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The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.

States Reorganisation Act, 1956
Parliament of India
CitationACT NO. 37 OF 1956
Enacted byParliament of India
Enacted31st August, 1956
Effective1st November, 1956
Status: In force

Although additional changes to India's state boundaries have been made since 1956, the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 remains the single most extensive change in state boundaries since the independence of India in 1947.

The Act came into effect at the same time as the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, which (among other things) restructured the constitutional framework for India's existing states and the requirements to pass the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 under the provisions of Part I of the Constitution of India, Article 3.

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Administrative divisions of India in 1951. Note that Sikkim was independent until 1975.

British India, which included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, was divided into two types of territories: the Provinces of British India, which were governed directly by British officials responsible to the Governor-General of India; and the Indian States, under the rule of local hereditary rulers who recognised British suzerainty in return for continued authority over their own realms, in most cases as established by treaty. As a result of the reforms of the early 20th century, most of the British provinces had directly elected legislatures as well as governors, although some of the smaller provinces were governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the Governor-General. Major reforms put forward by the British in the 1930s also recognised the principle of federalism, which was carried forward into the governance of independent India.

On 15 August 1947, British India was granted independence as the separate dominions of India and Pakistan. The British dissolved their treaty relations with more than five hundred princely states, who were encouraged to accede to either India or Pakistan, while under no compulsion to do so. Most of the states acceded to India, and a few to Pakistan. Bhutan, Hyderabad and Kashmir opted for independence, although Hyderabad was included in Indian Union by Military action according to the popular opinion of the people of Hyderabad. This was a direct consequence of the Inhuman acts of the Razakars on Non-Muslims.

South Indian states prior to the States Reorganisation Act

Between 1947 and about 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Several states were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into unions, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, remained separate states. The Government of India Act 1935 remained the constitutional law of India pending adoption of a new Constitution.

The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States". The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states and a class of territories:

The demand for states to be organised on a linguistic basis was developed even before India achieved independence from British rule. A first-of-its-kind linguistic movement started in 1895, in what is now Odisha. The movement gained momentum in later years with the demand for a separate Orissa Province to be formed by bifurcating the existing Bihar and Orissa Province. Due to the efforts of Madhusudan Das, the Father of Odia nationalism, the movement eventually achieved its objective in 1936, when Orissa Province became the first Indian state (pre-independence) to be organised on the basis of common languages.

The post-independence period saw the ascent of political movements for the creation of new states developed on linguistic lines. The movement to create a Telugu-speaking state out of the northern portion of Madras State gathered strength in the years after independence, and in 1953, the sixteen northern Telugu-speaking districts of Madras State became the new State of Andhra.

During the 1950–1956 period, other small changes were made to state boundaries: the small state of Bilaspur was merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954; and Chandernagore, a former enclave of French India, was incorporated into West Bengal in 1955. However, post-independence, the first state to be created on a linguistic basis was Andhra in 1953, created out of the Telugu-speaking northern parts of Madras State.

The States Reorganisation Commission was preceded by the Linguistic Provinces Commission (aka Dhar Commission), which was set up in June 1948. It rejected language as a parameter for dividing states. Later, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appointed the States Reorganisation Commission in December 1953, with the remit to reorganise the Indian states. The new commission was headed by the retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Fazal Ali; its other two members were H. N. Kunzru and K. M. Panikkar. The efforts of the commission were overseen by Govind Ballabh Pant, who served as the Home Minister from December 1954.

The States Reorganisation Commission submitted a report on September 30, 1955, with recommendations for the reorganisation of India's states, which was then debated by the Indian parliament. Subsequently, bills were passed to make changes to the constitution and to administer the reorganisation of the states.

Indian states after the States Reorganisation Act

The States Reorganisation Act was enacted on 31 August 1956. Before it came into effect on 1 November, an important amendment was made to the Constitution of India. Under the Seventh Amendment, the existing terminology of Part A, Part B, Part C, and Part D states was altered. The distinction between Part A and Part B states was removed, becoming known simply as "states". A new type of entity, the Union Territory, replaced the classification as a Part C or Part D state.

A further Act also came into effect on 1 November, transferring certain territories from Bihar to West Bengal.

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 was a major step towards dividing India into states and Union Territories. The following list sets out the states and union territories of India as reorganised on 1 November 1956:

States

  1. Andhra Pradesh: formed by the merger of Andhra State (1953–56) with the Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State (1948–56).
  2. Assam: The adjoining map depicts the scenario according to States Reorganisation Act of 1956. However, the state of Assam have been further divided into Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya (not in chronological order) in subsequent years.
  3. Bihar: reduced slightly by the transfer of minor territories to West Bengal (Purulia from Manbhum district, Islampur from Purnea district).
  4. Bombay State: the state was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Berar Division and Nagpur Division of Central Province and Berar and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. The southernmost districts of the Bombay Presidency were transferred to Mysore State.
  5. Jammu and Kashmir: No change of boundary in 1956.
  6. Kerala: formed by the merger of Travancore-Cochin state with the Malabar district and Kasaragod taluk of South Canara district of the Madras Presidency. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin, Kanyakumari district, along with Sengottai Taluk, was transferred to Madras State. The Laccadive and Minicoy Islands were separated from Malabar District to form a new Union Territory namely Laccadive, Amindivi, and Minicoy Islands.
  7. Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal State were merged into Madhya Pradesh; the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division were transferred to Bombay State.
  8. Madras State: Malabar District was transferred to the new state of Kerala, and a new union territory, Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands, was created. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin, Kanyakumari district, along with Sengottai Taluk, was added to the state.
  9. Mysore State: enlarged by the addition of Coorg State and the Kannada speaking districts from western Madras Presidency, southern Bombay Presidency and western Hyderabad State.
  10. Orissa: No change of boundary in 1956.
  11. Punjab: enlarged by addition of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union.
  12. Rajasthan: enlarged by the addition of Ajmer state and parts of Bombay and Madhya Bharat states.
  13. Uttar Pradesh: No change of boundary in 1956.
  14. West Bengal: enlarged by addition of Purulia district, previously part of Bihar.

Union territories

The Part C and Part D territories that weren't merged into other states, were converted into Union Territories:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Delhi
  3. Manipur
  4. Tripura
  5. Himachal Pradesh
  6. Laccadive, Minicoy & Amindivi Islands
  1. Article 3 deals with the "Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States".
  1. "Explainer: The reorganization of states in India and why it happened". 2 November 2016.
  2. "Seventh Amendment". Indiacode.nic.in. Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved19 November 2011.
  3. "Article 1". Constitution of India. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012.
  4. "The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956". Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved19 November 2011.
  5. "Demand of separate province for Oriya". The Telegraph.
  6. Sharma, Sadhna (1995). States Politics in India. ISBN 9788170996194.
  7. "Reorganisation of states"(PDF). Economic Weekly.
  8. Bihar and West Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act, 1956
  9. "The States Reorganisation Act, 1956"(PDF). legislative.gov.in. Government of India.

States Reorganisation Act 1956 Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from States Reorganisation Act The States Reorganisation Act 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India s states and territories organising them along linguistic lines 1 States Reorganisation Act 1956Parliament of IndiaCitationACT NO 37 OF 1956Enacted byParliament of IndiaEnacted31st August 1956Effective1st November 1956Status In force Although additional changes to India s state boundaries have been made since 1956 the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 remains the single most extensive change in state boundaries since the independence of India in 1947 The Act came into effect at the same time as the Constitution Seventh Amendment Act 1956 2 which among other things restructured the constitutional framework for India s existing states and the requirements to pass the States Reorganisation Act 1956 under the provisions of Part I of the Constitution of India Article 3 a Contents 1 Political integration after independence and the Constitution of 1950 2 Movement for linguistic states 3 States Reorganisation Commission 4 Related changes by other legislation 5 Effect of the changes 5 1 States 5 2 Union territories 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksPolitical integration after independence and the Constitution of 1950 EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed October 2014 Learn how and when to remove this template message Main article Political integration of India Administrative divisions of India in 1951 Note that Sikkim was independent until 1975 British India which included present day India Pakistan and Bangladesh was divided into two types of territories the Provinces of British India which were governed directly by British officials responsible to the Governor General of India and the Indian States under the rule of local hereditary rulers who recognised British suzerainty in return for continued authority over their own realms in most cases as established by treaty As a result of the reforms of the early 20th century most of the British provinces had directly elected legislatures as well as governors although some of the smaller provinces were governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the Governor General Major reforms put forward by the British in the 1930s also recognised the principle of federalism which was carried forward into the governance of independent India On 15 August 1947 British India was granted independence as the separate dominions of India and Pakistan The British dissolved their treaty relations with more than five hundred princely states who were encouraged to accede to either India or Pakistan while under no compulsion to do so Most of the states acceded to India and a few to Pakistan Bhutan Hyderabad and Kashmir opted for independence although Hyderabad was included in Indian Union by Military action according to the popular opinion of the people of Hyderabad This was a direct consequence of the Inhuman acts of the Razakars on Non Muslims South Indian states prior to the States Reorganisation Act Between 1947 and about 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union Several states were merged into existing provinces others were organised into unions such as Rajputana Himachal Pradesh Madhya Bharat and Vindhya Pradesh made up of multiple princely states a few including Mysore Hyderabad Bhopal and Bilaspur remained separate states The Government of India Act 1935 remained the constitutional law of India pending adoption of a new Constitution The new Constitution of India which came into force on 26 January 1950 made India a sovereign democratic republic The new republic was also declared to be a Union of States 3 The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states and a class of territories Part A states which were the former governors provinces of British India were ruled by a governor appointed by the president and an elected state legislature The nine Part A states were Assam Bihar Bombay Madhya Pradesh formerly Central Provinces and Berar Madras Orissa Punjab formerly East Punjab Uttar Pradesh formerly the United Provinces and West Bengal Part B states which were former princely states or unions of princely states governed by a rajpramukh who was usually the ruler of a constituent state and an elected legislature The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India The eight Part B states were Hyderabad Jammu and Kashmir Madhya Bharat Mysore Patiala and East Punjab States Union PEPSU Rajasthan Saurashtra and Travancore Cochin Part C states included both the former chief commissioners provinces and some princely states and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India The ten Part C states were Ajmer Bhopal Bilaspur Coorg Delhi Himachal Pradesh Cutch Manipur Tripura and Vindhya Pradesh The sole Part D territory 4 was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which was administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government Movement for linguistic states EditThe demand for states to be organised on a linguistic basis was developed even before India achieved independence from British rule A first of its kind linguistic movement started in 1895 in what is now Odisha The movement gained momentum in later years with the demand for a separate Orissa Province to be formed by bifurcating the existing Bihar and Orissa Province 5 6 Due to the efforts of Madhusudan Das the Father of Odia nationalism the movement eventually achieved its objective in 1936 when Orissa Province became the first Indian state pre independence to be organised on the basis of common languages The post independence period saw the ascent of political movements for the creation of new states developed on linguistic lines The movement to create a Telugu speaking state out of the northern portion of Madras State gathered strength in the years after independence and in 1953 the sixteen northern Telugu speaking districts of Madras State became the new State of Andhra During the 1950 1956 period other small changes were made to state boundaries the small state of Bilaspur was merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954 and Chandernagore a former enclave of French India was incorporated into West Bengal in 1955 However post independence the first state to be created on a linguistic basis was Andhra in 1953 created out of the Telugu speaking northern parts of Madras State States Reorganisation Commission EditMain article States Reorganisation Commission The States Reorganisation Commission was preceded by the Linguistic Provinces Commission aka Dhar Commission which was set up in June 1948 It rejected language as a parameter for dividing states Later Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appointed the States Reorganisation Commission in December 1953 with the remit to reorganise the Indian states The new commission was headed by the retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Fazal Ali its other two members were H N Kunzru and K M Panikkar The efforts of the commission were overseen by Govind Ballabh Pant who served as the Home Minister from December 1954 The States Reorganisation Commission submitted a report on September 30 1955 with recommendations for the reorganisation of India s states which was then debated by the Indian parliament Subsequently bills were passed to make changes to the constitution and to administer the reorganisation of the states 7 Indian states after the States Reorganisation ActRelated changes by other legislation EditThe States Reorganisation Act was enacted on 31 August 1956 Before it came into effect on 1 November an important amendment was made to the Constitution of India Under the Seventh Amendment the existing terminology of Part A Part B Part C and Part D states was altered The distinction between Part A and Part B states was removed becoming known simply as states A new type of entity the Union Territory replaced the classification as a Part C or Part D state A further Act also came into effect on 1 November transferring certain territories from Bihar to West Bengal 8 Effect of the changes EditThe States Reorganisation Act of 1956 was a major step towards dividing India into states and Union Territories The following list sets out the states and union territories of India as reorganised on 1 November 1956 States Edit Andhra Pradesh formed by the merger of Andhra State 1953 56 with the Telugu speaking areas of Hyderabad State 1948 56 Assam The adjoining map depicts the scenario according to States Reorganisation Act of 1956 However the state of Assam have been further divided into Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram Nagaland Meghalaya not in chronological order in subsequent years Bihar reduced slightly by the transfer of minor territories to West Bengal Purulia from Manbhum district Islampur from Purnea district Bombay State the state was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State the Marathi speaking districts of Berar Division and Nagpur Division of Central Province and Berar and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State The southernmost districts of the Bombay Presidency were transferred to Mysore State Jammu and Kashmir No change of boundary in 1956 Kerala formed by the merger of Travancore Cochin state with the Malabar district and Kasaragod taluk of South Canara district of the Madras Presidency The southern part of Travancore Cochin Kanyakumari district along with Sengottai Taluk was transferred to Madras State The Laccadive and Minicoy Islands were separated from Malabar District to form a new Union Territory namely Laccadive Amindivi and Minicoy Islands 9 Madhya Pradesh Madhya Bharat Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal State were merged into Madhya Pradesh the Marathi speaking districts of Nagpur Division were transferred to Bombay State Madras State Malabar District was transferred to the new state of Kerala and a new union territory Laccadive Minicoy and Amindivi Islands was created The southern part of Travancore Cochin Kanyakumari district along with Sengottai Taluk was added to the state Mysore State enlarged by the addition of Coorg State and the Kannada speaking districts from western Madras Presidency southern Bombay Presidency and western Hyderabad State Orissa No change of boundary in 1956 Punjab enlarged by addition of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union Rajasthan enlarged by the addition of Ajmer state and parts of Bombay and Madhya Bharat states Uttar Pradesh No change of boundary in 1956 West Bengal enlarged by addition of Purulia district previously part of Bihar Union territories Edit The Part C and Part D territories that weren t merged into other states were converted into Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands Delhi Manipur Tripura Himachal Pradesh Laccadive Minicoy amp Amindivi IslandsSee also EditUnification of Karnataka Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966 Bihar Reorganisation Act 2000 Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2014 Himachal Pradesh Reorganisation Act 1970 List of proposed states and territories of India Administrative divisions of India States and union territories of India Political integration of India Union Territory Indian Constitution Partition of India Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act 2019Notes Edit Article 3 deals with the Formation of new States and alteration of areas boundaries or names of existing States References Edit Explainer The reorganization of states in India and why it happened 2 November 2016 Seventh Amendment Indiacode nic in Archived from the original on 1 May 2017 Retrieved 19 November 2011 Article 1 Constitution of India Archived from the original on 2 April 2012 The Constitution Seventh Amendment Act 1956 Archived from the original on 1 May 2017 Retrieved 19 November 2011 Demand of separate province for Oriya The Telegraph Sharma Sadhna 1995 States Politics in India ISBN 9788170996194 Reorganisation of states PDF Economic Weekly Bihar and West Bengal Transfer of Territories Act 1956 The States Reorganisation Act 1956 PDF legislative gov in Government of India External links EditText of the Act Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title States Reorganisation Act 1956 amp oldid 1077835942, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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