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Deep state

For other uses, see Deep state (disambiguation).
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A deep state (calque of Turkish: derin devlet) is a type of governance made up of potentially secret and unauthorised networks of power operating independently of a state's political leadership in pursuit of their own agenda and goals. In popular usage, the term carries overwhelmingly negative connotations. The range of possible uses of the term is similar to that for shadow government. The expression state within a state is an older and similar concept. Historically, it designated a well-defined organization which seeks to function independently, whereas the deep state refers more to a hidden organization seeking to manipulate the public state.

Potential sources for deep state organization include rogue elements among organs of state, such as the armed forces or public authorities such as intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and government bureaucracy. "Deep state" rhetoric has in recent years[when?] been used in the United States to describe what in many cases may be the work of entrenched career bureaucrats or civil servants acting in accordance with the mandate of their agency and congressional statutes, when seen as in conflict with the current presidential administration.

The intent of a deep state can include continuity of the state itself, job security, enhanced power and authority, and the pursuit of ideological or programmatic objectives. It can operate in opposition to the agenda of elected officials, by obstructing, resisting, and subverting their policies, conditions and directives. Conspiracy theories of a secret government typically go far beyond these verifiable agencies and posit actions by more obscure bodies.

Contents

The term 'Deep state' may refer to:

The modern concept of a deep state is associated with Turkey, a presumed secret network of military officers and their civilian allies trying to preserve the secular order based on the ideas of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk from 1923. There are also opinions that the deep state in Turkey and "Counter-Guerrilla" was established in the Cold War era as a part of Gladio Organization to sway Turkey more into NATO against the threat of the expansion of Soviet communism. Similar ideas are older. The Greek language κράτος ἐν κράτει, (kratos en kratei) was later adopted into Latin as imperium in imperio or status in statu).

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries political debate surrounding the separation of church and state often revolved around the perception that if left unchecked the Church might turn into a kind of State within a State, an illegitimate encroachment of the State's natural civil power.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the deep state was also used to refer to government-owned corporations or private companies that act independently of regulatory or governmental control.

See also: State (polity)

Within social science in general and political science specifically, scholars distinguish between positivism ("what is") and normativism ("what should be"). Because political science deals with topics which are inherently political and often controversial, this distinction between "what is" (positive) and "what should be" (normative) is critical because it allows diverse people with different preferred worlds to discuss the causes, workings, and effects of policies and social structures. Thus, while readers may disagree on the normative qualities of the "deep state" (i.e. whether it is good or bad), it is still possible to study the positive qualities (i.e. its origins and effects) without requiring a normative judgement.

In the field of political science, the normative pop culture concept of the deep state is studied within the literature on the state. Current literature on the state generally traces a lineage to Bringing the State Back In (1985) and remains an active body of scholarly research as of 2020.[citation needed] Within this literature, the state is understood as both venue (a set of rules under which others act and interact) as well as actor (with its own agenda). An example of a non-conspiratorial version of the 'state as actor' from the empirical scholarly literature would be "doing truth to power" (as a play on speaking truth to power, which is what journalists often aspire to do) as studied by Todd La Porte. Under this dual understanding, the conspiratorial version of the deep state concept would be one version of the 'state as actor' while the non-conspiratorial version would be another version of the 'state as actor.'

The fundamental takeaway from the scholarly literature on the dual nature of the state is that the 'state as actor' (deep state) is a functional characteristic of all states which has effects that may be normatively judged as "good" or "bad" in different times, places, and contexts.[citation needed] From a positivist scientific perspective, the state-as-venue, colloquially known as the "deep state," simply "is" and should not be assumed to be "bad" by default.[original research?]

Intellectual history of concept

While the state has been one of the longest-studied topics in political science, sociology, and economics, the rise of new institutionalism(s) in the 1970s brought to the forefront the dual nature of the state as both venue (a set of rules under which others act and interact) as well as actor (with its own agenda). This new institutionalism stands in contrast to the immediately prior behavioral revolution which focused on society-centered explanations for political outcomes where the state was primarily or solely seen as an arena where interest groups vied for political power.

State-as-actor versus state-as-venue

The normative pop culture concept of the deep state is distinguished from the classical concept of the state within the scholarly literature on the state by the dual nature of the state as both an actor (which pursues certain ends) and a venue (which structures interaction between actors). In this dyad, the "deep state" is called the state-as-actor while the classical concept of the state is called the state-as-venue.

State-as-venue

To distinguish the traditional, formal processes of the state from the state-as-actor, the state-as-venue view reflects the state serving as an arena in which actors act. Under this concept, the state is seen as a passive organizational structure within which societal actors (e.g. interest groups, classes) compete for power, influence, and resources.

State-as-actor

The state-as-actor concept subsumes the activities described by the pop culture concept of the deep state by focusing on all forms of state goal formation and pursuit which are independent of external societal actors (e.g. interest groups, classes).

Positivist political science and sociology further break this concept down into state autonomy and state capacity. State autonomy refers to a state's ability to pursue interests insulated from external social and economic influence. State capacity reflects the state's skills, knowledge, tools, equipment, and other resources needed to do their jobs competently. Together, autonomy and capacity are necessary for states to implement all policy including that delegated by political leaders, court decisions, and agency or ministry programmatic as well as the subversive or clandestine ends suggested by the popular usage of the "deep state" concept.

In the United States after the 2016 United States presidential election, the term "deep state" became much more widely used as a pejorative term with an overwhelmingly negative definition by both the Donald Trump administration and conservative-leaning media outlets.

This section may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions.(October 2021)

Chechnya

According to the journalist Julia Ioffe, the Russian Republic of Chechnya, under leadership of Ramzan Kadyrov, had become a state within a state by 2015.

Egypt

Author Abdul-Azim Ahmed wrote in 2013 that in Egypt the term "deep state" was being used to refer to Egyptian military/security networks, particularly the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces after the 2011 Revolution. They are "non-democratic leaders within a country" whose power is "independent of any political changes that take place." They are "often hidden beneath layers of bureaucracy" and may not be "in complete control at all times" but have "tangible control of key resources (whether human or financial)". He also wrote The "deep state" is beginning to become short hand for the embedded anti-democratic power structures within a government, something very few democracies can claim to be free from.

Israel

In May 2020, an article in Haaretz describes how people meeting Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu "have heard lengthy speeches [...] that even though he has been elected repeatedly, in reality, the country is controlled by a 'deep state.'"

Italy

The most famous Italian case is Propaganda Due. Propaganda Due (better known as P2) was a Masonic lodge belonging to the Grand Orient of Italy (GOI). It was founded in 1877 with the name of Masonic Propaganda, in the period of its management by the entrepreneur Licio Gelli it assumed deviated forms with respect to the statutes of the Freemasonry and became subversive towards the Italian legal order. The P2 was suspended by the GOI on 26 July 1976; subsequently, the parliamentary commission of inquiry into the P2 Masonic lodge under the presidency of Minister Tina Anselmi concluded the P2 case by denouncing the lodge as a real "criminal organization" and "subversive". It was dissolved with a special law, the n. 17 of 25 January 1982.

Middle East

Robert Worth argues the term "deep state" is "just as apt" for networks in many states in the Middle East where governments have colluded with: smugglers and jihadis (Syria), jihadi veterans of the Soviet-Afghan War (Yemen), and other criminals working as irregular forces (Egypt, Algeria). In his book From Deep State to Islamic State he describes a "hard core" of regimes in Syria, Egypt and Yemen that staged successful counter-revolutions against the Arab Spring in those countries, comparing them with the Mamluks of Egypt and the Levant 1250–1517 in that they proclaim themselves servants of the putative rulers while actually ruling themselves.

Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia

The Soviet secret police have been frequently described by historians as a "state within a state". According to the investigative journalist Yevgenia Albats, most KGB leaders, including Lavrenty Beria, Yuri Andropov, and Vladimir Kryuchkov, always competed for power with the Communist Party and manipulated communist leaders.

According to historian Abdurakhman Avtorkhanov in 1991, "It is not true that the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party is a supreme power. The Political Bureau is only a shadow of the real supreme power that stands behind the chair of every Bureau member ... The real power thinks, acts and dictates for all of us. The name of the power is NKVDMVDMGB. The Stalin regime is based not on the Soviets, Party ideals, the power of the Political Bureau or Stalin's personality, but on the organization and the techniques of the Soviet political police where Stalin plays the role of the first policeman." However, he also noted that "To say that NKVD is 'a state within the state' means to belittle the importance of the NKVD because this question allows two forces – a normal state and a supernormal NKVD – whereas the only force is Chekism".

According to former general Ion Mihai Pacepa in 2006, "In the Soviet Union, the KGB was a state within a state. Now former KGB officers are running the state. They have custody of the country's 6,000 nuclear weapons, entrusted to the KGB in the 1950s, and they now also manage the strategic oil industry renationalized by Putin. The KGB successor, rechristened FSB, still has the right to electronically monitor the population, control political groups, search homes and businesses, infiltrate the federal government, create its own front enterprises, investigate cases, and run its own prison system. The Soviet Union had one KGB officer for every 428 citizens. Putin's Russia has one FSB-ist for every 297 citizens.

Turkey

Main article: Deep state in Turkey

According to the Journalist Robert F. Worth, "The expression 'deep state' had originated in Turkey in the 1990s, where the military colluded with drug traffickers and hit men to wage a dirty war against Kurdish insurgents". Professor Ryan Gingeras wrote that the Turkish term derin devlet (lit. "deep state") "colloquially speaking" refers to " 'criminal' or 'rogue' element that have somehow muscled their way into power". The journalist Dexter Filkins wrote of a "presumed clandestine network" of Turkish "military officers and their civilian allies" who, for decades, "suppressed and sometimes murdered dissidents, Communists, reporters, Islamists, Christian missionaries, and members of minority groups—anyone thought to pose a threat to the secular order". Journalist Hugh Roberts has described the "shady nexus" between the police and intelligence services, "certain politicians and organised crime", whose members believe they are authorised "to get up to all sorts of unavowable things" because they are "custodians of the higher interests of the nation".

United Kingdom

The Civil Service has been called a "deep state" by senior politicians in the United Kingdom. Tony Blair said of the Civil Service, "You cannot underestimate how much they believe it's their job to actually run the country and to resist the changes put forward by people they dismiss as 'here today, gone tomorrow' politicians. They genuinely see themselves as the true guardians of the national interest, and think that their job is simply to wear you down and wait you out." The efforts of the Civil Service to frustrate elected politicians is the subject of the popular satirical BBC TV comedy, Yes Minister which originated in the 1980s.

United States

In the United States of America, the "deep state" has been used at least since 2013 to describe "a hybrid association of government elements and parts of top-level industry and finance that is effectively able to govern the United States without reference to the consent of the governed as expressed through the formal political process." Intelligence agencies such as the CIA have been accused by elements of the Donald Trump administration of attempting to thwart its policy goals. Writing for The New York Times, the analyst Issandr El Amani warned against the "growing discord between a president and his bureaucratic rank-and-file", while analysts of the column The Interpreter wrote:

Though the deep state is sometimes discussed as a shadowy conspiracy, it helps to think of it instead as a political conflict between a nation's leader and its governing institutions.

Amanda Taub and Max Fisher, The Interpreter

According to the political commentator David Gergen, quoted in Time magazine early in 2017, the term has been appropriated by Steve Bannon and Breitbart News and other supporters of the Trump Administration in order to delegitimize critics of the Trump presidency. About the same time, the "deep state" theory was dismissed by authors for The New York Times and The New York Observer. In October 2019 The New York Times gave credence to the general idea by publishing an opinion piece arguing that the "Deep State" in the civil service was created precisely to "battle people like Trump."

Scholars have generally disputed the notion that the U.S. executive branch bureaucracy represents a true "deep state" as the term is formally understood, but have taken a range of views on the role of that bureaucracy in constraining or empowering the U.S. president.

Venezuela

Further information: Cartel of the Suns

The Cartel of the Suns, a group of high-ranking officials within the Bolivarian Government of Venezuela, has been described as "a series of often competing networks buried deep within the Chavista regime". Following the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela, the Bolivarian government initially embezzled until there were no more funds to embezzle, which required them to turn to drug trafficking. President Hugo Chávez made partnerships with the Colombian leftist militia Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and his successor Nicolás Maduro continued the process, promoting officials to high-ranking positions after they were accused of drug trafficking.

Other alleged cases

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  5. O'Donnell, Jonathon (September 2020). Stausberg, Michael; Engler, Steven (eds.). "The deliverance of the administrative state: Deep state conspiracism, charismatic demonology, and the post-truth politics of American Christian nationalism". Religion. Taylor & Francis. 50 (4): 696–719. doi:10.1080/0048721X.2020.1810817. ISSN 1096-1151. S2CID 222094116.
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  8. from Baruch Spinoza: Tractatus politicus, Caput II, § 6.
  9. Cf William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, IV, c.4 ss. iii.2, p. *54, where the charge of being imperium in imperio was notably levied against the Church
  10. Daniel De Leon: "Imperium in imperio" in: Daily People, June 4, 1903.
  11. Johnson, Janet Buttolph (2005). Political science research methods. Reynolds, H. T. (Henry T.) (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 1-56802-874-1. OCLC 55948042.
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Deep state
Deep state Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from State within a state For other uses see Deep state disambiguation This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article possibly contains original research Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations Statements consisting only of original research should be removed May 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia s layout guidelines Please help by editing the article to make improvements to the overall structure October 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message This article or section appears to be slanted towards recent events Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non recent events October 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Learn how and when to remove this template message A deep state calque of Turkish derin devlet 1 is a type of governance made up of potentially secret and unauthorised networks of power operating independently of a state s political leadership in pursuit of their own agenda and goals In popular usage the term carries overwhelmingly negative connotations 2 The range of possible uses of the term is similar to that for shadow government The expression state within a state is an older and similar concept Historically it designated a well defined organization which seeks to function independently 3 whereas the deep state refers more to a hidden organization seeking to manipulate the public state Potential sources for deep state organization include rogue elements among organs of state such as the armed forces or public authorities such as intelligence agencies police secret police administrative agencies and government bureaucracy Deep state rhetoric has in recent years when been used in the United States to describe what in many cases may be the work of entrenched career bureaucrats or civil servants acting in accordance with the mandate of their agency and congressional statutes when seen as in conflict with the current presidential administration 4 The intent of a deep state can include continuity of the state itself job security enhanced power and authority and the pursuit of ideological or programmatic objectives It can operate in opposition to the agenda of elected officials by obstructing resisting and subverting their policies conditions and directives Conspiracy theories of a secret government typically go far beyond these verifiable agencies and posit actions by more obscure bodies 5 Contents 1 Forms 2 Etymology and historical usage 3 Scholarly understanding 3 1 Intellectual history of concept 3 2 State as actor versus state as venue 3 2 1 State as venue 3 2 2 State as actor 4 Popular understanding 5 Cases 5 1 Chechnya 5 2 Egypt 5 3 Israel 5 4 Italy 5 5 Middle East 5 6 Soviet Union and post Soviet Russia 5 7 Turkey 5 8 United Kingdom 5 9 United States 5 10 Venezuela 5 11 Other alleged cases 6 See also 7 ReferencesForms EditThe term Deep state may refer to Plans for an emergency government that takes over in the event of a disaster see continuity of government A government run by An unelected bureaucracy or branch of the security services see section Cases A state within a state or deep state specific examples include Deep state in Turkey and Deep state in the United States An opposition grouping in a parliamentary system see Shadow Cabinet especially in cases of ennui experienced by a ruling party see section Popular understanding A shadow government a conspiracy theory of a secret government Etymology and historical usage EditThe modern concept of a deep state is associated with Turkey a presumed secret network of military officers and their civilian allies trying to preserve the secular order based on the ideas of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk from 1923 6 There are also opinions that the deep state in Turkey and Counter Guerrilla was established in the Cold War era as a part of Gladio Organization to sway Turkey more into NATO against the threat of the expansion of Soviet communism 7 Similar ideas are older The Greek language kratos ἐn kratei kratos en kratei was later adopted into Latin as imperium in imperio 8 or status in statu In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries political debate surrounding the separation of church and state often revolved around the perception that if left unchecked the Church might turn into a kind of State within a State an illegitimate encroachment of the State s natural civil power 9 At the beginning of the 20th century the deep state was also used to refer to government owned corporations or private companies that act independently of regulatory or governmental control 10 Scholarly understanding EditSee also State polity Within social science in general and political science specifically scholars distinguish between positivism what is and normativism what should be 11 Because political science deals with topics which are inherently political and often controversial this distinction between what is positive and what should be normative is critical because it allows diverse people with different preferred worlds to discuss the causes workings and effects of policies and social structures 11 Thus while readers may disagree on the normative qualities of the deep state i e whether it is good or bad it is still possible to study the positive qualities i e its origins and effects without requiring a normative judgement 11 In the field of political science the normative pop culture concept of the deep state is studied within the literature on the state Current literature on the state generally traces a lineage to Bringing the State Back In 1985 12 and remains an active body of scholarly research as of 2020 citation needed Within this literature the state is understood as both venue a set of rules under which others act and interact as well as actor with its own agenda An example of a non conspiratorial version of the state as actor from the empirical scholarly literature would be doing truth to power as a play on speaking truth to power which is what journalists often aspire to do as studied by Todd La Porte 13 Under this dual understanding the conspiratorial version of the deep state concept would be one version of the state as actor while the non conspiratorial version would be another version of the state as actor The fundamental takeaway from the scholarly literature on the dual nature of the state is that the state as actor deep state is a functional characteristic of all states which has effects that may be normatively judged as good or bad in different times places and contexts citation needed From a positivist scientific perspective the state as venue colloquially known as the deep state simply is and should not be assumed to be bad by default original research Intellectual history of concept Edit See also New institutionalism While the state has been one of the longest studied topics in political science sociology and economics the rise of new institutionalism s in the 1970s brought to the forefront the dual nature of the state as both venue a set of rules under which others act and interact as well as actor with its own agenda 14 This new institutionalism stands in contrast to the immediately prior behavioral revolution which focused on society centered explanations for political outcomes where the state was primarily or solely seen as an arena where interest groups vied for political power 15 State as actor versus state as venue Edit See also State polity State autonomy within institutionalism The normative pop culture concept of the deep state is distinguished from the classical concept of the state within the scholarly literature on the state by the dual nature of the state as both an actor which pursues certain ends and a venue which structures interaction between actors 15 In this dyad the deep state is called the state as actor while the classical concept of the state is called the state as venue State as venue Edit Main article State polity State and government To distinguish the traditional formal processes of the state from the state as actor the state as venue view reflects the state serving as an arena in which actors act Under this concept the state is seen as a passive organizational structure within which societal actors e g interest groups classes compete for power influence and resources 15 State as actor Edit The state as actor concept subsumes the activities described by the pop culture concept of the deep state by focusing on all forms of state goal formation and pursuit which are independent of external societal actors e g interest groups classes 16 Positivist political science and sociology further break this concept down into state autonomy and state capacity State autonomy refers to a state s ability to pursue interests insulated from external social and economic influence 17 State capacity reflects the state s skills knowledge tools equipment and other resources needed to do their jobs competently Together autonomy and capacity are necessary for states to implement all policy including that delegated by political leaders court decisions and agency or ministry programmatic 18 as well as the subversive or clandestine ends suggested by the popular usage of the deep state concept Popular understanding EditIn the United States after the 2016 United States presidential election the term deep state became much more widely used as a pejorative term with an overwhelmingly negative definition by both the Donald Trump administration and conservative leaning media outlets 19 20 Cases EditThis section may contain indiscriminate excessive or irrelevant examples Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples See Wikipedia s guide to writing better articles for further suggestions October 2021 Chechnya Edit According to the journalist Julia Ioffe the Russian Republic of Chechnya under leadership of Ramzan Kadyrov had become a state within a state by 2015 21 Egypt Edit Author Abdul Azim Ahmed wrote in 2013 that in Egypt the term deep state was being used to refer to Egyptian military security networks particularly the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces after the 2011 Revolution They are non democratic leaders within a country whose power is independent of any political changes that take place They are often hidden beneath layers of bureaucracy and may not be in complete control at all times but have tangible control of key resources whether human or financial 22 He also wrote The deep state is beginning to become short hand for the embedded anti democratic power structures within a government something very few democracies can claim to be free from Israel Edit In May 2020 an article in Haaretz describes how people meeting Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu have heard lengthy speeches that even though he has been elected repeatedly in reality the country is controlled by a deep state 23 Italy Edit The most famous Italian case is Propaganda Due 24 Propaganda Due better known as P2 was a Masonic lodge belonging to the Grand Orient of Italy GOI It was founded in 1877 with the name of Masonic Propaganda 25 in the period of its management by the entrepreneur Licio Gelli it assumed deviated forms with respect to the statutes of the Freemasonry and became subversive towards the Italian legal order The P2 was suspended by the GOI on 26 July 1976 subsequently the parliamentary commission of inquiry into the P2 Masonic lodge under the presidency of Minister Tina Anselmi concluded the P2 case by denouncing the lodge as a real criminal organization 26 and subversive It was dissolved with a special law the n 17 of 25 January 1982 Middle East Edit Robert Worth argues the term deep state is just as apt for networks in many states in the Middle East where governments have colluded with smugglers and jihadis Syria jihadi veterans of the Soviet Afghan War Yemen and other criminals working as irregular forces Egypt Algeria 27 In his book From Deep State to Islamic State he describes a hard core of regimes in Syria Egypt and Yemen that staged successful counter revolutions against the Arab Spring in those countries comparing them with the Mamluks of Egypt and the Levant 1250 1517 in that they proclaim themselves servants of the putative rulers while actually ruling themselves 28 Soviet Union and post Soviet Russia Edit The Soviet secret police have been frequently described by historians as a state within a state According to the investigative journalist Yevgenia Albats most KGB leaders including Lavrenty Beria Yuri Andropov and Vladimir Kryuchkov always competed for power with the Communist Party and manipulated communist leaders 29 According to historian Abdurakhman Avtorkhanov in 1991 It is not true that the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party is a supreme power The Political Bureau is only a shadow of the real supreme power that stands behind the chair of every Bureau member The real power thinks acts and dictates for all of us The name of the power is NKVD MVD MGB The Stalin regime is based not on the Soviets Party ideals the power of the Political Bureau or Stalin s personality but on the organization and the techniques of the Soviet political police where Stalin plays the role of the first policeman 30 However he also noted that To say that NKVD is a state within the state means to belittle the importance of the NKVD because this question allows two forces a normal state and a supernormal NKVD whereas the only force is Chekism According to former general Ion Mihai Pacepa in 2006 In the Soviet Union the KGB was a state within a state Now former KGB officers are running the state They have custody of the country s 6 000 nuclear weapons entrusted to the KGB in the 1950s and they now also manage the strategic oil industry renationalized by Putin The KGB successor rechristened FSB still has the right to electronically monitor the population control political groups search homes and businesses infiltrate the federal government create its own front enterprises investigate cases and run its own prison system The Soviet Union had one KGB officer for every 428 citizens Putin s Russia has one FSB ist for every 297 citizens 31 Turkey Edit Main article Deep state in Turkey According to the Journalist Robert F Worth The expression deep state had originated in Turkey in the 1990s where the military colluded with drug traffickers and hit men to wage a dirty war against Kurdish insurgents 27 Professor Ryan Gingeras wrote that the Turkish term derin devlet lit deep state colloquially speaking refers to criminal or rogue element that have somehow muscled their way into power 32 The journalist Dexter Filkins wrote of a presumed clandestine network of Turkish military officers and their civilian allies who for decades suppressed and sometimes murdered dissidents Communists reporters Islamists Christian missionaries and members of minority groups anyone thought to pose a threat to the secular order 33 Journalist Hugh Roberts has described the shady nexus between the police and intelligence services certain politicians and organised crime whose members believe they are authorised to get up to all sorts of unavowable things because they are custodians of the higher interests of the nation 28 United Kingdom Edit The Civil Service has been called a deep state by senior politicians in the United Kingdom Tony Blair said of the Civil Service You cannot underestimate how much they believe it s their job to actually run the country and to resist the changes put forward by people they dismiss as here today gone tomorrow politicians They genuinely see themselves as the true guardians of the national interest and think that their job is simply to wear you down and wait you out 34 The efforts of the Civil Service to frustrate elected politicians is the subject of the popular satirical BBC TV comedy Yes Minister which originated in the 1980s United States Edit Main article Deep state in the United States In the United States of America the deep state has been used at least since 2013 to describe a hybrid association of government elements and parts of top level industry and finance that is effectively able to govern the United States without reference to the consent of the governed as expressed through the formal political process 35 Intelligence agencies such as the CIA have been accused by elements of the Donald Trump administration of attempting to thwart its policy goals 36 Writing for The New York Times the analyst Issandr El Amani warned against the growing discord between a president and his bureaucratic rank and file while analysts of the column The Interpreter wrote 36 Though the deep state is sometimes discussed as a shadowy conspiracy it helps to think of it instead as a political conflict between a nation s leader and its governing institutions Amanda Taub and Max Fisher The Interpreter According to the political commentator David Gergen quoted in Time magazine early in 2017 the term has been appropriated by Steve Bannon and Breitbart News and other supporters of the Trump Administration in order to delegitimize critics of the Trump presidency 37 About the same time the deep state theory was dismissed by authors for The New York Times 36 and The New York Observer 38 In October 2019 The New York Times gave credence to the general idea by publishing an opinion piece arguing that the Deep State in the civil service was created precisely to battle people like Trump 39 Scholars have generally disputed the notion that the U S executive branch bureaucracy represents a true deep state as the term is formally understood but have taken a range of views on the role of that bureaucracy in constraining or empowering the U S president 40 Venezuela Edit Further information Cartel of the Suns The Cartel of the Suns a group of high ranking officials within the Bolivarian Government of Venezuela has been described as a series of often competing networks buried deep within the Chavista regime Following the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela the Bolivarian government initially embezzled until there were no more funds to embezzle which required them to turn to drug trafficking President Hugo Chavez made partnerships with the Colombian leftist militia Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia FARC and his successor Nicolas Maduro continued the process promoting officials to high ranking positions after they were accused of drug trafficking 41 Other alleged cases Edit Australia s Jakarta lobby 42 43 44 Imperial Japan s Army Kwantung Army and the post war ninkyō dantai 45 46 India s RSS 47 48 Indonesia s Kopassus 49 50 51 Pakistan s Intelligence Community ISI FIA NAB and or IB 52 53 Serbia s Black Hand 54 Serbia and Montenegro s RDB 55 Spain s Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberacion Antiterrorist Liberation Groups 56 Thailand s Military Monarchy Nexus or Network monarchy 57 United Kingdom s City of London Corporation 58 See also EditCabal Civilian control of the military Counterintelligence state Deep State TV series The Establishment Fifth column Fourth branch of government Illiberal democracy List of conspiracy theories Military coup Military dictatorship Monopoly on violence Political machine Power behind the throne Proto state Puppet government Shadow government conspiracy Silovik Smoke filled roomReferences Edit Definition of DEEP STATE www merriam webster com Byford Jovan 2011 Conspiracy theories a critical introduction Houndmills Basingstoke Hampshire Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 9780230349216 OCLC 802867724 Definition from CNRTL Etat dans l Etat 2012 Rebecca Ingber The Deep State Myth and the Real Executive Branch Bureaucracy Rebecca Ingber Bureaucratic Resistance and the Deep State Myth O Donnell Jonathon September 2020 Stausberg Michael Engler Steven eds The deliverance of the administrative state Deep state conspiracism charismatic demonology and the post truth politics of American Christian nationalism Religion Taylor amp Francis 50 4 696 719 doi 10 1080 0048721X 2020 1810817 ISSN 1096 1151 S2CID 222094116 Filkins Dexter 12 March 2012 The Deep State PDF The New Yorker Retrieved 31 December 2018 Kontrgerilla Gladio Derin Devlet gibi kavramlar hakkinda Press release in Turkish Turkish Armed Forces 2006 01 16 BA 01 06 Archived from the original on 2008 03 08 from Baruch Spinoza Tractatus politicus Caput II 6 Cf William Blackstone Commentaries on the Laws of England IV c 4 ss iii 2 p 54 where the charge of being imperium in imperio was notably levied against the Church Daniel De Leon Imperium in imperio in Daily People June 4 1903 a b c Johnson Janet Buttolph 2005 Political science research methods Reynolds H T Henry T 5th ed Washington D C CQ Press pp 28 29 ISBN 1 56802 874 1 OCLC 55948042 Bringing state back Comparative politics Cambridge University Press Google Scholar results scholar google com Skocpol Theda 1985 09 13 Bringing the State Back In Strategies of Analysis in Current Research in Evans Peter B Rueschemeyer Dietrich Skocpol Theda eds Bringing the State Back in 1 ed Cambridge University Press pp 3 38 doi 10 1017 cbo9780511628283 002 ISBN 978 0 521 30786 4 retrieved 2020 02 11 a b c Skocpol 1985 p 4 Skocpol 1985 pp 9 11 Sklair Leslie 2004 Globalizing class theory In Sinclair Timothy ed Global governance critical concepts in political science Taylor amp Francis pp 139 140 ISBN 978 0 415 27665 8 Archived from the original on 19 May 2016 Skocpol 1985 p 11 14 Michaels Jon D March 2018 The American Deep State Notre Dame Law Review 93 4 1653 1670 via HeinOnline Skowronek Stephen Dearborn John A amp King Desmond 2021 Phantoms of a Beleaguered Republic The Deep State and the Unitary Executive Oxford University Press Julia Ioffe 24 July 2015 Putin Is Down With Polygamy Foreign Policy Retrieved 28 January 2016 Abdul Azim Ahmed What is the Deep State On Religion The UK s first magazine about faith religion and society onreligion co uk Archived from the original on 2017 04 27 Retrieved 2014 09 14 Netanyahu Deep State Controls Israel There s No Democracy Here www haaretz com Retrieved 11 November 2020 BBC on this day 26 1981 Italy in crisis as cabinet resigns 1981 05 26 Retrieved 9 April 2017 Dino P Arrigo Fratelli d Italia Cronache storie riti e personaggi per capire la Massoneria Soveria Mannelli Rubbettino 1994 p 45 Willan Puppetmasters p 50 a b Worth Robert F 2016 A Rage for Order The Middle East in Turmoil from Tahrir Square to ISIS Pan Macmillan pp 82 139 ISBN 9780374710712 Retrieved 31 July 2016 a b Roberts Hugh 16 July 2015 The Hijackers book review London Review of Books 37 14 Retrieved 7 August 2016 Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A Fitzpatrick 1994 The State Within a State The KGB and Its Hold on Russia Past Present and Future ISBN 0 374 52738 5 The Chechen Times 17 30 08 2003 Translated from Technology of Power 1991 chapter 34 Russian text Jamie Glazov 23 June 2006 When an Evil Empire Returns The Cold War It s back interview with Ion Mihai Pacepa R James Woolsey Jr Yuri Yarim Agaev and Lt Gen Thomas McInerney FreeRepublic com Retrieved 2 October 2019 Gingeras Ryan Summer 2011 In the Hunt for the Sultans of Smack Dope Gangsters and the Construction of the Turkish Deep State Middle East Journal 65 3 427 doi 10 3751 65 3 14 JSTOR 23012173 PMID 22081838 S2CID 36893626 Filkins Dexter 12 March 2012 Letter from Turkey The Deep State New Yorker Retrieved 7 August 2016 Khan Shehab 6 February 2018 David Cameron s former director of strategy says Tony Blair warned him about a deep state conspiracy The Independent Retrieved 26 April 2018 Priest Dana Arkin William M 2011 Top Secret America The Rise of the New American Security State Little Brown and Company ISBN 978 0316182218 Lay summary The Quiet Coup No Not Egypt Here July 9 2013 Ambinder Marc Grady D B 2013 Deep State Inside the Government Secrecy Industry Wiley ISBN 978 1118146682 Scott Peter Dale March 10 2014 The State the Deep State and the Wall Street Overworld The Asia Pacific Journal 12 10 No 5 Michael J Glennon 2014 National Security and Double Government PDF Harvard National Security Journal 5 Archived from the original PDF on 2017 03 01 Retrieved 2016 01 12 Lofgren Mike 2016 The Deep State The Fall of the Constitution and the Rise of a Shadow Government Viking ISBN 978 0525428343 Lay summary Controlled by shadow government Mike Lofgren reveals how top U S officials are at the mercy of the deep state January 6 2016 Jordan Michael Smith October 19 2014 Vote all you want The secret government won t change The Boston Globe Anand Giridharadas September 15 2015 Examining Who Runs the United States The New York Times Bob Burnett March 7 2014 The War on Democracy The Deep State Huffington Post Geoff Dyer December 10 2014 CIA report is a strike back against America s deep state The Financial Times Peggy Noonan October 28 2013 The Deep State The Wall Street Journal Lofgren Mike 2014 02 21 Essay Anatomy of the Deep State BillMoyers com Retrieved 2018 11 15 Jessop Bob 2015 The State Past Present Future John Wiley amp Sons p 224 State Within a State The New York Times 1963 10 06 p 194 Archived from the original on 2019 10 22 Retrieved 2019 10 23 Is the Central Intelligence Agency a state within a state Alt URL a b c Taub Amanda Fisher Max February 16 2017 As Leaks Multiply Fears of a Deep State in America The New York Times Retrieved 2018 11 15 Abramson Alana March 8 2017 President Trump s Allies Keep Talking About the Deep State What s That Time This is a dark conspiratorial view that is being pushed by top Trump strategist Steve Bannon his allies at Breitbart and some others in the conservative movement that is trying to delegitimize the opposition to Trump in many quarters and pass the blame to others said David Gergen Schindler John R February 22 2017 Rebellion Brews in Washington But American Deep State Is Only a Myth The New York Observer Retrieved June 13 2018 O Mara Margaret October 26 2019 The Deep State Exists to Battle People Like Trump The New York Times Rebecca Ingber Bureaucratic Resistance and the National Security State at https papers ssrn com sol3 papers cfm abstract id 3186259 Jack Goldsmith The Deep State is Real at https www theguardian com commentisfree 2018 apr 22 leaks trump deep state fbi cia michael flynn Venezuela A Mafia State Medellin Colombia InSight Crime 2018 pp 3 84 The Collins allegations nautilus org Retrieved 23 May 2021 A look behind the Jakarta Lobby www abc net au 15 April 2004 Retrieved 23 May 2021 Intelligence analyst blasts the DIO www abc net au 13 April 2004 Retrieved 23 May 2021 The Yakuza s Ties to the Japanese Right Wing Vice Today Grabianowski Ed Yakuza and Politics How the Yakuza Works howstuffworks Latif Khan Furkan 3 May 2019 The Powerful Group Shaping The Rise Of Hindu Nationalism In India National Public Radio George Varghese K 13 June 2020 The RSS and the making of the Deep Nation review The ambiguity of the RSS and its complex worldview The Hindu Indonesian Military May Threaten Political Unity BP Gas Investment 19 April 2002 www wsj com accessed 11 November 2020 Military spat a sign of things to come for bilateral relationship 30 January 2017 indonesiaatmelbourne unimelb edu au accessed 11 November 2020 Tim Mawar promotions slammed by families 30 September 2020 www thejakartapost com accessed 11 November 2020 Who Controls Pakistan s Powerful ISI Radio Free Europe August 14 2008 Pakistan s shadowy secret service the ISI BBC News 3 May 2011 Ex CIA director sees Serbs as masters of deep state B92 13 February 2018 Retrieved 20 April 2019 Carla Del Ponte Serge Brammertz 10 July 2008 The Prosecutor vs Jovica Stanisic amp Franko Simatovic Third Amended Indictment PDF International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Retrieved 28 December 2010 Antiterrorist Liberation Groups Spanish paramilitary organization Alternative Titles GAL Grupos Antiteroristas de Liberacion www britannica com Retrieved 23 May 2021 Thailand s Deep State Royal Power and the Constitutional Court 1997 2015 29 February 2016 www tandfonline com accessed 11 November 2020 The City A state within a state BBC News 2011 11 04 Retrieved 9 April 2017 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Deep state amp oldid 1061052991, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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