of the Union as a written report.

Since Franklin Roosevelt, the State of the Union is given typically each January before a joint session of the United States Congress and is held in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol. Newly inaugurated presidents generally deliver an address to Congress in February of the first year of their term, but this speech is not officially considered to be a "State of the Union".

What began as a communication between president and Congress has become in effect a communication between the president and the people of the United States. Since the advent of radio, and then television, the speech has been broadcast live in all United States time zones on most networks, preempting scheduled programming. Since at least the 1960s, in order to reach the largest audience, the speech has typically been given at 9 p.m. (Eastern Time, UTC-5).

George Washington's handwritten notes for the first State of the Union Address, January 8, 1790. .

George Washington delivered the first regular annual message before a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1790, in New York City, then the provisional U.S. capital. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson discontinued the practice of delivering the address in person, regarding it as too monarchical (similar to the Speech from the Throne). Instead, the address was written and then sent to Congress to be read by a clerk until 1913 when Woodrow Wilson re-established the practice despite some initial controversy, and an in-person address to Congress has been delivered nearly every year since. However, there have been exceptions to this rule, with some messages being given solely in writing, and others given both in writing and orally (either in a speech to Congress or through broadcast media). The last president to give a written message without a spoken address was Jimmy Carter in 1981, days before his term ended after his defeat by Ronald Reagan.

For many years, the speech was referred to as "the President's Annual Message to Congress". The actual term "State of the Union" first emerged in 1934 when Franklin D. Roosevelt used the phrase, becoming its generally accepted name since 1947.

(36:14)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt's January 6, 1941 State of the Union Address introducing the theme of the Four Freedoms (starting at 32:02)

Problems playing this file? See .

Prior to 1934, the annual message was delivered at the end of the calendar year, in December. The ratification of the 20th Amendment on January 23, 1933, changed the opening of Congress from early March to early January, affecting the delivery of the annual message. Since 1934, the message or address has been delivered to Congress in January or February.

The Twentieth Amendment also established January 20 as the beginning of the presidential term. In years when a new president is inaugurated, the outgoing president may deliver a final State of the Union message, but none has done so since Jimmy Carter sent a written message in 1981. In 1953 and 1961, Congress received both a written State of the Union message from the outgoing president and a separate State of the Union speech by the incoming president. Since 1981, in recognition that the responsibility of reporting the State of the Union formally belongs to the president who held office during the past year, newly inaugurated presidents have not officially called their first speech before Congress a "State of the Union" message.

The text of the first page of Ronald Reagan's first State of the Union Address, given January 26, 1982

Warren Harding's 1922 speech was the first to be broadcast on radio, albeit to a limited audience, while Calvin Coolidge's 1923 speech was the first to be broadcast across the nation. President Roosevelt's address in 1936 was the first delivered in the evening, but this precedent was not followed again until the 1960s. Harry S. Truman's 1947 address was the first to be broadcast on television. In 1968, television networks in the United States for the first time imposed no time limit for their coverage of a State of the Union address. Delivered by Lyndon B. Johnson, this address was followed by extensive televised commentary by, among others, Daniel Patrick Moynihan and Milton Friedman. Bill Clinton's 1997 address was the first broadcast available live on the World Wide Web.

Ronald Reagan's 1986 State of the Union Address was the first to have been postponed. He had planned to deliver the speech on January 28, 1986, but it was delayed for a week following the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster that morning. Reagan instead addressed the nation from the Oval Office about the disaster.

In 1999, Bill Clinton became the first president to deliver an in-person State of the Union address while standing trial for impeachment; the speech occurred the same day that Clinton's defense team made its opening statement, though he did not mention the proceeding.

On January 23, 2019, the 2019 State of the Union speech by Donald Trump, originally planned for January 29 was canceled after an exchange of letters with Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi in which she stated she would not proceed with a vote on a resolution to permit him to deliver the speech in the House chamber until the end of 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown. This decision rescinded an earlier invitation from the speaker, reportedly the first time in American history that a Speaker had "disinvited" the president from delivering the address. They later agreed to hold the speech on February 5.

Because the address is made to a joint session of Congress, the House and Senate must each pass a resolution setting a date and time for the joint session. Then, a formal invitation is made by the speaker of the House to the president typically several weeks before the appointed date.

Invitations

Every member of Congress can bring one guest to the State of the Union address. The president may invite up to 24 guests to be seated in a box with the First Spouse. The speaker of the House may invite up to 24 guests in the speaker's box. Seating for Congress on the main floor is by a first-in, first-served basis with no reservations. The Cabinet, Supreme Court justices, members of the Diplomatic Corps, and the military leaders constituting the Joint Chiefs of Staff have reserved seating.

Protocol of entry into the House chamber

By approximately 8:30 p.m. on the night of the address, the members of the House have gathered in their seats for the joint session. Then, the Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the speaker and loudly announces the vice president and members of the Senate, who enter and take the seats assigned for them.

The speaker, and then the vice president, specify the members of the House and Senate, respectively, who will escort the president into the House chamber. The Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the speaker again and loudly announces, in order, the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps, the Chief Justice of the United States and the Associate Justices, and the Cabinet, each of whom enters and takes their seats when called. The justices take the seats nearest to the speaker's rostrum and adjacent to the sections reserved for the Cabinet and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The Sergeants at Arms of the House (left) and of the Senate (right) wait at the doorway to the House chamber before President Barack Obama enters to deliver the 2011 State of the Union Address.

Just after 9:00 pm, as the president reaches the door to the chamber, the House Sergeant at Arms stands just inside the doors, faces the speaker, and waits until the president is ready to enter the chamber. When the president is ready, the Sergeant at Arms announces the entrance, loudly stating the phrase: "Madam [or Mister] Speaker, the president of the United States!"

As applause and cheering begin, the president slowly walks toward the speaker's rostrum, followed by members of the congressional escort committee. The president's approach is slowed by pausing to shake hands, hug, kiss, and autograph copies of the speech for Members of Congress. After taking a place at the House Clerk's desk, the president hands two manila envelopes, previously placed on the desk and containing copies of the speech, to the speaker and vice president.[citation needed]

After continuing applause from the attendees has diminished, the speaker introduces the president to the representatives and senators, typically stating: "Members of Congress, I have the high privilege and distinct honor of presenting to you the president of the United States." This leads to a further round of applause and, eventually, the beginning of the address by the president.

Designated survivor and other logistics

Customarily, one cabinet member (the designated survivor) does not attend the speech, in order to provide continuity in the line of succession if a catastrophe disables the president, the vice president, and other succeeding officers gathered in the House chamber. Additionally, since the September 11 attacks in 2001, a few members of Congress have been asked to relocate to undisclosed locations for the duration of the speech to form a rump Congress in the event of a disaster. Since 2003, each chamber of Congress has formally named a separate designated survivor.

President George W. Bush with Senate President (U.S. vice president) Dick Cheney and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi during the 2007 State of the Union Address. It marked the first time that a woman occupied the House Speaker chair.
President Joe Biden with Senate President (U.S. vice president) Kamala Harris and House Speaker Pelosi during the 2021 joint session address. It marked the first time that a woman had occupied the Senate President chair.

Both the speaker and the vice president sit at the speaker's desk, behind the President for the duration of the speech. If either is unavailable, the next highest-ranking member of the respective house substitutes. Once the chamber settles down from the President's arrival, the speaker officially presents the President to the joint session of Congress. The president then delivers the speech from the podium at the front of the House Chamber.

For the 2011 address, Senator Mark Udall of Colorado proposed a break in the tradition of seating Republicans and Democrats on opposite sides of the House; this was in response to the 2011 Tucson Shooting in which Representative Gabby Giffords was shot and wounded in an assassination attempt. Approximately 60 legislators signed on to Udall's proposal; a similar plan for the 2012 address garnered bipartisan seating commitments from more than 160 lawmakers. Efforts to intersperse the parties during the State of the Union have since waned, and by the 2016 address, seating had largely returned to the traditional partisan arrangement.

Content of the speech

The contents of the speeches typically contain information and status updates of the country and federal government during the incumbent president's administration. It has become customary to use the phrase "The State of the Union is strong," sometimes with slight variations, since President Ronald Reagan introduced it in his 1983 address. It has been repeated by every president in nearly every year since, with the exception of George H. W. Bush. Gerald Ford's 1975 address had been the first to use the phrasing "The State of the Union is...", though Ford completed the sentence with "not good."

Since Reagan's 1982 address, it has also become common for presidents of both parties to honor special guests sitting in the gallery, such as American citizens or visiting heads of state. During that 1982 address, Reagan acknowledged Lenny Skutnik for his act of heroism following the crash of Air Florida Flight 90. Since then, the term "Lenny Skutniks" has been used to refer to individuals invited to sit in the gallery, and then cited by the president, during the State of the Union.

State of the Union speeches usually last a little over an hour, partly because of the large amounts of applause that occur from the audience throughout. The applause is often political in tone, with many portions of the speech being applauded only by members of the president's own party. As non-political officeholders, members of the Supreme Court or the Joint Chiefs of Staff rarely applaud in order to retain the appearance of political impartiality. In recent years, the presiding officers of the House and the Senate, the speaker and the vice president, respectively, have departed from the neutrality expected of presiding officers of deliberative bodies, as they, too, stand and applaud in response to the remarks of the president with which they agree.[citation needed]

Since 1966, the speech has been followed on television by a response or rebuttal by a member of the major political party opposing the president's party. The response is typically broadcast from a studio with no audience. In 1970, the Democratic Party put together a TV program with their speech to reply to President Nixon, as well as a televised response to Nixon's written speech in 1973. The same was done by Democrats for President Reagan's speeches in 1982 and 1985. The response is not always produced in a studio; in 1997, the Republicans for the first time delivered the response in front of high school students. In 2010, Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell gave the Republican response from the House of Delegates chamber of the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, in front of about 250 attendees.

In 2004, the Democratic Party's response was delivered in Spanish for the first time, by New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson. In 2011, Minnesota Congresswoman Michele Bachmann also gave a televised response for the Tea Party Express, a first for a political movement.

Although much of the pomp and ceremony behind the State of the Union address is governed by tradition rather than law, in modern times, the event is seen as one of the most important in the US political calendar. It is one of the few instances when all three branches of the US government are assembled under one roof: members of both houses of Congress constituting the legislature, the president's Cabinet constituting the executive, and the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court constituting the judiciary. In addition, the military is represented by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, while foreign governments are represented by the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps. The address has also been used as an opportunity to honor the achievements of some ordinary Americans, who are typically invited by the president to sit with the First Lady.

Certain U.S. states have a similar annual address given by the governor. For most of them, it is called the State of the State address. In Iowa, it is called the Condition of the State Address; in Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, the speech is called the State of the Commonwealth address. The mayor of the District of Columbia gives a State of the District address. American Samoa has a State of the Territory address given by the governor. Puerto Rico has a State Address given by the governor. In Guam, the governor delivers an annual State of the Island Address.

Some cities or counties also have an annual State of the City Address given by the mayor, county commissioner or board chair, including Sonoma County, California; Orlando, Florida; Gwinnett County, Georgia; Cincinnati, Ohio; New Haven, Connecticut; Parma, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Seattle, Washington; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Los Angeles, California; Buffalo, New York; Rochester, New York; San Antonio, Texas; McAllen, Texas; and San Diego, California. The Mayor of the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County in Nashville, Tennessee gives a speech similar called the State of Metro Address. Some university presidents give a State of the University address at the beginning of every academic term. Some elementary and secondary schools and school districts also hold a "State of the School(s)" address at the beginning of each calendar year. Private companies usually have a "State of the Corporation" or "State of the Company" address given by the respective CEO. As well, the commissioners of some North American professional sports leagues, in particular Major League Soccer and the Canadian Football League, deliver annual "State of the League" addresses, usually in conjunction with events surrounding their respective leagues' championship games.

The State of the Union model has also been adopted by the European Union, and in France since the presidency of Emmanuel Macron.

Franklin Roosevelt proposing a Second Bill of Rights, 1944
  • President James Monroe first stated the Monroe Doctrine during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress on December 2, 1823. It became a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States and one of its longest-standing tenets, and would be invoked by many U.S. statesmen and several U.S. presidents, including Theodore Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan.
  • The Four Freedoms were goals first articulated by Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech, he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.
  • During his State of the Union Address on January 11, 1944, FDR proposed the Second Bill of Rights. Roosevelt's argument was that the "political rights" guaranteed by the constitution and the Bill of Rights had "proved inadequate to assure us equality in the pursuit of happiness". This was technically a "Message" and not a speech, as Roosevelt had "a case of the grippe" and could not come; there was no joint session, and the Clerk of the Senate read the message. (Although he did manage to read it as a Fireside Chat over the radio, from his office that same day.)
  • During his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964, Lyndon B. Johnson introduced legislation that would come to be known as the "War on Poverty". This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. The speech led the United States Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which established the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty.
  • During his State of the Union address on January 15, 1975, Gerald R. Ford very bluntly stated that "the state of the Union is not good: Millions of Americans are out of work...We depend on others for essential energy. Some people question their Government's ability to make hard decisions and stick with them; they expect Washington politics as usual." Ford said he didn't "expect much if any, applause. The American people want action, and it will take both the Congress and the president to give them what they want. Progress and solutions can be achieved, and they will be achieved."
George W. Bush delivering the 2002 State of the Union
  • During his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, President Bush identified North Korea, Iran, and Iraq as representing significant threats to the United States. He said, "States like these and their terrorist allies constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world". In this speech, he would outline the objectives for the War on Terror.

Television ratings for recent State of the Union addresses were:

Date President Viewers,

millions

Households,

millions

Rating Networks
2022-03-01 Joe Biden 38.20 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, Telemundo, Univision, PBS, CNN, CNNe, Fox Business Network, Fox News Channel and MSNBC
2020-02-04 Donald Trump 37.17 27.46 22.7 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, Telemundo, Univision, PBS, CNN, CNNe, Fox Business Network, Fox News Channel and MSNBC
2019-02-05 46.79 33.62 28.0 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, CNNe, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, MSNBC, PBS
2018-01-30 45.55 32.17 26.9 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, ESTRELLA, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, MSNBC, PBS
2016-01-12 Barack Obama 31.33 23.04 19.6 ABC, AL JAZEERA AMERICA, AZTECA, CBS, CNN, FOX, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, GALAVISION, MSNBC, NBC, NBC UNIVERSO, UNIVISION
2015-01-20 31.71 23.14 19.9 ABC, AL JAZEERA AMERICA, AZTECA, CBS, CNN, FOX, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, GALAVISION, MSNBC, MUNDOFOX, NBC, UNIVISION
2014-01-28 33.30 23.95 20.7 ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, AZTECA, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, CNN, MSNBC, CNBC, AL JAZEERA AMERICA, GALAVISION, MUN2, UNIVISION
2013-02-12 33.50 24.77 21.8 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, PBS, AZTECA, UNIVISION, MFX, CNBC, CNN, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, MSNBC, CURRENT, CENTRIC, GALAVISION
2012-01-24 37.75 27.57 24.0 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, TF, UNIVISION, CNBC, CNN, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, GALAVISION, MSNBC, MUN2
2011-01-25 42.79 30.87 26.6 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, CENTRIC, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
2010-01-27 48.01 34.18 29.8 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, BET, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
2008-01-28 George W. Bush 37.52 27.70 24.7 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION
2007-01-24 45.49 32.97 29.6 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION
2006-01-31 43.18 30.53 31.2 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, AZTECA AMERICA, TELFUTURA
2005-02-02 39.43 28.36 35.3 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, TELEFUTURA
2004-01-20 43.41 30.29 28.0 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
2003-01-28 62.06 41.48 38.8 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
2002-01-29 51.77 35.55 33.6 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
2000-01-27 Bill Clinton 31.48 22.54 22.4 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC
1999-01-19 43.50 30.70 31.0 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC
1998-01-27 53.08 36.51 37.2 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, CNBC
1997-02-04 41.10 27.60 28.4 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN
1996-01-23 40.90 28.40 29.6 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN
1995-01-24 42.20 28.10 29.5 ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN
1994-01-25 45.80 31.00 32.9 ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN
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  65. "2017 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. February 28, 2017. RetrievedJanuary 11, 2018.
  66. "2016 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. January 13, 2016. RetrievedJanuary 11, 2018.
  67. "2020 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. February 5, 2020. RetrievedFebruary 6, 2019.
  68. "38 million people watched Biden's State of the Union — Axios". apple.news. RetrievedMarch 3, 2022.
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State of the Union Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from State of the Union Address For the most recent State of the Union address see 2022 State of the Union Address For other uses see State of the Union disambiguation The State of the Union Address sometimes abbreviated to SOTU is an annual message delivered by the president of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress near the beginning of each calendar year on the current condition of the nation 1 2 The State of the Union Address generally includes reports on the nation s budget economy news agenda achievements and the president s priorities and legislative proposals 3 The address fulfills the requirement in Article II Section 3 Clause 1 of the U S Constitution for the president to periodically give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient 1 During most of the country s first century the president primarily submitted only a written report to Congress After 1913 Woodrow Wilson the 28th U S president began the regular practice of delivering the address to Congress in person as a way to rally support for the president s agenda 1 With the advent of radio and television the address is now broadcast live in all United States time zones on many networks 4 Starting 1981 Ronald Reagan the 40th U S president began the practice of newly inaugurated presidents delivering an address to Congress in the first year of their term but not designating that speech an official State of the Union 5 Contents 1 Formality 2 History 3 Delivery of the speech 3 1 Invitations 3 2 Protocol of entry into the House chamber 3 3 Designated survivor and other logistics 3 4 Content of the speech 4 Opposition response 5 Significance 6 Local versions 7 Historic speeches 8 TV ratings 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksFormality EditThe practice arises from a duty of the president under the State of the Union Clause of the U S Constitution 6 He shall from time to time give to Congress information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient Article II Section 3 of the U S Constitution Though the language of the clause is not specific since the 1930s the president has made this report annually in late January or early February Between 1934 and 2022 the date has been as early as January 3 5 and as late as March 1 7 While not required to deliver a speech every president since Woodrow Wilson with the notable exception of Herbert Hoover 8 has made at least one State of the Union report as a speech delivered before a joint session of Congress Before then most presidents delivered the State of the Union as a written report 5 Since Franklin Roosevelt the State of the Union is given typically each January before a joint session of the United States Congress and is held in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol Newly inaugurated presidents generally deliver an address to Congress in February of the first year of their term but this speech is not officially considered to be a State of the Union 5 What began as a communication between president and Congress has become in effect a communication between the president and the people of the United States Since the advent of radio and then television the speech has been broadcast live in all United States time zones on most networks preempting scheduled programming Since at least the 1960s in order to reach the largest audience the speech has typically been given at 9 p m Eastern Time UTC 5 9 History Edit George Washington s handwritten notes for the first State of the Union Address January 8 1790 Full 7 pages George Washington delivered the first regular annual message before a joint session of Congress on January 8 1790 in New York City then the provisional U S capital In 1801 Thomas Jefferson discontinued the practice of delivering the address in person regarding it as too monarchical similar to the Speech from the Throne Instead the address was written and then sent to Congress to be read by a clerk until 1913 when Woodrow Wilson re established the practice despite some initial controversy and an in person address to Congress has been delivered nearly every year since However there have been exceptions to this rule with some messages being given solely in writing and others given both in writing and orally either in a speech to Congress or through broadcast media 10 The last president to give a written message without a spoken address was Jimmy Carter in 1981 days before his term ended after his defeat by Ronald Reagan 10 For many years the speech was referred to as the President s Annual Message to Congress 11 The actual term State of the Union first emerged in 1934 when Franklin D Roosevelt used the phrase becoming its generally accepted name since 1947 11 State of the Union Four Freedoms January 6 1941 36 14 source source Franklin Delano Roosevelt s January 6 1941 State of the Union Address introducing the theme of the Four Freedoms starting at 32 02 Problems playing this file See media help Prior to 1934 the annual message was delivered at the end of the calendar year in December The ratification of the 20th Amendment on January 23 1933 changed the opening of Congress from early March to early January affecting the delivery of the annual message Since 1934 the message or address has been delivered to Congress in January or February 12 The Twentieth Amendment also established January 20 as the beginning of the presidential term In years when a new president is inaugurated the outgoing president may deliver a final State of the Union message but none has done so since Jimmy Carter sent a written message in 1981 In 1953 and 1961 Congress received both a written State of the Union message from the outgoing president and a separate State of the Union speech by the incoming president Since 1981 in recognition that the responsibility of reporting the State of the Union formally belongs to the president who held office during the past year newly inaugurated presidents have not officially called their first speech before Congress a State of the Union message 11 The text of the first page of Ronald Reagan s first State of the Union Address given January 26 1982 Warren Harding s 1922 speech was the first to be broadcast on radio albeit to a limited audience 13 while Calvin Coolidge s 1923 speech was the first to be broadcast across the nation 2 President Roosevelt s address in 1936 was the first delivered in the evening 14 but this precedent was not followed again until the 1960s Harry S Truman s 1947 address was the first to be broadcast on television In 1968 television networks in the United States for the first time imposed no time limit for their coverage of a State of the Union address Delivered by Lyndon B Johnson this address was followed by extensive televised commentary by among others Daniel Patrick Moynihan and Milton Friedman 15 Bill Clinton s 1997 address was the first broadcast available live on the World Wide Web 16 Ronald Reagan s 1986 State of the Union Address was the first to have been postponed He had planned to deliver the speech on January 28 1986 but it was delayed for a week following the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster that morning 17 18 Reagan instead addressed the nation from the Oval Office about the disaster 18 In 1999 Bill Clinton became the first president to deliver an in person State of the Union address while standing trial for impeachment the speech occurred the same day that Clinton s defense team made its opening statement though he did not mention the proceeding 19 On January 23 2019 the 2019 State of the Union speech by Donald Trump originally planned for January 29 was canceled after an exchange of letters with Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi in which she stated she would not proceed with a vote on a resolution to permit him to deliver the speech in the House chamber until the end of 2018 19 United States federal government shutdown 20 This decision rescinded an earlier invitation from the speaker reportedly the first time in American history that a Speaker had disinvited the president from delivering the address 21 They later agreed to hold the speech on February 5 22 Delivery of the speech EditBecause the address is made to a joint session of Congress the House and Senate must each pass a resolution setting a date and time for the joint session Then a formal invitation is made by the speaker of the House to the president typically several weeks before the appointed date 23 24 Invitations Edit Every member of Congress can bring one guest to the State of the Union address The president may invite up to 24 guests to be seated in a box with the First Spouse The speaker of the House may invite up to 24 guests in the speaker s box Seating for Congress on the main floor is by a first in first served basis with no reservations The Cabinet Supreme Court justices members of the Diplomatic Corps and the military leaders constituting the Joint Chiefs of Staff have reserved seating 25 Protocol of entry into the House chamber Edit By approximately 8 30 p m on the night of the address the members of the House have gathered in their seats for the joint session 26 Then the Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the speaker and loudly announces the vice president and members of the Senate who enter and take the seats assigned for them 26 The speaker and then the vice president specify the members of the House and Senate respectively who will escort the president into the House chamber 26 The Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the speaker again and loudly announces in order the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps the Chief Justice of the United States and the Associate Justices and the Cabinet each of whom enters and takes their seats when called 26 The justices take the seats nearest to the speaker s rostrum and adjacent to the sections reserved for the Cabinet and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 27 The Sergeants at Arms of the House left and of the Senate right wait at the doorway to the House chamber before President Barack Obama enters to deliver the 2011 State of the Union Address Just after 9 00 pm as the president reaches the door to the chamber 28 the House Sergeant at Arms stands just inside the doors faces the speaker and waits until the president is ready to enter the chamber 27 When the president is ready the Sergeant at Arms announces the entrance loudly stating the phrase Madam or Mister Speaker the president of the United States 28 As applause and cheering begin the president slowly walks toward the speaker s rostrum followed by members of the congressional escort committee 28 The president s approach is slowed by pausing to shake hands hug kiss and autograph copies of the speech for Members of Congress 27 After taking a place at the House Clerk s desk 28 the president hands two manila envelopes previously placed on the desk and containing copies of the speech to the speaker and vice president citation needed After continuing applause from the attendees has diminished the speaker introduces the president to the representatives and senators typically stating Members of Congress I have the high privilege and distinct honor of presenting to you the president of the United States 27 28 This leads to a further round of applause and eventually the beginning of the address by the president 28 Designated survivor and other logistics Edit Customarily one cabinet member the designated survivor does not attend the speech in order to provide continuity in the line of succession if a catastrophe disables the president the vice president and other succeeding officers gathered in the House chamber Additionally since the September 11 attacks in 2001 a few members of Congress have been asked to relocate to undisclosed locations for the duration of the speech to form a rump Congress in the event of a disaster 29 Since 2003 each chamber of Congress has formally named a separate designated survivor 30 31 Play media President George W Bush with Senate President U S vice president Dick Cheney and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi during the 2007 State of the Union Address It marked the first time that a woman occupied the House Speaker chair Play media President Joe Biden with Senate President U S vice president Kamala Harris and House Speaker Pelosi during the 2021 joint session address It marked the first time that a woman had occupied the Senate President chair Both the speaker and the vice president sit at the speaker s desk behind the President for the duration of the speech If either is unavailable the next highest ranking member of the respective house substitutes Once the chamber settles down from the President s arrival the speaker officially presents the President to the joint session of Congress The president then delivers the speech from the podium at the front of the House Chamber 32 For the 2011 address Senator Mark Udall of Colorado proposed a break in the tradition of seating Republicans and Democrats on opposite sides of the House 33 this was in response to the 2011 Tucson Shooting in which Representative Gabby Giffords was shot and wounded in an assassination attempt 34 Approximately 60 legislators signed on to Udall s proposal 35 a similar plan for the 2012 address garnered bipartisan seating commitments from more than 160 lawmakers 34 Efforts to intersperse the parties during the State of the Union have since waned and by the 2016 address seating had largely returned to the traditional partisan arrangement 36 Content of the speech Edit Play media President Joe Biden delivering the 2022 State of the Union Address The contents of the speeches typically contain information and status updates of the country and federal government during the incumbent president s administration 37 It has become customary to use the phrase The State of the Union is strong sometimes with slight variations since President Ronald Reagan introduced it in his 1983 address 38 It has been repeated by every president in nearly every year since with the exception of George H W Bush 38 Gerald Ford s 1975 address had been the first to use the phrasing The State of the Union is though Ford completed the sentence with not good 38 Since Reagan s 1982 address it has also become common for presidents of both parties to honor special guests sitting in the gallery such as American citizens or visiting heads of state 39 During that 1982 address Reagan acknowledged Lenny Skutnik for his act of heroism following the crash of Air Florida Flight 90 40 Since then the term Lenny Skutniks has been used to refer to individuals invited to sit in the gallery and then cited by the president during the State of the Union 41 42 State of the Union speeches usually last a little over an hour partly because of the large amounts of applause that occur from the audience throughout The applause is often political in tone with many portions of the speech being applauded only by members of the president s own party As non political officeholders members of the Supreme Court or the Joint Chiefs of Staff rarely applaud in order to retain the appearance of political impartiality In recent years the presiding officers of the House and the Senate the speaker and the vice president respectively have departed from the neutrality expected of presiding officers of deliberative bodies as they too stand and applaud in response to the remarks of the president with which they agree citation needed Opposition response EditMain article Response to the State of the Union address Since 1966 43 the speech has been followed on television by a response or rebuttal by a member of the major political party opposing the president s party The response is typically broadcast from a studio with no audience In 1970 the Democratic Party put together a TV program with their speech to reply to President Nixon as well as a televised response to Nixon s written speech in 1973 44 The same was done by Democrats for President Reagan s speeches in 1982 and 1985 The response is not always produced in a studio in 1997 the Republicans for the first time delivered the response in front of high school students 45 In 2010 Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell gave the Republican response from the House of Delegates chamber of the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond in front of about 250 attendees 46 In 2004 the Democratic Party s response was delivered in Spanish for the first time by New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson 47 In 2011 Minnesota Congresswoman Michele Bachmann also gave a televised response for the Tea Party Express a first for a political movement 48 Significance EditAlthough much of the pomp and ceremony behind the State of the Union address is governed by tradition rather than law in modern times the event is seen as one of the most important in the US political calendar It is one of the few instances when all three branches of the US government are assembled under one roof members of both houses of Congress constituting the legislature the president s Cabinet constituting the executive and the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court constituting the judiciary In addition the military is represented by the Joint Chiefs of Staff while foreign governments are represented by the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps The address has also been used as an opportunity to honor the achievements of some ordinary Americans who are typically invited by the president to sit with the First Lady 42 Local versions EditCertain U S states have a similar annual address given by the governor For most of them it is called the State of the State address In Iowa it is called the Condition of the State Address in Kentucky Massachusetts Pennsylvania and Virginia the speech is called the State of the Commonwealth address The mayor of the District of Columbia gives a State of the District address American Samoa has a State of the Territory address given by the governor Puerto Rico has a State Address given by the governor In Guam the governor delivers an annual State of the Island Address Some cities or counties also have an annual State of the City Address given by the mayor county commissioner or board chair including Sonoma County California Orlando Florida Gwinnett County Georgia 49 Cincinnati Ohio New Haven Connecticut Parma Ohio Detroit Michigan Seattle Washington Birmingham Alabama Boston Massachusetts Los Angeles California Buffalo New York Rochester New York San Antonio Texas McAllen Texas and San Diego California The Mayor of the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County in Nashville Tennessee gives a speech similar called the State of Metro Address Some university presidents give a State of the University address at the beginning of every academic term 50 51 Some elementary and secondary schools and school districts also hold a State of the School s address at the beginning of each calendar year Private companies usually have a State of the Corporation or State of the Company address given by the respective CEO 52 As well the commissioners of some North American professional sports leagues in particular Major League Soccer and the Canadian Football League deliver annual State of the League addresses usually in conjunction with events surrounding their respective leagues championship games The State of the Union model has also been adopted by the European Union 53 and in France since the presidency of Emmanuel Macron Historic speeches Edit Play media Franklin Roosevelt proposing a Second Bill of Rights 1944 President James Monroe first stated the Monroe Doctrine during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress on December 2 1823 It became a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States and one of its longest standing tenets and would be invoked by many U S statesmen and several U S presidents including Theodore Roosevelt John F Kennedy and Ronald Reagan 54 The Four Freedoms were goals first articulated by Franklin D Roosevelt on January 6 1941 55 In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people everywhere in the world ought to enjoy freedom of speech and expression freedom of worship freedom from want and freedom from fear 56 During his State of the Union Address on January 11 1944 FDR proposed the Second Bill of Rights Roosevelt s argument was that the political rights guaranteed by the constitution and the Bill of Rights had proved inadequate to assure us equality in the pursuit of happiness 57 This was technically a Message and not a speech as Roosevelt had a case of the grippe and could not come there was no joint session and the Clerk of the Senate read the message Although he did manage to read it as a Fireside Chat over the radio from his office that same day 58 During his State of the Union address on January 8 1964 Lyndon B Johnson introduced legislation that would come to be known as the War on Poverty This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent The speech led the United States Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act which established the Office of Economic Opportunity OEO to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty 59 60 During his State of the Union address on January 15 1975 Gerald R Ford very bluntly stated that the state of the Union is not good Millions of Americans are out of work We depend on others for essential energy Some people question their Government s ability to make hard decisions and stick with them they expect Washington politics as usual Ford said he didn t expect much if any applause The American people want action and it will take both the Congress and the president to give them what they want Progress and solutions can be achieved and they will be achieved 61 source source George W Bush delivering the 2002 State of the Union During his State of the Union address on January 29 2002 President Bush identified North Korea Iran and Iraq as representing significant threats to the United States He said States like these and their terrorist allies constitute an axis of evil arming to threaten the peace of the world In this speech he would outline the objectives for the War on Terror 62 TV ratings EditTelevision ratings for recent State of the Union addresses were 63 64 65 66 67 Date President Viewers millions Households millions Rating Networks2022 03 01 Joe Biden 38 20 68 ABC CBS FOX NBC Telemundo Univision PBS CNN CNNe Fox Business Network Fox News Channel and MSNBC2020 02 04 Donald Trump 37 17 27 46 22 7 ABC CBS FOX NBC Telemundo Univision PBS CNN CNNe Fox Business Network Fox News Channel and MSNBC2019 02 05 46 79 33 62 28 0 ABC CBS FOX NBC TELEMUNDO UNIVISION CNN CNNe FOX BUSINESS FOXNC MSNBC PBS2018 01 30 45 55 32 17 26 9 ABC CBS FOX NBC ESTRELLA TELEMUNDO UNIVISION CNN FOX BUSINESS FOXNC MSNBC PBS2016 01 12 Barack Obama 31 33 23 04 19 6 ABC AL JAZEERA AMERICA AZTECA CBS CNN FOX FOX BUSINESS FOXNC GALAVISION MSNBC NBC NBC UNIVERSO UNIVISION2015 01 20 31 71 23 14 19 9 ABC AL JAZEERA AMERICA AZTECA CBS CNN FOX FOX BUSINESS FOXNC GALAVISION MSNBC MUNDOFOX NBC UNIVISION2014 01 28 33 30 23 95 20 7 ABC CBS NBC FOX AZTECA FOX BUSINESS FOXNC CNN MSNBC CNBC AL JAZEERA AMERICA GALAVISION MUN2 UNIVISION2013 02 12 33 50 24 77 21 8 ABC CBS FOX NBC PBS AZTECA UNIVISION MFX CNBC CNN FOX BUSINESS FOXNC MSNBC CURRENT CENTRIC GALAVISION2012 01 24 37 75 27 57 24 0 ABC CBS FOX NBC TELEMUNDO TF UNIVISION CNBC CNN FOX BUSINESS FOXNC GALAVISION MSNBC MUN22011 01 25 42 79 30 87 26 6 ABC CBS FOX NBC TELEMUNDO UNIVISION CNN CENTRIC CNBC FOXNC MSNBC2010 01 27 48 01 34 18 29 8 ABC CBS FOX NBC TELEMUNDO UNIVISION CNN BET CNBC FOXNC MSNBC2008 01 28 George W Bush 37 52 27 70 24 7 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN FOXNC MSNBC TELEMUNDO UNIVISION2007 01 24 45 49 32 97 29 6 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN FOXNC MSNBC TELEMUNDO UNIVISION2006 01 31 43 18 30 53 31 2 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN FOXNC MSNBC TELEMUNDO AZTECA AMERICA TELFUTURA2005 02 02 39 43 28 36 35 3 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN FOXNC MSNBC TELEMUNDO TELEFUTURA2004 01 20 43 41 30 29 28 0 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN CNBC FOXNC MSNBC2003 01 28 62 06 41 48 38 8 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN CNBC FOXNC MSNBC2002 01 29 51 77 35 55 33 6 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN CNBC FOXNC MSNBC2000 01 27 Bill Clinton 31 48 22 54 22 4 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN FOXNC MSNBC1999 01 19 43 50 30 70 31 0 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN FOXNC MSNBC1998 01 27 53 08 36 51 37 2 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN FOXNC MSNBC CNBC1997 02 04 41 10 27 60 28 4 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN1996 01 23 40 90 28 40 29 6 ABC CBS FOX NBC CNN1995 01 24 42 20 28 10 29 5 ABC CBS NBC CNN1994 01 25 45 80 31 00 32 9 ABC CBS NBC CNNSee also EditList of joint sessions of the United States Congress State Opening of Parliament Weekly Radio Address of the President of the United StatesReferences Edit a b c State of the Union Address US House of Representatives History Art amp Archives history house gov Retrieved January 28 2018 a b Diaz Daniella February 28 2017 Why Trump s Tuesday speech isn t a State of the Union address CNN Retrieved February 28 2017 Ben s Guide to U S Government United States Government Printing Office Archived from the original on February 25 2009 31 7 Million Viewers Tune in to Watch Pres Obama s State of the Union Address The Nielsen Company Press release January 21 2015 On Tuesday Jan 20 2015 President Barack Obama delivered his annual State of the Union address The address was carried live from 9 00 p m to 10 15 p m on 13 networks and tape delayed on Univision a b c d The President s State of the Union Address Tradition Function and Policy Implications PDF Congressional Research Service January 24 2014 p 2 Vasan Kesavan and J Gregory Sidak 2002 The Legislator In Chief William and Mary Law Review 44 1 Retrieved June 28 2012 Behrmann Savannah January 7 2022 Biden to deliver his first State of the Union address on March 1 USA Today State of the Union Addresses and Messages research notes by Gerhard Peters The American Presidency Project APP Retrieved January 24 2017 State of the Union Five facts about the famous US speech Newsround BBC February 5 2020 Retrieved January 5 2022 a b Peters Gerhard State of the Union Messages The American Presidency Project Retrieved September 25 2006 a b c Kreiser Maria Greene Micheal Kolakowski Michael amp Neale Thomas H April 27 2021 History Evolution and Practices of the President s State of the Union Address Frequently Asked Questions PDF Congressional Research Service Retrieved April 28 2021 The Speech Where and When History Art amp Archives a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint url status link Robert Yoon CNN Political Research Director February 12 2013 State of the Union firsts Retrieved September 29 2017 The First Evening Annual Message history house gov Retrieved January 18 2019 Kurlansky Mark 2004 1968 The Year That Rocked the World New York Ballantine p 44 ISBN 0 9659111 4 4 Office of the Clerk Joint Meetings Joint Sessions and Inaugurations House History United States House of Representatives Archived from the original on January 18 2011 Address to the nation on the Challenger disaster Ronald Reagan Presidential Library Archived from the original on February 9 2012 Retrieved July 4 2006 a b Weinraub Bernard January 29 1986 The Shuttle Explosion Reagan Postpones State of the Union Speech The New York Times p A9 Pelosi invites Trump to deliver State of the Union on Feb 4 POLITICO Retrieved December 20 2019 Liptak Kevin January 23 2019 Pelosi denies Trump use of House chamber for State of the Union CNN Retrieved January 24 2019 Haltiwanger John Trump is right he s the first president in US history to be disinvited from delivering the State of the Union Business Insider Retrieved January 24 2019 Stolberg Sheryl Gay January 28 2019 Trump to Deliver State of the Union Next Week The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved February 4 2019 Speaker Boehner Extends President Obama Formal Invitation to Deliver State of the Union Address Speaker Boehner s Press Office Press release January 11 2011 State of the Union 2015 Speaker Boehner s Press Office Press release December 19 2014 Shogan C J 2015 January 16 The President s State of the Union Address Tradition Function and Policy Implications Congressional Research Service https fas org sgp crs misc R40132 pdf a b c d Joint Session of Congress Pursuant to House Concurrent Resolution 228 to Receive a Message from the President PDF Congressional Record H414 January 27 2010 a b c d President Delivers State of the Union Address Transcript CNN January 28 2008 a b c d e f Joint Session of Congress Pursuant to House Concurrent Resolution 228 to Receive a Message from the President PDF Congressional Record H415 January 27 2010 Roberts Roxanne September 20 2016 The truth behind the designated survivor the president of the post apocalypse The Washington Post Retrieved January 31 2018 Schultheis Emily February 28 2017 Joint session 2017 The history of the designated survivor CBS News Retrieved January 31 2018 Oritz Erik January 30 2018 Designated survivors recount nights as doomsday presidents NBC News Retrieved January 31 2018 Maszwerski Julia February 4 2019 Who sits where during a State of the Union speech infographic ShareAmerica Retrieved July 4 2020 Epstein Jennifer January 13 2011 Mark Udall wants parties together at State of the Union Politico a b Hennessey Kathleen January 21 2012 Rival parties to mix it up nicely at State of the Union Los Angeles Times 44 Sixty lawmakers back bipartisan State of the Union seating plan voices washingtonpost com Retrieved April 14 2021 Singer Paul State of the Union bipartisan seating stunt fizzles USA TODAY Retrieved April 14 2021 Widmer Ted January 31 2006 The State of the Union Is Unreal The New York Times Retrieved January 22 2007 a b c Desjardins Lisa January 30 2018 The word nearly every president uses to describe the state of the union PBS NewsHour Retrieved February 7 2019 Arrigo Anthony F February 4 2019 Look out for the Skutnik during Trump s State of the Union The Conversation US Retrieved February 4 2019 O Keefe Ed January 24 2012 Three decades of Skutniks began with a federal employee Washington Post Retrieved January 26 2012 Wiggin Addison January 25 2011 Small Business Owners Should Be Obama s Lenny Skutnik Forbes Retrieved January 24 2012 a b Clines Francis X August 24 1996 Bonding as New Political Theater Bring On the Babies and Cue the Yellow Dog The New York Times Retrieved January 24 2012 Office of the Clerk Opposition Responses to State of the Union Messages 1966 present United States House of Representatives Retrieved January 23 2007 Frum David 2000 How We Got Here The 70s New York Basic Books p 47 ISBN 0 465 04195 7 Sincere Richard E Jr February 1997 O J J C and Bill Reflections on the State of the Union Metro Herald Archived from the original on July 31 2002 Retrieved January 23 2007 Watts told his audience about 100 high school students from the CloseUp Foundation watched in person while a smaller number watched on television at home that he is old enough to remember the Jim Crow laws that affected him and his family while he grew up in a black neighborhood in small town Oklahoma Kumar Anita January 28 2010 Virginia Gov McDonnell gives Republican Party response to State of the Union The Washington Post Retrieved January 17 2019 York Byron January 21 2004 The Democratic Response You Didn t See National Review Retrieved January 23 2007 And then there was the Spanish language response the first ever delivered by New Mexico governor and former Clinton energy secretary Bill Richardson Michele Bachmann offers Tea Party response to President Obama s State of the Union Address The Washington Post January 26 2011 Retrieved January 15 2015 Official page on Gwinnett County Website UNH State of the University 2015 The University of New Hampshire Press release February 17 2015 State of the University 2015 Santa Clara University Press release February 19 2015 Goldman Jeremy January 20 2015 Why Your Company Deserves a State of the Union Address Inc EU has survived economic crisis Barroso says in first State of Union address EUobserver com September 7 2010 Monroe Doctrine 1823 ourdocuments gov Retrieved January 7 2020 The Four Freedoms were goals first articulated by Franklin D Roosevelt on January 6 1941 Google Search www google com Retrieved February 6 2019 The Four Freedoms Four Freedoms Park Conservancy Retrieved January 7 2020 State of the Union Message to Congress Franklin D Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum Retrieved January 7 2020 Drury Allen 1963 A Senate Journal 1943 1945 McGraw Hill Book Company Inc Drury 1963 pp 43 46 and 53 President Lyndon Johnson s 1964 State of the Union Address called for a war on poverty LBJ Presidential Library www lbjlibrary org Retrieved February 6 2019 Trump says his meeting with North Korea s Kim will be held in Hanoi cnbc com February 6 2019 Gerald R Ford Presidential Library and Museum www fordlibrarymuseum gov Retrieved February 6 2019 President Delivers State of the Union Address georgewbush whitehouse archives gov Retrieved February 6 2019 2019 State of The Union Address TV Ratings Nielsen February 6 2019 Retrieved February 6 2019 2018 State of The Union Address TV Ratings Nielsen January 31 2018 Retrieved January 31 2018 2017 State of The Union Address TV Ratings Nielsen February 28 2017 Retrieved January 11 2018 2016 State of The Union Address TV Ratings Nielsen January 13 2016 Retrieved January 11 2018 2020 State of The Union Address TV Ratings Nielsen February 5 2020 Retrieved February 6 2019 38 million people watched Biden s State of the Union Axios apple news Retrieved March 3 2022 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to State of the Union Wikisource has original text related to this article Portal State of the Union Speeches by United States PresidentsThe American Presidency Project State of the Union Messages Established in 1999 as a collaboration between John Woolley and Gerhard Peters at the University of California Santa Barbara currently January 2010 the APP archives contain 87 448 documents related to the study of the Presidency State of the Union videos and transcripts at C SPAN since 1945 State of the Union Visualizations statistical analysis and searchable texts State of the Union Addresses of American Presidents 1790 2002 in downloadable electronic file formats State of the Union Addresses of American Presidents 1790 2006 HTML format Top 10 State of the Union Addresses RealClearPolitics com The 2013 State of the Union Address on YouTube 1 01 02 Corpus of Political Speeches free access to political speeches by American and other politicians developed by Hong Kong Baptist University Library Retrieved from https 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