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Stentoften Runestone

The Stentoften Runestone, listed in the Rundata catalog as DR 357, is a runestone which contains a curse in Proto-Norse that was discovered in Stentoften, Blekinge, Sweden.

Stentoften Runestone
WritingElder Futhark
Created500-700AD
Discovered1823
Stentoften, Blekinge, Sweden
Discovered byO. Hammer
Rundata IDDR 357
RunemasterUnknown
Text – Native
Proto-Norse : <niuha>borumz <niuha>gestumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz ... ... haidiz runono, felh eka hedra niu habrumz, niu hangistumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz ... ... haidiz runono, felh eka hedra ginnurunoz. Hermalausaz argiu, Weladauþs, sa þat briutiþ.
Translation
(To the) <niuha>dwellers (and) <niuha>guests Haþuwulfar gave ful year, Hariwulfar ... ... I, master of the runes(?) conceal here nine bucks, nine stallions, Haþuwulfar gave fruitful year, Hariwulfar ... ... I, master of the runes(?) conceal here runes of power. Incessantly (plagued by) maleficence, (doomed to) insidious death (is) he who this breaks.

Contents

Transliteration

AP niuhAborumz ¶ niuhagestumz ¶ hAþuwolAfz gAf j ¶ hAriwolAfz (m)A--u snuh-e ¶ hidez runono fe(l)(A)h ekA hed¶erA
AQ niu hAborumz ¶ niu hagestumz ¶ hAþuwolAfz gAf j ¶ hAriwolAfz (m)A--u snuh-e ¶ hidez runono fe(l)(A)h ekA hed¶erA
B ginoronoz
C herAmAlAsAz ¶ ArAgeu we(l)Aduds| |sA þAt
D bAriutiþ

Transcription

AP <niuha>borumz <niuha>gestumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz ... ... haidiz runono, felh eka hedra
AQ niu habrumz, niu hangistumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz ... ... haidiz runono, felh eka hedra
B ginnurunoz.
C Hermalausaz argiu, Weladauþs, sa þat
D briutiþ.

Translation

This is the English translation provided by Rundata:

AP(To the) <niuha>dwellers (and) <niuha>guests Haþuwulfar gave ful year, Hariwulfar ... ... I, master of the runes(?) conceal here
AQ nine bucks, nine stallions, Haþuwulfar gave fruitful year, Hariwulfar ... ... I, master of the runes(?) conceal here
B runes of power.
C Incessantly (plagued by) maleficence, (doomed to) insidious death (is) he who this
D breaks.

In lines AP and AQ, in the phrase "gaf j" ("gave j"), the j-rune may be an ideogram standing for its rune name jara, meaning "harvest" or "bountiful or fruitful year." One author suggests that line AQ is describing an animal sacrifice in return for a good harvest as part of a fertility ritual.

The Stentoften runestone was discovered in 1823 by the dean O. Hammer. It was lying down with the inscription facing downwards, surrounded by five sharp larger stones forming a pentagon or a pentagram. Consequently, the stone has been part of a larger monument like the Björketorp Runestone further east. In 1864, the runestone was moved into the church of Sölvesborg.

Most scholars date the inscription to the 7th century and it is carved with a type of runes that form an intermediate version between the Elder Futhark and the Younger Futhark. A characteristic example of this is the a-rune which has the same form as the h-rune of the younger futhark. This is the rune that is transliterated with A. The k-rune, which looks like a Y is a transition form between and in the two futharks. There are quite few intermediary inscriptions like this one. Three more are known from Blekinge, i.e. the Björketorp Runestone, the Istaby Runestone and the Gummarp Runestone, which were moved to Copenhagen and lost in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728.

The Stentoften, Istaby Runestone and Gummarp Runestone inscriptions can be identified with the same clan through the names that are mentioned on them, and the names are typical for chieftains. The Björketorp Runestone lacks names and is raised some tens of kilometers from the others. However, it is beyond doubt that the Björketorp runestone is connected to them, because in addition to the special runic forms, the same message is given on the Stentoften Runestone. These runestones are probably not carved by the same person, and so it appears that they reflect a specific runic tradition in the Blekinge area during the 7th century. Runologist Michael Schulte suggests that the archaic text of the Stentoften stone is more effective from a dramatic perspective than the younger and more explicit version on the Björketorp stone.

The name Hariwulfa is a combination of hari meaning "warrior" and wulafa "wolf," while the haþu of Haþuwulfz means "battle." It has been suggested that the assignment of such lycophoric names may have been related to ritualistic practices and religious wolf-symbolism used in the initiation of young warriors. A shortened form of the name Hariwulfa survived into the Viking Age and is attested in the inscription on the Hærulf Runestone.

  1. "Samnordisk runtextdatabas :: Ladda ned". Nordiska.uu.se. Archived from the original on June 9, 2000. Retrieved2010-10-11.
  2. MacLeod (2006:112-113).
  3. Looijenga (2003:29, 182).
  4. Looijenga (2003:188).
  5. Schulte 2008:17-18.
  6. Looijenga (2003:181).
  7. Gräslund (2006:125).
  8. Sundqvist & Hultgård (2004:585).

Stentoften Runestone
Stentoften Runestone Language Watch Edit The Stentoften Runestone listed in the Rundata catalog as DR 357 is a runestone which contains a curse in Proto Norse that was discovered in Stentoften Blekinge Sweden Stentoften RunestoneWritingElder FutharkCreated500 700ADDiscovered1823 Stentoften Blekinge SwedenDiscovered byO HammerRundata IDDR 357RunemasterUnknownText NativeProto Norse lt niuha gt borumz lt niuha gt gestumz Hathuwulfz gaf j ar Hariwulfz haidiz runono felh eka hedra niu habrumz niu hangistumz Hathuwulfz gaf j ar Hariwulfz haidiz runono felh eka hedra ginnurunoz Hermalausaz argiu Weladauths sa that briutith Translation To the lt niuha gt dwellers and lt niuha gt guests Hathuwulfar gave ful year Hariwulfar I master of the runes conceal here nine bucks nine stallions Hathuwulfar gave fruitful year Hariwulfar I master of the runes conceal here runes of power Incessantly plagued by maleficence doomed to insidious death is he who this breaks Contents 1 Inscription 1 1 Transliteration 1 2 Transcription 1 3 Translation 2 Interpretation 3 History 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksInscription EditTransliteration Edit AP niuhAborumz niuhagestumz hAthuwolAfz gAf j hAriwolAfz m A u snuh e hidez runono fe l A h ekA hed erA AQ niu hAborumz niu hagestumz hAthuwolAfz gAf j hAriwolAfz m A u snuh e hidez runono fe l A h ekA hed erA B ginoronoz C herAmAlAsAz ArAgeu we l Aduds sA thAt D bAriutith 1 Transcription Edit AP lt niuha gt borumz lt niuha gt gestumz Hathuwulfz gaf j ar Hariwulfz haidiz runono felh eka hedra AQ niu habrumz niu hangistumz Hathuwulfz gaf j ar Hariwulfz haidiz runono felh eka hedra B ginnurunoz C Hermalausaz argiu Weladauths sa that D briutith 1 Translation Edit This is the English translation provided by Rundata AP To the lt niuha gt dwellers and lt niuha gt guests Hathuwulfar gave ful year Hariwulfar I master of the runes conceal here AQ nine bucks nine stallions Hathuwulfar gave fruitful year Hariwulfar I master of the runes conceal here B runes of power C Incessantly plagued by maleficence doomed to insidious death is he who this D breaks 1 Interpretation EditIn lines AP and AQ in the phrase gaf j gave j the j rune may be an ideogram standing for its rune name jara meaning harvest or bountiful or fruitful year 2 One author suggests that line AQ is describing an animal sacrifice in return for a good harvest as part of a fertility ritual 3 History EditThe Stentoften runestone was discovered in 1823 by the dean O Hammer It was lying down with the inscription facing downwards surrounded by five sharp larger stones forming a pentagon or a pentagram Consequently the stone has been part of a larger monument like the Bjorketorp Runestone further east In 1864 the runestone was moved into the church of Solvesborg Most scholars date the inscription to the 7th century and it is carved with a type of runes that form an intermediate version between the Elder Futhark and the Younger Futhark A characteristic example of this is the a rune which has the same form as the h rune of the younger futhark This is the rune that is transliterated with A The k rune which looks like a Y is a transition form between and in the two futharks There are quite few intermediary inscriptions like this one Three more are known from Blekinge i e the Bjorketorp Runestone the Istaby Runestone and the Gummarp Runestone which were moved to Copenhagen and lost in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728 The Stentoften Istaby Runestone and Gummarp Runestone inscriptions can be identified with the same clan through the names that are mentioned on them 4 and the names are typical for chieftains The Bjorketorp Runestone lacks names and is raised some tens of kilometers from the others However it is beyond doubt that the Bjorketorp runestone is connected to them because in addition to the special runic forms the same message is given on the Stentoften Runestone These runestones are probably not carved by the same person and so it appears that they reflect a specific runic tradition in the Blekinge area during the 7th century Runologist Michael Schulte suggests that the archaic text of the Stentoften stone is more effective from a dramatic perspective than the younger and more explicit version on the Bjorketorp stone 5 The name Hariwulfa is a combination of hari meaning warrior and wulafa wolf while the hathu of Hathuwulfz means battle 6 It has been suggested that the assignment of such lycophoric names may have been related to ritualistic practices and religious wolf symbolism used in the initiation of young warriors 7 A shortened form of the name Hariwulfa survived into the Viking Age and is attested in the inscription on the Haerulf Runestone 8 See also EditRunic magicReferences Edit a b c Samnordisk runtextdatabas Ladda ned Nordiska uu se Archived from the original on June 9 2000 Retrieved 2010 10 11 MacLeod 2006 112 113 Looijenga 2003 29 182 Looijenga 2003 188 Schulte 2008 17 18 Looijenga 2003 181 Graslund 2006 125 Sundqvist amp Hultgard 2004 585 Sources EditJacobsen Lis amp Moltke Erik 1941 Danmarks Runeindskrifter 3rd tome Looijenga Tineke 2003 Texts amp Contexts of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions Leiden Koninklijke Brill NV ISBN 90 04 12396 2 MacLeod Mindy Mees Bernard 2006 Runic Amulets and Magic Objects Boydell Press ISBN 1 84383 205 4 Sundqvist Olof Hultgard Anders 2004 The Lycophoric Names of the 6th to 7th Century Blekinge Runestones and the Problem of Their Ideological Background In van Nahl Astrid Elmevik Lennart et seq eds Namenwelten Orts und Personennamen in Historischer Sicht Berlin Walter de Gruyter pp 583 602 ISBN 3 11 018108 8 Schulte Michael 2008 Stylistic variation in runic inscriptions ANF 123 5 22 Thorngren Karl Gosta Runstenar i Blekinge Blekingeboken 1942 pp 63 96 RundataExternal links EditThe Runestones of Solvesborg Joint Nordic database for runic inscriptions Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stentoften Runestone amp oldid 1010151443, 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