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Steel

For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation).
"Steel worker" redirects here. For other uses, see Steel worker (disambiguation).

Steel is an alloy made up of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron. Many other elements may be present or added. Stainless steels that are corrosion- and oxidation-resistant need typically an additional 11% chromium. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, steel is used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, trains, cars, machines, electrical appliances, and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Depending on the temperature, it can take two crystalline forms (allotropic forms): body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic. The interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties.

In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and easily formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, and inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations.

The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight. Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel (either as solute elements, or as precipitated phases), slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, and thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include the hardness, quenching behaviour, need for annealing, tempering behaviour, yield strength, and tensile strength of the resulting steel. The increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility.

Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the introduction of the blast furnace and production of crucible steel. This was followed by the open-hearth furnace and then the Bessemer process in England in the mid-19th century. With the invention of the Bessemer process, a new era of mass-produced steel began. Mild steel replaced wrought iron. The German states saw major steel prowess over Europe in the 19th century.

Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common man made materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organisations.

Contents

See also: Steel grades
Incandescent steel workpiece in this depiction of the blacksmith's art

The noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan 'made of steel', which is related to stahlaz or stahliją 'standing firm'.

The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain carbon steel (iron-carbon alloys). Too little carbon content leaves (pure) iron quite soft, ductile, and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy commonly called pig iron. Alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel. Common alloying elements include: manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, and niobium. Additional elements, most frequently considered undesirable, are also important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and traces of oxygen, nitrogen, and copper.

Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make very high-carbon (and other alloy material) steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable even when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron (now largely obsolete), which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag.

Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions necessary to form different phases. Martensite is not shown, as it is not a stable phase.

Origins and production

Iron is commonly found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore, usually an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon which is then lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C (482 °F), and copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C (2,010 °F), and the combination, bronze, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C (1,981 °F). In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C (2,507 °F). Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid-state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and then welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily.

All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases rapidly beyond 800 °C (1,470 °F), it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iron oxides, results in an alloy (pig iron) that retains too much carbon to be called steel. The excess carbon and other impurities are removed in a subsequent step.

Other materials are often added to the iron/carbon mixture to produce steel with the desired properties. Nickel and manganese in steel add to its tensile strength and make the austenite form of the iron-carbon solution more stable, chromium increases hardness and melting temperature, and vanadium also increases hardness while making it less prone to metal fatigue.

To inhibit corrosion, at least 11% chromium can be added to steel so that a hard oxide forms on the metal surface; this is known as stainless steel. Tungsten slows the formation of cementite, keeping carbon in the iron matrix and allowing martensite to preferentially form at slower quench rates, resulting in high-speed steel. The addition of lead and sulfur decrease grain size, thereby making the steel easier to turn, but also more brittle and prone to corrosion. Such alloys are nevertheless frequently used for components such as nuts, bolts, and washers in applications where toughness and corrosion resistance are not paramount. For the most part, however, p-block elements such as sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, and lead are considered contaminants that make steel more brittle and are therefore removed from the steel melt during processing.

Properties

The density of steel varies based on the alloying constituents but usually ranges between 7,750 and 8,050 kg/m3 (484 and 503 lb/cu ft), or 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm3 (4.48 and 4.65 oz/cu in).

Even in a narrow range of concentrations of mixtures of carbon and iron that make steel, several different metallurgical structures, with very different properties can form. Understanding such properties is essential to making quality steel. At room temperature, the most stable form of pure iron is the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure called alpha iron or α-iron. It is a fairly soft metal that can dissolve only a small concentration of carbon, no more than 0.005% at 0 °C (32 °F) and 0.021 wt% at 723 °C (1,333 °F). The inclusion of carbon in alpha iron is called ferrite. At 910 °C, pure iron transforms into a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, called gamma iron or γ-iron. The inclusion of carbon in gamma iron is called austenite. The more open FCC structure of austenite can dissolve considerably more carbon, as much as 2.1% (38 times that of ferrite) carbon at 1,148 °C (2,098 °F), which reflects the upper carbon content of steel, beyond which is cast iron. When carbon moves out of solution with iron, it forms a very hard, but brittle material called cementite (Fe3C).

When steels with exactly 0.8% carbon (known as a eutectoid steel), are cooled, the austenitic phase (FCC) of the mixture attempts to revert to the ferrite phase (BCC). The carbon no longer fits within the FCC austenite structure, resulting in an excess of carbon. One way for carbon to leave the austenite is for it to precipitate out of solution as cementite, leaving behind a surrounding phase of BCC iron called ferrite with a small percentage of carbon in solution. The two, ferrite and cementite, precipitate simultaneously producing a layered structure called pearlite, named for its resemblance to mother of pearl. In a hypereutectoid composition (greater than 0.8% carbon), the carbon will first precipitate out as large inclusions of cementite at the austenite grain boundaries until the percentage of carbon in the grains has decreased to the eutectoid composition (0.8% carbon), at which point the pearlite structure forms. For steels that have less than 0.8% carbon (hypoeutectoid), ferrite will first form within the grains until the remaining composition rises to 0.8% of carbon, at which point the pearlite structure will form. No large inclusions of cementite will form at the boundaries in hypoeuctoid steel. The above assumes that the cooling process is very slow, allowing enough time for the carbon to migrate.

As the rate of cooling is increased the carbon will have less time to migrate to form carbide at the grain boundaries but will have increasingly large amounts of pearlite of a finer and finer structure within the grains; hence the carbide is more widely dispersed and acts to prevent slip of defects within those grains, resulting in hardening of the steel. At the very high cooling rates produced by quenching, the carbon has no time to migrate but is locked within the face-centered austenite and forms martensite. Martensite is a highly strained and stressed, supersaturated form of carbon and iron and is exceedingly hard but brittle. Depending on the carbon content, the martensitic phase takes different forms. Below 0.2% carbon, it takes on a ferrite BCC crystal form, but at higher carbon content it takes a body-centered tetragonal (BCT) structure. There is no thermal activation energy for the transformation from austenite to martensite.[clarification needed] Moreover, there is no compositional change so the atoms generally retain their same neighbors.

Martensite has a lower density (it expands during the cooling) than does austenite, so that the transformation between them results in a change of volume. In this case, expansion occurs. Internal stresses from this expansion generally take the form of compression on the crystals of martensite and tension on the remaining ferrite, with a fair amount of shear on both constituents. If quenching is done improperly, the internal stresses can cause a part to shatter as it cools. At the very least, they cause internal work hardening and other microscopic imperfections. It is common for quench cracks to form when steel is water quenched, although they may not always be visible.

Heat treatment

Fe-C phase diagram for carbon steels; showing the A0, A1, A2 and A3 critical temperatures for heat treatments.
Main article: Heat treating

There are many types of heat treating processes available to steel. The most common are annealing, quenching, and tempering. Heat treatment is effective on compositions above the eutectoid composition (hypereutectoid) of 0.8% carbon. Hypoeutectoid steel does not benefit from heat treatment.

Annealing is the process of heating the steel to a sufficiently high temperature to relieve local internal stresses. It does not create a general softening of the product but only locally relieves strains and stresses locked up within the material. Annealing goes through three phases: recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. The temperature required to anneal a particular steel depends on the type of annealing to be achieved and the alloying constituents.

Quenching involves heating the steel to create the austenite phase then quenching it in water or oil. This rapid cooling results in a hard but brittle martensitic structure. The steel is then tempered, which is just a specialized type of annealing, to reduce brittleness. In this application the annealing (tempering) process transforms some of the martensite into cementite, or spheroidite and hence it reduces the internal stresses and defects. The result is a more ductile and fracture-resistant steel.

Main article: Steelmaking
Iron ore pellets for the production of steel

When iron is smelted from its ore, it contains more carbon than is desirable. To become steel, it must be reprocessed to reduce the carbon to the correct amount, at which point other elements can be added. In the past, steel facilities would cast the raw steel product into ingots which would be stored until use in further refinement processes that resulted in the finished product. In modern facilities, the initial product is close to the final composition and is continuously cast into long slabs, cut and shaped into bars and extrusions and heat-treated to produce a final product. Today, approximately 96% of steel is continuously cast, while only 4% is produced as ingots.

The ingots are then heated in a soaking pit and hot rolled into slabs, billets, or blooms. Slabs are hot or cold rolled into sheet metal or plates. Billets are hot or cold rolled into bars, rods, and wire. Blooms are hot or cold rolled into structural steel, such as I-beams and rails. In modern steel mills these processes often occur in one assembly line, with ore coming in and finished steel products coming out. Sometimes after a steel's final rolling, it is heat treated for strength; however, this is relatively rare.

Bloomery smelting during the Middle Ages

Ancient steel

Steel was known in antiquity and was produced in bloomeries and crucibles.

The earliest known production of steel is seen in pieces of ironware excavated from an archaeological site in Anatolia (Kaman-Kalehöyük) and are nearly 4,000 years old, dating from 1800 BC. Horace identifies steel weapons such as the falcata in the Iberian Peninsula, while Noric steel was used by the Roman military.

The reputation of Seric iron of South India (wootz steel) grew considerably in the rest of the world. Metal production sites in Sri Lanka employed wind furnaces driven by the monsoon winds, capable of producing high-carbon steel. Large-scale Wootz steel production in India using crucibles occurred by the sixth century BC, the pioneering precursor to modern steel production and metallurgy.

The Chinese of the Warring States period (403–221 BC) had quench-hardened steel, while Chinese of the Han dynasty (202 BC – AD 220) created steel by melting together wrought iron with cast iron, thus producing a carbon-intermediate steel by the 1st century AD.

There is evidence that carbon steel was made in Western Tanzania by the ancestors of the Haya people as early as 2,000 years ago by a complex process of "pre-heating" allowing temperatures inside a furnace to reach 1300 to 1400 °C.

Wootz steel and Damascus steel

Main articles: Wootz steel and Damascus steel

Evidence of the earliest production of high carbon steel in India are found in Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu, the Golconda area in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, and in the Samanalawewa areas of Sri Lanka. This came to be known as Wootz steel, produced in South India by about the sixth century BC and exported globally. The steel technology existed prior to 326 BC in the region as they are mentioned in literature of Sangam Tamil, Arabic, and Latin as the finest steel in the world exported to the Romans, Egyptian, Chinese and Arab worlds at that time – what they called Seric Iron. A 200 BC Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama, in the South East of Sri Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts and production processes to the island from the classical period. The Chinese and locals in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka had also adopted the production methods of creating Wootz steel from the Chera Dynasty Tamils of South India by the 5th century AD. In Sri Lanka, this early steel-making method employed a unique wind furnace, driven by the monsoon winds, capable of producing high-carbon steel. Since the technology was acquired from the Tamilians from South India,[citation needed] the origin of steel technology in India can be conservatively estimated at 400–500 BC.

The manufacture of what came to be called Wootz, or Damascus steel, famous for its durability and ability to hold an edge, may have been taken by the Arabs from Persia, who took it from India. It was originally created from several different materials including various trace elements, apparently ultimately from the writings of Zosimos of Panopolis. In 327 BC, Alexander the Great was rewarded by the defeated King Porus, not with gold or silver but with 30 pounds of steel. Recent studies have suggested that carbon nanotubes were included in its structure, which might explain some of its legendary qualities, though, given the technology of that time, such qualities were produced by chance rather than by design. Natural wind was used where the soil containing iron was heated by the use of wood. The ancient Sinhalese managed to extract a ton of steel for every 2 tons of soil, a remarkable feat at the time. One such furnace was found in Samanalawewa and archaeologists were able to produce steel as the ancients did.

Crucible steel, formed by slowly heating and cooling pure iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible, was produced in Merv by the 9th to 10th century AD. In the 11th century, there is evidence of the production of steel in Song China using two techniques: a "berganesque" method that produced inferior, inhomogeneous steel, and a precursor to the modern Bessemer process that used partial decarbonization via repeated forging under a cold blast.

Modern steelmaking

A Bessemer converter in Sheffield, England

Since the 17th century, the first step in European steel production has been the smelting of iron ore into pig iron in a blast furnace. Originally employing charcoal, modern methods use coke, which has proven more economical.

Processes starting from bar iron

Main articles: Blister steel and Crucible steel

In these processes pig iron was refined (fined) in a finery forge to produce bar iron, which was then used in steel-making.

The production of steel by the cementation process was described in a treatise published in Prague in 1574 and was in use in Nuremberg from 1601. A similar process for case hardening armor and files was described in a book published in Naples in 1589. The process was introduced to England in about 1614 and used to produce such steel by Sir Basil Brooke at Coalbrookdale during the 1610s.

The raw material for this process were bars of iron. During the 17th century, it was realized that the best steel came from oregrounds iron of a region north of Stockholm, Sweden. This was still the usual raw material source in the 19th century, almost as long as the process was used.

Crucible steel is steel that has been melted in a crucible rather than having been forged, with the result that it is more homogeneous. Most previous furnaces could not reach high enough temperatures to melt the steel. The early modern crucible steel industry resulted from the invention of Benjamin Huntsman in the 1740s. Blister steel (made as above) was melted in a crucible or in a furnace, and cast (usually) into ingots.

Processes starting from pig iron

A Siemens-Martin open hearth furnace in the Brandenburg Museum of Industry.

The modern era in steelmaking began with the introduction of Henry Bessemer's process in 1855, the raw material for which was pig iron. His method let him produce steel in large quantities cheaply, thus mild steel came to be used for most purposes for which wrought iron was formerly used. The Gilchrist-Thomas process (or basic Bessemer process) was an improvement to the Bessemer process, made by lining the converter with a basic material to remove phosphorus.

Another 19th-century steelmaking process was the Siemens-Martin process, which complemented the Bessemer process. It consisted of co-melting bar iron (or steel scrap) with pig iron.

White-hot steel pouring out of an electric arc furnace.

These methods of steel production were rendered obsolete by the Linz-Donawitz process of basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), developed in 1952, and other oxygen steel making methods. Basic oxygen steelmaking is superior to previous steelmaking methods because the oxygen pumped into the furnace limited impurities, primarily nitrogen, that previously had entered from the air used, and because, with respect to the open-hearth process, the same quantity of steel from a BOS process is manufactured in one-twelfth the time. Today, electric arc furnaces (EAF) are a common method of reprocessing scrap metal to create new steel. They can also be used for converting pig iron to steel, but they use a lot of electrical energy (about 440 kWh per metric ton), and are thus generally only economical when there is a plentiful supply of cheap electricity.

Steel production (in million tons) by country in 2007

The steel industry is often considered an indicator of economic progress, because of the critical role played by steel in infrastructural and overall economic development. In 1980, there were more than 500,000 U.S. steelworkers. By 2000, the number of steelworkers had fallen to 224,000.

The economic boom in China and India caused a massive increase in the demand for steel. Between 2000 and 2005, world steel demand increased by 6%. Since 2000, several Indian and Chinese steel firms have risen to prominence,[according to whom?] such as Tata Steel (which bought Corus Group in 2007), Baosteel Group and Shagang Group. As of 2017[update], though, ArcelorMittal is the world's largest steel producer. In 2005, the British Geological Survey stated China was the top steel producer with about one-third of the world share; Japan, Russia, and the US followed respectively. The large production capacity of steel results also in a significant amount of carbon dioxide emissions inherent related to the main production route. In 2019, it was estimated that 7 to 9 % of the global carbon dioxide emissions resulted from the steel industry. Reduction of these emissions are expected to come from a shift in the main production route using cokes, more recycling of steel and the application of carbon capture and storage or carbon capture and utilization technology.

In 2008, steel began trading as a commodity on the London Metal Exchange. At the end of 2008, the steel industry faced a sharp downturn that led to many cut-backs.

Steel is one of the world's most-recycled materials, with a recycling rate of over 60% globally; in the United States alone, over 82,000,000 metric tons (81,000,000 long tons; 90,000,000 short tons) were recycled in the year 2008, for an overall recycling rate of 83%.

As more steel is produced than is scrapped, the amount of recycled raw materials is about 40% of the total of steel produced - in 2016, 1,628,000,000 tonnes (1.602×109 long tons; 1.795×109 short tons) of crude steel was produced globally, with 630,000,000 tonnes (620,000,000 long tons; 690,000,000 short tons) recycled.

Bethlehem Steel (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania facility pictured) was one of the world's largest manufacturers of steel before its closure in 2003
See also: Steel grades

Carbon steels

Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many purposes. Carbon steel, composed simply of iron and carbon, accounts for 90% of steel production. Low alloy steel is alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum, manganese, chromium, or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the hardenability of thick sections. High strength low alloy steel has small additions (usually < 2% by weight) of other elements, typically 1.5% manganese, to provide additional strength for a modest price increase.

Recent Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations have given rise to a new variety of steel known as Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS). This material is both strong and ductile so that vehicle structures can maintain their current safety levels while using less material. There are several commercially available grades of AHSS, such as dual-phase steel, which is heat-treated to contain both a ferritic and martensitic microstructure to produce formable, high strength steel. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of austenite at room temperature in normally austenite-free low-alloy ferritic steels. By applying strain, the austenite undergoes a phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat. Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel uses a specific type of strain to increase the effectiveness of work hardening on the alloy.

Carbon Steels are often galvanized, through hot-dip or electroplating in zinc for protection against rust.

Alloy steels

Forging a structural member out of steel

Stainless steels contain a minimum of 11% chromium, often combined with nickel, to resist corrosion. Some stainless steels, such as the ferritic stainless steels are magnetic, while others, such as the austenitic, are nonmagnetic. Corrosion-resistant steels are abbreviated as CRES.

Alloy steels are plain-carbon steels in which small amounts of alloying elements like chromium and vanadium have been added. Some more modern steels include tool steels, which are alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening. This also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy's temperature resistance. Tool steel is generally used in axes, drills, and other devices that need a sharp, long-lasting cutting edge. Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used un-painted. Maraging steel is alloyed with nickel and other elements, but unlike most steel contains little carbon (0.01%). This creates a very strong but still malleable steel.

Eglin steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying amounts to create a relatively low-cost steel for use in bunker buster weapons. Hadfield steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or manganese steel contains 12–14% manganese which when abraded strain-hardens to form a very hard skin which resists wearing. Examples include tank tracks, bulldozer blade edges, and cutting blades on the jaws of life.

Standards

Most of the more commonly used steel alloys are categorized into various grades by standards organizations. For example, the Society of Automotive Engineers has a series of grades defining many types of steel. The American Society for Testing and Materials has a separate set of standards, which define alloys such as A36 steel, the most commonly used structural steel in the United States. The JIS also defines a series of steel grades that are being used extensively in Japan as well as in developing countries.

A roll of steel wool

Iron and steel are used widely in the construction of roads, railways, other infrastructure, appliances, and buildings. Most large modern structures, such as stadiums and skyscrapers, bridges, and airports, are supported by a steel skeleton. Even those with a concrete structure employ steel for reinforcing. In addition, it sees widespread use in major appliances and cars. Despite the growth in usage of aluminium, it is still the main material for car bodies. Steel is used in a variety of other construction materials, such as bolts, nails and screws and other household products and cooking utensils.

Other common applications include shipbuilding, pipelines, mining, offshore construction, aerospace, white goods (e.g. washing machines), heavy equipment such as bulldozers, office furniture, steel wool, tool, and armour in the form of personal vests or vehicle armour (better known as rolled homogeneous armour in this role).

Historical

A carbon steel knife

Before the introduction of the Bessemer process and other modern production techniques, steel was expensive and was only used where no cheaper alternative existed, particularly for the cutting edge of knives, razors, swords, and other items where a hard, sharp edge was needed. It was also used for springs, including those used in clocks and watches.

With the advent of speedier and thriftier production methods, steel has become easier to obtain and much cheaper. It has replaced wrought iron for a multitude of purposes. However, the availability of plastics in the latter part of the 20th century allowed these materials to replace steel in some applications due to their lower fabrication cost and weight. Carbon fiber is replacing steel in some cost insensitive applications such as sports equipment and high-end automobiles.

Long steel

A steel bridge
A steel pylon suspending overhead power lines

Flat carbon steel

Weathering steel (COR-TEN)

Main article: Weathering steel

Stainless steel

A stainless steel gravy boat
Main article: Stainless steel

Low-background steel

Main article: Low-background steel

Steel manufactured after World War II became contaminated with radionuclides by nuclear weapons testing. Low-background steel, steel manufactured prior to 1945, is used for certain radiation-sensitive applications such as Geiger counters and radiation shielding.

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Steel
Steel Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Steel industry For other uses see Steel disambiguation Steel worker redirects here For other uses see Steel worker disambiguation Steel is an alloy made up of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron Many other elements may be present or added Stainless steels that are corrosion and oxidation resistant need typically an additional 11 chromium Because of its high tensile strength and low cost steel is used in buildings infrastructure tools ships trains cars machines electrical appliances and weapons Iron is the base metal of steel Depending on the temperature it can take two crystalline forms allotropic forms body centred cubic and face centred cubic The interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements primarily carbon gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties The steel cable of a colliery winding tower In pure iron the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another and so pure iron is quite ductile or soft and easily formed In steel small amounts of carbon other elements and inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2 14 of its weight 1 Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel either as solute elements or as precipitated phases slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile and thus controls and enhances its qualities These qualities include the hardness quenching behaviour need for annealing tempering behaviour yield strength and tensile strength of the resulting steel The increase in steel s strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron s ductility Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years but its large scale industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century with the introduction of the blast furnace and production of crucible steel This was followed by the open hearth furnace and then the Bessemer process in England in the mid 19th century With the invention of the Bessemer process a new era of mass produced steel began Mild steel replaced wrought iron The German states saw major steel prowess over Europe in the 19th century 2 Further refinements in the process such as basic oxygen steelmaking BOS largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product Today steel is one of the most common man made materials in the world with more than 1 6 billion tons produced annually Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organisations Contents 1 Definitions and related materials 2 Material properties 2 1 Origins and production 2 2 Properties 2 3 Heat treatment 3 Steel production 4 History of steelmaking 4 1 Ancient steel 4 2 Wootz steel and Damascus steel 4 3 Modern steelmaking 4 3 1 Processes starting from bar iron 4 3 2 Processes starting from pig iron 5 Steel industry 6 Recycling 7 Contemporary steel 7 1 Carbon steels 7 2 Alloy steels 7 3 Standards 8 Uses 8 1 Historical 8 2 Long steel 8 3 Flat carbon steel 8 4 Weathering steel COR TEN 8 5 Stainless steel 8 6 Low background steel 9 See also 10 References 10 1 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External linksDefinitions and related materials EditSee also Steel grades Incandescent steel workpiece in this depiction of the blacksmith s art The noun steel originates from the Proto Germanic adjective stahlija or stakhlijan made of steel which is related to stahlaz or stahlija standing firm 3 The carbon content of steel is between 0 002 and 2 14 by weight for plain carbon steel iron carbon alloys Too little carbon content leaves pure iron quite soft ductile and weak Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy commonly called pig iron Alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel Common alloying elements include manganese nickel chromium molybdenum boron titanium vanadium tungsten cobalt and niobium 4 Additional elements most frequently considered undesirable are also important in steel phosphorus sulfur silicon and traces of oxygen nitrogen and copper Plain carbon iron alloys with a higher than 2 1 carbon content are known as cast iron With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming it is possible to make very high carbon and other alloy material steels but such are not common Cast iron is not malleable even when hot but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties 4 Certain compositions of cast iron while retaining the economies of melting and casting can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron now largely obsolete which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag Material properties Edit Iron carbon phase diagram showing the conditions necessary to form different phases Martensite is not shown as it is not a stable phase Origins and production Edit Iron is commonly found in the Earth s crust in the form of an ore usually an iron oxide such as magnetite or hematite Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon which is then lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide This process known as smelting was first applied to metals with lower melting points such as tin which melts at about 250 C 482 F and copper which melts at about 1 100 C 2 010 F and the combination bronze which has a melting point lower than 1 083 C 1 981 F In comparison cast iron melts at about 1 375 C 2 507 F 5 Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times in the solid state by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and then welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities With care the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire Unlike copper and tin liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age Since the oxidation rate of iron increases rapidly beyond 800 C 1 470 F it is important that smelting take place in a low oxygen environment Smelting using carbon to reduce iron oxides results in an alloy pig iron that retains too much carbon to be called steel 5 The excess carbon and other impurities are removed in a subsequent step Other materials are often added to the iron carbon mixture to produce steel with the desired properties Nickel and manganese in steel add to its tensile strength and make the austenite form of the iron carbon solution more stable chromium increases hardness and melting temperature and vanadium also increases hardness while making it less prone to metal fatigue 6 To inhibit corrosion at least 11 chromium can be added to steel so that a hard oxide forms on the metal surface this is known as stainless steel Tungsten slows the formation of cementite keeping carbon in the iron matrix and allowing martensite to preferentially form at slower quench rates resulting in high speed steel The addition of lead and sulfur decrease grain size thereby making the steel easier to turn but also more brittle and prone to corrosion Such alloys are nevertheless frequently used for components such as nuts bolts and washers in applications where toughness and corrosion resistance are not paramount For the most part however p block elements such as sulfur nitrogen phosphorus and lead are considered contaminants that make steel more brittle and are therefore removed from the steel melt during processing 6 Properties Edit The density of steel varies based on the alloying constituents but usually ranges between 7 750 and 8 050 kg m3 484 and 503 lb cu ft or 7 75 and 8 05 g cm3 4 48 and 4 65 oz cu in 7 Even in a narrow range of concentrations of mixtures of carbon and iron that make steel several different metallurgical structures with very different properties can form Understanding such properties is essential to making quality steel At room temperature the most stable form of pure iron is the body centered cubic BCC structure called alpha iron or a iron It is a fairly soft metal that can dissolve only a small concentration of carbon no more than 0 005 at 0 C 32 F and 0 021 wt at 723 C 1 333 F The inclusion of carbon in alpha iron is called ferrite At 910 C pure iron transforms into a face centered cubic FCC structure called gamma iron or g iron The inclusion of carbon in gamma iron is called austenite The more open FCC structure of austenite can dissolve considerably more carbon as much as 2 1 8 38 times that of ferrite carbon at 1 148 C 2 098 F which reflects the upper carbon content of steel beyond which is cast iron 9 When carbon moves out of solution with iron it forms a very hard but brittle material called cementite Fe3C When steels with exactly 0 8 carbon known as a eutectoid steel are cooled the austenitic phase FCC of the mixture attempts to revert to the ferrite phase BCC The carbon no longer fits within the FCC austenite structure resulting in an excess of carbon One way for carbon to leave the austenite is for it to precipitate out of solution as cementite leaving behind a surrounding phase of BCC iron called ferrite with a small percentage of carbon in solution The two ferrite and cementite precipitate simultaneously producing a layered structure called pearlite named for its resemblance to mother of pearl In a hypereutectoid composition greater than 0 8 carbon the carbon will first precipitate out as large inclusions of cementite at the austenite grain boundaries until the percentage of carbon in the grains has decreased to the eutectoid composition 0 8 carbon at which point the pearlite structure forms For steels that have less than 0 8 carbon hypoeutectoid ferrite will first form within the grains until the remaining composition rises to 0 8 of carbon at which point the pearlite structure will form No large inclusions of cementite will form at the boundaries in hypoeuctoid steel 10 The above assumes that the cooling process is very slow allowing enough time for the carbon to migrate As the rate of cooling is increased the carbon will have less time to migrate to form carbide at the grain boundaries but will have increasingly large amounts of pearlite of a finer and finer structure within the grains hence the carbide is more widely dispersed and acts to prevent slip of defects within those grains resulting in hardening of the steel At the very high cooling rates produced by quenching the carbon has no time to migrate but is locked within the face centered austenite and forms martensite Martensite is a highly strained and stressed supersaturated form of carbon and iron and is exceedingly hard but brittle Depending on the carbon content the martensitic phase takes different forms Below 0 2 carbon it takes on a ferrite BCC crystal form but at higher carbon content it takes a body centered tetragonal BCT structure There is no thermal activation energy for the transformation from austenite to martensite clarification needed Moreover there is no compositional change so the atoms generally retain their same neighbors 11 Martensite has a lower density it expands during the cooling than does austenite so that the transformation between them results in a change of volume In this case expansion occurs Internal stresses from this expansion generally take the form of compression on the crystals of martensite and tension on the remaining ferrite with a fair amount of shear on both constituents If quenching is done improperly the internal stresses can cause a part to shatter as it cools At the very least they cause internal work hardening and other microscopic imperfections It is common for quench cracks to form when steel is water quenched although they may not always be visible 12 Heat treatment Edit Fe C phase diagram for carbon steels showing the A0 A1 A2 and A3 critical temperatures for heat treatments Main article Heat treating There are many types of heat treating processes available to steel The most common are annealing quenching and tempering Heat treatment is effective on compositions above the eutectoid composition hypereutectoid of 0 8 carbon Hypoeutectoid steel does not benefit from heat treatment Annealing is the process of heating the steel to a sufficiently high temperature to relieve local internal stresses It does not create a general softening of the product but only locally relieves strains and stresses locked up within the material Annealing goes through three phases recovery recrystallization and grain growth The temperature required to anneal a particular steel depends on the type of annealing to be achieved and the alloying constituents 13 Quenching involves heating the steel to create the austenite phase then quenching it in water or oil This rapid cooling results in a hard but brittle martensitic structure 11 The steel is then tempered which is just a specialized type of annealing to reduce brittleness In this application the annealing tempering process transforms some of the martensite into cementite or spheroidite and hence it reduces the internal stresses and defects The result is a more ductile and fracture resistant steel 14 Steel production EditMain article Steelmaking See also List of countries by steel production Iron ore pellets for the production of steel When iron is smelted from its ore it contains more carbon than is desirable To become steel it must be reprocessed to reduce the carbon to the correct amount at which point other elements can be added In the past steel facilities would cast the raw steel product into ingots which would be stored until use in further refinement processes that resulted in the finished product In modern facilities the initial product is close to the final composition and is continuously cast into long slabs cut and shaped into bars and extrusions and heat treated to produce a final product Today approximately 96 of steel is continuously cast while only 4 is produced as ingots 15 The ingots are then heated in a soaking pit and hot rolled into slabs billets or blooms Slabs are hot or cold rolled into sheet metal or plates Billets are hot or cold rolled into bars rods and wire Blooms are hot or cold rolled into structural steel such as I beams and rails In modern steel mills these processes often occur in one assembly line with ore coming in and finished steel products coming out 16 Sometimes after a steel s final rolling it is heat treated for strength however this is relatively rare 17 History of steelmaking EditMain articles History of ferrous metallurgy and History of the steel industry 1850 1970 Bloomery smelting during the Middle Ages Ancient steel Edit Steel was known in antiquity and was produced in bloomeries and crucibles 18 19 The earliest known production of steel is seen in pieces of ironware excavated from an archaeological site in Anatolia Kaman Kalehoyuk and are nearly 4 000 years old dating from 1800 BC 20 21 Horace identifies steel weapons such as the falcata in the Iberian Peninsula while Noric steel was used by the Roman military 22 The reputation of Seric iron of South India wootz steel grew considerably in the rest of the world 19 Metal production sites in Sri Lanka employed wind furnaces driven by the monsoon winds capable of producing high carbon steel Large scale Wootz steel production in India using crucibles occurred by the sixth century BC the pioneering precursor to modern steel production and metallurgy 18 19 The Chinese of the Warring States period 403 221 BC had quench hardened steel 23 while Chinese of the Han dynasty 202 BC AD 220 created steel by melting together wrought iron with cast iron thus producing a carbon intermediate steel by the 1st century AD 24 25 There is evidence that carbon steel was made in Western Tanzania by the ancestors of the Haya people as early as 2 000 years ago by a complex process of pre heating allowing temperatures inside a furnace to reach 1300 to 1400 C 26 27 28 29 30 31 Wootz steel and Damascus steel Edit Main articles Wootz steel and Damascus steel Evidence of the earliest production of high carbon steel in India are found in Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu the Golconda area in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and in the Samanalawewa areas of Sri Lanka 32 This came to be known as Wootz steel produced in South India by about the sixth century BC and exported globally 33 34 The steel technology existed prior to 326 BC in the region as they are mentioned in literature of Sangam Tamil Arabic and Latin as the finest steel in the world exported to the Romans Egyptian Chinese and Arab worlds at that time what they called Seric Iron 35 A 200 BC Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama in the South East of Sri Lanka brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts and production processes to the island from the classical period 36 37 38 The Chinese and locals in Anuradhapura Sri Lanka had also adopted the production methods of creating Wootz steel from the Chera Dynasty Tamils of South India by the 5th century AD 39 40 In Sri Lanka this early steel making method employed a unique wind furnace driven by the monsoon winds capable of producing high carbon steel 41 42 Since the technology was acquired from the Tamilians from South India citation needed the origin of steel technology in India can be conservatively estimated at 400 500 BC 33 42 The manufacture of what came to be called Wootz or Damascus steel famous for its durability and ability to hold an edge may have been taken by the Arabs from Persia who took it from India It was originally created from several different materials including various trace elements apparently ultimately from the writings of Zosimos of Panopolis In 327 BC Alexander the Great was rewarded by the defeated King Porus not with gold or silver but with 30 pounds of steel 43 Recent studies have suggested that carbon nanotubes were included in its structure which might explain some of its legendary qualities though given the technology of that time such qualities were produced by chance rather than by design 44 Natural wind was used where the soil containing iron was heated by the use of wood The ancient Sinhalese managed to extract a ton of steel for every 2 tons of soil 41 a remarkable feat at the time One such furnace was found in Samanalawewa and archaeologists were able to produce steel as the ancients did 41 45 Crucible steel formed by slowly heating and cooling pure iron and carbon typically in the form of charcoal in a crucible was produced in Merv by the 9th to 10th century AD 34 In the 11th century there is evidence of the production of steel in Song China using two techniques a berganesque method that produced inferior inhomogeneous steel and a precursor to the modern Bessemer process that used partial decarbonization via repeated forging under a cold blast 46 Modern steelmaking Edit A Bessemer converter in Sheffield England Since the 17th century the first step in European steel production has been the smelting of iron ore into pig iron in a blast furnace 47 Originally employing charcoal modern methods use coke which has proven more economical 48 49 50 Processes starting from bar iron Edit Main articles Blister steel and Crucible steel In these processes pig iron was refined fined in a finery forge to produce bar iron which was then used in steel making 47 The production of steel by the cementation process was described in a treatise published in Prague in 1574 and was in use in Nuremberg from 1601 A similar process for case hardening armor and files was described in a book published in Naples in 1589 The process was introduced to England in about 1614 and used to produce such steel by Sir Basil Brooke at Coalbrookdale during the 1610s 51 The raw material for this process were bars of iron During the 17th century it was realized that the best steel came from oregrounds iron of a region north of Stockholm Sweden This was still the usual raw material source in the 19th century almost as long as the process was used 52 53 Crucible steel is steel that has been melted in a crucible rather than having been forged with the result that it is more homogeneous Most previous furnaces could not reach high enough temperatures to melt the steel The early modern crucible steel industry resulted from the invention of Benjamin Huntsman in the 1740s Blister steel made as above was melted in a crucible or in a furnace and cast usually into ingots 53 54 Processes starting from pig iron Edit A Siemens Martin open hearth furnace in the Brandenburg Museum of Industry The modern era in steelmaking began with the introduction of Henry Bessemer s process in 1855 the raw material for which was pig iron 55 His method let him produce steel in large quantities cheaply thus mild steel came to be used for most purposes for which wrought iron was formerly used 56 The Gilchrist Thomas process or basic Bessemer process was an improvement to the Bessemer process made by lining the converter with a basic material to remove phosphorus Another 19th century steelmaking process was the Siemens Martin process which complemented the Bessemer process 53 It consisted of co melting bar iron or steel scrap with pig iron White hot steel pouring out of an electric arc furnace These methods of steel production were rendered obsolete by the Linz Donawitz process of basic oxygen steelmaking BOS developed in 1952 57 and other oxygen steel making methods Basic oxygen steelmaking is superior to previous steelmaking methods because the oxygen pumped into the furnace limited impurities primarily nitrogen that previously had entered from the air used 58 and because with respect to the open hearth process the same quantity of steel from a BOS process is manufactured in one twelfth the time 57 Today electric arc furnaces EAF are a common method of reprocessing scrap metal to create new steel They can also be used for converting pig iron to steel but they use a lot of electrical energy about 440 kWh per metric ton and are thus generally only economical when there is a plentiful supply of cheap electricity 59 Steel industry EditSee also History of the steel industry 1850 1970 History of the steel industry 1970 present Global steel industry trends Steel production by country and List of steel producers Steel production in million tons by country in 2007 The steel industry is often considered an indicator of economic progress because of the critical role played by steel in infrastructural and overall economic development 60 In 1980 there were more than 500 000 U S steelworkers By 2000 the number of steelworkers had fallen to 224 000 61 The economic boom in China and India caused a massive increase in the demand for steel Between 2000 and 2005 world steel demand increased by 6 Since 2000 several Indian 62 and Chinese steel firms have risen to prominence according to whom such as Tata Steel which bought Corus Group in 2007 Baosteel Group and Shagang Group As of 2017 update though ArcelorMittal is the world s largest steel producer 63 In 2005 the British Geological Survey stated China was the top steel producer with about one third of the world share Japan Russia and the US followed respectively 64 The large production capacity of steel results also in a significant amount of carbon dioxide emissions inherent related to the main production route In 2019 it was estimated that 7 to 9 of the global carbon dioxide emissions resulted from the steel industry 65 Reduction of these emissions are expected to come from a shift in the main production route using cokes more recycling of steel and the application of carbon capture and storage or carbon capture and utilization technology In 2008 steel began trading as a commodity on the London Metal Exchange At the end of 2008 the steel industry faced a sharp downturn that led to many cut backs 66 Recycling EditMain article Ferrous metal recycling Steel is one of the world s most recycled materials with a recycling rate of over 60 globally 67 in the United States alone over 82 000 000 metric tons 81 000 000 long tons 90 000 000 short tons were recycled in the year 2008 for an overall recycling rate of 83 68 As more steel is produced than is scrapped the amount of recycled raw materials is about 40 of the total of steel produced in 2016 1 628 000 000 tonnes 1 602 109 long tons 1 795 109 short tons of crude steel was produced globally with 630 000 000 tonnes 620 000 000 long tons 690 000 000 short tons recycled 69 Contemporary steel Edit Bethlehem Steel Bethlehem Pennsylvania facility pictured was one of the world s largest manufacturers of steel before its closure in 2003 See also Steel grades Carbon steels Edit Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many purposes 6 Carbon steel composed simply of iron and carbon accounts for 90 of steel production 4 Low alloy steel is alloyed with other elements usually molybdenum manganese chromium or nickel in amounts of up to 10 by weight to improve the hardenability of thick sections 4 High strength low alloy steel has small additions usually lt 2 by weight of other elements typically 1 5 manganese to provide additional strength for a modest price increase 70 Recent Corporate Average Fuel Economy CAFE regulations have given rise to a new variety of steel known as Advanced High Strength Steel AHSS This material is both strong and ductile so that vehicle structures can maintain their current safety levels while using less material There are several commercially available grades of AHSS such as dual phase steel which is heat treated to contain both a ferritic and martensitic microstructure to produce formable high strength steel 71 Transformation Induced Plasticity TRIP steel involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of austenite at room temperature in normally austenite free low alloy ferritic steels By applying strain the austenite undergoes a phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat 72 Twinning Induced Plasticity TWIP steel uses a specific type of strain to increase the effectiveness of work hardening on the alloy 73 Carbon Steels are often galvanized through hot dip or electroplating in zinc for protection against rust 74 Alloy steels Edit Forging a structural member out of steel Stainless steels contain a minimum of 11 chromium often combined with nickel to resist corrosion Some stainless steels such as the ferritic stainless steels are magnetic while others such as the austenitic are nonmagnetic 75 Corrosion resistant steels are abbreviated as CRES Alloy steels are plain carbon steels in which small amounts of alloying elements like chromium and vanadium have been added Some more modern steels include tool steels which are alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening This also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy s temperature resistance 4 Tool steel is generally used in axes drills and other devices that need a sharp long lasting cutting edge Other special purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Cor ten which weather by acquiring a stable rusted surface and so can be used un painted 76 Maraging steel is alloyed with nickel and other elements but unlike most steel contains little carbon 0 01 This creates a very strong but still malleable steel 77 Eglin steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying amounts to create a relatively low cost steel for use in bunker buster weapons Hadfield steel after Sir Robert Hadfield or manganese steel contains 12 14 manganese which when abraded strain hardens to form a very hard skin which resists wearing Examples include tank tracks bulldozer blade edges and cutting blades on the jaws of life 78 Standards Edit Most of the more commonly used steel alloys are categorized into various grades by standards organizations For example the Society of Automotive Engineers has a series of grades defining many types of steel 79 The American Society for Testing and Materials has a separate set of standards which define alloys such as A36 steel the most commonly used structural steel in the United States 80 The JIS also defines a series of steel grades that are being used extensively in Japan as well as in developing countries Uses Edit A roll of steel wool Iron and steel are used widely in the construction of roads railways other infrastructure appliances and buildings Most large modern structures such as stadiums and skyscrapers bridges and airports are supported by a steel skeleton Even those with a concrete structure employ steel for reinforcing In addition it sees widespread use in major appliances and cars Despite the growth in usage of aluminium it is still the main material for car bodies Steel is used in a variety of other construction materials such as bolts nails and screws and other household products and cooking utensils 81 Other common applications include shipbuilding pipelines mining offshore construction aerospace white goods e g washing machines heavy equipment such as bulldozers office furniture steel wool tool and armour in the form of personal vests or vehicle armour better known as rolled homogeneous armour in this role Historical Edit A carbon steel knife Before the introduction of the Bessemer process and other modern production techniques steel was expensive and was only used where no cheaper alternative existed particularly for the cutting edge of knives razors swords and other items where a hard sharp edge was needed It was also used for springs including those used in clocks and watches 53 With the advent of speedier and thriftier production methods steel has become easier to obtain and much cheaper It has replaced wrought iron for a multitude of purposes However the availability of plastics in the latter part of the 20th century allowed these materials to replace steel in some applications due to their lower fabrication cost and weight 82 Carbon fiber is replacing steel in some cost insensitive applications such as sports equipment and high end automobiles Long steel Edit A steel bridge A steel pylon suspending overhead power lines As reinforcing bars and mesh in reinforced concrete Railroad tracks Structural steel in modern buildings and bridges Wires Input to reforging applicationsFlat carbon steel Edit Major appliances Magnetic cores The inside and outside body of automobiles trains and ships Weathering steel COR TEN Edit Main article Weathering steel Intermodal containers Outdoor sculptures Architecture Highliner train carsStainless steel Edit A stainless steel gravy boat Main article Stainless steel Cutlery Rulers Surgical instruments Watches Guns Rail passenger vehicles Tablets Trash Cans Body piercing jewellery Inexpensive rings Components of spacecraft and space stations Low background steel Edit Main article Low background steel Steel manufactured after World War II became contaminated with radionuclides by nuclear weapons testing Low background steel steel manufactured prior to 1945 is used for certain radiation sensitive applications such as Geiger counters and radiation shielding See also Edit Chemistry portal Bulat steel Carbon steel Damascus steel Galvanising Global steel industry trends Iron in folklore Knife metal Machinability Noric steel Pelletizing Rolling Rolling mill Rust Belt Second Industrial Revolution Silicon steel Steel abrasive Steel mill Tamahagane used in Japanese swords Tinplate Toledo steel Wootz steelReferences Edit The maximum solubility of carbon in iron in austenite region is 2 14 by weight occurring at 1149 C higher concentrations of carbon or lower temperatures will produce cementite https www chemeurope com en encyclopedia Steel html R Allen 1979 International Competition in Iron and Steel 1850 1913 JSTOR Cambridge university JSTOR 2120336 Retrieved November 13 2020 Harper Douglas steel Online Etymology Dictionary a b c d e Ashby Michael F amp Jones David R H 1992 1986 Engineering Materials 2 with corrections ed Oxford Pergamon Press ISBN 0 08 032532 7 a b Smelting Encyclopaedia Britannica 2007 a b c Alloying of Steels Metallurgical Consultants 2006 06 28 Archived from the original on 2007 02 21 Retrieved 2007 02 28 Elert Glenn Density of Steel Retrieved 2009 04 23 Sources differ on this value so it has been rounded to 2 1 however the exact value is rather academic because plain carbon steel is very rarely made with this level of carbon See Smith amp Hashemi 2006 p 363 2 08 Degarmo Black amp Kohser 2003 p 75 2 11 Ashby amp Jones 1992 2 14 Smith amp Hashemi 2006 p 363 Smith amp Hashemi 2006 pp 365 372 a b Smith amp Hashemi 2006 pp 373 378 Quench hardening of steel keytometals com Archived from the original on 2009 02 17 Retrieved 2009 07 19 Smith amp Hashemi 2006 p 249 Smith amp Hashemi 2006 p 388 Smith amp Hashemi 2006 p 361 Smith amp Hashemi 2006 pp 361 362 Bugayev K Konovalov Y Bychkov Y Tretyakov E Savin Ivan V 2001 Iron and Steel Production The Minerva Group Inc p 225 ISBN 978 0 89499 109 7 a b Davidson Hilda Ellis 1998 The Sword in Anglo Saxon England Its Archaeology and Literature Boydell amp Brewer Ltd p 20 ISBN 0 85115 716 5 a b c Srinivasan S Ranganathan S Wootz Steel an advanced material of the ancient world Bangalore Department of Metallurgy Indian Institute of Science Archived from the original on 2018 11 19 Akanuma H 2005 The significance of the composition of excavated iron fragments taken from Stratum III at the site of Kaman Kalehoyuk Turkey Anatolian Archaeological Studies Tokyo Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology 14 147 158 Ironware piece unearthed from Turkey found to be oldest steel The Hindu Chennai India 2009 03 26 Archived from the original on 2009 03 29 Retrieved 2009 03 27 Noricus ensis Horace Odes i 16 9 Wagner Donald B 1993 Iron and Steel in Ancient China Second Impression With Corrections Leiden E J Brill p 243 ISBN 90 04 09632 9 Needham Joseph 1986 Science and Civilization in China Volume 4 Part 3 Civil Engineering and Nautics Taipei Caves Books Ltd p 563 Gernet Jacques 1982 A History of Chinese Civilization Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 69 ISBN 0 521 49781 7 Schmidt Peter Avery Donald 1978 Complex Iron Smelting and Prehistoric Culture in Tanzania Science 201 4361 1085 1089 Bibcode 1978Sci 201 1085S doi 10 1126 science 201 4361 1085 JSTOR 1746308 PMID 17830304 S2CID 37926350 Schmidt Peter Avery Donald 1983 More Evidence for an Advanced Prehistoric Iron Technology in Africa Journal of Field Archaeology 10 4 421 434 doi 10 1179 009346983791504228 Schmidt Peter 1978 Historical Archaeology A Structural Approach in an African Culture Westport CT Greenwood Press Avery Donald Schmidt Peter 1996 Preheating Practice or illusion The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production Gainesville University of Florida Press pp 267 276 Schmidt Peter 2019 Science in Africa A history of ingenuity and invention in African iron technology In Worger W Ambler C Achebe N eds A Companion to African History Hoboken NJ Wiley Blackwell pp 267 288 Childs S Terry 1996 Technological history and culture in western Tanzania In Schmidt P ed The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production Gainesville FL University of Florida Press Wilford John Noble 1996 02 06 Ancient Smelter Used Wind To Make High Grade Steel The New York Times a b Srinivasan Sharada Ranganathan Srinivasa 2004 India s Legendary Wootz Steel An Advanced Material of the Ancient World National Institute of Advanced Studies OCLC 82439861 Archived from the original on 2019 02 11 Retrieved 2014 12 05 a b Feuerbach Ann 2005 An investigation of the varied technology found in swords sabres and blades from the Russian Northern Caucasus PDF IAMS 25 27 43 p 29 Archived from the original PDF on 2011 04 30 Srinivasan Sharada 1994 Wootz crucible steel a newly discovered production site in South India Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 5 49 59 doi 10 5334 pia 60 Hobbies Volume 68 Issue 5 p 45 Lightner Publishing Company 1963 Mahathevan Iravatham 24 June 2010 An epigraphic perspective on the antiquity of Tamil The Hindu Archived from the original on 1 July 2010 Retrieved 31 October 2010 Ragupathy P 28 June 2010 Tissamaharama potsherd evidences ordinary early Tamils among population Tamilnet Tamilnet Retrieved 31 October 2010 Needham Joseph 1986 Science and Civilization in China Volume 4 Part 1 Civil Engineering and Nautics PDF Taipei Caves Books Ltd p 282 ISBN 0 521 05802 3 Archived from the original PDF on 2017 07 03 Retrieved 2017 08 04 Manning Charlotte Speir Ancient and Mediaeval India Volume 2 ISBN 978 0 543 92943 3 a b c Juleff G 1996 An ancient wind powered iron smelting technology in Sri Lanka Nature 379 3 60 63 Bibcode 1996Natur 379 60J doi 10 1038 379060a0 S2CID 205026185 a b Coghlan Herbert Henery 1977 Notes on prehistoric and early iron in the Old World Oxprint pp 99 100 The Story of Civilization Our Oriental Heritage Simon and Schuster 1935 p 539 ISBN 0 671 54800 X Retrieved 4 March 2017 Sanderson Katharine 2006 11 15 Sharpest cut from nanotube sword Nature News doi 10 1038 news061113 11 S2CID 136774602 Wayman M L amp Juleff G 1999 Crucible Steelmaking in Sri Lanka Historical Metallurgy 33 1 26 Hartwell Robert 1966 Markets Technology and the Structure of Enterprise in the Development of the Eleventh Century Chinese Iron and Steel Industry Journal of Economic History 26 53 54 doi 10 1017 S0022050700061842 a b Tylecote R F 1992 A history of metallurgy 2nd ed Institute of Materials London pp 95 99 and 102 105 ISBN 0 901462 88 8 Raistrick A 1953 A Dynasty of Ironfounders Hyde C K 1977 Technological Change and the British iron industry Princeton Trinder B 2000 The Industrial Revolution in Shropshire Chichester Barraclough K C 1984 Steel before Bessemer I Blister Steel the birth of an industry The Metals Society London pp 48 52 King P W 2003 The Cartel in Oregrounds Iron trading in the raw material for steel during the eighteenth century Journal of Industrial History 6 1 25 49 a b c d Iron and steel industry Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica 2007 Barraclough K C 1984 Steel before Bessemer II Crucible Steel the growth of technology The Metals Society London Swank James Moore 1892 History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages ISBN 0 8337 3463 6 Bessemer process 2 Encyclopaedia Britannica 2005 p 168 a b Sherman Zander 4 September 2019 How my great grandfather s Dofasco steel empire rose and fell and his descendants with it The Globe and Mail Inc Basic oxygen process Encyclopaedia Britannica 2007 Jones J A T Bowman B and Lefrank P A 1998 Electric Furnace Steelmaking in The Making Shaping and Treating of Steel pp 525 660 R J Fruehan ed The AISE Steel Foundation Pittsburgh ISBN 0 930767 03 9 Steel Industry Archived from the original on 2009 06 18 Retrieved 2009 07 12 Congressional Record V 148 Pt 4 April 11 2002 to April 24 2002 United States Government Printing Office Chopra Anuj February 12 2007 India s steel industry steps onto world stage Cristian Science Monitor Retrieved 2009 07 12 Top Steelmakers in 2017 PDF World Steel Association Archived from the original PDF on August 23 2018 Retrieved August 22 2018 Long term planning needed to meet steel demand The News 2008 03 01 Archived from the original on 2010 11 02 Retrieved 2010 11 02 De Ras Kevin Van De Vijver Ruben Galvita Vladimir V Marin Guy B Van Geem Kevin M 2019 12 01 Carbon capture and utilization in the steel industry challenges and opportunities for chemical engineering Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 26 81 87 doi 10 1016 j coche 2019 09 001 ISSN 2211 3398 S2CID 210619173 Uchitelle Louis 2009 01 01 Steel Industry in Slump Looks to Federal Stimulus The New York Times Retrieved 2009 07 19 Hartman Roy A 2009 Recycling Encarta Archived from the original on 2008 04 14 Fenton Michael D 2008 Iron and Steel Scrap In United States Geological Survey ed Minerals Yearbook 2008 Volume 1 Metals and Minerals Government Printing Office ISBN 978 1 4113 3015 3 The World Steel Association 2018 03 01 Steel and raw materials PDF High strength low alloy steels Schoolscience co uk Retrieved 2007 08 14 Dual phase steel Intota Expert Knowledge Services Archived from the original on 2011 05 25 Retrieved 2007 03 01 Werner Ewald Transformation Induced Plasticity in low alloyed TRIP steels and microstructure response to a complex stress history Archived from the original on December 23 2007 Retrieved 2007 03 01 Mirko Centi Saliceti Stefano Transformation Induced Plasticity TRIP Twinning Induced Plasticity TWIP and Dual Phase DP Steels Tampere University of Technology Archived from the original on 2008 03 07 Retrieved 2007 03 01 Galvanic protection Encyclopaedia Britannica 2007 Steel Glossary American Iron and Steel Institute AISI Retrieved 2006 07 30 Steel Interchange American Institute of Steel Construction Inc AISC Archived from the original on 2007 12 22 Retrieved 2007 02 28 Properties of Maraging Steels Archived from the original on 2009 02 25 Retrieved 2009 07 19 Hadfield manganese steel Answers com McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms McGraw Hill Companies Inc 2003 Retrieved on 2007 02 28 Bringas John E 2004 Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards Third Edition PDF 3rd ed ASTM International p 14 ISBN 0 8031 3362 6 Archived from the original PDF on 2007 01 27 Steel Construction Manual 8th Edition second revised edition American Institute of Steel Construction 1986 ch 1 pp 1 5 Ochshorn Jonathan 2002 06 11 Steel in 20th Century Architecture Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Architecture Retrieved 2010 04 26 Venables John D Girifalco Louis A Patel C Kumar N McCullough R L Marchant Roger Eric Kukich Diane S 2007 Materials science Encyclopaedia Britannica Bibliography Edit Ashby Michael F Jones David Rayner Hunkin 1992 An introduction to microstructures processing and design Butterworth Heinemann Degarmo E Paul Black J T Kohser Ronald A 2003 Materials and Processes in Manufacturing 9th ed Wiley ISBN 0 471 65653 4 Verein Deutscher Eisenhuttenleute Ed Steel A Handbook for Materials Research and Engineering Volume 1 Fundamentals Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Verlag Stahleisen Dusseldorf 1992 737 p ISBN 3 540 52968 3 3 514 00377 7 Verein Deutscher Eisenhuttenleute Ed Steel A Handbook for Materials Research and Engineering Volume 2 Applications Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Verlag Stahleisen Dusseldorf 1993 839 pages ISBN 3 540 54075 X 3 514 00378 5 Smith William F Hashemi Javad 2006 Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering 4th ed McGraw Hill ISBN 0 07 295358 6 Further reading EditMark Reutter Making Steel Sparrows Point and the Rise and Ruin of American Industrial Might University of Illinois Press 2005 Duncan Burn The Economic History of Steelmaking 1867 1939 A Study in Competition Cambridge University Press 1961 Harukiyu Hasegawa The Steel Industry in Japan A Comparison with Britain Routledge 1996 J C Carr and W Taplin History of the British Steel Industry Harvard University Press 1962 H Lee Scamehorn Mill amp Mine The Cf amp I in the Twentieth Century University of Nebraska Press 1992 Warren Kenneth Big Steel The First Century of the United States Steel Corporation 1901 2001 University of Pittsburgh Press 2001 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Steel Wikiquote has quotations related to SteelLook up steel in Wiktionary the free dictionary Official website of the World Steel Association worldsteel steeluniversity org Online steel education resources an initiative of World Steel Association Metallurgy for the Non Metallurgist from the American Society for Metals MATDAT Database of Properties of Unalloyed Low Alloy and High Alloy Steels obtained from published results of material testing Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Steel amp oldid 1053930141 Steel industry, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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