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Secular state

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A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularity, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion. A secular state claims to treat all its citizens equally regardless of religion, and claims to avoid preferential treatment for a citizen based on their religious beliefs, affiliation or lack of either over those with other profiles.[citation needed]

Secular states do not have a state religion/preferred religion (e.g., an established religion) or an equivalent, although the absence of an established state religion does not necessarily imply that a state is fully secular or egalitarian in all respects. For example, some states that describe themselves as secular have religious references in their national anthems and flags, or laws which advantage one religion or another.

Contents

Secularity can be established at a state's creation (e.g., the Soviet Union, the United States, India) or by it later secularizing (e.g., France or Nepal). Movements for laïcité in France and separation of church and state in the United States have defined modern concepts of secularism, the United States of America being the first explicitly secular nation both in Western and world history. Historically, the process of secularizing typically involves granting religious freedom, disestablishing state religions, stopping public funds being used for religion, freeing the legal system from religious control, freeing up the education system, tolerating citizens who change religion or abstain from religion, and allowing political leaders to come to power regardless of their religious beliefs.

In France, Italy, and Spain, for example, official holidays for the public administration tend to be Christian feast days. Any private school in France that contracts with Éducation nationale means its teachers are salaried by the state—most of the Catholic schools are in this situation and, because of history, they are the majority; however, any other religious or non-religious schools also contract this way. In some European states where secularism confronts monoculturalist philanthropy, some of the main Christian sects and sects of other religions depend on the state for some of the financial resources for their religious charities. It is common in corporate law and charity law to prohibit organized religion from using those funds to organize religious worship in a separate place of worship or for conversion; the religious body itself must provide the religious content, educated clergy and laypersons to exercise its own functions and may choose to devote part of their time to the separate charities. To that effect, some of those charities establish secular organizations that manage part of or all of the donations from the main religious bodies.

Religious and non-religious organizations can apply for equivalent funding from the government and receive subsidies based on either assessed social results[clarification needed] where there is indirect religious state funding, or simply the number of beneficiaries of those organizations. This resembles charitable choice in the United States. It is doubtful whether overt direct state funding of religions is in accordance with the European Convention on Human Rights. Apparently, this issue has not yet been decided at a supranational level in ECtHR case law stemming from the rights in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which mandates non-discrimination in affording its co-listed basic social rights.[clarification needed][gobbledegook] Specifically, funding certain services would not accord with non-discriminatory state action.

Many states that are nowadays secular in practice may have legal vestiges of an earlier established religion. Secularism also has various guises that may coincide with some degree of official religiosity. In the United Kingdom, the head of state is still required to take the Coronation Oath enacted in 1688, swearing to maintain the Protestant Reformed religion and to preserve the established Church of England. The UK also maintains seats in the House of Lords for 26 senior clergymen of the Church of England, known as the Lords Spiritual. In Canada the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms affords secular freedoms of conscience and religion, thought, belief, opinion and expression, including communication, assembly and association yet the Charter's preamble maintains the concept of "the supremacy of God" which would appear to disadvantage those who hold nontheistic or polytheistic beliefs, including atheism and Buddhism. Italy has been a secular state since the enactment of the Constitution in 1948 (stressed by a Constitutional court's decision in 1985), but still recognizes a special status for the Catholic Church. The reverse progression can also occur, however; a state can go from being secular to being a religious state, as in the case of Iran where the secularized Imperial State of Iran was replaced by an Islamic Republic (list below). Nonetheless, the last 250 years has seen a trend towards secularism.

Map of secular states in blue. States with state religions are shown in red and ambiguous states are shown in gray.

This is the list of countries that are explicitly described as secular in their constitutions or other official state documents.

African Countries

Asia

1 Transcontinental country.

Caribbean

Europe

1 Transcontinental country.
2 States with limited recognition.

North America

Oceania

South America

  • Argentina
    • According to Section 2 of the Constitution of Argentina, "The Federal Government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic religion" but it does not stipulate an official state religion, nor a separation of church and state. In practice, however, the country is mostly secular, and there is no kind of persecution of people of other religions; they are completely accepted and even encouraged in their activities.
  • Armenia
    • The constitution formally separates the church from the state; however, it recognizes the Armenian Apostolic Church as the national church.
  • Bangladesh
    • There is a constitutional ambiguity that makes Bangladesh both secular and Islamic . Freedom of religion is guaranteed by its constitution in which it gives equal rights to all citizens irrespective of religion. In 2010, the High Court held up the secular principles of the 1972 constitution
  • Brazil
    • According to the Preamble of the Constitution of Brazil, "...promulgate, under the protection of God, this Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil" but it does not stipulate any official state religion. The Article 19th of the same Constitution forbids in any degree of the State to "establish religious cults or churches, subsidize them, hamper their operation or maintain with them or their representative's relations of dependency or alliance, with the exception of cooperation for the public interest, as set forth in the law".
    • Despite being mostly secular, it is normal to see religious symbols (such as crucifixes) in State facilities (hospitals, schools, courts, police stations).
    • According to Article 208 of the Brazilian Penal Code “mock someone publicly, by reason of belief or religious function; prevent or disrupt ceremony or practice of religious worship; publicly vilify act or object of religious worship” incurs in a penalty of “detention of one month to one year or a fine”.
  • Canada
    • The "Fundamental Freedoms" section of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states: "2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms: (a) freedom of conscience and religion; (b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication; (c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and (d) freedom of association." Canadians are therefore free to have their own beliefs and opinions, are free to practice religion or refrain, and are free to establish media organizations with or without religious content, and these freedoms are constitutionally protected. However, according to the Charter's preamble, "Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God." This portion of the preamble has not been accorded legal effect in Charter jurisprudence. The constitutional recognition of God has been criticized as conflicting in principle with the fundamental freedom of conscience and religion guaranteed in section 2, as it would disadvantage those who hold nontheistic or polytheistic beliefs, including atheism and Buddhism. The Province of Quebec has legislation declaring it to be a lay state.
  • El Salvador
    • Although Article 3 of the El Salvadoran constitution states that "no restrictions shall be established that are based on differences of nationality, race, sex or religion", Article 26 states that the state recognizes the Catholic Church and gives it legal preference.
  • Finland
    • Claims to be secular, but the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and the Finnish Orthodox Church have the right to collect church tax from their members in conjunction with government income tax. In addition to membership tax, businesses also used to contribute financially to the church through tax, but as of 2016, that is no longer the case.
  • Georgia
    • Georgia gives distinct recognition to the Georgian Orthodox Church in Article 9 of the Constitution of Georgia and through the Concordat of 2002. However, the Constitution also guarantees "absolute freedom of belief and religion". Georgian constitution also refers to God in preamble: "We, the citizens of Georgia – whose firm will... proclaim this Constitution before God and the nation."
  • Indonesia
    • Indonesia follows the principle of Pancasila, where the first principle states "Belief in the One and Only God". There is no official state religion in Indonesia, but the state acknowledges Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Protestantism, and the Roman Catholic Church as the only official religions in the country. Because of this, the state does not acknowledge atheism as a religion and recommend each citizen to state their religion on their identity cards, though currently this is optional. This led to discrimination towards citizens who refuse to identify with any of the official religions acknowledged by the government and often lead to blasphemy charges for condoning irreligion.
  • Ireland
    • There are a few sections of the Constitution of Ireland that refer to God.
      • In the Preamble it is mentioned, "In the Name of the Most Holy Trinity, from Whom is all authority and to Whom, as our final end, all actions both of men and States must be referred, We, the people of Éire, Humbly acknowledging all our obligations to our Divine Lord, Jesus Christ, Who sustained our fathers through centuries of trial...".
      • In Article 6 it is mentioned, "1 All powers of government, legislative, executive and judicial, derive, under God, from the people...".
      • Article 12, item 8 instructs the President to make the following declaration: "In the presence of Almighty God I do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will maintain the Constitution of Ireland and uphold its laws, that I will fulfill my duties faithfully and conscientiously in accordance with the Constitution and the law, and that I will dedicate my abilities to the service and welfare of the people of Ireland. May God direct and sustain me".
      • Article 31, item 4 establishes that every member of the Council of State supports the following declaration: "In the presence of Almighty God I do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as a member of the Council of State".
      • Article 34, item 6 establishes that every person appointed a judge under this Constitution shall make and subscribe the following declaration: "In the presence of Almighty God I do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my knowledge and power execute the office of Chief Justice (or as the case may be) without fear or favour, affection or ill-will towards any man, and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws. May God direct and sustain me".
      • In Article 44, item 1 it is mentioned that "The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God. It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion".
    • However, in the same Constitution, in Article 44, item 2, it is mentioned:
      • "1° Freedom of conscience and the free profession and practice of religion are, subject to public order and morality, guaranteed to every citizen".
      • "2° The State guarantees not to endow any religion".
      • "3° The State shall not impose any disabilities or make any discrimination on the ground of religious profession, belief or status".
      • "4° Legislation providing State aid for schools shall not discriminate between schools under the management of different religious denominations, nor be such as to affect prejudicially the right of any child to attend a school receiving public money without attending religious instruction at that school".
      • "5° Every religious denomination shall have the right to manage its own affairs, own, acquire and administer property, movable and immovable, and maintain institutions for religious or charitable purposes".
      • "6° The property of any religious denomination or any educational institution shall not be diverted save for necessary works of public utility and on payment of compensation".
    • On July 4, 2019, the on-duty Taoiseach Leo Varadkar said "Ten months ago we welcomed Pope Francis to Ireland. Speaking in this room, I suggested that I believed the time had come to build a new relationship between Religion and the State in Ireland - a new covenant for the 21st Century. One in which religion is no longer at the centre of our State but continues to have a real and meaningful role to play on our society".
    • Most of the public schools in Ireland are confessional and there are some reports of abuse by some institutions
  • Israel
    • When the idea of modern political Zionism was introduced by Theodor Herzl, his idea was that Israel would be a secular state which would not be influenced at all by religion. When David Ben-Gurion founded the state of Israel, he put religious parties in government next to secular Jews in the same governing coalition. Many secular Israelis feel constrained by the religious sanctions imposed on them. Many businesses close on Shabbat, including many forms of public transportation, restaurants, and Israeli airline El Al. In order for a Jewish couple to be formally married in Israel, a couple has to be married by a rabbi. Jewish married couples can only be divorced by a rabbinical council. Many secular Israelis may go abroad to be married, often in Cyprus. Marriages officiated abroad are recognized as official marriages in Israel. Also, all food at army bases and in cafeterias of government buildings has to be kosher. Many religious symbols have found their way into Israeli national symbols. For example, the flag of the country is similar to a tallit, or prayer shawl, with its blue stripes. The national coat of arms also displays the menorah. However, some viewpoints argue that these symbols can be interpreted as ethnic/cultural symbols too, and point out that many secular European nations (Sweden, Norway and Georgia) have religious symbols on their flags. Reports have considered Israel to be a secular state, and its definition as a "Jewish state" refers to the Jewish people, who include people with varying relations to the Jewish religion including non-believers, rather than to the Jewish religion itself.
  • Kiribati
    • Under the terms of its preamble, the Constitution of Kiribati is proclaimed by "the people of Kiribati, acknowledging God as the Almighty Father in whom we put trust". However, there is no established church or state religion, and article 11 of the Constitution protects each person's "freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief", and freedom of public or private religious practice and education.
  • Laos
    • According to the Lao Constitution, Buddhism is given special privileges in the country. The state respects and protects all the lawful activities of Buddhism.
  • Malaysia
    • In Article 3 of the Constitution of Malaysia, Islam is stated as the official religion of the country: "Islam is the religion of the Federation; but other religions may be practiced in peace and harmony in any part of the Federation." In 1956, the Alliance party submitted a memorandum to the Reid Commission, which was responsible for drafting the Malayan constitution. The memorandum quoted: "The religion of Malaya shall be Islam. The observance of this principle shall not impose any disability on non-Muslim nationals professing and practicing their own religion and shall not imply that the state is not a secular state." The full text of the Memorandum was inserted into paragraph 169 of the Commission Report. This suggestion was later carried forward in the Federation of Malaya Constitutional Proposals 1957 (White Paper), specifically quoting in paragraph 57: "There has been included in the proposed Federal Constitution a declaration that Islam is the religion of the Federation. This will in no way affect the present position of the Federation as a secular State...." The Cobbold Commission also made another similar quote in 1962: "....we are agreed that Islam should be the national religion for the Federation. We are satisfied that the proposal in no way jeopardises freedom of religion in the Federation, which in effect would be secular." In December 1987, the Lord President of the Supreme Court, Salleh Abas described Malaysia as governed by "secular law" in a court ruling. In the early 1980s, then-prime minister Mahathir Mohamad implemented an official programme of Islamization, in which Islamic values and principles were introduced into public sector ethics, substantial financial support to the development of Islamic religious education, places of worship and the development of Islamic banking. The Malaysian government also made efforts to expand the powers of Islamic-based state statutory bodies such as the Tabung Haji, JAKIM (Department of Islamic Development Malaysia), and the National Fatwa Council. There has been much continued public debate on whether Malaysia is an Islamic or secular state.
  • Myanmar
    • Article 19 of the 2008 Myanmar constitution states that "The State recognizes the special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the State." while Article 20 mentions "The State also recognizes Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Animism as the religions existing in the Union on the date on which the State Constitution comes into force." The government pursues a policy of religious pluralism and tolerance in the country, as stipulated in Article 21 of its constitution, "The State shall render assistance and protect as it possibly can the religions it recognizes." In 1956, the Burmese ambassador in Indonesia U Mya Sein quoted that "The Constitution of the Union of Burma provides for a Secular State although it endorses that Buddhism is professed by the majority (90 per cent) of the nation." While Buddhism is not a state religion in Myanmar, the government provides funding to state Universities to Buddhist monks, mandated the compulsory recital of Buddhist prayers in public schools and patronizes the Buddhist clergy from time to time to rally popular support and political legitimization.
  • Nauru
    • The Constitution of Nauru opens by stating that "the people of Nauru acknowledge God as the almighty and everlasting Lord and the giver of all good things". However, there is no state religion or established church, and article 11 of the Constitution protects each person's "right to freedom of conscience, thought and religion, including freedom to change his religion or beliefs and freedom", and right to practice his or her religion.
  • Nepal
    • The Constitution of Nepal provides freedom of religion and denies the right to convert another person. The previous constitution of 1990, which was in effect until 2007, described the country as a "Hindu Kingdom". With the new Constitution, the Interim Parliament officially declared the country a secular state in January 2007, but no laws specifically affecting freedom of religion were changed. Adherents of the country's many religious groups generally coexisted peacefully and respected places of worship, although there were reports of societal abuses and discrimination based on religious belief or practice. Those who converted to another religious group at times faced violence and occasionally were ostracized socially but generally did not fear to admit their affiliations in public.
  • Norway
    • Norway changed the wording of the constitution on 21 May 2012, to remove references to the state church. Until 2017, the Church of Norway was not a separate legal entity from the government. In 2017, it was disestablished and became a national church, a legally distinct entity from the state with special constitutional status. The King of Norway is required by the Constitution to be a member of the Church of Norway, and the church is regulated by special canon law, unlike other religions.
  • Romania
    • The Romanian constitution declares freedom of religion, but all recognized religious denominations remain to some extent state-funded. Since 1992, these denominations have also maintained a monopoly on the sale of religious merchandise, which includes all candles except decorative candles and candles for marriage and baptism. It is currently illegal in Romania to sell cult candles without the approval of the Eastern Orthodox Church or of another religious denomination which employs candles (law 103/1992, appended O.U.G. nr.92/2000 to specify penalties). Romania recognizes 18 denominations/religions: various sects of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Catholic Church, Protestantism and Neo-Protestantism (including Jehovah's Witnesses), Judaism and Sunni Islam. Unrecognized cults or denominations are not prohibited, however.
  • Seychelles
  • Sri Lanka
    • The Sri Lankan constitution does not cite a state religion. However, Article 9 of Chapter 2, which states "The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place, and accordingly, it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana" makes Sri Lanka an ambiguous state with respect to secularism. In 2004, Jathika Hela Urumaya proposed a constitutional amendment that would make a clear reference to Buddhism as the state religion, which was rejected by the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka.
  • Switzerland
    • The Swiss Confederation remains secular at the federal level. However, the constitution begins with the words "In the name of Almighty God!"
    • 24 of the 26 cantons support either the Catholic Church or the Swiss Reformed Church.
  • Syria
    • Semi secular state with Islamic jurisprudence being used for personal statues laws.
  • Thailand
    • Section 9 of the 2007 Thai constitution states that "The King is a Buddhist and Upholder of religions", and section 79 makes another related reference: "The State shall patronise and protect Buddhism as the religion observed by most Thais for a long period of time and other religions, promote good understanding and harmony among followers of all religions as well as encourage the application of religious principles to create virtue and develop the quality of life." The United States Department of State characterized that these provisions provide Buddhism as the de facto official religion of Thailand. There have been calls by Buddhists to make an explicit reference to Buddhism as the country's state religion, but the government has turned down these requests. Academics and legal experts have argued that Thailand is a secular state as provisions in its penal code are generally irreligious by nature.
  • Tonga
    • The Constitution of Tonga opens by referring to "the will of God that man should be free". Article 6 provides that "the Sabbath Day shall be kept holy", and prohibits any "commercial undertaking" on that day. Article 5 provides: "All men are free to practice their religion and to worship God as they may deem fit in accordance with the dictates of their own worship consciences and to assemble for religious service in such places as they may appoint". There is no established church or state religion. Any preaching on public radio or television is required to be done "within the limits of the mainstream Christian tradition", though no specific religious denomination is favoured.
  • Turkey
    • Turkey is officially secular according to its constitution; but in practice there is a close connection between state and Sunni Islam. The Directorate of Religious Affairs, an official state institution directly subjected to the president of the republic, exercises state oversight over religious affairs and is responsible for all administration of the Sunni institutions. Also Islam is de facto expressed as the religion of the state by the conservative Islamist government of Justice and Development Party.
  • United Kingdom
    • The Church of England is the established state religion of England only. It is no longer established in Northern Ireland or Wales and the Anglican Church in these regions (Church of Ireland and Church in Wales, respectively) became autonomous from the Church of England in 1871 and 1920, respectively. In Scotland, the generally Protestant Church of Scotland has an ambiguous, special constitutional status as national church. Furthermore, unlike its Welsh and Irish counterparts, the Anglican Church in Scotland (the Scottish Episcopal Church) never had established status.
      • Like the Church of Ireland and Church in Wales, the Scottish Episcopal Church is autonomous from the Church of England. All, however, are still in full communion.
    • Two archbishops and 24 senior diocesan bishops of the Church of England (the Lords Spiritual) have seats in the House of Lords, where they participate in debates and vote on decisions affecting the entire United Kingdom.
      • Parliament is opened with prayers, led by a Lords Spiritual member in the House of Lords and the Speaker's chaplain in the House of Commons.
    • The full term for the expression of the Crown's sovereignty via legislation is the Crown-in-Parliament under God. At their coronation, the sovereign is anointed with consecrated oil by the Archbishop of Canterbury in a service at Westminster Abbey and must swear to maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel, maintain Protestantism in the United Kingdom, specifically the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof as by established law in England.
  • United States
Look up secular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Secular state
Secular state Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from State secularism This article possibly contains original research Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations Statements consisting only of original research should be removed September 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularity whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion supporting neither religion nor irreligion 1 A secular state claims to treat all its citizens equally regardless of religion and claims to avoid preferential treatment for a citizen based on their religious beliefs affiliation or lack of either over those with other profiles citation needed Secular states do not have a state religion preferred religion e g an established religion or an equivalent although the absence of an established state religion does not necessarily imply that a state is fully secular or egalitarian in all respects For example some states that describe themselves as secular have religious references in their national anthems and flags or laws which advantage one religion or another Contents 1 Origin and practice 2 List of self described secular states by continent 2 1 African Countries 2 2 Asia 2 3 Caribbean 2 4 Europe 2 5 North America 2 6 Oceania 2 7 South America 3 Former secular states 4 Ambiguous states 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 BibliographyOrigin and practice EditSecularity can be established at a state s creation e g the Soviet Union the United States India or by it later secularizing e g France or Nepal Movements for laicite in France and separation of church and state in the United States have defined modern concepts of secularism the United States of America being the first explicitly secular nation both in Western and world history 2 Historically the process of secularizing typically involves granting religious freedom disestablishing state religions stopping public funds being used for religion freeing the legal system from religious control freeing up the education system tolerating citizens who change religion or abstain from religion and allowing political leaders to come to power regardless of their religious beliefs 3 In France Italy and Spain for example official holidays for the public administration tend to be Christian feast days Any private school in France that contracts with Education nationale means its teachers are salaried by the state most of the Catholic schools are in this situation and because of history they are the majority however any other religious or non religious schools also contract this way 4 In some European states where secularism confronts monoculturalist philanthropy some of the main Christian sects and sects of other religions depend on the state for some of the financial resources for their religious charities 5 It is common in corporate law and charity law to prohibit organized religion from using those funds to organize religious worship in a separate place of worship or for conversion the religious body itself must provide the religious content educated clergy and laypersons to exercise its own functions and may choose to devote part of their time to the separate charities To that effect some of those charities establish secular organizations that manage part of or all of the donations from the main religious bodies Religious and non religious organizations can apply for equivalent funding from the government and receive subsidies based on either assessed social results clarification needed where there is indirect religious state funding or simply the number of beneficiaries of those organizations 6 This resembles charitable choice in the United States It is doubtful whether overt direct state funding of religions is in accordance with the European Convention on Human Rights Apparently this issue has not yet been decided at a supranational level in ECtHR case law stemming from the rights in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which mandates non discrimination in affording its co listed basic social rights clarification needed gobbledegook Specifically funding certain services would not accord with non discriminatory state action 7 Many states that are nowadays secular in practice may have legal vestiges of an earlier established religion Secularism also has various guises that may coincide with some degree of official religiosity In the United Kingdom the head of state is still required to take the Coronation Oath enacted in 1688 swearing to maintain the Protestant Reformed religion and to preserve the established Church of England 8 The UK also maintains seats in the House of Lords for 26 senior clergymen of the Church of England known as the Lords Spiritual 9 In Canada the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms affords secular freedoms of conscience and religion thought belief opinion and expression including communication assembly and association yet the Charter s preamble maintains the concept of the supremacy of God which would appear to disadvantage those who hold nontheistic or polytheistic beliefs including atheism and Buddhism 10 11 Italy has been a secular state since the enactment of the Constitution in 1948 stressed by a Constitutional court s decision in 1985 12 but still recognizes a special status for the Catholic Church The reverse progression can also occur however a state can go from being secular to being a religious state as in the case of Iran where the secularized Imperial State of Iran was replaced by an Islamic Republic list below Nonetheless the last 250 years has seen a trend towards secularism 13 14 15 List of self described secular states by continent Edit Map of secular states in blue States with state religions are shown in red and ambiguous states are shown in gray This is the list of countries that are explicitly described as secular in their constitutions or other official state documents African Countries Edit Angola 16 Benin 17 Botswana 18 Burkina Faso 19 Burundi 20 Cameroon 21 Central African Republic 22 Chad 23 Cote d Ivoire 24 Democratic Republic of the Congo 25 Republic of the Congo 26 Gabon 27 Guinea 28 Guinea Bissau 29 Madagascar 30 Mali 31 Namibia 32 Nigeria Rwanda 33 Sao Tome and Principe 34 Senegal 35 Tanzania 36 Togo 37 Asia Edit Azerbaijan 38 China East Timor 39 India 40 Japan 41 Kazakhstan 42 Kyrgyzstan 43 Nepal 44 Philippines 45 Singapore 46 Tajikistan 47 Turkey 48 1 Turkmenistan 49 Vietnam 50 1 Transcontinental country Caribbean Edit CubaEurope Edit Albania 51 Austria 52 Belarus 53 Belgium 54 Bulgaria 55 Croatia 56 Czech Republic 57 Estonia 58 France 59 Italy 60 Kosovo 61 b 2 Latvia 62 Portugal 63 Russia 64 1 Serbia 65 Slovakia 66 Slovenia 67 Spain 68 Sweden 69 Ukraine 70 1 Transcontinental country 2 States with limited recognition North America Edit Canada Mexico 71 United StatesOceania Edit Australia 72 New Zealand Fiji 73 Federated States of Micronesia 74 South America Edit Colombia 75 Ecuador 76 Guyana 77 Former secular states Edit Confederate States of America 1861 1865 78 79 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1980 1987 Afghanistan became a secular state after the Soviet invasion but Islam became the official religion again in 1987 Dominion of Pakistan 1947 1956 Imperial State of Iran 1925 1941 1953 1979 Iran was a secular state until 1941 which overthrew Reza Shah It was once again a secular state after the 1953 coup until the Islamic revolution of 1979 which overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and instituted an Islamic republic Iraq 1932 1993 Iraq became a secular state in 1932 after its independence However the Ba athist regime led by Saddam Hussein launched the Return to Faith campaign in 1993 and placed significant emphasis on Islam within all sectors of state and public life 80 Samoa 1962 2017 In 2017 the Samoan legislative assembly approved an constitutional amendment that instituted Christianity as the state religion 81 Ambiguous states Edit Argentina According to Section 2 of the Constitution of Argentina The Federal Government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic religion but it does not stipulate an official state religion nor a separation of church and state In practice however the country is mostly secular and there is no kind of persecution of people of other religions they are completely accepted and even encouraged in their activities Armenia The constitution formally separates the church from the state however it recognizes the Armenian Apostolic Church as the national church 82 Bangladesh There is a constitutional ambiguity that makes Bangladesh both secular and Islamic Freedom of religion is guaranteed by its constitution in which it gives equal rights to all citizens irrespective of religion In 2010 the High Court held up the secular principles of the 1972 constitution 83 Brazil According to the Preamble of the Constitution of Brazil promulgate under the protection of God this Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil but it does not stipulate any official state religion The Article 19th of the same Constitution forbids in any degree of the State to establish religious cults or churches subsidize them hamper their operation or maintain with them or their representative s relations of dependency or alliance with the exception of cooperation for the public interest as set forth in the law 84 Despite being mostly secular it is normal to see religious symbols such as crucifixes in State facilities hospitals schools courts police stations 85 According to Article 208 of the Brazilian Penal Code mock someone publicly by reason of belief or religious function prevent or disrupt ceremony or practice of religious worship publicly vilify act or object of religious worship incurs in a penalty of detention of one month to one year or a fine 86 87 Canada The Fundamental Freedoms section of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states 2 Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms a freedom of conscience and religion b freedom of thought belief opinion and expression including freedom of the press and other media of communication c freedom of peaceful assembly and d freedom of association Canadians are therefore free to have their own beliefs and opinions are free to practice religion or refrain and are free to establish media organizations with or without religious content and these freedoms are constitutionally protected However according to the Charter s preamble Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God 88 This portion of the preamble has not been accorded legal effect in Charter jurisprudence 89 90 The constitutional recognition of God has been criticized as conflicting in principle with the fundamental freedom of conscience and religion guaranteed in section 2 as it would disadvantage those who hold nontheistic or polytheistic beliefs including atheism and Buddhism 10 11 The Province of Quebec has legislation declaring it to be a lay state 91 El Salvador Although Article 3 of the El Salvadoran constitution states that no restrictions shall be established that are based on differences of nationality race sex or religion Article 26 states that the state recognizes the Catholic Church and gives it legal preference 92 93 Finland Claims to be secular but the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and the Finnish Orthodox Church have the right to collect church tax from their members in conjunction with government income tax In addition to membership tax businesses also used to contribute financially to the church through tax but as of 2016 that is no longer the case 94 Georgia Georgia gives distinct recognition to the Georgian Orthodox Church in Article 9 of the Constitution of Georgia 95 and through the Concordat of 2002 96 However the Constitution also guarantees absolute freedom of belief and religion 95 Georgian constitution also refers to God in preamble We the citizens of Georgia whose firm will proclaim this Constitution before God and the nation 97 Indonesia Indonesia follows the principle of Pancasila where the first principle states Belief in the One and Only God There is no official state religion in Indonesia but the state acknowledges Buddhism Confucianism Hinduism Islam Protestantism and the Roman Catholic Church as the only official religions in the country Because of this the state does not acknowledge atheism as a religion and recommend each citizen to state their religion on their identity cards though currently this is optional This led to discrimination towards citizens who refuse to identify with any of the official religions acknowledged by the government and often lead to blasphemy charges for condoning irreligion Ireland There are a few sections of the Constitution of Ireland that refer to God 98 In the Preamble it is mentioned In the Name of the Most Holy Trinity from Whom is all authority and to Whom as our final end all actions both of men and States must be referred We the people of Eire Humbly acknowledging all our obligations to our Divine Lord Jesus Christ Who sustained our fathers through centuries of trial In Article 6 it is mentioned 1 All powers of government legislative executive and judicial derive under God from the people Article 12 item 8 instructs the President to make the following declaration In the presence of Almighty God I do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will maintain the Constitution of Ireland and uphold its laws that I will fulfill my duties faithfully and conscientiously in accordance with the Constitution and the law and that I will dedicate my abilities to the service and welfare of the people of Ireland May God direct and sustain me Article 31 item 4 establishes that every member of the Council of State supports the following declaration In the presence of Almighty God I do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as a member of the Council of State Article 34 item 6 establishes that every person appointed a judge under this Constitution shall make and subscribe the following declaration In the presence of Almighty God I do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my knowledge and power execute the office of Chief Justice or as the case may be without fear or favour affection or ill will towards any man and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws May God direct and sustain me In Article 44 item 1 it is mentioned that The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God It shall hold His Name in reverence and shall respect and honour religion However in the same Constitution in Article 44 item 2 it is mentioned 1 Freedom of conscience and the free profession and practice of religion are subject to public order and morality guaranteed to every citizen 2 The State guarantees not to endow any religion 3 The State shall not impose any disabilities or make any discrimination on the ground of religious profession belief or status 4 Legislation providing State aid for schools shall not discriminate between schools under the management of different religious denominations nor be such as to affect prejudicially the right of any child to attend a school receiving public money without attending religious instruction at that school 5 Every religious denomination shall have the right to manage its own affairs own acquire and administer property movable and immovable and maintain institutions for religious or charitable purposes 6 The property of any religious denomination or any educational institution shall not be diverted save for necessary works of public utility and on payment of compensation On July 4 2019 the on duty Taoiseach Leo Varadkar said Ten months ago we welcomed Pope Francis to Ireland Speaking in this room I suggested that I believed the time had come to build a new relationship between Religion and the State in Ireland a new covenant for the 21st Century One in which religion is no longer at the centre of our State but continues to have a real and meaningful role to play on our society 99 Most of the public schools in Ireland are confessional and there are some reports of abuse by some institutions 100 Israel When the idea of modern political Zionism was introduced by Theodor Herzl his idea was that Israel would be a secular state which would not be influenced at all by religion When David Ben Gurion founded the state of Israel he put religious parties in government next to secular Jews in the same governing coalition Many secular Israelis feel constrained by the religious sanctions imposed on them Many businesses close on Shabbat including many forms of public transportation restaurants and Israeli airline El Al In order for a Jewish couple to be formally married in Israel a couple has to be married by a rabbi Jewish married couples can only be divorced by a rabbinical council Many secular Israelis may go abroad to be married often in Cyprus Marriages officiated abroad are recognized as official marriages in Israel Also all food at army bases and in cafeterias of government buildings has to be kosher Many religious symbols have found their way into Israeli national symbols For example the flag of the country is similar to a tallit or prayer shawl with its blue stripes The national coat of arms also displays the menorah However some viewpoints argue that these symbols can be interpreted as ethnic cultural symbols too and point out that many secular European nations Sweden Norway and Georgia have religious symbols on their flags Reports have considered Israel to be a secular state and its definition as a Jewish state refers to the Jewish people who include people with varying relations to the Jewish religion including non believers rather than to the Jewish religion itself 101 Kiribati Under the terms of its preamble the Constitution of Kiribati is proclaimed by the people of Kiribati acknowledging God as the Almighty Father in whom we put trust However there is no established church or state religion and article 11 of the Constitution protects each person s freedom of thought and of religion freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom of public or private religious practice and education 102 Laos According to the Lao Constitution Buddhism is given special privileges in the country The state respects and protects all the lawful activities of Buddhism 103 Malaysia In Article 3 of the Constitution of Malaysia Islam is stated as the official religion of the country Islam is the religion of the Federation but other religions may be practiced in peace and harmony in any part of the Federation In 1956 the Alliance party submitted a memorandum to the Reid Commission which was responsible for drafting the Malayan constitution The memorandum quoted The religion of Malaya shall be Islam The observance of this principle shall not impose any disability on non Muslim nationals professing and practicing their own religion and shall not imply that the state is not a secular state 104 The full text of the Memorandum was inserted into paragraph 169 of the Commission Report 105 This suggestion was later carried forward in the Federation of Malaya Constitutional Proposals 1957 White Paper specifically quoting in paragraph 57 There has been included in the proposed Federal Constitution a declaration that Islam is the religion of the Federation This will in no way affect the present position of the Federation as a secular State 106 The Cobbold Commission also made another similar quote in 1962 we are agreed that Islam should be the national religion for the Federation We are satisfied that the proposal in no way jeopardises freedom of religion in the Federation which in effect would be secular 107 In December 1987 the Lord President of the Supreme Court Salleh Abas described Malaysia as governed by secular law in a court ruling 108 In the early 1980s then prime minister Mahathir Mohamad implemented an official programme of Islamization 109 in which Islamic values and principles were introduced into public sector ethics 110 substantial financial support to the development of Islamic religious education places of worship and the development of Islamic banking The Malaysian government also made efforts to expand the powers of Islamic based state statutory bodies such as the Tabung Haji JAKIM Department of Islamic Development Malaysia and the National Fatwa Council There has been much continued public debate on whether Malaysia is an Islamic or secular state 111 Myanmar Article 19 of the 2008 Myanmar constitution states that The State recognizes the special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the State while Article 20 mentions The State also recognizes Christianity Islam Hinduism and Animism as the religions existing in the Union on the date on which the State Constitution comes into force 112 The government pursues a policy of religious pluralism and tolerance in the country as stipulated in Article 21 of its constitution The State shall render assistance and protect as it possibly can the religions it recognizes In 1956 the Burmese ambassador in Indonesia U Mya Sein quoted that The Constitution of the Union of Burma provides for a Secular State although it endorses that Buddhism is professed by the majority 90 per cent of the nation 113 While Buddhism is not a state religion in Myanmar the government provides funding to state Universities to Buddhist monks mandated the compulsory recital of Buddhist prayers in public schools and patronizes the Buddhist clergy from time to time to rally popular support and political legitimization 114 Nauru The Constitution of Nauru opens by stating that the people of Nauru acknowledge God as the almighty and everlasting Lord and the giver of all good things However there is no state religion or established church and article 11 of the Constitution protects each person s right to freedom of conscience thought and religion including freedom to change his religion or beliefs and freedom and right to practice his or her religion 115 Nepal The Constitution of Nepal provides freedom of religion and denies the right to convert another person The previous constitution of 1990 which was in effect until 2007 described the country as a Hindu Kingdom With the new Constitution the Interim Parliament officially declared the country a secular state in January 2007 but no laws specifically affecting freedom of religion were changed Adherents of the country s many religious groups generally coexisted peacefully and respected places of worship although there were reports of societal abuses and discrimination based on religious belief or practice Those who converted to another religious group at times faced violence and occasionally were ostracized socially but generally did not fear to admit their affiliations in public 116 Norway Norway changed the wording of the constitution on 21 May 2012 to remove references to the state church Until 2017 the Church of Norway was not a separate legal entity from the government In 2017 it was disestablished and became a national church a legally distinct entity from the state with special constitutional status The King of Norway is required by the Constitution to be a member of the Church of Norway and the church is regulated by special canon law unlike other religions 117 Romania The Romanian constitution declares freedom of religion but all recognized religious denominations remain to some extent state funded Since 1992 these denominations have also maintained a monopoly on the sale of religious merchandise which includes all candles except decorative candles and candles for marriage and baptism It is currently illegal in Romania to sell cult candles without the approval of the Eastern Orthodox Church or of another religious denomination which employs candles law 103 1992 appended O U G nr 92 2000 to specify penalties 118 Romania recognizes 18 denominations religions various sects of the Eastern Orthodox Church the Catholic Church Protestantism and Neo Protestantism including Jehovah s Witnesses Judaism and Sunni Islam 119 Unrecognized cults or denominations are not prohibited however Seychelles The preamble of the Constitution of Seychelles begins the second line with GRATEFUL to Almighty God 120 Sri Lanka The Sri Lankan constitution 121 does not cite a state religion However Article 9 of Chapter 2 which states The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and accordingly it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana makes Sri Lanka an ambiguous state with respect to secularism In 2004 Jathika Hela Urumaya proposed a constitutional amendment that would make a clear reference to Buddhism as the state religion which was rejected by the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka 122 Switzerland The Swiss Confederation remains secular at the federal level However the constitution begins with the words In the name of Almighty God 24 of the 26 cantons support either the Catholic Church or the Swiss Reformed Church Syria Semi secular state with Islamic jurisprudence being used for personal statues laws Thailand Section 9 of the 2007 Thai constitution states that The King is a Buddhist and Upholder of religions and section 79 makes another related reference The State shall patronise and protect Buddhism as the religion observed by most Thais for a long period of time and other religions promote good understanding and harmony among followers of all religions as well as encourage the application of religious principles to create virtue and develop the quality of life 123 The United States Department of State characterized that these provisions provide Buddhism as the de facto official religion of Thailand There have been calls by Buddhists to make an explicit reference to Buddhism as the country s state religion but the government has turned down these requests 122 Academics and legal experts have argued that Thailand is a secular state as provisions in its penal code are generally irreligious by nature 124 Tonga The Constitution of Tonga opens by referring to the will of God that man should be free Article 6 provides that the Sabbath Day shall be kept holy and prohibits any commercial undertaking on that day Article 5 provides All men are free to practice their religion and to worship God as they may deem fit in accordance with the dictates of their own worship consciences and to assemble for religious service in such places as they may appoint There is no established church or state religion 125 Any preaching on public radio or television is required to be done within the limits of the mainstream Christian tradition though no specific religious denomination is favoured 126 Turkey Turkey is officially secular according to its constitution but in practice there is a close connection between state and Sunni Islam The Directorate of Religious Affairs an official state institution directly subjected to the president of the republic exercises state oversight over religious affairs and is responsible for all administration of the Sunni institutions 127 Also Islam is de facto expressed as the religion of the state by the conservative Islamist government of Justice and Development Party United Kingdom The Church of England is the established state religion of England only It is no longer established in Northern Ireland or Wales and the Anglican Church in these regions Church of Ireland and Church in Wales respectively became autonomous from the Church of England in 1871 and 1920 respectively In Scotland the generally Protestant Church of Scotland has an ambiguous special constitutional status as national church Furthermore unlike its Welsh and Irish counterparts the Anglican Church in Scotland the Scottish Episcopal Church never had established status Like the Church of Ireland and Church in Wales the Scottish Episcopal Church is autonomous from the Church of England All however are still in full communion Two archbishops and 24 senior diocesan bishops of the Church of England the Lords Spiritual have seats in the House of Lords where they participate in debates and vote on decisions affecting the entire United Kingdom Parliament is opened with prayers led by a Lords Spiritual member in the House of Lords and the Speaker s chaplain in the House of Commons 128 The full term for the expression of the Crown s sovereignty via legislation is the Crown in Parliament under God At their coronation the sovereign is anointed with consecrated oil by the Archbishop of Canterbury in a service at Westminster Abbey and must swear to maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel maintain Protestantism in the United Kingdom specifically the Church of England and the doctrine worship discipline and government thereof as by established law in England Thus though the Church of Ireland is no longer established and the Church of England has been disestablished in Wales as the Church in Wales the Crown is still bound to protect Protestantism in general in the whole of the United Kingdom by the Coronation Oath Act 1688 and the Bill of Rights and to protect the Church of Scotland by the Act of Union 1707 129 All Members of Parliament MPs must declare their allegiance to the Queen in order to take their seat Each individual MP however can choose whether or not to affirm a religious oath United States According to the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution together with the Free Exercise Clause which forms the constitutional right of freedom of religion Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof 130 An act of Congress changed the official United States motto to In God we trust Prior to this act of Congress the official motto of the United States had been E pluribus Unum or out of many one since the country s creation Additionally the motto of In God we trust has been printed on their currency since 1864 131 See also EditLook up secular in Wiktionary the free dictionary Civil religion Freedom of religion Secular education Secularism Secularity Secular religion Separation of church and state State atheism State religion TheocracyNotes EditReferences Edit Madeley John T S Enyedi Zsolt 2003 Church and State in Contemporary Europe The Chimera of Neutrality Psychology Press p 14 ISBN 978 0 7146 5394 5 Which nation was the first secular nation in history Jean Bauberot The secular principle Archived 22 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Teese Richard 1986 Private Schools in France Evolution of a System Comparative Education Review 30 2 247 259 doi 10 1086 446591 JSTOR 1188531 S2CID 144698211 Twinch Emily Religious charities Faith funding and the state Article dated 22 June 2009 Third Sector a UK Charity Periodical Archived from the original on 10 May 2013 Retrieved 3 June 2012 Department for Education Retrieved 18 March 2015 Sejdic and Finci v Bosnia and Herzegovina application nos 27996 06 and 34836 06 found a violation of the non discrimination overarching right vis a vis all other rights on a wider subject from often arbitrary funding of social charities viz rights afforded by law Art 1 of Prot No 12 namely protecting any right set forth by law clarification needed plain English please The convention introduces a general prohibition of discrimination in legally enshrined state action as well as where rights under the convention such as education or health care are funded A superior level of services supported by religious bodies is permitted Coronation Oath Retrieved 18 March 2015 How members are appointed UK Parliament Retrieved 18 March 2015 a b Hogg Peter W Canada Act 1982 Annotated Toronto Canada The Carswell Company Limited 1982 a b Paul Russell The supremacy of God does not belong in the Constitution The Globe amp Mail June 11 1999 Articles 3 7 8 19 20 of the Constitution of Italy Constitutional Court s Decision n 203 1989 Harris Interactive Resource Not Found Archived from the original on 23 July 2013 Retrieved 18 March 2015 A Portrait of Generation Next Pew Research Center for the People and the Press 9 January 2007 Retrieved 18 March 2015 Secularization and Secularism History and Nature of Secularization and Secularism to 1914 Retrieved 18 March 2015 ICL Angola Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 Article 8 The Republic of Angola shall be a secular State Article 2 of Constitution The Republic of Benin shall be one indivisible secular and democratic Leaders say Botswana is a secular state Archived 10 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine Article 31 of Constitution Archived from the original on 9 October 2006 Burkina Faso is a democratic unitary and secular state Article 4 of Constitution Archived 7 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine Le Burundi est une Republique unitaire independante et souveraine laique et democratique Preamble of Constitution PDF the State shall be secular Article 24 of the Central African Republic s Constitution of 2016 constituteproject org The Central African Republic is a State of law unitary sovereign indivisible secular and democratic Article 1 of Constitution Archived from the original on 9 October 2006 Chad is a sovereign independent secular social and indivisible Cote d Ivoire s Constitution of 2000 PDF Article 30 The Republic of Cote d Ivoire is one and indivisible secular democratic and social Constitution de la Republique democratique du Congo Retrieved 18 March 2015 article 1er Republique Democratique du Congo est dans ses frontieres du 30 juin 1960 un Etat de droit independant souverain uni et indivisible social democratique et laic ICL Congo Brazzaville Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 Article 1 The Republic of the Congo is a sovereign and independent State decentralized indivisible secular democratic and social Article 2 of Constitution Archived 19 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine Le Gabon est une Republique indivisible laique democratique et sociale Article 1 of Constitution Archived 13 September 2004 at the Wayback Machine La Guinee est une Republique unitaire indivisible laique democratique et sociale Article 1 of Constitution Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine Guinea Bissau is a sovereign democratic secular and unitary republic Madagascar s Constitution of 2010 PDF Article 1 The Malagasy People constitute a nation organized as a sovereign unitary republican and secular State Constitution Archived 12 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine Article 25 Mali is an independent sovereign indivisible democratic secular social Republic ICL Namibia Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 Article 1 The Republic of Namibia is hereby established as a sovereign secular democratic and unitary State Article 4 of the Rwanda s Constitution of 2003 with Amendments through 2015 constituteproject org Article 4 The Rwandan State is an independent sovereign democratic social and secular Republic Article 154 of the Sao Tome and Principe s Constitution of 1975 with Amendments through 2003 constituteproject org The following may not be the subject of a revision to the Constitution b The secular status of the State Article 1 of the Senegal s Constitution of 2001 with Amendments through 2016 constituteproject org The Republic of Senegal is secular democratic and social Article 3 of the Tanzania United Republic of s Constitution of 1977 with Amendments through 2005 constituteproject org The United Republic is a democratic secular and socialist state which adheres to multi party democracy Article 1 of the Togo s Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2007 constituteproject org The Togolese Republic is a State of law secular democratic and social Article 7 1 of Constitution The Azerbaijan State is a democratic law governed secular unitary republic Preamble to the Constitution The elaboration and adoption of the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of East Timor is the culmination of the secular resistance of the Timorese People THE CONSTITUTION AMENDMENT Archived from the original on 28 March 2015 WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its ICL Japan Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 Article 20 is titled Freedom of Religion Secularity of the State Kazakhstan s Constitution of 1995 with Amendments through 2017 Archived from the original on 24 September 2014 Retrieved 24 November 2014 Article 1 The Republic of Kazakhstan proclaims itself democratic secular legal and social state Article 1 of Constitution Archived 4 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine Article 1 The Kyrghyz Republic Kyrghyzstan shall be a sovereign unitary democratic republic created on the basis of a legal secular state Dodd 2003 p 571 The rough guide to Nepalharvnb error no target CITEREFDodd2003 help After 2005 the Marxist Leninist government of reunified Nepal declared the state atheist while theoretically allowing people the right to practice their religion under the constitution Article II Section 6 of the Constitution of the Philippines Retrieved 12 March 2021 The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable See Declaration of Religious Harmony which explicitly states the secular nature of society Tajikistan s Constitution of 1994 with Amendments through 2003 PDF Article 1 The Republic of Tajikistan is a sovereign democratic law governed secular and unitary State Article 2 of the Turkey s Constitution of 1982 with Amendments through 2017 constituteproject org The Republic of Turkey is a democratic secular and social state Constitution of Turkmenistan Retrieved 18 March 2015 Article 1 Turkmenistan is a democratic secular state Dodd 2003 p 571 The rough guide to Vietnamharvnb error no target CITEREFDodd2003 help After 1975 the Marxist Leninist government of reunified Vietnam declared the state atheist while theoretically allowing people the right to practice their religion under the constitution ICL Albania Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 ICL Austria Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 Nielsen Jorgen Akgonul Samim Alibasic Ahmet Racius Egdunas 19 September 2013 Yearbook of Muslims in Europe BRILL ISBN 9789004255869 via Google Books In Belgium Article 20 of the Constitution provides No one can be obliged to contribute in any way whatsoever to the acts and ceremonies of religion nor to observe the days of rest ICL Belgium Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 The consolidated text of the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia as of 15 January 2014 PDF Retrieved 7 July 2020 Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms Archived 30 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine ICL Estonia Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 ICL France Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 Articles 3 7 8 19 20 of Constitution Constitutional Court s Decision n 203 1989 Naamat Talia Porat Dina Osin Nina 19 July 2012 Legislating for Equality A Multinational Collection of Non Discrimination Norms Volume I Europe Martinus Nijhoff Publishers ISBN 978 9004226128 via Google Books ICL Latvia Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 Constitution Retrieved 30 November 2020 The Constitution of Russian Federation Chapter 1 The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System Retrieved 9 August 2020 Article 11 of the Constitution Archived 16 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine Article 1 of Constitution PDF Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 Article 16 of Constitution PDF Retrieved 18 March 2015 The Swedish head of state must according to the Swedish Act of Succession adhere to the Augsburg Confession Constitution PDF constituteproject org Retrieved 4 October 2020 article 35 The Church and religious organisations in Ukraine are separated from the State and the school from the Church Article 40 of the Mexico s Constitution of 1917 with Amendments through 2015 constituteproject org It is in the will of the Mexican people to constitute into a representative democratic secular federal Republic Section 116 of the Constitution of Australia provides that the Commonwealth shall not make any law for establishing any religion or for imposing any religious observance or for prohibiting the free exercise of any religion and no religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust under the Commonwealth ICL Australia Constitution Retrieved 18 March 2015 Article 4 of the 2013 Constitution of Fiji explicitly provides that Fiji is a secular state It guarantees religious liberty while stating that religious belief is personal and that religion and the State are separate Constitution of the Republic of Fiji Archived 6 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine 2013 Section 2 of Article IV of the Micronesian constitution provides that no law may be passed respecting an establishment of religion or impairing the free exercise of religion except that assistance may be provided to parochial schools for non religious purposes Constitution of the Federated States of Micronesia Garcia Jaramillo Leonardo 2013 El Influjo del Principio de Laicidad en el Constitucionalismo Colombiano Estudios Constitucionales 11 2 425 450 doi 10 4067 S0718 52002013000200011 Articles 1 11 26 and 66 8 of the Ecuadorian Constitution PDF Article 1 of the Guyana s Constitution of 1980 with Amendments through 2016 https constituteproject org Confederate States of America Constitution for the Provisional Government Constitution of the Confederate States March 11 1861 Americanchronicle com Retrieved 23 February 2017 Samoa Officially Becomes a Christian State The Diplomat 16 June 2017 Archived from the original on 16 June 2017 Constitution of Armenia president am 27 November 2005 12 1 Brazil gt Constitution Article 19 2 Brazilian secularity and minorities in the biggest Catholic nation in the world 3 End Blasphemy Laws Brazil 4 National Laws on Blasphemy Brazil Quoted from the Preamble to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms R v Sharpe 1999 BCCA 416 at 79 R v Sharpe SCC 2001 An Act Respecting the Laicity of the State C Q L R c L 0 3 1 Google Translate Retrieved 18 March 2015 PDF 3 January 2015 https web archive org web 20150103200933 http confinder richmond edu admin docs ElSalvador1983English pdf Archived from the original PDF on 3 January 2015 Missing or empty title help Seurakuntien yhteisovero osuus poistui jatkossa rahoitus suoraan valtiolta Helsingin Sanomat in Finnish 6 July 2016 Retrieved 19 November 2020 a b Georgia s Constitution of 1995 with Amendments through 2013 PDF Georgia International Religious Freedom Report 2007 U S Department of State Accessed on 11 February 2008 https matsne gov ge en document download 30346 35 en pdf 5 Constitution of Ireland 6 Church State Dialogue Plenary Meeting with Churches Faith Communities and Non Confessional Organisations 7 The State religion course disrespects atheists and humanists Religion and the Secular State in Israel Page 421 422 Not every Jew in Israel or elsewhere is a religious individual It is in collective terms that religion has been an essential ingredient in the self definition and behavior of the Jews believers or not observant or not For that reason it was aptly stated that Judaism conceived of itself not as a denomination but as the religious dimension of the life of a people Hence peoplehood is a religious fact in the Jewish universe of discourse In its traditional self understanding Israel is related not to other denominations but to the nations of the world Israel s body is the body politic of a nation a denomination but as the religious dimension of the life of a people Hence peoplehood is a religious fact in the Jewish universe of discourse In its traditional self understanding Israel is related not to other denominations but to the nations of the world Israel s body is the body politic of a nation Page 423 It seems reasonable to accept that the reference to Israel as a Jewish State is equivalent to stating that in historical political and legal terms it is the state of the Jewish people Page 424 all refer to a Jewish state and Jewish means in all of them pertaining to Jews namely the individuals seeing themselves as composing the Jewish people or nation or community It clearly does not mean the body of religious precepts commands or convictions regulated by the Halakha the Jewish religious law developed over centuries Constitution of Kiribati Archived from the original on 21 September 2015 Retrieved 18 March 2015 Lao People s Democratic Republic s Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2003 PDF constituteproject org Retrieved 29 October 2017 Article 9 The State respects and protects all lawful activities of Buddhists and of followers of other religions and mobilizes and encourages Buddhist monks and novices as well as the priests of other religions to participate in activities that are beneficial to the country and people Tan Sri Datuk Ahmad Ibrahim Our Constitution and Islamic Faith p 8 25 August 1987 New Straits Times Islam s status in our secular charter Richard Y W Yeoh Director Institute of Research for Social Advancement 20 July 2006 The Sun Letters Used by permission Federation of Malaya Constitutional Proposals Kuala Lumpur Government Printer 1957 Articles 53 61 Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine PDF document hosted by Centre for Public Policy Studies Malaysia retrieved 8 February 2013 The birth of Malaysia A reprint of the Report of the Commission of Enquiry North Borneo and Sarawak 1962 Cobbold report and the Report of the Inter governmental Committee 1962 I G C report p 58 Wan Azhar Wan Ahmad Historical legal perspective 17 March 2009 The Star Malaysia Zainon Ahmad PAS remains formidable foe despite defeat p 2 10 September 1983 New Straits Times Moderate policy will ensure UMNO leads says Mahathir p 1 25 April 1987 New Straits Times Zurari AR History contradicts minister s arguments that Malaysia is not secular Archived 25 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine 22 October 2012 The Malaysian Insider Temperman 2010 p 77 Burma Dept of Information and Broadcasting Burma Director of Information Union of Burma 1956 Burma Volume 6 Issue 4 p 84 Buddhism Violence and the State in Burma Myanmar and Sri Lanka Religion and Conflict in South and Southeast Asia 2006 pp 61 79 doi 10 4324 9780203967485 13 ISBN 978 0 203 96748 5 THE CONSTITUTION OF NAURU Retrieved 18 March 2015 Article 4 of the Nepal s Constitution of 2015 with Amendments through 2016 constituteproject org Article 4 Nepal is an independent indivisible sovereign secular inclusive democratic socialism oriented federal democratic republican state This article incorporates text from this source which is in thepublic domain International Humanist and Ethical Union State and Church move towards greater separation in Norway 26 June 2012 Retrieved 18 March 2015 Legea 103 1992 dreptul exclusiv al cultelor religioase pentru producerea obiectelor de cult Textul integral al legilor Culte Religioase Secretariatul de Stat pentru Culte culte gov ro Constitution of the Republic of Seychelles SeyLII greybook seylii org Retrieved 18 August 2021 The Constitution of Sri Lanka An Introduction Archived from the original on 2 February 2016 Retrieved 18 March 2015 a b Temperman 2010 p 66 Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand B E 2550 2007 Unofficial translation FOREIGN LAW BUREAU OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE Harding Andrew 2007 Buddhism Human Rights and Constitutional Reform in Thailand Asian Journal of Comparative Law 2 1 25 doi 10 1017 S2194607800000016 S2CID 221171121 Tonga Retrieved 18 March 2015 2010 Report on International Religious Freedom Tonga United States Department of State 2011 Turkey may have reclaimed the leadership of Sunni Islam from Saudi Arabia Middle East Monitor 30 July 2020 Retrieved 2 June 2021 Some Traditions and Customs of the House House of Commons Information Office August 2010 The Coronation Oath House of Commons Library 27 August 2008 firstamendmentcenter org Religious Liberty in Public Life Establishment clause Index 5 September 2010 Archived from the original on 5 September 2010 Retrieved 28 July 2021 History of In God We Trust Bibliography EditTemperman Jeroen State Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance BRILL 2010 ISBN 9004181482 1 PDF https www lh ag com wp content uploads 2020 09 Is Malaysia a Secular or a Theocratic State MHY 20200910 pdf Missing or empty title help Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Secular state amp oldid 1054491684, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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