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Status of the Golan Heights

The Golan Heights are a rocky plateau in Western Asia that was captured by Israel from Syria in the 1967 Six-Day War. The international community recognizes the Golan Heights to be official Syrian territory and widely rejects Israeli military occupation. Following the war, Syria dismissed any negotiations with Israel as part of the Khartoum Resolution.

Historical borders and boundaries of the Golan Heights

The Golan was under military administration until the Knesset passed the Golan Heights Law in 1981, which applied Israeli law to the territory; a move that has been described as an annexation. In response, the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed UNSC Resolution 497 which condemned the Israeli actions to change the status of the territory declaring them "null and void and without international legal effect", and that the Golan remained an occupied territory. In 2019, the United States became the only state to recognize the Golan Heights as Israeli sovereign territory, while the rest of the international community continues to consider the territory Syrian held under Israeli military occupation.

Contents

Following World War I, portions of the former territory of the Ottoman Empire was split into several League of Nations mandates under the control of one of the victorious Allied countries of the war. The British Mandate for Palestine and the French Mandate for Syria were two such mandates, with the border finalized between the two in the Paulet–Newcombe Agreement. The border, drawn in 1923, was the first international border between Syria and Palestine and to date is the last, with the remaining boundaries since then having been a result of armistice agreements. The boundary placed the entirety of the Sea of Galilee, along with a ten meter wide strip on the eastern shore, within the British Mandate. The French Mandate ended in 1946 with the independence of the Republic of Syria, and Syria demanded changes to the border to allow for greater access to fresh water sources, demands the British refused on the basis that the border had been submitted and approved to the League of Nations and Britain thus considered the matter closed.

The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, which followed Israel's declaration of independence, resulted in the newly formed state of Israel in control over roughly 77% of what had been the territory of the British Mandate. Syria had however advanced to the eastern shoreline of the Sea of Galilee, where the border as delineated by the British and the French was ten meters east of the shoreline. In the armistice negotiations that followed the declaration of a ceasefire, that ten meter strip was included in a demilitarized zone as Israel had argued for.

In the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel occupied the Syrian Golan. Following the war, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 242, which called on Israel to withdraw from territories occupied in the war in exchange for the termination of all states of belligerency and recognition of Israel as a sovereign state by the Arab states. The 1973 Arab-Israeli War saw further territorial gains by Israel, though Israel agreed to return to the 1967 ceasefire line in the 1974 disengagement agreement between Israel and Syria. Syria has continued to insist on the return of the Golan in any negotiated peace agreement between the two countries.

On 14 December 1981 the Israeli Knesset passed the Golan Heights Law. While the law did not use the term annexation, it was considered to be an annexation by the Israeli opposition and international community.

The action was condemned internationally, and in response the United Nations Security Council passed United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 declaring the law "null and void and without international legal effect" and that the Fourth Geneva Convention continued to apply to the Golan as an occupied territory.

The international community widely considers the Golan to be Syrian territory held under Israeli occupation. A number of states recognize the Israeli occupation as being legitimate under the United Nations Charter on a self-defense basis, but do not consider those concerns to allow for the annexation of territory seized by force.

In March 2019, the United States, which previously considered the Golan Heights to be occupied, became the first country to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the territory it has held since 1967. The rest of the international community continues to view the territory as Syrian, held under Israeli occupation. The European Union members of the United Nations Security Council issued a joint statement condemning the US announcement and the UN Secretary-General António Guterres issued a statement saying that the status of the Golan Heights had not changed. The Arab League denounced the US move, declaring that "Trump's recognition does not change the area's status."

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  2. Aji, Albert (2019-03-26). "Trump acceptance of Israeli control of Golan sparks protests". Associated Press. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  3. "Trump's Golan move unites Gulf States and Iran in condemnation". France 24. 2019-03-26. Retrieved2019-03-31.
  4. Kipnis, Yigal (2013). The Golan Heights: Political History, Settlement and Geography since 1949. Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics. Taylor & Francis. p. 235. ISBN 978-1-136-74092-3. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  5. Balanche, F. (2017). Atlas of the Near East: State Formation and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1918-2010. Brill. p. 114. ISBN 978-90-04-34518-8. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  6. Capinera, John (2019). Israel And Syria: Peace And Security On The Golan. Taylor & Francis. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-429-71086-5. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  7. Oberschall, A. (2007). Conflict and Peace Building in Divided Societies: Responses to Ethnic Violence. Taylor & Francis. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-134-12814-3. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  8. Cordesman, Anthony (2008). Israel and Syria : the military balance and prospects of war. Praeger Security International Published in cooperation with the Center for Strategic and International Studies. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-313-35520-2. OCLC 615600412. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  9. Ben-Dror, Elad (2015). Ralph Bunche and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Mediation and the UN, 1947-1949. Israeli History, Politics and Society. Taylor & Francis. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-317-65470-4. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  10. Zacher, Mark (2001-06-01). "The Territorial Integrity Norm: International Boundaries and the Use of Force". International Organization. Cambridge University Press (CUP). 55 (2): 231–232. doi:10.1162/00208180151140568. ISSN 1531-5088. JSTOR 3078631. S2CID 154890372.
  11. Rabinovich, Itamar (2009). The Brink of Peace: The Israeli-Syrian Negotiations. Princeton University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4008-2265-2. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  12. Ehteshami, Anoushiravan; Hinnebusch, Raymond (2002). Syria and Iran: Middle Powers in a Penetrated Regional System. Taylor & Francis. pp. 160–161. ISBN 978-1-134-73021-6. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  13. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Golan Heights Law.
  14. Rabinowitz, Dan (28 March 2012). "17: Identity, the State and Borderline Disorder". In Thomas M. Wilson and Hastings Donnan (ed.). A Companion to Border Studies. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 307–308. ISBN 978-1-118-25525-4.
  15. Council on Foreign Relations. UN Security Council Resolution 497.
  16. Benvenisti, E. (2012). The International Law of Occupation. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-163957-9. Retrieved2019-04-01.
  17. Korman, Sharon (31 October 1996), The Right of Conquest: The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice, Oxford University Press, pp. 262–264, ISBN 9780191583803
  18. Roberts, Adam (January 1990). "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". American Journal of International Law. 84 (1): 60. doi:10.2307/2203016. JSTOR 2203016.
  19. Pileggi, Tamar; Winer, Stuart; Newman, Marissa; Bachner, Michael (2019-03-28). "US redrawing official maps to include Golan as part of Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved2019-04-02.
  20. "Trump recognizes Golan Heights as Israeli, boosting Netanyahu and angering Syria". Reuters. March 25, 2019. RetrievedMarch 25, 2019.
  21. "U.N. chief clear that Golan status has not changed: spokesman". March 25, 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
  22. Fassihi, Farnaz (2019-03-28). "Security Council Denounces Trump's Golan Decision". WSJ. Retrieved2019-03-29.
  23. "Trump formally recognises Israeli sovereignty over Golan Heights". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved2019-04-02.

Status of the Golan Heights
Status of the Golan Heights Language Watch Edit The Golan Heights are a rocky plateau in Western Asia that was captured by Israel from Syria in the 1967 Six Day War The international community recognizes the Golan Heights to be official Syrian territory and widely rejects Israeli military occupation Following the war Syria dismissed any negotiations with Israel as part of the Khartoum Resolution 1 Historical borders and boundaries of the Golan Heights The Golan was under military administration until the Knesset passed the Golan Heights Law in 1981 which applied Israeli law to the territory a move that has been described as an annexation In response the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed UNSC Resolution 497 which condemned the Israeli actions to change the status of the territory declaring them null and void and without international legal effect and that the Golan remained an occupied territory In 2019 the United States became the only state to recognize the Golan Heights as Israeli sovereign territory while the rest of the international community continues to consider the territory Syrian held under Israeli military occupation 2 3 Contents 1 British and French Mandates 2 Post mandate period 3 Six Day War and aftermath 4 Golan Heights Law 5 International views 6 See also 7 ReferencesBritish and French MandatesFollowing World War I portions of the former territory of the Ottoman Empire was split into several League of Nations mandates under the control of one of the victorious Allied countries of the war The British Mandate for Palestine and the French Mandate for Syria were two such mandates with the border finalized between the two in the Paulet Newcombe Agreement The border drawn in 1923 was the first international border between Syria and Palestine and to date is the last 4 with the remaining boundaries since then having been a result of armistice agreements The boundary placed the entirety of the Sea of Galilee along with a ten meter wide strip on the eastern shore within the British Mandate 5 The French Mandate ended in 1946 with the independence of the Republic of Syria and Syria demanded changes to the border to allow for greater access to fresh water sources demands the British refused on the basis that the border had been submitted and approved to the League of Nations and Britain thus considered the matter closed 6 Post mandate periodThe 1948 Arab Israeli War which followed Israel s declaration of independence resulted in the newly formed state of Israel in control over roughly 77 of what had been the territory of the British Mandate 7 Syria had however advanced to the eastern shoreline of the Sea of Galilee where the border as delineated by the British and the French was ten meters east of the shoreline 8 5 In the armistice negotiations that followed the declaration of a ceasefire that ten meter strip was included in a demilitarized zone as Israel had argued for 9 Six Day War and aftermathIn the 1967 Six Day War Israel occupied the Syrian Golan Following the war the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 242 which called on Israel to withdraw from territories occupied in the war in exchange for the termination of all states of belligerency and recognition of Israel as a sovereign state by the Arab states 10 The 1973 Arab Israeli War saw further territorial gains by Israel though Israel agreed to return to the 1967 ceasefire line in the 1974 disengagement agreement between Israel and Syria 11 Syria has continued to insist on the return of the Golan in any negotiated peace agreement between the two countries 12 Golan Heights LawOn 14 December 1981 the Israeli Knesset passed the Golan Heights Law While the law did not use the term annexation it was considered to be an annexation by the Israeli opposition and international community 13 14 The action was condemned internationally and in response the United Nations Security Council passed United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 declaring the law null and void and without international legal effect and that the Fourth Geneva Convention continued to apply to the Golan as an occupied territory 15 16 17 International viewsThe international community widely considers the Golan to be Syrian territory held under Israeli occupation 18 17 19 A number of states recognize the Israeli occupation as being legitimate under the United Nations Charter on a self defense basis but do not consider those concerns to allow for the annexation of territory seized by force 17 In March 2019 the United States which previously considered the Golan Heights to be occupied became the first country to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the territory it has held since 1967 The rest of the international community continues to view the territory as Syrian held under Israeli occupation 2 3 The European Union members of the United Nations Security Council issued a joint statement condemning the US announcement and the UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres issued a statement saying that the status of the Golan Heights had not changed 20 21 22 The Arab League denounced the US move declaring that Trump s recognition does not change the area s status 23 See alsoBorders of Israel Israeli occupied territories Israel Syria relationsReferences This Week in History The Arab League Three No s Jerusalem Post Retrieved 4 December 2017 a b Aji Albert 2019 03 26 Trump acceptance of Israeli control of Golan sparks protests Associated Press Retrieved 2019 03 29 a b Trump s Golan move unites Gulf States and Iran in condemnation France 24 2019 03 26 Retrieved 2019 03 31 Kipnis Yigal 2013 The Golan Heights Political History Settlement and Geography since 1949 Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics Taylor amp Francis p 235 ISBN 978 1 136 74092 3 Retrieved 2019 03 29 a b Balanche F 2017 Atlas of the Near East State Formation and the Arab Israeli Conflict 1918 2010 Brill p 114 ISBN 978 90 04 34518 8 Retrieved 2019 03 29 Capinera John 2019 Israel And Syria Peace And Security On The Golan Taylor amp Francis p 27 ISBN 978 0 429 71086 5 Retrieved 2019 03 29 Oberschall A 2007 Conflict and Peace Building in Divided Societies Responses to Ethnic Violence Taylor amp Francis p 129 ISBN 978 1 134 12814 3 Retrieved 2019 03 29 Cordesman Anthony 2008 Israel and Syria the military balance and prospects of war Praeger Security International Published in cooperation with the Center for Strategic and International Studies p 222 ISBN 978 0 313 35520 2 OCLC 615600412 Retrieved 2019 03 29 Ben Dror Elad 2015 Ralph Bunche and the Arab Israeli Conflict Mediation and the UN 1947 1949 Israeli History Politics and Society Taylor amp Francis p 234 ISBN 978 1 317 65470 4 Retrieved 2019 03 29 Zacher Mark 2001 06 01 The Territorial Integrity Norm International Boundaries and the Use of Force International Organization Cambridge University Press CUP 55 2 231 232 doi 10 1162 00208180151140568 ISSN 1531 5088 JSTOR 3078631 S2CID 154890372 Rabinovich Itamar 2009 The Brink of Peace The Israeli Syrian Negotiations Princeton University Press p 28 ISBN 978 1 4008 2265 2 Retrieved 2019 03 29 Ehteshami Anoushiravan Hinnebusch Raymond 2002 Syria and Iran Middle Powers in a Penetrated Regional System Taylor amp Francis pp 160 161 ISBN 978 1 134 73021 6 Retrieved 2019 03 29 Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs Golan Heights Law Rabinowitz Dan 28 March 2012 17 Identity the State and Borderline Disorder In Thomas M Wilson and Hastings Donnan ed A Companion to Border Studies John Wiley amp Sons pp 307 308 ISBN 978 1 118 25525 4 Council on Foreign Relations UN Security Council Resolution 497 Benvenisti E 2012 The International Law of Occupation OUP Oxford ISBN 978 0 19 163957 9 Retrieved 2019 04 01 a b c Korman Sharon 31 October 1996 The Right of Conquest The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice Oxford University Press pp 262 264 ISBN 9780191583803 Roberts Adam January 1990 Prolonged Military Occupation The Israeli Occupied Territories Since 1967 American Journal of International Law 84 1 60 doi 10 2307 2203016 JSTOR 2203016 Pileggi Tamar Winer Stuart Newman Marissa Bachner Michael 2019 03 28 US redrawing official maps to include Golan as part of Israel The Times of Israel Retrieved 2019 04 02 Trump recognizes Golan Heights as Israeli boosting Netanyahu and angering Syria Reuters March 25 2019 Retrieved March 25 2019 U N chief clear that Golan status has not changed spokesman March 25 2019 via www reuters com Fassihi Farnaz 2019 03 28 Security Council Denounces Trump s Golan Decision WSJ Retrieved 2019 03 29 Trump formally recognises Israeli sovereignty over Golan Heights www aljazeera com Retrieved 2019 04 02 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Status of the Golan Heights amp oldid 1045705876, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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