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Stephen Foster

For other uses, see Stephen Foster (disambiguation).

Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 – January 13, 1864), known also as "the father of American music", was an American songwriter known primarily for his parlor and minstrel music. He wrote more than 200 songs, including "Oh! Susanna", "Hard Times Come Again No More", "Camptown Races", "Old Folks at Home" ("Swanee River"), "My Old Kentucky Home", "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair", "Old Black Joe", and "Beautiful Dreamer", and many of his compositions remain popular today. He has been identified as "the most famous songwriter of the nineteenth century" and may be the most recognizable American composer in other countries. Most of his handwritten music manuscripts are lost, but editions issued by publishers of his day feature in various collections.

Stephen Foster
Born
Stephen Collins Foster

(1826-07-04)July 4, 1826
DiedJanuary 13, 1864(1864-01-13) (aged 37)
Resting placeAllegheny Cemetery
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
MonumentsStephen Foster Memorial
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
EducationAthens Academy, Towanda, Pennsylvania Athens Academy
OccupationComposer, lyricist, poet
Years active1844–1864
AgentVarious sheet music publishers and brother, Morrison Foster
Known forFirst fully professional U.S. songwriter
Notable work
"Angelina Baker", "Beautiful Dreamer", "Camptown Races", "Gentle Annie", "The Glendy Burk", "Hard Times Come Again No More", "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair", "My Old Kentucky Home", "Oh! Susanna", "Old Black Joe", "Old Folks at Home" ("Swanee River"), "Open Thy Lattice Love"
StylePeriod music, minstrels
Spouse(s)Jane McDowell Foster Wiley (1829–1903) (other sources use Jane Denny Foster Wiley)
ChildrenMarion Foster Welch (1851–1935)
Parent(s)William Barclay Foster (1779–1855), Eliza Clayland Tomlinson Foster (1788–1855)
RelativesEvelyn Foster Morneweck (niece and biographer), James Foster (grandfather)
Siblings:Charlotte Susanna Foster (1809–1829), Anne Eliza Foster Buchanan (1812–1891), Henry Baldwin Foster (1816–1870), Henrietta Angelica Foster Thornton (1819–1879), Dunning McNair Foster (1821–1856), Morrison Foster (1823–1904)

Contents

Eliza Tomlinson Foster and William Barclay Foster

There are many biographies of Foster, but details differ widely. Among other issues, Foster wrote very little biographical information himself, and his brother Morrison Foster destroyed much information that he judged to reflect negatively upon the family.

Foster was born on July 4, 1826, to William Barclay Foster and Eliza Clayland Tomlinson Foster, with three older sisters and six older brothers. His parents were of Ulster Scots and English descent. He attended private academies in Allegheny, Athens, and Towanda, Pennsylvania, and received an education in English grammar, diction, the classics, penmanship, Latin, Greek, and mathematics. The family lived in a northern city but they did not support the abolition of slavery.

Foster taught himself to play the clarinet, guitar, flute, and piano. He did not have formal instruction in composition but he was helped by Henry Kleber (1816–1897), a German-born music dealer in Pittsburgh. In 1839, his brother William was serving his apprenticeship as an engineer at Towanda and thought that Stephen would benefit from being under his supervision. The site of the Camptown Races is 30 miles (48 km) from Athens and 15 miles from Towanda. His education included a brief period at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, now part of Washington & Jefferson College. His tuition was paid, but he had little spending money. He left Canonsburg to visit Pittsburgh with another student and did not return.

In 1846, Foster moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, and became a bookkeeper with his brother Dunning's steamship company. He wrote his first successful songs in 1848–1849, among them "Oh! Susanna", which became an anthem of the California Gold Rush. In 1849, he published Foster's Ethiopian Melodies, which included the successful song "Nelly Was a Lady" as made famous by the Christy Minstrels. A plaque marks the site of his residence in Cincinnati, where the Guilford School building is now located.

House in Hoboken, New Jersey where Foster is believed to have written "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair" in 1854

Then he returned to Pennsylvania and signed a contract with the Christy Minstrels. It was during this period that he wrote most of his best-known songs: "Camptown Races" (1850), "Nelly Bly" (1850), "Ring de Banjo" (1851), "Old Folks at Home" (known also as "Swanee River", 1851), "My Old Kentucky Home" (1853), "Old Dog Tray" (1853), and "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair" (1854), written for his wife Jane Denny McDowell.

A Pittsburgh Press illustration of the original headstone on Stephen Foster's grave

Many of Foster's songs were of the blackface minstrel show tradition popular at the time but are now considered to be racist. He sought to "build up taste...among refined people by making words suitable to their taste, instead of the trashy and really offensive words which belong to some songs of that order". In the 1850s, he associated with a Pittsburgh-area abolitionist leader named Charles Shiras, and wrote an abolitionist play himself. Many of his songs had Southern themes, yet Foster never lived in the South and visited it only once, during his 1852 honeymoon.

Foster's last four years were spent in New York City. There is little information on this period of his life, although family correspondence has been preserved.

Foster became sick with a fever in January 1864. Weakened, he fell in his hotel in the Bowery, cutting his neck. His writing partner George Cooper found him still alive but lying in a pool of blood. Foster died in Bellevue Hospital three days later at the age of 37. Other biographers describe different accounts of his death.

Historian JoAnne O'Connell speculates in her biography, The Life and Songs of Stephen Foster, that Foster may have killed himself, a common occurrence during the Civil War. George Cooper, who was with Foster until he died, said: "He lay there on the floor, naked, suffering horribly. He had wonderful big brown eyes, and they looked up at me with an appeal I can never forget. He whispered, 'I'm done for.'" Unlike Foster's brother Morrison, who was not in New York and said Foster was ill and cut his neck on a washbasin, Cooper mentioned no broken crockery and also said Foster had a "large knife" for cutting up apples and turnips. Morrison may have covered up Foster's suicide. Evelyn Morneweck, Morrison's daughter, also said the family would have covered up the suicide of their uncle if they could have.

As O'Connell and musicologist Ken Emerson have noted, several of the songs Foster wrote during the last years of his life foreshadow his death, such as "The Little Ballad Girl" and "Kiss Me Dear Mother Ere I Die." Emerson says in his 2010 Stephen Foster and Co. that Foster's injuries may have been "accidental or self-inflicted."

Telegram that communicated Stephen Foster's death addressed to his brother Morrison Foster

When Foster died, his leather wallet contained a scrap of paper that simply said, "Dear friends and gentle hearts", along with 37 cents (one for each year of his life) in Civil War scrip and three pennies. The note is said to have inspired Bob Hilliard's lyric for "Dear Hearts and Gentle People" (1949). Foster was buried in the Allegheny Cemetery in Pittsburgh. After his death, Morrison Foster became his "literary executor". As such, he answered requests for copies of manuscripts, autographs, and biographical information. One of the best-loved of his works was "Beautiful Dreamer", published in 1864 (posthumously).

(3:53)
Stephen Foster's "Oh! Susanna" performed by the United States Navy Concert Band

(4:02)
"Old Folks at Home" performed by Ernestine Schumann-Heink (1918)

Problems playing these files? See .

Foster grew up in a section of the city where many European immigrants had settled and was accustomed to hearing the music of the Italian, Scots-Irish, and German residents. He composed his first song when he was 14 and entitled it the "Tioga Waltz". The first song that he had published was "Open thy Lattice Love" (1844). He wrote songs in support of drinking, such as "My Wife Is a Most Knowing Woman", "Mr. and Mrs. Brown", and "When the Bowl Goes Round", while also composing temperance songs such as "Comrades Fill No Glass for Me" or "The Wife".

Foster also authored many church hymns, although the inclusion of his hymns in hymnals ended by 1910. Some of the hymns are "Seek and ye shall find", "All around is bright and fair, While we work for Jesus", and "Blame not those who weep and sigh". Several rare Civil War-era hymns by Foster were performed by The Old Stoughton Musical Society Chorus, including "The Pure, The Bright, The Beautiful", "Over The River", "Give Us This Day", and "What Shall The Harvest Be?"

Foster usually sent his handwritten scores directly to his publishers. The publishers kept the sheet music manuscripts and did not give them to libraries nor return them to his heirs. Some of his original, hand-written scores were bought and put into private collections and the Library of Congress.

Popular songs

Foster's songs, lyrics, and melodies have often been altered by publishers and performers. Ray Charles released a version of "Old Folks at Home" that was titled "Swanee River Rock (Talkin’ ’Bout That River)," which became his first pop hit in November 1957.

"My Old Kentucky Home" is the official state song of Kentucky, adopted by the General Assembly on March 19, 1928. "Old Folks at Home" became the official state song of Florida, designated in 1935. The lyrics are widely regarded as racist today, however, so "Old Folks at Home" was modified with approval from the Stephen Foster Memorial. The modified song was kept as the official state song, while "Florida (Where the Sawgrass Meets the Sky)" was added as the state anthem.

Musical influence

  • Many early filmmakers selected Foster's songs for their work because his copyrights had expired and cost them nothing.
  • Professor of Folklore and musician John Minton wrote a song titled "Stephen C. Foster's Blues".
  • Erika M. Anderson, of the band EMA, refers to Foster's "Camptown Races" in the song "California", from past Life Martyred Saints (2011): "I bet my money on the bobtail nag/somebody bet on the bay."
  • The Firesign Theatre makes many references to Foster's compositions in their CD, Boom Dot Bust (1999, Rhino Records)
  • Larry Kirwan of Black 47 mixes the music of Foster with his own in the musical Hard Times, which earned a New York Times accolade in its original run: "a knockout entertainment". Kirwan gives a contemporary interpretation of Foster's troubled later years and sets it in the tumultuous time of the New York draft riots and the Irish–Negro relations of the period. A revival ran at the Cell Theater in New York in early 2014, and a revised version of the musical, called Paradise Square opened at Berkeley Repertory Theatre in 2018.
  • Gordon Lightfoot wrote a song in 1970 titled "Your Love's Return (Song for Stephen Foster)"
  • Spike Jones recorded a comedy send-up "I Dream of Brownie with the Light Blue Jeans."
  • Humorist Stan Freberg imagined a 1950s style version of Foster's music in "Rock Around Stephen Foster" and, with Harry Shearer, had a sketch about Foster having writer's block in a bit from his "United States of America" project.
  • Songwriter Tom Shaner mentions Stephen Foster meeting up with Eminem's alter ego "Slim Shady" on the Bowery in Shaner's song "Rock & Roll is A Natural Thing."
  • The music of Stephen Foster was an early influence on the Australian composer Percy Grainger, who stated that hearing "Camptown Races" sung by his mother was one of his earliest musical recollections. He went on to write a piece entitled "Tribute to Foster", a composition for mixed choir, orchestra, and pitched wine glasses based on the melody of "Camptown Races."
  • Art Garfunkel was cast as Stephen Foster and sang his songs in an elementary school play in Queens, New York
  • Neil Sedaka wrote and recorded a song about Foster and released it on his 1975 album, The Hungry Years.
  • Alternative country duo The Handsome Family's song "Wildebeest", from their 2013 album Wilderness, is about Foster's death.
  • Squirrel Nut Zippers wrote and recorded a song in 1998 titled "The Ghost of Stephen Foster".
Foster commemorative stamp in the Famous American Composers series, 1940

Television

  • Two television shows about the life of Foster and his childhood friend (and later wife) Jane MacDowell were produced in Japan, the first in 1979 with 13 episodes, and the second from 1992 to 1993 with 52 episodes; both were titled Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair after the song of the same name.
  • In the Honeymooners episode, "The $99,000 Answer," Ralph Kramden studies decades' worth of popular songs for his upcoming appearance on a television game show. Before each song, Ed Norton warms up on the piano by playing the opening to "Swanee River." On the program, Ralph is asked his first question for just 100 dollars: "Who is the composer of 'Swanee River'?" Ralph freezes, then nervously responds "Ed Norton?" and loses.
  • In a "Fractured Fairy Tales" segment of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, Aladdin finds a lamp with a female genie with light brown hair, who immediately asks, "Are you Stephen Foster?"

Film

Other events

  • "Stephen Foster! Super Saturday" is a day of thoroughbred racing during the Spring/Summer meet at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky. During the call to the post, selections of Stephen Foster songs are played by the track bugler, Steve Buttleman. The day is headlined by the Stephen Foster Handicap, a Grade I dirt race for older horses at 9 furlongs.
  • 36 U.S.C. §140 designates January 13 as Stephen Foster Memorial Day, a United States National Observance. In 1936, Congress authorized the minting of a silver half dollar in honor of the Cincinnati Musical Center. Foster was featured on the obverse of the coin.
  • "Stephen Foster Music Camp" is a summer music camp held on EKU's campus of Richmond, Kentucky. The camp offers piano courses, choir, band, and orchestra ensembles.

Art

Stephen Foster by Giuseppe Moretti (1900)
The Stephen Collins Foster sketchbook kept in a safe in the research library in the memorial
Pitt's Stephen Foster Memorial contains two theaters

Foster is honored on the University of Pittsburgh campus with the Stephen Foster Memorial, a landmark building that houses the Stephen Foster Memorial Museum, the Center for American Music, as well as two theaters: the Charity Randall Theatre and Henry Heymann Theatre, both performance spaces for Pitt's Department of Theater Arts. It is the largest repository for original Stephen Foster compositions, recordings, and other memorabilia his songs have inspired worldwide.

Two state parks are named in Foster's honor: the Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center State Park in White Springs, Florida and Stephen C. Foster State Park in Georgia. Both parks are on the Suwannee River. Stephen Foster Lake at Mount Pisgah State Park in Pennsylvania is also named in his honor.

One state park is named in honor of Foster's songs, My Old Kentucky Home, an historic mansion formerly named Federal Hill, located in Bardstown, Kentucky where Stephen is said to have been an occasional visitor according to his brother, Morrison Foster. The park dedicated a bronze statue in honor of Stephen's work.

The Lawrenceville (Pittsburgh) Historical Society, together with the Allegheny Cemetery Historical Association, hosts the annual Stephen Foster Music and Heritage Festival (Doo Dah Days!). Held the first weekend of July, Doo Dah Days! celebrates the life and music of one of the most influential songwriters in America's history. His home in the Lawrenceville Section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, still remains on Penn Avenue nearby the Stephen Foster Community Center.

A 1900 statue of Foster by Giuseppe Moretti was located in Schenley Plaza, in Pittsburgh, from 1940 until 2018. On the unanimous recommendation of the Pittsburgh Art Commission, the statue was removed on April 26, 2018. Its new home has not yet been determined. It has a long reputation as the most controversial public art in Pittsburgh "for its depiction of an African-American banjo player at the feet of the seated composer. Critics say the statue glorifies white appropriation of black culture, and depicts the vacantly smiling musician in a way that is at best condescending and at worst racist." A city-appointed Task Force on Women in Public Art called for the statue to be replaced with one honoring an African American woman with ties to the Pittsburgh community. The Task Force held a series of community forums in Pittsburgh to collect public feedback on the statue replacement and circulated an online form which allowed the public to vote for one of seven previously selected candidates or write in an alternate suggestion. However, the Task Force on Women in Public Art and the Pittsburgh Art Commission have not reached an agreement as to who will be commemorated or if the statue will stay in the Schenley Plaza location.

  • The Stephen Foster Collection and archive – Most primary sources related to his life, family and music have been retained by the University of Pittsburgh Library System as the Foster Hall Collection housed in the Stephen Foster Memorial. These materials were obtained from philanthropists, or donated by collectors or his heirs.
  1. His grandfather James Foster was an associate of John McMillan and a founding trustee of Canonsburg Academy, a predecessor institution to Jefferson College; his father William Barclay Foster attended Canonsburg Academy until age 16.
  1. "Stephen C. Foster As Man and Musician, The Life Story of the Sweet Singer of Pittsburg Told by His Contemporaries and Comrades". The Pittsburg Press. September 12, 1900 – via Newspapers.com.
  2. Marks, Rusty (April 22, 2001), "ON TELEVISION: Stephen Foster: Quintessential songwriter lived in music, died in ruin", Sunday Gazette-Mail, Gazette Daily Inc. via HighBeam Research, archived from the original on October 11, 2013, retrievedApril 25, 2012, The song, written in 1847, soon spread throughout the country. Foster decided to become a full-time songwriter, a vocation no one had bothered to pursue until then.(subscription required)
  3. Pittsburgh Native Son and Songwriter Stephen Foster to be Inducted into Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame Oct. 17., US Fed News Service, Including US State News. The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd. via HighBeam Research, October 16, 2010, archived from the original on October 11, 2013, retrievedApril 25, 2012(subscription required)
  4. Compare: Root, Deane L. (March 12, 1990). "The 'Mythtory' of Stephen C. Foster or Why His True Story Remains Untold"(Lecture transcript at the American Music Center Research Conference). American Music Research Center Journal: 20–21. RetrievedDecember 24, 2019. [... Stephen Foster ...] was the most famous songwriter of the nineteenth century, and he is still the best-known American composer in many countries of the world today.
  5. Root, Deane L. (March 12, 1990). "The 'Mythtory' of Stephen C. Foster or Why His True Story Remains Untold"(Lecture transcript at the American Music Center Research Conference). American Music Research Center Journal: 20–36. RetrievedOctober 4, 2015: Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh Library SystemCS1 maint: postscript (link)
  6. Howard, John Tasker (March 1944). "The Literature on Stephen Foster". Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association. 1 (2): 10–15. doi:10.2307/891301. ISSN 0027-4380. JSTOR 891301.
  7. Root, Deane L. (March 1990). "The "Mythtory" of Stephen C. Foster or Why His True Story Remains Untold"(PDF). American Music Research Center. U. Colorado, Boulder. RetrievedSeptember 25, 2018.
  8. Sanders, Paul (Fall 2008). "Comrades, Fill No Glass For Me: Stephen Foster's Medlodies As Borrowed by the American Temperance Movement"(PDF). Social History of Alcohol and Drugs. 23 (1): 24–40. doi:10.1086/SHAD23010024. S2CID 165454878. RetrievedOctober 13, 2015.
  9. "Foster Hall Collection, Collection Number: CAM.FHC.2011.01, Guide to Archives and Manuscript Collections at the University of Pittsburgh Library System". University of Pittsburgh, Center for American Music. RetrievedOctober 13, 2015; Access provided by the University of PittsburghCS1 maint: postscript (link)
  10. Emerson, Ken (1998). Doo-dah! Steven Foster and the Rise of American Popular Culture. Da Capo Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-306-80852-4.
  11. Vincent Milligan, Harold (1920). Stephen Collins Foster: a biography of America's folk-song composer. G. Schirmer. pp. 3–4.
  12. "Biography". The Center for American Music. Univ. of Pittsburgh. RetrievedSeptember 25, 2018.
  13. Sisario, Ben (September 20, 1998). "ON THE MAP; Stephen Foster's Old Hoboken Home". The New York Times. RetrievedJuly 4, 2016.
  14. "American Experience | Stephen Foster | People & Events". Shoppbs.pbs.org. RetrievedJanuary 8, 2021.
  15. Saunders (2012). "The Social Agenda of Stephen Foster's Plantation Melodies". American Music. 30 (3): 275–289. doi:10.5406/americanmusic.30.3.0275. JSTOR 10.5406/americanmusic.30.3.0275. S2CID 144617319.
  16. "More about the film Stephen Foster". American Experience. PBS. RetrievedOctober 2, 2015.
  17. O'Connell, JoAnne H. (2007). Understanding Stephen Collins Foster, His World and Music(PDF) (Thesis). University of Pittsburgh. RetrievedJune 25, 2016.
  18. O'Connell, JoAnne (2016). The Life and Songs of Stephen Foster: a Revealing Portrait of the Forgotten Man Behind Swanee River, Beautiful Dreamer, and My Old Kentucky Home. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 321. ISBN 9781442253865.
  19. Emerson, Ken (2010). Stephen Foster and Co.: Lyrics of America's First Great Popular Songs. New York: Library of America. p. 10. ISBN 978-1598530704.
  20. W. Tomaschewski. "The Last Chapter". Stephen Collins Foster. W. Tomaschewski. RetrievedAugust 4, 2012.
  21. Barcousky, Len (February 14, 2016). "Eyewitness 1916: Living link to Foster passes on". Pittsburgh Post Gazette. RetrievedApril 27, 2016.
  22. "Waters' Choral Harp: a new and superior collection of choice hymns and tunes, mostly new, written and composed for Sunday schools, missionary, revival, and social meetings, and for church worship 106. Who has our Redeemer heard". Hymnary.org. RetrievedAugust 23, 2016.
  23. "All around is bright and fair, While we work for Jesus". Hymnary.org. RetrievedAugust 23, 2016.
  24. "Blame not those who weep and sigh". Hymnary.org. RetrievedAugust 23, 2016.
  25. Steel, David Warren (2008). The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture; Volume 12: Music; Foster, Stephen (1826–1864) COMPOSER AND SONGWRITER. University of North Carolina Press. JSTOR 10.5149/9781469616667_malone.86: Access provided by the University of PittsburghCS1 maint: postscript (link)
  26. Whitburn, Joel, Top R&B Singles, 1942–1999, p. 74.
  27. "The State Anthem: "Florida (Where the Sawgrass Meets the Sky)"". State of Florida. RetrievedApril 29, 2011.
  28. Lerner, Neil (September 2006). "Review: Tunes for 'Toons': Music and the Hollywood Cartoon by Daniel Goldmark". Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association. 63 (1): 121–124. JSTOR 4487739.
  29. "Stephen C. Foster's Blues". The Possum Trot Orchestra. RetrievedMay 10, 2015.
  30. "E.M.A. – California Lyrics". SongLyrics. RetrievedAugust 4, 2012.
  31. A Source guide to the music of Percy Grainger. Lewis, Thomas P. (1st ed.). White Plains, N.Y.: Pro/Am Music Resources. 1991. ISBN 9780912483566. OCLC 24019532.CS1 maint: others (link)
  32. "What Is It All but Luminous by Art Garfunkel | PenguinRandomHouse.com: Books". PenguinRandomhouse.com. RetrievedApril 25, 2019.
  33. Monger, James. "Wilderness - The Handsome Family". Allmusic.com. RetrievedJuly 8, 2013.
  34. "1-cent Foster". Arago: people, postage & the post, Smithsonian National Postal Museum. RetrievedMay 10, 2015.
  35. "'Oh! Susanna' songwriter's statue removed from Pittsburgh park after criticism". NBC News. RetrievedApril 25, 2019.
  36. "'Oh Susanna' songwriter's statue removed amid criticism". Associated Press. April 26, 2018. RetrievedApril 26, 2018.
  37. Majors, Dan (October 25, 2017). "City's art commission unanimous: Statue of Stephen Foster needs to go". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. RetrievedMay 5, 2018.
  38. "City wants statue of African-American woman to replace Stephen Foster monument". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. March 14, 2018. RetrievedSeptember 16, 2018.
  39. O'Driscoll, Bill (July 2, 2018). "Initiative To Honor Women Of Color With Public Art Sparks Debate". WESA. WESA. RetrievedSeptember 16, 2018.
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Music scores

Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Stephen Collins Foster For other uses see Stephen Foster disambiguation Stephen Collins Foster July 4 1826 January 13 1864 known also as the father of American music was an American songwriter known primarily for his parlor and minstrel music He wrote more than 200 songs including Oh Susanna Hard Times Come Again No More Camptown Races Old Folks at Home Swanee River My Old Kentucky Home Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair Old Black Joe and Beautiful Dreamer and many of his compositions remain popular today He has been identified as the most famous songwriter of the nineteenth century and may be the most recognizable American composer in other countries 4 Most of his handwritten music manuscripts are lost but editions issued by publishers of his day feature in various collections 5 Stephen FosterBornStephen Collins Foster 1826 07 04 July 4 1826 Lawrenceville Pennsylvania U S DiedJanuary 13 1864 1864 01 13 aged 37 New York City New York U S Resting placeAllegheny Cemetery Pittsburgh Pennsylvania U S MonumentsStephen Foster Memorial Pittsburgh Pennsylvania U S EducationAthens Academy Towanda Pennsylvania Athens AcademyOccupationComposer lyricist poet 1 Years active1844 1864AgentVarious sheet music publishers and brother Morrison FosterKnown forFirst fully professional U S songwriter 2 3 Notable work Angelina Baker Beautiful Dreamer Camptown Races Gentle Annie The Glendy Burk Hard Times Come Again No More Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair My Old Kentucky Home Oh Susanna Old Black Joe Old Folks at Home Swanee River Open Thy Lattice Love StylePeriod music minstrelsSpouse s Jane McDowell Foster Wiley 1829 1903 other sources use Jane Denny Foster Wiley 1 ChildrenMarion Foster Welch 1851 1935 Parent s William Barclay Foster 1779 1855 Eliza Clayland Tomlinson Foster 1788 1855 RelativesEvelyn Foster Morneweck niece and biographer James Foster grandfather Siblings Charlotte Susanna Foster 1809 1829 Anne Eliza Foster Buchanan 1812 1891 Henry Baldwin Foster 1816 1870 Henrietta Angelica Foster Thornton 1819 1879 Dunning McNair Foster 1821 1856 Morrison Foster 1823 1904 Contents 1 Biography 2 Career 3 Illness and death 4 Music 4 1 Popular songs 5 Legacy 5 1 Musical influence 5 2 Television 5 3 Film 5 4 Other events 5 5 Art 6 Accolades and honors 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksBiography Edit Eliza Tomlinson Foster and William Barclay Foster There are many biographies of Foster but details differ widely Among other issues Foster wrote very little biographical information himself and his brother Morrison Foster destroyed much information that he judged to reflect negatively upon the family 6 7 Foster was born on July 4 1826 8 to William Barclay Foster and Eliza Clayland Tomlinson Foster with three older sisters and six older brothers His parents were of Ulster Scots and English descent He attended private academies in Allegheny Athens and Towanda Pennsylvania and received an education in English grammar diction the classics penmanship Latin Greek and mathematics The family lived in a northern city but they did not support the abolition of slavery 8 Foster taught himself to play the clarinet guitar flute and piano He did not have formal instruction in composition but he was helped by Henry Kleber 1816 1897 a German born music dealer in Pittsburgh 9 In 1839 his brother William was serving his apprenticeship as an engineer at Towanda and thought that Stephen would benefit from being under his supervision The site of the Camptown Races is 30 miles 48 km from Athens and 15 miles from Towanda His education included a brief period at Jefferson College in Canonsburg Pennsylvania now part of Washington amp Jefferson College 10 nb 1 His tuition was paid but he had little spending money 10 He left Canonsburg to visit Pittsburgh with another student and did not return 10 Career EditIn 1846 Foster moved to Cincinnati Ohio and became a bookkeeper with his brother Dunning s steamship company He wrote his first successful songs in 1848 1849 among them Oh Susanna 12 which became an anthem of the California Gold Rush In 1849 he published Foster s Ethiopian Melodies which included the successful song Nelly Was a Lady as made famous by the Christy Minstrels A plaque marks the site of his residence in Cincinnati where the Guilford School building is now located House in Hoboken New Jersey where Foster is believed to have written Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair in 1854 13 Then he returned to Pennsylvania and signed a contract with the Christy Minstrels It was during this period that he wrote most of his best known songs Camptown Races 1850 Nelly Bly 1850 Ring de Banjo 1851 Old Folks at Home known also as Swanee River 1851 My Old Kentucky Home 1853 Old Dog Tray 1853 and Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair 1854 written for his wife Jane Denny McDowell A Pittsburgh Press illustration of the original headstone on Stephen Foster s grave Many of Foster s songs were of the blackface minstrel show tradition popular at the time but are now considered to be racist He sought to build up taste among refined people by making words suitable to their taste instead of the trashy and really offensive words which belong to some songs of that order 14 In the 1850s he associated with a Pittsburgh area abolitionist leader named Charles Shiras and wrote an abolitionist play himself 15 Many of his songs had Southern themes yet Foster never lived in the South and visited it only once during his 1852 honeymoon Foster s last four years were spent in New York City There is little information on this period of his life although family correspondence has been preserved 5 Illness and death EditFoster became sick with a fever in January 1864 Weakened he fell in his hotel in the Bowery cutting his neck His writing partner George Cooper found him still alive but lying in a pool of blood Foster died in Bellevue Hospital three days later at the age of 37 16 Other biographers describe different accounts of his death 17 Historian JoAnne O Connell speculates in her biography The Life and Songs of Stephen Foster that Foster may have killed himself a common occurrence during the Civil War 18 George Cooper who was with Foster until he died said He lay there on the floor naked suffering horribly He had wonderful big brown eyes and they looked up at me with an appeal I can never forget He whispered I m done for Unlike Foster s brother Morrison who was not in New York and said Foster was ill and cut his neck on a washbasin Cooper mentioned no broken crockery and also said Foster had a large knife for cutting up apples and turnips Morrison may have covered up Foster s suicide Evelyn Morneweck Morrison s daughter also said the family would have covered up the suicide of their uncle if they could have As O Connell and musicologist Ken Emerson have noted several of the songs Foster wrote during the last years of his life foreshadow his death such as The Little Ballad Girl and Kiss Me Dear Mother Ere I Die Emerson says in his 2010 Stephen Foster and Co that Foster s injuries may have been accidental or self inflicted 19 Telegram that communicated Stephen Foster s death addressed to his brother Morrison Foster When Foster died his leather wallet contained a scrap of paper that simply said Dear friends and gentle hearts along with 37 cents one for each year of his life in Civil War scrip and three pennies The note is said to have inspired Bob Hilliard s lyric for Dear Hearts and Gentle People 1949 Foster was buried in the Allegheny Cemetery in Pittsburgh After his death Morrison Foster became his literary executor As such he answered requests for copies of manuscripts autographs and biographical information 5 One of the best loved of his works was Beautiful Dreamer published in 1864 posthumously 20 Music EditSee also List of songs by Stephen Foster Oh Susanna 1848 3 53 source source Stephen Foster s Oh Susanna performed by the United States Navy Concert Band Old Folks at Home 4 02 source source Old Folks at Home performed by Ernestine Schumann Heink 1918 Problems playing these files See media help Foster grew up in a section of the city where many European immigrants had settled and was accustomed to hearing the music of the Italian Scots Irish and German residents He composed his first song when he was 14 and entitled it the Tioga Waltz The first song that he had published was Open thy Lattice Love 1844 9 21 He wrote songs in support of drinking such as My Wife Is a Most Knowing Woman Mr and Mrs Brown and When the Bowl Goes Round while also composing temperance songs such as Comrades Fill No Glass for Me or The Wife 8 Foster also authored many church hymns although the inclusion of his hymns in hymnals ended by 1910 Some of the hymns are Seek and ye shall find 22 All around is bright and fair While we work for Jesus 23 and Blame not those who weep and sigh 24 Several rare Civil War era hymns by Foster were performed by The Old Stoughton Musical Society Chorus including The Pure The Bright The Beautiful Over The River Give Us This Day and What Shall The Harvest Be Foster usually sent his handwritten scores directly to his publishers The publishers kept the sheet music manuscripts and did not give them to libraries nor return them to his heirs Some of his original hand written scores were bought and put into private collections and the Library of Congress 5 Popular songs Edit Foster s songs lyrics and melodies have often been altered by publishers and performers 25 Ray Charles released a version of Old Folks at Home that was titled Swanee River Rock Talkin Bout That River which became his first pop hit in November 1957 26 My Old Kentucky Home is the official state song of Kentucky adopted by the General Assembly on March 19 1928 Old Folks at Home became the official state song of Florida designated in 1935 27 The lyrics are widely regarded as racist today however so Old Folks at Home was modified with approval from the Stephen Foster Memorial The modified song was kept as the official state song while Florida Where the Sawgrass Meets the Sky was added as the state anthem Legacy EditMusical influence Edit Many early filmmakers selected Foster s songs for their work because his copyrights had expired and cost them nothing 28 Professor of Folklore and musician John Minton wrote a song titled Stephen C Foster s Blues 29 Erika M Anderson of the band EMA refers to Foster s Camptown Races in the song California from past Life Martyred Saints 2011 I bet my money on the bobtail nag somebody bet on the bay 30 The Firesign Theatre makes many references to Foster s compositions in their CD Boom Dot Bust 1999 Rhino Records Larry Kirwan of Black 47 mixes the music of Foster with his own in the musicalHard Times which earned a New York Times accolade in its original run a knockout entertainment Kirwan gives a contemporary interpretation of Foster s troubled later years and sets it in the tumultuous time of the New York draft riots and the Irish Negro relations of the period A revival ran at the Cell Theater in New York in early 2014 and a revised version of the musical called Paradise Square opened at Berkeley Repertory Theatre in 2018 Gordon Lightfoot wrote a song in 1970 titled Your Love s Return Song for Stephen Foster Spike Jones recorded a comedy send up I Dream of Brownie with the Light Blue Jeans Humorist Stan Freberg imagined a 1950s style version of Foster s music in Rock Around Stephen Foster and with Harry Shearer had a sketch about Foster having writer s block in a bit from his United States of America project Songwriter Tom Shaner mentions Stephen Foster meeting up with Eminem s alter ego Slim Shady on the Bowery in Shaner s song Rock amp Roll is A Natural Thing The music of Stephen Foster was an early influence on the Australian composer Percy Grainger who stated that hearing Camptown Races sung by his mother was one of his earliest musical recollections He went on to write a piece entitled Tribute to Foster a composition for mixed choir orchestra and pitched wine glasses based on the melody of Camptown Races 31 Art Garfunkel was cast as Stephen Foster and sang his songs in an elementary school play in Queens New York 32 Neil Sedaka wrote and recorded a song about Foster and released it on his 1975 album The Hungry Years Alternative country duo The Handsome Family s song Wildebeest from their 2013 album Wilderness is about Foster s death 33 Squirrel Nut Zippers wrote and recorded a song in 1998 titled The Ghost of Stephen Foster Foster commemorative stamp in the Famous American Composers series 1940 34 Television Edit Two television shows about the life of Foster and his childhood friend and later wife Jane MacDowell were produced in Japan the first in 1979 with 13 episodes and the second from 1992 to 1993 with 52 episodes both were titled Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair after the song of the same name In the Honeymooners episode The 99 000 Answer Ralph Kramden studies decades worth of popular songs for his upcoming appearance on a television game show Before each song Ed Norton warms up on the piano by playing the opening to Swanee River On the program Ralph is asked his first question for just 100 dollars Who is the composer of Swanee River Ralph freezes then nervously responds Ed Norton and loses In a Fractured Fairy Tales segment of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show Aladdin finds a lamp with a female genie with light brown hair who immediately asks Are you Stephen Foster Film Edit Three Hollywood films have been made of Foster s life Harmony Lane 1935 with Douglass Montgomery Swanee River 1939 with Don Ameche and I Dream of Jeanie 1952 with Bill Shirley The 1939 production was one of Twentieth Century Fox s more ambitious efforts filmed in Technicolor the other two were low budget affairs made by B movie studios In the film Tombstone 1993 Billy Clanton played by Thomas Haden Church tries to bait Doc Holliday Val Kilmer who is playing a Chopin nocturne on the piano by saying Is that Old Dog Tray That sounds like Old Dog Tray to me When the goad fails Clanton asks whether Doc knows any other songs like Camptown Races Oh Susanna You know Stephen stinkin Foster In the film A Million Ways to Die in the West Seth MacFarlane s character Albert can t get Foster s song If You ve Only Got a Mustache from the previous scene out of his head Charlize Theron s character suggests singing a different song to which he replies There are only like 3 songs and she adds And they re all by Stephen Foster In the 1949 film Mighty Joe Young the character Jill Young Terry Moore is able to calm her pet 12 foot tall gorilla by whistling or playing Beautiful Dreamer Other events Edit Stephen Foster Super Saturday is a day of thoroughbred racing during the Spring Summer meet at Churchill Downs in Louisville Kentucky During the call to the post selections of Stephen Foster songs are played by the track bugler Steve Buttleman The day is headlined by the Stephen Foster Handicap a Grade I dirt race for older horses at 9 furlongs 36 U S C 140 designates January 13 as Stephen Foster Memorial Day a United States National Observance In 1936 Congress authorized the minting of a silver half dollar in honor of the Cincinnati Musical Center Foster was featured on the obverse of the coin Stephen Foster Music Camp is a summer music camp held on EKU s campus of Richmond Kentucky The camp offers piano courses choir band and orchestra ensembles Art Edit Stephen Foster by Giuseppe Moretti 1900 A public sculpture by Giuseppe Moretti honoring Foster and commemorating his song Uncle Ned sat in close proximity to the Stephen Foster Memorial until 2018 The statue was removed following complaints about the banjo playing slave seated next to Foster 35 In Alms Park in Cincinnati overlooking the Ohio River there is a seated statue of him The Hall of Fame for Great Americans in the Bronx overlooking the Harlem River has a bronze bust of him by artist Walter Hancock Added in 1940 he is among only 98 honorees from 15 classes of distinguished men and women In My Old Kentucky Home State Park in Bardstown Kentucky a musical called The Stephen Foster Story has been performed since 1958 There is also a statue of him next to the Federal Hill mansion where he visited relatives and which is the inspiration for My Old Kentucky Home A painting by Howard Chandler Christy entitled Stephen Foster and the Angel of Genius is on display in the park s art collection The painting inspired Florence Foster Jenkins to author a tableau in which she personally plays the role of the angel depicted in Christy s painting The scene was featured in the film Florence Foster Jenkins in 2016 Accolades and honors Edit The Stephen Collins Foster sketchbook kept in a safe in the research library in the memorial Pitt s Stephen Foster Memorial contains two theaters Foster is honored on the University of Pittsburgh campus with the Stephen Foster Memorial a landmark building that houses the Stephen Foster Memorial Museum the Center for American Music as well as two theaters the Charity Randall Theatre and Henry Heymann Theatre both performance spaces for Pitt s Department of Theater Arts It is the largest repository for original Stephen Foster compositions recordings and other memorabilia his songs have inspired worldwide Two state parks are named in Foster s honor the Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center State Park in White Springs Florida and Stephen C Foster State Park in Georgia Both parks are on the Suwannee River Stephen Foster Lake at Mount Pisgah State Park in Pennsylvania is also named in his honor One state park is named in honor of Foster s songs My Old Kentucky Home an historic mansion formerly named Federal Hill located in Bardstown Kentucky where Stephen is said to have been an occasional visitor according to his brother Morrison Foster The park dedicated a bronze statue in honor of Stephen s work The Lawrenceville Pittsburgh Historical Society together with the Allegheny Cemetery Historical Association hosts the annual Stephen Foster Music and Heritage Festival Doo Dah Days Held the first weekend of July Doo Dah Days celebrates the life and music of one of the most influential songwriters in America s history His home in the Lawrenceville Section of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania still remains on Penn Avenue nearby the Stephen Foster Community Center A 1900 statue of Foster by Giuseppe Moretti was located in Schenley Plaza in Pittsburgh from 1940 until 2018 On the unanimous recommendation of the Pittsburgh Art Commission the statue was removed on April 26 2018 36 Its new home has not yet been determined It has a long reputation as the most controversial public art in Pittsburgh for its depiction of an African American banjo player at the feet of the seated composer Critics say the statue glorifies white appropriation of black culture and depicts the vacantly smiling musician in a way that is at best condescending and at worst racist 37 A city appointed Task Force on Women in Public Art called for the statue to be replaced with one honoring an African American woman with ties to the Pittsburgh community The Task Force held a series of community forums in Pittsburgh to collect public feedback on the statue replacement and circulated an online form which allowed the public to vote for one of seven previously selected candidates or write in an alternate suggestion 38 However the Task Force on Women in Public Art and the Pittsburgh Art Commission have not reached an agreement as to who will be commemorated or if the statue will stay in the Schenley Plaza location 39 See also EditThe Stephen Foster Collection and archive Most primary sources related to his life family and music have been retained by the University of Pittsburgh Library System as the Foster Hall Collection housed in the Stephen Foster Memorial These materials were obtained from philanthropists or donated by collectors or his heirs Notes Edit His grandfather James Foster was an associate of John McMillan and a founding trustee of Canonsburg Academy a predecessor institution to Jefferson College his father William Barclay Foster attended Canonsburg Academy until age 16 11 References Edit a b Stephen C Foster As Man and Musician The Life Story of the Sweet Singer of Pittsburg Told by His Contemporaries and Comrades The Pittsburg Press September 12 1900 via Newspapers com Marks Rusty April 22 2001 ON TELEVISION Stephen Foster Quintessential songwriter lived in music died in ruin Sunday Gazette Mail Gazette Daily Inc via HighBeam Research archived from the original on October 11 2013 retrieved April 25 2012 The song written in 1847 soon spread throughout the country Foster decided to become a full time songwriter a vocation no one had bothered to pursue until then subscription required Pittsburgh Native Son and Songwriter Stephen Foster to be Inducted into Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame Oct 17 US Fed News Service Including US State News The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd via HighBeam Research October 16 2010 archived from the original on October 11 2013 retrieved April 25 2012 subscription required Compare Root Deane L March 12 1990 The Mythtory of Stephen C Foster or Why His True Story Remains Untold Lecture transcript at the American Music Center Research Conference American Music Research Center Journal 20 21 Retrieved December 24 2019 Stephen Foster was the most famous songwriter of the nineteenth century and he is still the best known American composer in many countries of the world today a b c d Root Deane L March 12 1990 The Mythtory of Stephen C Foster or Why His True Story Remains Untold Lecture transcript at the American Music Center Research Conference American Music Research Center Journal 20 36 Retrieved October 4 2015 Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh Library System CS1 maint postscript link Howard John Tasker March 1944 The Literature on Stephen Foster Notes Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 1 2 10 15 doi 10 2307 891301 ISSN 0027 4380 JSTOR 891301 Root Deane L March 1990 The Mythtory of Stephen C Foster or Why His True Story Remains Untold PDF American Music Research Center U Colorado Boulder Retrieved September 25 2018 a b c Sanders Paul Fall 2008 Comrades Fill No Glass For Me Stephen Foster s Medlodies As Borrowed by the American Temperance Movement PDF Social History of Alcohol and Drugs 23 1 24 40 doi 10 1086 SHAD23010024 S2CID 165454878 Retrieved October 13 2015 a b Foster Hall Collection Collection Number CAM FHC 2011 01 Guide to Archives and Manuscript Collections at the University of Pittsburgh Library System University of Pittsburgh Center for American Music Retrieved October 13 2015 Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh CS1 maint postscript link a b c Emerson Ken 1998 Doo dah Steven Foster and the Rise of American Popular Culture Da Capo Press p 79 ISBN 978 0 306 80852 4 Vincent Milligan Harold 1920 Stephen Collins Foster a biography of America s folk song composer G Schirmer pp 3 4 Biography The Center for American Music Univ of Pittsburgh Retrieved September 25 2018 Sisario Ben September 20 1998 ON THE MAP Stephen Foster s Old Hoboken Home The New York Times Retrieved July 4 2016 American Experience Stephen Foster People amp Events Shoppbs pbs org Retrieved January 8 2021 Saunders 2012 The Social Agenda of Stephen Foster s Plantation Melodies American Music 30 3 275 289 doi 10 5406 americanmusic 30 3 0275 JSTOR 10 5406 americanmusic 30 3 0275 S2CID 144617319 More about the film Stephen Foster American Experience PBS Retrieved October 2 2015 O Connell JoAnne H 2007 Understanding Stephen Collins Foster His World and Music PDF Thesis University of Pittsburgh Retrieved June 25 2016 O Connell JoAnne 2016 The Life and Songs of Stephen Foster a Revealing Portrait of the Forgotten Man Behind Swanee River Beautiful Dreamer and My Old Kentucky Home Lanham MD Rowman and Littlefield p 321 ISBN 9781442253865 Emerson Ken 2010 Stephen Foster and Co Lyrics of America s First Great Popular Songs New York Library of America p 10 ISBN 978 1598530704 W Tomaschewski The Last Chapter Stephen Collins Foster W Tomaschewski Retrieved August 4 2012 Barcousky Len February 14 2016 Eyewitness 1916 Living link to Foster passes on Pittsburgh Post Gazette Retrieved April 27 2016 Waters Choral Harp a new and superior collection of choice hymns and tunes mostly new written and composed for Sunday schools missionary revival and social meetings and for church worship 106 Who has our Redeemer heard Hymnary org Retrieved August 23 2016 All around is bright and fair While we work for Jesus Hymnary org Retrieved August 23 2016 Blame not those who weep and sigh Hymnary org Retrieved August 23 2016 Steel David Warren 2008 The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture Volume 12 Music Foster Stephen 1826 1864 COMPOSER AND SONGWRITER University of North Carolina Press JSTOR 10 5149 9781469616667 malone 86 Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh CS1 maint postscript link Whitburn Joel Top R amp B Singles 1942 1999 p 74 The State Anthem Florida Where the Sawgrass Meets the Sky State of Florida Retrieved April 29 2011 Lerner Neil September 2006 Review Tunes for Toons Music and the Hollywood Cartoon by Daniel Goldmark Notes Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 63 1 121 124 JSTOR 4487739 Stephen C Foster s Blues The Possum Trot Orchestra Retrieved May 10 2015 E M A California Lyrics SongLyrics Retrieved August 4 2012 A Source guide to the music of Percy Grainger Lewis Thomas P 1st ed White Plains N Y Pro Am Music Resources 1991 ISBN 9780912483566 OCLC 24019532 CS1 maint others link What Is It All but Luminous by Art Garfunkel PenguinRandomHouse com Books PenguinRandomhouse com Retrieved April 25 2019 Monger James Wilderness The Handsome Family Allmusic com Retrieved July 8 2013 1 cent Foster Arago people postage amp the post Smithsonian National Postal Museum Retrieved May 10 2015 Oh Susanna songwriter s statue removed from Pittsburgh park after criticism NBC News Retrieved April 25 2019 Oh Susanna songwriter s statue removed amid criticism Associated Press April 26 2018 Retrieved April 26 2018 Majors Dan October 25 2017 City s art commission unanimous Statue of Stephen Foster needs to go Pittsburgh Post Gazette Retrieved May 5 2018 City wants statue of African American woman to replace Stephen Foster monument Pittsburgh Post Gazette March 14 2018 Retrieved September 16 2018 O Driscoll Bill July 2 2018 Initiative To Honor Women Of Color With Public Art Sparks Debate WESA WESA Retrieved September 16 2018 Further reading EditEmerson Ken ed 2010 Stephen Foster amp Co Lyrics of the First Great American Songwriters New York The Library of America ISBN 978 1 59853 070 4 OCLC 426803667 Hamm Charles 1983 Yesterdays Popular Song in America New York City W W Norton amp Co ISBN 978 0393300628 Hodges Fletcher Jr 1939 A Pittsburgh Composer and His Memorial Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania ASIN B01A8YVHHM Hodges Fletcher Jr 1948 The Research Work of the Foster Hall Collection Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press Hodges Fletcher Jr 1958 The Swanee River and a Biographical Sketch of Stephen Collins Foster Whitefish Montana Literary Licensing LLC ISBN 978 1258193980 Howard John Tasker March 1944 The Literature on Stephen Foster Notes Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 1 2 10 15 doi 10 2307 891301 JSTOR 891301 Howard John Tasker 1945 Stephen Foster America s Troubadour New York City Tudor Publishing Company ASIN B0007ELPPI Milligan Harold Vincent 1920 Stephen Collins Foster A Biography Of America s Folk Song Composer Whitefish Montana Kessinger Publishing LLC ISBN 978 0548971864 Morneweck Evelyn 1973 Chronicles of Stephen Foster s Family Associated Faculty Press Inc ISBN 978 0804617420 O Connell JoAnne 2016 The Life and Songs of Stephen Foster a Revealing Portrait of the Forgotten Man Behind Swanee River Beautiful Dreamer and My Old Kentucky Home Lanham MD Rowman and Littlefield p 321 ISBN 9781442253865 Foster Hall Collection Center for American Music University of Pittsburgh Retrieved March 24 2017 Pictorial Biography of Stephen Collins Foster PDF Musical Courier 1930 Retrieved March 24 2017 External links EditStephen Fosterat Wikipedia s sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Free scores by Stephen Foster at the International Music Score Library Project IMSLP Works by or about Stephen Foster at Internet Archive Stephen Foster at IMDb Stephen Foster at Find a Grave Archives of Stephen Foster at the University of Kentucky Stephen Foster discography at Discogs Pittsburgh Music History Hymns and songs by Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster recordings at the Discography of American Historical Recordings Music scores Sheet music for I see her still in my dreams Macon GA John C Schreiner amp Son from the Confederate Imprints Sheet Music Collection Sheet music for Parthenia to Incomar Macon GA John C Schreiner amp Son from the Confederate Imprints Sheet Music Collection The Melodies of Stephen C Foster online version Pittsburgh PA T M Walker Full sheet music book 307 pages Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stephen Foster amp oldid 1054242994, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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