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State-recognized tribes in the United States

In the United States, state-recognized tribes are Native American Indian tribes, Nations, or Heritage Groups that do not meet the criteria for federally recognized Indian tribes but have been recognized by a process established under assorted state government laws for varying purposes. They may or may not be continually-existing tribal entities, and state recognition does not dictate whether or not they are recognized as Tribal Nations by continually-existing Tribal Nations.

Yellow: states with federally-recognized tribes
Red: states with state-recognized tribes
Orange: states with both federal- and state-recognized tribes
Grey: states with neither federal- nor state-recognized tribes

With increasing activism by tribal nations since the mid-20th century to obtain federal recognition of their tribal sovereignty, many states have passed legislation that recognizes some tribes and acknowledges the self-determination and continuity of historic ethnic groups. Most such groups are located in the Eastern United States, including the three largest state-recognized tribes in the US: the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, the Miami Nation of Indiana and the United Houma Nation of Louisiana, each of which has several thousand tribal members.

In many cases, US states have recognized tribes that became landless; they did not have an Indian reservation or communal land holdings at the time of application. In addition, such states have often established commissions or other administrative bodies to deal with Native American affairs within the state. In some cases, that has included descendants or those who claim to be descendants who remained in states east of the Mississippi River when tribes were removed during the 19th century.

State recognition confers limited benefits under federal law. It is not the same as federal recognition, which is the federal government's acknowledgment of a tribe as a dependent sovereign nation. Some states have provided laws related to state recognition that provide some protection of autonomy for tribes that are not recognized by the federal government. For example, in Connecticut, state law recognizing certain tribes also protects reservations and limited self-government rights for state-recognized tribes.

Such state recognition has at times been opposed by federally-recognized tribes. For instance, the Cherokee Nation, which enrolls proven descendants, opposes state-recognized tribes, as well as Cherokee heritage groups and others with no documented descent who claim Cherokee identity.

Numerous other groups assert that they are Indian tribes. Some require that applicants document Native ancestors, but others require only a statement of belief. Some of the heritage groups have attained the status of "state-recognized tribes," and others are listed in the list of unrecognized tribes in the United States.

Contents

The United States Constitution, as interpreted by the Supreme Court, gives ultimate authority with regard to matters affecting the Indian tribes to the United States. Under federal law and regulations, an Indian tribe is a group of Native Americans with self-government authority. This defines those tribes recognized by the federal government.

By late 2007, about 16 states had recognized 62 tribes. Five other states—Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, and Oklahoma—had less developed processes of recognition. Typically, the state legislature or state agencies involved in cultural or Native American affairs make the formal recognition by criteria they establish, often with Native American representatives, and sometimes based on federal criteria. Members of a state-recognized tribe are still subject to state law and government, and the tribe does not have sovereign control over its affairs. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, only 14 states recognize tribes at the state level.

Under the United States Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, members of state-recognized tribes are authorized to exhibit as identified Native American artists, as are members of federally recognized tribes.

Koenig and Stein have recommended the processes of North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia, all established by laws passed by the state legislatures, as models worthy of other states to use as the basis for legislation related to recognition of Native American tribes. Statutes that clearly identify criteria for recognition or that explicitly recognize certain tribes remove ambiguity from their status.

By 2008 a total of 62 Native American tribes had been recognized by states; by 2018, 573 had been recognized by the federal government, often as a result of the process of treaties setting up reservations in the 19th century.

The following is a list of tribes recognized by various states, but not by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Tribes originally recognized by states that have since gained federal recognition have been deleted from the list below. The list identifies those state-recognized tribes that have petitioned for federal recognition and been denied. Many continue to work to gain such recognition.

Alabama

By the Davis-Strong Act of 1984, the state established the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission to acknowledge and represent Native American citizens in the state. At that time, it recognized seven tribes that did not have federal recognition. The commission members, representatives of the tribes, have created rules for tribal recognition, which were last updated in 2003, under which three more tribes have been recognized.

  • Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians
  • Cherokee Tribe of Northeast Alabama (formerly Cherokees of Jackson County, Alabama) Letter of Intent to Petition 09/23/1981; certified letter returned "not known" 11/19/1997.
  • Cherokees of Southeast Alabama Letter of Intent to Petition 05/27/1988; certified letter returned marked "deceased" 11/5/1997.
  • Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama
  • Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe of Alabama Letter of Intent to Petition 06/27/1983. Declined to Acknowledge 08/18/1988 52 FR 34319, Denied federal recognition
  • MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians Letter of Intent to Petition 05/27/1983. Final Determination to Decline to Acknowledge published 12/24/1997 62FR247:67398-67400; petitioner requested reconsideration from BIA 3/23/1998, denied federal recognition; decision effective 11/26/1999.
  • Piqua Shawnee Tribe
  • Star Clan of Muscogee Creeks (formerly Lower Creek Muscogee Tribe East, Star Clan, Southeastern Mvskoke Nation, and Yufala Star Clan of Lower Muscogee Creeks)
  • United Cherokee Ani-Yun-Wiya Nation (formerly United Cherokee Intertribal). Letter of Intent to Petition 11/08/2001.

Connecticut

  • Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation.
    • Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/28/1978; Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60099.
    • Paucatuck Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/20/1989. Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60099.
  • Golden Hill Paugussett. Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgement of the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe (2004)
  • Schaghticoke Tribal Nation. Letter of Intent to Petition 9/27/2001. Letter of Intent to Petition 12/14/1981; Declined to acknowledge in 2002; Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60101. Also known as the Schaghticoke Indian Tribe.

Delaware

  • Lenape Indian Tribe of Delaware
  • Nanticoke Indian Association, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 08/08/1978; requested petition be placed on hold 3/25/1989 of limited applicability

Georgia

In 2007, the state legislature formally recognized as American Indian tribes of Georgia the following:

  • Cherokee of Georgia Tribal Council
  • Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees (I). Letter of Intent to Petition 01/09/1979; last submission February 2002; ready for Acknowledge review.
Unrecognized tribes with the same name as Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees, Inc. (II) and (III) exist.

Louisiana

  • Addai Caddo Tribe. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1993. Letter of Intent to Petition 09/13/1993. Also known as Adais Caddo Indians, Inc.
  • Biloxi-Chitimacha Confederation of Muskogee. Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 10/24/1995. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2005.
  • Choctaw-Apache Tribe of Ebarb Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978. Letter of Intent to Petition 07/02/1978.
  • Clifton-Choctaw Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978. Letter of Intent to Petition 03/22/1978. Also known as Clifton Choctaw Reservation Inc.
  • Four Winds Tribe, Louisiana Cherokee Confederacy Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1997.
  • Grand Caillou/Dulac Band
  • Isle de Jean Charles Band
  • Louisiana Choctaw Tribe.
  • Pointe-au-Chien Tribe. Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc.. Letter of Intent to Petition 7/22/1996. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2004.
  • United Houma Nation Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1972. Letter of Intent to Petition 07/10/1979; Proposed Finding 12/22/1994, 59 FR 6618. Denied federal recognition
  • Natchitoches Tribe of Louisiana, Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2017 Regular Session, HR227.

Maryland

On January 9, 2012, for the first time the state recognized two American Indian tribes under a process developed by the General Assembly; these were both Piscataway groups, historically part of the large Algonquian languages family along the Atlantic Coast. The Governor announced it to the Assembly by executive order.

Massachusetts

The Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs was created by a legislative act of the General Court of Massachusetts in 1974, with the purpose of helping tribes recognized or that will be recognized receive access to and assistance with various local and state agencies. Two former state-recognized tribes, the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head and the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, have federal recognition as of 1987 and 2007, respectively.

  • Nipmuc Nation Letter of Intent to Petition 04/22/1980; Declined to acknowledge on 6/25/2004, 69 FR 35667.

Michigan

As of 2014, Michigan has four State-recognized tribes.

New Jersey

New York

The Tonawanda Band of Seneca and Tuscarora Nation are both recognized by the state of New York but also federally recognized.

North Carolina

  • Coharie Intra-tribal Council, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 3/13/1981.
  • Haliwa-Saponi Indian Tribe Letter of Intent to Petition 1/27/1979. Notified of "obvious deficiencies" in federal recognition application
  • Lumbee Tribe (Lumbee Regional Development Association Inc., Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina). Letter of Intent to Petition 01/07/1980; determined ineligible to petition (SOL opinion of 10/23/1989). In 2009, Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition.
  • Meherrin Nation. State-recognized 1987.
  • Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/06/1995.
  • Sappony(formerly known as Indians of Person County, North Carolina).
  • Waccamaw-Siouan Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/27/1983; determined ineligible to petition (SOL opinion of 10/23/1989). Letter of Intent to Petition 10/16/1992; determined eligible to petition (SOL letter of 6/29/1995). Also known as Waccamaw Siouan Development Association.

South Carolina

South Carolina recognizes three types of Native American entities; tribes, groups and special interest organizations. As of 2020[update] the state recognizes nine Native American tribes that are not recognized by the federal government.

  • Beaver Creek Indians. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/26/1998. State-recognized tribe in 2006.
  • Edisto Natchez Kusso Tribe of South Carolina, state-recognized tribe in 2010. Also known as Edisto Natchez-Kusso Indians (Four Holes Indian Organization)
  • Pee Dee Indian Nation of Upper South Carolina. Letter of Intent to Petition 12/14/2005. State-recognized tribe in 2005.
  • Pee Dee Indian Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/30/1995. State recognized in 2006. Formerly Pee Dee Indian Tribe of South Carolina (2005). Formerly Pee Dee Indian Association (1978). Formerly,
  • Piedmont American Indian Association.
  • The Santee Indian Organization. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/04/1979. State-recognized tribe in 2006. Formerly White Oak Indian Community.
  • Sumter Tribe of Cheraw Indians.
  • The Waccamaw Indian People.
  • The Wassamasaw Tribe of Varnertown Indians.

The South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs also recognizes "State Recognized Groups and Special Interest Organizations," but these are not the same as the state-recognized tribes. They are the American Indian Chamber of Commerce South Carolina; Chaloklowa Chickasaw Indian People; Eastern Cherokee, Southern Iroquois and United Tribes of South Carolina; Little Horse Creek American Indian Cultural Center; Natchez Tribe of South Carolina; Pee Dee Indian Nation of Beaver Creek; and Pine Hill Indian Community Development Initiative.

Texas

In Texas, there are three Tribes that are recognized by both Federal and Texas governments. Texas recognizes two additional Tribes:

Vermont

As of May 3, 2006, Vermont law 1 V.S.A §§ 851–853 recognizes Abenakis as Native American Indians, not the tribes or bands. However, on April 22, 2011, Vermont Governor Peter Shumlin signed legislative bills officially recognizing two Abenaki Bands. The four Abenaki state-recognized tribes are also known as the "Abenaki Alliance."

On May 7, 2012, Governor Shumlim signed legislative bills officially recognizing two more Abenaki Bands:

  • Koasek Abenaki Tribe. Also known as Traditional Koasek Abenaki Nation of the Koas
  • Missisquoi Abenaki Tribe. Also known as Missisquoi St Francis Sokoki Abenaki Nations.

Virginia

  • Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Letter of Intent to Petition 12/30/2002. Receipt of Petition 12/30/2002. State-recognized 2010; in Courtland, Southampton County. Letter of intent to file for federal recognition 2017. Currently a bill is being sponsored.
  • Mattaponi(a.k.a. Mattaponi Indian Reservation) Letter of Intent to Petition 04/04/1995. State-recognized 1983; in Banks of the Mattaponi River, King William County. The Mattaponi and Pamunkey have reservations based in colonial-era treaties ratified by the Commonwealth in 1658. Pamunkey Tribe's attorney told Congress in 1991 that the tribes state reservation originated in a treaty with the crown in the 17th century and has been occupied by Pamunkey since that time under strict requirements and following the treaty obligation to provide to the Crown a deer every year, and they've done that (replacing Crown with Governor of Commonwealth since Virginia became a Commonwealth).
  • Nottoway of Virginia(Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia), recognized 2010; in Capron, Southampton County.
  • Patawomeck recognized 2010; in Stafford County.
United States
Canada
Related
  1. "What is a real Indian Nation? What is a fake tribe?". Cherokee Nation. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved15 May 2014.
  2. 25 CFR 290.2, "Definitions"
  3. Alexa Koenig and Jonathan Stein, "Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A Survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes across the United States", Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 48, November 2007
  4. Sheffield (1998) p. 63
  5. "State Recognized Tribes". National Conference of State Legislatures. October 2016. Retrieved6 April 2017.
  6. The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 Archived 2006-09-25 at the Wayback Machine, US Department of the Interior: Indian Arts and Crafts Board. (retrieved 23 May 2009)
  7. Alabama Indian Affairs Commission. "Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama". Retrieved2015-03-28.
  8. "Tribal Directory: Southeast". National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved6 April 2016.
  9. LIST OF PETITIONERS BY STATE (as of July 31, 2012) (Accessible as of January 15, 2013 here)
  10. Sheffield (1998) p64
  11. Connecticut Law on Indian Tribes (2007-R-0475). Christopher Reinhart, Senior Attorney, on behalf of State of Connecticut General Assembly (Accessible as of July 15, 2014 here).
  12. Christopher Reinhart (2002-02-07). "Effect of State Recognition of an Indian Tribe". State of Connecticut. Retrieved2010-08-06. Connecticut statutes recognize five tribes: (1) Golden Hill Paugussett, (2) Mashantucket Pequot, (3) Mohegan, (4) Eastern Pequot, and (5) Schaghticoke tribe.
  13. "CGS § 47-59a Connecticut Indians; citizenship, civil rights, land rights". State of Connecticut. Retrieved2015-07-02.
  14. Bureau of Indian Affairs (2004-06-21). "Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgement of the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe". Federal Register. United States. pp. 34388–34393. Retrieved2010-08-06.
  15. "Tribal Directory". National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved6 April 2016.
  16. Sheffield (1998): 66
  17. O.C.G.A. § 44-12-300 (2007) Title 44, Chapter 12, Article 7, Part 3 of the Official Code of Georgia Annotated Archived 2004-09-19 at the Wayback Machine, Georgia Legislature. Quote: The State of Georgia "officially recognizes as legitimate American Indian tribes of Georgia the following tribes, bands, groups, or communities" for state purposes
  18. Sheffield (1998) p67
  19. "Louisiana Governor's Office of Indian Affairs" Retrieved on 4/8/2008 Archived 2008-10-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. Sheffield (1998): 67
  21. Witte, Brian. "Md. Formally Recognizes 2 American Indian Groups.", NBC Washington, 9 Jan 2011, Retrieved 10 Jan 2011
  22. Executive Orders 01.01.2012.01 and 01.01.2012.02 "Recognition of tribes in the state", Governor's Office
  23. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 6A, § 8A.
  24. "Northeast". Tribal Directory. National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved6 June 2018.
  25. Swimmer, R. (1987). Final determination for federal acknowledgment of the Wampanoag Tribal Council of Gay Head, Inc., FR Doc. 87-2877. US. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
  26. Carson, J. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. (2004). Summary under the criteria of evidence for final determination of federal recognition of the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Council, Inc Archived 2012-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. (71 FR 17488). U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
  27. "Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgment of the Nipmuc Nation". Federal Register. Indian Affairs Bureau. 25 June 2004. Retrieved15 November 2021.
  28. "Michigan Historic Tribes"(pdf). State of Michigan Community Services Block Grant. State Plan from Fiscal Years 2015–2016. Michigan Department of Human Services. 1 July 2014. p. 67. Retrieved25 June 2015.
  29. Indian Country Today march 27,2019
  30. "Tribal Directory: Northeast". National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved22 June 2015.
  31. North Carolina Department of Administration (February 2007). "North Carolina American Indian Tribes and Organizations"(PDF).
  32. Sheffield (1998) p68-70
  33. "Virginia tribes take another step on road to federal recognition" Archived 2009-10-26 at archive.today in '[Richmond Times-Dispatch, 28 October 2009.
  34. "South Carolina's Recognized Native American Indian Entities". South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs. 2020. Retrieved22 September 2020.
  35. South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs. "SC tribes and groups"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2008-01-02.
  36. South Carolina Indian Affairs Commission. "Members". Archived from the original on 2013-01-11.
  37. South Carolina Indigenous Gallery. "Visitors Center". Archived from the original on 2007-09-02.
  38. "List of Petitioners by State (as of 11/12/2013)"(PDF).
  39. 2018 ACPS Convention Information; webpage; "Indigenous Texas;" at My ACPA online; accessed October 2020
  40. Vermonters Concerned on Native American Affairs. "Tribal Sites VT". Retrieved2011-12-28.
  41. Receipt of Petitions for Federal Acknowledgment of Existence as an Indian Tribe (68 FR 13724)
  42. Virginia Council on Indians. "Virginia Tribes". Archived from the original on 2003-08-10.
  • Koenig, Alexa and Jonathan Stein (2008). Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States. University of Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 48.
  • Sheffield, Gail (1998). Arbitrary Indian: The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2969-7.
  • Constitution of the United States

State-recognized tribes in the United States
State recognized tribes in the United States Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from State recognized tribes in the United States In the United States state recognized tribes are Native American Indian tribes Nations or Heritage Groups that do not meet the criteria for federally recognized Indian tribes but have been recognized by a process established under assorted state government laws for varying purposes They may or may not be continually existing tribal entities and state recognition does not dictate whether or not they are recognized as Tribal Nations by continually existing Tribal Nations Yellow states with federally recognized tribes Red states with state recognized tribes Orange states with both federal and state recognized tribes Grey states with neither federal nor state recognized tribes With increasing activism by tribal nations since the mid 20th century to obtain federal recognition of their tribal sovereignty many states have passed legislation that recognizes some tribes and acknowledges the self determination and continuity of historic ethnic groups Most such groups are located in the Eastern United States including the three largest state recognized tribes in the US the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina the Miami Nation of Indiana and the United Houma Nation of Louisiana each of which has several thousand tribal members In many cases US states have recognized tribes that became landless they did not have an Indian reservation or communal land holdings at the time of application In addition such states have often established commissions or other administrative bodies to deal with Native American affairs within the state In some cases that has included descendants or those who claim to be descendants who remained in states east of the Mississippi River when tribes were removed during the 19th century State recognition confers limited benefits under federal law It is not the same as federal recognition which is the federal government s acknowledgment of a tribe as a dependent sovereign nation Some states have provided laws related to state recognition that provide some protection of autonomy for tribes that are not recognized by the federal government For example in Connecticut state law recognizing certain tribes also protects reservations and limited self government rights for state recognized tribes Such state recognition has at times been opposed by federally recognized tribes For instance the Cherokee Nation which enrolls proven descendants opposes state recognized tribes as well as Cherokee heritage groups and others with no documented descent who claim Cherokee identity 1 Numerous other groups assert that they are Indian tribes Some require that applicants document Native ancestors but others require only a statement of belief Some of the heritage groups have attained the status of state recognized tribes and others are listed in the list of unrecognized tribes in the United States Contents 1 Description 2 List of state recognized tribes 2 1 Alabama 2 2 Connecticut 2 3 Delaware 2 4 Georgia 2 5 Louisiana 2 6 Maryland 2 7 Massachusetts 2 8 Michigan 2 9 New Jersey 2 10 New York 2 11 North Carolina 2 12 South Carolina 2 13 Texas 2 14 Vermont 2 15 Virginia 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External sourcesDescription EditThe United States Constitution as interpreted by the Supreme Court gives ultimate authority with regard to matters affecting the Indian tribes to the United States Under federal law and regulations an Indian tribe is a group of Native Americans with self government authority 2 This defines those tribes recognized by the federal government By late 2007 about 16 states had recognized 62 tribes Five other states Kansas Kentucky Michigan Missouri and Oklahoma had less developed processes of recognition 3 Typically the state legislature or state agencies involved in cultural or Native American affairs make the formal recognition by criteria they establish often with Native American representatives and sometimes based on federal criteria 4 Members of a state recognized tribe are still subject to state law and government and the tribe does not have sovereign control over its affairs According to the National Conference of State Legislatures only 14 states recognize tribes at the state level 5 Under the United States Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 6 members of state recognized tribes are authorized to exhibit as identified Native American artists as are members of federally recognized tribes Koenig and Stein have recommended the processes of North Carolina South Carolina and Virginia all established by laws passed by the state legislatures as models worthy of other states to use as the basis for legislation related to recognition of Native American tribes Statutes that clearly identify criteria for recognition or that explicitly recognize certain tribes remove ambiguity from their status 3 List of state recognized tribes EditBy 2008 a total of 62 Native American tribes had been recognized by states by 2018 573 had been recognized by the federal government often as a result of the process of treaties setting up reservations in the 19th century The following is a list of tribes recognized by various states but not by the U S Bureau of Indian Affairs Tribes originally recognized by states that have since gained federal recognition have been deleted from the list below The list identifies those state recognized tribes that have petitioned for federal recognition and been denied Many continue to work to gain such recognition Alabama Edit By the Davis Strong Act of 1984 the state established the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission to acknowledge and represent Native American citizens in the state At that time it recognized seven tribes that did not have federal recognition The commission members representatives of the tribes have created rules for tribal recognition which were last updated in 2003 under which three more tribes have been recognized 7 Cher O Creek Intra Tribal Indians 5 7 8 Cherokee Tribe of Northeast Alabama formerly Cherokees of Jackson County Alabama 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 09 23 1981 9 certified letter returned not known 11 19 1997 Cherokees of Southeast Alabama 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 05 27 1988 9 certified letter returned marked deceased 11 5 1997 Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama 5 Ma Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe of Alabama 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 06 27 1983 Declined to Acknowledge 08 18 1988 52 FR 34319 5 Denied federal recognition 9 10 MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 05 27 1983 Final Determination to Decline to Acknowledge published 12 24 1997 62FR247 67398 67400 petitioner requested reconsideration from BIA 3 23 1998 5 denied federal recognition 10 decision effective 11 26 1999 9 Piqua Shawnee Tribe 5 Star Clan of Muscogee Creeks 5 formerly Lower Creek Muscogee Tribe East Star Clan Southeastern Mvskoke Nation and Yufala Star Clan of Lower Muscogee Creeks United Cherokee Ani Yun Wiya Nation 5 formerly United Cherokee Intertribal Letter of Intent to Petition 11 08 2001 9 Connecticut Edit Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation 5 11 Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut Letter of Intent to Petition 06 28 1978 9 Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10 14 2005 70 FR 60099 9 Paucatuck Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut Letter of Intent to Petition 06 20 1989 9 Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10 14 2005 70 FR 60099 9 Golden Hill Paugussett 5 12 13 Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgement of the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe 2004 14 Schaghticoke Tribal Nation 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 9 27 2001 9 11 Letter of Intent to Petition 12 14 1981 Declined to acknowledge in 2002 Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10 14 2005 70 FR 60101 Also known as the Schaghticoke Indian Tribe 9 Delaware Edit Lenape Indian Tribe of Delaware 15 Nanticoke Indian Association Inc 15 Letter of Intent to Petition 08 08 1978 requested petition be placed on hold 3 25 1989 of limited applicability 16 Georgia Edit In 2007 the state legislature formally recognized as American Indian tribes of Georgia the following 17 Cherokee of Georgia Tribal Council 5 Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees 5 I Letter of Intent to Petition 01 09 1979 9 last submission February 2002 ready for Acknowledge review Unrecognized tribes with the same name as Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees Inc II and III exist Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 02 02 1972 Declined to Acknowledge 12 21 1981 46 FR 51652 9 Denied federal recognition 18 Also known as Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe East of the Mississippi Inc Louisiana Edit Addai Caddo Tribe 5 Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1993 19 Letter of Intent to Petition 09 13 1993 9 Also known as Adais Caddo Indians Inc Biloxi Chitimacha Confederation of Muskogee 5 Separated from United Houma Nation Inc Letter of Intent to Petition 10 24 1995 9 Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2005 19 Choctaw Apache Tribe of Ebarb 5 8 Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978 19 Letter of Intent to Petition 07 02 1978 9 Clifton Choctaw 5 Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978 19 Letter of Intent to Petition 03 22 1978 9 Also known as Clifton Choctaw Reservation Inc Four Winds Tribe Louisiana Cherokee Confederacy 5 Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1997 5 19 Grand Caillou Dulac Band 5 Isle de Jean Charles Band 5 Louisiana Choctaw Tribe 5 Pointe au Chien Tribe 5 Separated from United Houma Nation Inc Letter of Intent to Petition 7 22 1996 5 9 Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2004 19 United Houma Nation 5 Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1972 19 Letter of Intent to Petition 07 10 1979 Proposed Finding 12 22 1994 59 FR 6618 9 Denied federal recognition 20 Natchitoches Tribe of Louisiana Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2017 Regular Session HR227 Maryland Edit On January 9 2012 for the first time the state recognized two American Indian tribes under a process developed by the General Assembly these were both Piscataway groups 21 historically part of the large Algonquian languages family along the Atlantic Coast The Governor announced it to the Assembly by executive order 21 22 Piscataway Conoy Tribe 5 It includes the following two sub groups Piscataway Conoy Confederacy and Sub Tribes 21 Cedarville Band of Piscataway Indians 21 Piscataway Indian Nation and Tayac Territory 5 Massachusetts Edit The Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs was created by a legislative act of the General Court of Massachusetts in 1974 with the purpose of helping tribes recognized or that will be recognized receive access to and assistance with various local and state agencies 23 Two former state recognized tribes the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head and the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe 24 have federal recognition as of 1987 and 2007 respectively 25 26 Nipmuc Nation 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 04 22 1980 Declined to acknowledge on 6 25 2004 69 FR 35667 27 Michigan Edit As of 2014 Michigan has four State recognized tribes Burt Lake Band of Ottawa amp Chippewa Indians 28 Grand River Band of Ottawa Indians 28 Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians 28 Swan Creek Black River Confederated Ojibwa Tribes of Michigan 28 New Jersey Edit Nanticoke Lenni Lenape Tribal Nation 15 Letter of Intent to Petition 01 03 1992 9 29 Ramapough Lenape Nation 29 Powhatan Renape Nation 29 New York Edit The Tonawanda Band of Seneca and Tuscarora Nation are both recognized by the state of New York but also federally recognized 5 Unkechague Poosepatuck Tribe 5 30 Unkechaug Nation 5 North Carolina Edit Coharie Intra tribal Council Inc 5 31 Letter of Intent to Petition 3 13 1981 9 Haliwa Saponi Indian Tribe 5 8 31 Letter of Intent to Petition 1 27 1979 9 Notified of obvious deficiencies in federal recognition application 32 Lumbee Tribe 5 8 Lumbee Regional Development Association Inc Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina 31 Letter of Intent to Petition 01 07 1980 determined ineligible to petition SOL opinion of 10 23 1989 9 In 2009 Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition 33 Meherrin Nation 5 31 State recognized 1987 9 Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation 5 31 Letter of Intent to Petition 01 06 1995 9 Sappony 5 formerly known as Indians of Person County North Carolina 31 32 Waccamaw Siouan Tribe 5 8 31 Letter of Intent to Petition 06 27 1983 determined ineligible to petition SOL opinion of 10 23 1989 9 Letter of Intent to Petition 10 16 1992 determined eligible to petition SOL letter of 6 29 1995 9 Also known as Waccamaw Siouan Development Association South Carolina Edit South Carolina recognizes three types of Native American entities tribes groups and special interest organizations As of 2020 update the state recognizes nine Native American tribes that are not recognized by the federal government 34 Beaver Creek Indians 34 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 01 26 1998 9 State recognized tribe in 2006 35 36 37 Edisto Natchez Kusso Tribe of South Carolina 34 5 state recognized tribe in 2010 35 37 Also known as Edisto Natchez Kusso Indians Four Holes Indian Organization Pee Dee Indian Nation of Upper South Carolina 34 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 12 14 2005 9 State recognized tribe in 2005 35 36 37 Pee Dee Indian Tribe 34 Letter of Intent to Petition 01 30 1995 38 State recognized in 2006 35 Formerly Pee Dee Indian Tribe of South Carolina 2005 5 Formerly Pee Dee Indian Association 1978 35 Formerly Piedmont American Indian Association 34 The Santee Indian Organization 34 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 06 04 1979 9 State recognized tribe in 2006 35 Formerly White Oak Indian Community Sumter Tribe of Cheraw Indians 34 The Waccamaw Indian People 34 The Wassamasaw Tribe of Varnertown Indians 34 5 The South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs also recognizes State Recognized Groups and Special Interest Organizations but these are not the same as the state recognized tribes They are the American Indian Chamber of Commerce South Carolina Chaloklowa Chickasaw Indian People Eastern Cherokee Southern Iroquois and United Tribes of South Carolina Little Horse Creek American Indian Cultural Center Natchez Tribe of South Carolina Pee Dee Indian Nation of Beaver Creek and Pine Hill Indian Community Development Initiative 34 Texas Edit In Texas there are three Tribes that are recognized by both Federal and Texas governments Texas recognizes two additional Tribes Lipan Apache Tribe 15 On March 18 2009 the State of Texas legislature passed joint resolutions HR 812 and SR 438 recognizing the Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas Then ten years later on May 25 2019 and June 4 2019 Texas Governor Gregg Abbott respectively signed companion bills adopted by State of Texas legislature House Concurrent Resolution HCR 171 and Senate Concurrent Resolution SCR 61 that once again recognized the Lipan Apache Tribe Also known as Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas Mount Tabor Indian Community 1 On April 5 2017 the State of Texas legislature passed resolutions 85 SCR 25 with the House passing the bill on April 27 2017 2 3 Governor Greg Abbott signed the bill into law on May 10 2017 recognizing the Mount Tabor Indian Community of Texas Also known as Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands Mount Tabor Indian Community Texas Band of Yaqui Indians 39 Vermont Edit As of May 3 2006 Vermont law 1 V S A 851 853 recognizes Abenakis as Native American Indians not the tribes or bands However on April 22 2011 Vermont Governor Peter Shumlin signed legislative bills officially recognizing two Abenaki Bands The four Abenaki state recognized tribes are also known as the Abenaki Alliance Elnu Abenaki Tribe 5 40 recognition signed into statute April 22 2011 Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk Abenaki Nation 5 40 recognition signed into statute April 22 2011 On May 7 2012 Governor Shumlim signed legislative bills officially recognizing two more Abenaki Bands Koasek Abenaki Tribe 5 Also known as Traditional Koasek Abenaki Nation of the Koas Missisquoi Abenaki Tribe 5 Also known as Missisquoi St Francis Sokoki Abenaki Nations Virginia Edit Cheroenhaka Nottoway 5 Letter of Intent to Petition 12 30 2002 9 Receipt of Petition 12 30 2002 41 State recognized 2010 in Courtland Southampton County 42 Letter of intent to file for federal recognition 2017 Currently a bill is being sponsored Mattaponi a k a Mattaponi Indian Reservation Letter of Intent to Petition 04 04 1995 State recognized 1983 in Banks of the Mattaponi River King William County The Mattaponi and Pamunkey have reservations based in colonial era treaties ratified by the Commonwealth in 1658 Pamunkey Tribe s attorney told Congress in 1991 that the tribes state reservation originated in a treaty with the crown in the 17th century and has been occupied by Pamunkey since that time under strict requirements and following the treaty obligation to provide to the Crown a deer every year and they ve done that replacing Crown with Governor of Commonwealth since Virginia became a Commonwealth Nottoway of Virginia Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia recognized 2010 in Capron Southampton County Patawomeck 5 recognized 2010 in Stafford County 42 See also EditUnited StatesFederally recognized tribes Lower 48 states Federally recognized tribes in Alaska Unrecognized tribes not recognized by state or federal governments Native Americans in the United States List of federally recognized tribes by state List of Indian reservations in the United States List of historical Indian reservations in the United States Outline of United States federal Indian law and policy National Park Service Native American Heritage SitesCanadaList of Indian reserves in Canada List of First Nations governments List of First Nations peoplesRelatedDiplomatic recognition List of states with limited recognition List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies Sovereignty Tribal sovereigntyNotes Edit What is a real Indian Nation What is a fake tribe Cherokee Nation Archived from the original on 12 November 2014 Retrieved 15 May 2014 25 CFR 290 2 Definitions a b Alexa Koenig and Jonathan Stein Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes A Survey of State Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes across the United States Santa Clara Law Review Vol 48 November 2007 Sheffield 1998 p 63 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc State Recognized Tribes National Conference of State Legislatures October 2016 Retrieved 6 April 2017 The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 Archived 2006 09 25 at the Wayback Machine US Department of the Interior Indian Arts and Crafts Board retrieved 23 May 2009 a b Alabama Indian Affairs Commission Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama Retrieved 2015 03 28 a b c d e Tribal Directory Southeast National Congress of American Indians Retrieved 6 April 2016 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae LIST OF PETITIONERS BY STATE as of July 31 2012 Accessible as of January 15 2013 here a b Sheffield 1998 p64 a b Connecticut Law on Indian Tribes 2007 R 0475 Christopher Reinhart Senior Attorney on behalf of State of Connecticut General Assembly Accessible as of July 15 2014 here Christopher Reinhart 2002 02 07 Effect of State Recognition of an Indian Tribe State of Connecticut Retrieved 2010 08 06 Connecticut statutes recognize five tribes 1 Golden Hill Paugussett 2 Mashantucket Pequot 3 Mohegan 4 Eastern Pequot and 5 Schaghticoke tribe CGS 47 59a Connecticut Indians citizenship civil rights land rights State of Connecticut Retrieved 2015 07 02 Bureau of Indian Affairs 2004 06 21 Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgement of the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe Federal Register United States pp 34388 34393 Retrieved 2010 08 06 a b c d Tribal Directory National Congress of American Indians Retrieved 6 April 2016 Sheffield 1998 66 O C G A 44 12 300 2007 Title 44 Chapter 12 Article 7 Part 3 of the Official Code of Georgia Annotated Archived 2004 09 19 at the Wayback Machine Georgia Legislature Quote The State of Georgia officially recognizes as legitimate American Indian tribes of Georgia the following tribes bands groups or communities for state purposes Sheffield 1998 p67 a b c d e f g Louisiana Governor s Office of Indian Affairs Retrieved on 4 8 2008 Archived 2008 10 13 at the Wayback Machine Sheffield 1998 67 a b c d Witte Brian Md Formally Recognizes 2 American Indian Groups NBC Washington 9 Jan 2011 Retrieved 10 Jan 2011 Executive Orders 01 01 2012 01 and 01 01 2012 02 Recognition of tribes in the state Governor s Office Mass Gen Laws ch 6A 8A Northeast Tribal Directory National Congress of American Indians Retrieved 6 June 2018 Swimmer R 1987 Final determination for federal acknowledgment of the Wampanoag Tribal Council of Gay Head Inc FR Doc 87 2877 US Government Printing Office Washington D C Carson J U S Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs 2004 Summary under the criteria of evidence for final determination of federal recognition of the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Council Inc Archived 2012 09 21 at the Wayback Machine 71 FR 17488 U S Government Printing Office Washington D C Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgment of the Nipmuc Nation Federal Register Indian Affairs Bureau 25 June 2004 Retrieved 15 November 2021 a b c d Michigan Historic Tribes pdf State of Michigan Community Services Block Grant State Plan from Fiscal Years 2015 2016 Michigan Department of Human Services 1 July 2014 p 67 Retrieved 25 June 2015 a b c Indian Country Today march 27 2019 Tribal Directory Northeast National Congress of American Indians Retrieved 22 June 2015 a b c d e f g North Carolina Department of Administration February 2007 North Carolina American Indian Tribes and Organizations PDF a b Sheffield 1998 p68 70 Virginia tribes take another step on road to federal recognition Archived 2009 10 26 at archive today in Richmond Times Dispatch 28 October 2009 a b c d e f g h i j k South Carolina s Recognized Native American Indian Entities South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs 2020 Retrieved 22 September 2020 a b c d e f South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs SC tribes and groups PDF Archived from the original PDF on 2008 01 02 a b South Carolina Indian Affairs Commission Members Archived from the original on 2013 01 11 a b c South Carolina Indigenous Gallery Visitors Center Archived from the original on 2007 09 02 List of Petitioners by State as of 11 12 2013 PDF 2018 ACPS Convention Information webpage Indigenous Texas at My ACPA online accessed October 2020 a b Vermonters Concerned on Native American Affairs Tribal Sites VT Retrieved 2011 12 28 Receipt of Petitions for Federal Acknowledgment of Existence as an Indian Tribe 68 FR 13724 a b Virginia Council on Indians Virginia Tribes Archived from the original on 2003 08 10 References EditKoenig Alexa and Jonathan Stein 2008 Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes A survey of State Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States University of Santa Clara Law Review Vol 48 Sheffield Gail 1998 Arbitrary Indian The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 Norman University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 0 8061 2969 7 Constitution of the United StatesExternal sources EditMiller Mark Edwin Forgotten Tribes Unrecognized Indians and the Federal Acknowledgment Process Lincoln University of Nebraska Press 2004 Discusses the state recognition process the experiences of several state recognized tribes the United Houma Nation of Louisiana and the Tigua Pueblo of Ysleta Del Sur and Alabama Coushatta Tribes of Texas the latter two are federally recognized and the problems of non federally acknowledged indigenous communities Bates Denise The Other Movement Indian Rights and Civil Rights in the Deep South Tuscaloosa University of Alabama Press 2011 Details state recognition and the functioning of state Indian commissions in Alabama and Louisiana Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes A survey of State Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States BIA list of petitioners for recognition by state as of 22 September 2008 BIA status summary of petitions for recognition as of 15 February 2007 Testimony of Leon Jones Principal Chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and Dan McCoy Tribal Council Chairman on the Indian Federal Recognition Administrative Procedures Act of 1999 Joint resolution of the Cherokee Nation and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians opposing fabricated Cherokee tribes and Indians acknowledges the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians U S GAO Indian Issues Federal Funding for Non Federally Recognized Tribes Published April 12 2012 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title State recognized tribes in the United States amp oldid 1055314275, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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