fbpx
Wikipedia

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: "Stephen Hastings"news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR
(December 2011) ()

Sir Stephen Lewis Edmonstone HastingsMC (4 May 1921 – 10 January 2005) was a British Conservative politician who was elected Member of Parliament for Mid Bedfordshire in a 1960 by-election and held it until he stood down at the 1983 general election. He was also a soldier, MI6 operative, Master of Foxhounds and author.

Sir Stephen Hastings
Member of Parliament
for Mid Bedfordshire
In office
16 November 1960 – 13 May 1983
Preceded byAlan Lennox-Boyd
Succeeded byNicholas Lyell
Personal details
Born
Stephen Lewis Edmonstone Hastings

(1921-05-04)4 May 1921
Knightsbridge, London, England
Died10 January 2005(2005-01-10) (aged 83)
Wansford, Cambridgeshire, England
NationalityBritish
Political partyConservative
Spouse(s)
Harriet Tomlin
(m. 1948; div. 1971)​
Elizabeth Naylor-Leyland
(m. 1975; died 1997)​
Children2 (by Tomlin)
RelativesMax Hastings (cousin)
Alma materRoyal Military College, Sandhurst
Military service
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Branch/serviceBritish Army
Years of service1940–1948
RankScots Guards
AwardsMilitary Cross

The son of a Southern Rhodesian farmer, Hastings had visited the country only briefly as a young child, but he grew up with tales of the veldt and the farm. A year after he was elected to Parliament, he accepted an invitation from the British South Africa Company to visit the country, and from then on made frequent visits, getting to know the leading white politicians. Over the next 20 years, Hastings devoted his political energies to injecting what he felt was much needed balance into the debate about Rhodesia's future. When Rhodesia's Prime Minister, Ian Smith, unilaterally declared the independence of Rhodesia in 1964, Hastings was a prominent member of the Rhodesia lobby opposing sanctions – against the official party line.

Fourteen years later, he strongly supported the Internal Settlement between Smith and the moderate nationalist leaders under which Bishop Abel Muzorewa became Prime Minister, though effective power remained in white hands. He saw the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979, which created an independent Zimbabwe and led to Robert Mugabe's election, as a disaster caused by "unnecessary deference to the delusion of the Commonwealth, the Afro-Asian lobby and to the Americans by a series of British governments".

Although Hastings claimed to have been invited to join Edward Heath's administration, his stance on Rhodesia effectively rendered him ineligible for office. Even Margaret Thatcher, whom he counted as an ally, kept him on the backbenches, though she recommended him for a knighthood in 1983. In his latter years at his Cambridgeshire home, Stibbington House, the only person whose photographs were displayed in more than one room (apart from those of his beloved late wife, Elizabeth) were those of Smith.

Contents

Hastings was born at Knightsbridge in Central London, son of Major Lewis Aloysius Macdonald Hastings (1880-1966) and Meriel Eda St John (1888-1971), daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Neil Edmonstone, of the 4th Hussars. Lewis Hastings had run away to Southern Rhodesia at the age of 17 after leaving his school, going on to prospect for diamonds, serve in the Cape Mounted Police, and operate as a political organizer; after the First World War, he bought a farm there, founded the Southern Rhodesia Tobacco Growers' Association, and became an MP and war correspondent for the BBC. For the first two years of his life, Stephen lived with his parents on the farm; then he and his younger sister were sent home to England, where they were brought up by their doting and affluent maternal grandmother in Berkshire. Hastings was proud of his Scottish ancestry, among whose relations were the MacDonalds of Sleat. He had an abiding affection for his cousin the historian and journalist, Max Hastings.

He learned to ride in Windsor Great Park, becoming an accomplished horseman. He attended Durnford School in Dorset (1929–34) and Eton College (1934–39). At Eton he managed to combine an undistinguished academic career, and with the clandestine help of his grandmother and her chauffeur, to engage in racing as an amateur jockey and, more importantly for his future, Hastings began a lifelong love for steeplechasing and fox hunting.

On leaving school, his grandmother offered to pull strings to enable him to pursue a career either as a racehorse trainer or in the Scots Guards. He chose the latter. Commissioned in the Scots Guards from Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in January 1940, Hastings saw action against the Italians and Germans in the Western Desert, taking part in Operation Crusader, which relieved Tobruk and threw Rommel out of Cyrenaica.

After disagreements with his company commander he joined the SAS, and before El Alamein participated in a successful operation against an airfield, and a disastrous one against Benghazi, earning a Mention in Dispatches.

Then, after being diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, he landed a job in Cairo as ADC to the Minister of State, Richard Casey. By mid-1943 Hastings was pronounced fit again, and joined SOE. His first assignment was to accompany the Franco-American landing in the south of France. He arrived in the newly liberated Paris in August 1944, then was dropped with a wireless operator and interpreter behind enemy lines in the Apennines as chief liaison officer to the Italian partisans.

He found them demoralised and largely non-existent, but successfully trained and armed them, despite internal conflicts and frequent enemy attempts to capture him. By early April he had organised three divisions of about 4,000 partisans, which seized Piacenza and held a bridgehead over the River Po in a three-day operation. Hastings was constantly to the fore, coolly directing and encouraging his men while under constant machine-gun and mortar fire, according to the citation for his Military Cross.

After the capture of Piacenza, Hastings and a few companions journeyed through German-held territory, and strode into the piazza of a seaside village on the Adriatic. Hastings thereupon convinced the German officer in charge that it would be in his best interest to provide them with a fine seaside villa and supplies of champagne for the weeks that it would take the Allies to arrive. At the end of April 1945, Hastings was in the Piazzale Loreto at Milan and saw the bodies of Benito Mussolini and Clara Petacci, who along with other executed fascists, were hanging upside down. He noted that Petacci's skirt had been pinned to her stockings to prevent her underwear from being revealed. Hastings considered this to be a perfect example of the often paradoxical delicacy of the Italian temperament.

The Piacenza operation was universally considered a major contribution to the Allied advance. He also found time to assemble a scratch pack - the Brindisi Vale Hounds - which hunted a reported, but probably non-existent, fox.

He was spared a posting to Nagasaki by a friend finding him a job in the economic division of the control commission in Austria, a post for which, he admitted at his interview, he had no relevant qualifications. When the friend returned to England, Hastings remained in Austria, taking a staff job with the Army with the sole duty of looking after the polo ponies, and occasionally played himself.

He was then sent to a former Wehrmacht training centre, above the Judenburg in Styria, where he captained the British troops' ski-racing team but broke a leg during a competition against the French.

Finding peacetime duties unexciting, Hastings left the Army in 1948. He turned down an offer from Gillette and was refused a job by the BBC. Eventually he was invited by a friend to join MI6, which sent him in 1950 to Finland, disguised as an assistant military attaché. Four years later he moved to Paris, where he observed the conspiracy over the Suez operation and the machinations that preceded Charles de Gaulle's return to power. From 1958 to 1960, he worked in the political office of the Middle East forces in Cyprus. As a result of his work countering the KGB, Hastings was one of the few Englishmen of his class and age to enjoy vodka neat, as well as the company of all and sundry. He, like his wife Elizabeth, was utterly unsnobbish.

The unproven imputations put forward in the book Spycatcher, in which Hastings was portrayed as participating in an attempt to destabilise the Harold Wilson government were always vehemently denied by him. The book's author, Peter Wright, was regularly denounced by Hastings as "that traitor", though no one knew exactly to what betrayal he was referring.

His disgust at the Suez Crisis led to his putting his name down with Conservative Central Office as a candidate, and in 1960 he was offered the safe seat of Mid Bedfordshire; He won a 1960 by-election caused by the elevation to the peerage of Alan Lennox-Boyd. He retained his seat in the subsequent general elections in 1964, 1966, 1970, February 1974, October 1974, and 1979, but stood down at the 1983 general election, when he was succeeded by fellow-Conservative Sir Nicholas Lyell. Hastings quickly established his credentials on the Right of the party, becoming a stalwart of the Monday Club and an ally of the likes of Julian Amery and Ronald Bell. He served on various backbench committees, becoming a member of the executive of the 1922 Committee and vice-chairman of the Conservative backbench Foreign Affairs Committee. At the 1964 Conservative Party Conference, he was cheered to the rafters by conference delegates for a speech deeply critical of the party leadership; he was never invited to speak again.

He could be an effective Commons performer. His self-confident, upper-class drawl and theatrical oratorical style enraged Labour MPs. He was often embroiled in controversy concerning Communist infiltration. In 1977 he alleged that five prominent trades union officials were agents for communist countries, based on tape recordings made by the Czech defector Josef Frolík. The following year, before Margaret Thatcher came into office, Hastings and Brian Crozier wrote her a paper setting out "the diabolical nature of the Communist conspiracy" against Britain. At Hastings's suggestion she appointed a committee comprising Willie Whitelaw, Lord Carrington, Sir Keith Joseph and Hastings himself. This proposed forming a counter-subversion executive but the scheme was quietly dropped after the Tories came to power in 1979.

In 1986 Hastings successfully sued The Observer newspaper for libel following allegations that he had been one of two Conservative MPs involved in an MI5 plot to oust Harold Wilson.

Hastings remained a friend of Thatcher after his retirement from the Commons in 1983. He and his wife entertained the Thatchers and other notables at Milton Hall, the largest private house in Cambridgeshire. In 1982 Margaret and Denis Thatcher were at dinner with the Hastings at Milton when the butler entered to ask the Prime Minister to the telephone, by which Mrs Thatcher was informed of Argentina's invasion of the British South Atlantic island of South Georgia. This marked the start of the Falklands War.

Outside his parliamentary duties, Hastings continued to ride, hunting regularly with the Fitzwilliam and other hunts. In 1982 he was elected chairman of the British Field Sports Society in succession to Sir Marcus Kimball. After retiring from Parliament, he became a partner and manager of the Milton Park Stud, a member of the council of the Thoroughbred Breeders' Association, and joint master of the Fitzwilliam Hunt. He had maintained his lifelong love of racing and each evening before dinner, a glass of champagne in hand, he would watch the races of the day, prerecorded by his butler.

Hastings was chairman of the Peterborough Cathedral Development and Preservation Trust and helped raise millions of pounds for the cathedral's restoration. He was patron of 32 livings, and took his duty to help provide priests for his parishes seriously. He and Elizabeth could be found in the squire's pew at the Church of St Mary the Virgin, Marholm, any Sunday they were at Milton.

Hastings was an accomplished painter, a fine sculptor, and wrote two books, The Murder of TSR2 (1966) and a well-received autobiography, The Drums of Memory (1995). He regularly skied in Switzerland until he was in his ninth decade, and hunted with the Fitzwilliam over forty times in the year before his death.

Stephen Hastings married first, in 1948 (dissolved 1971), Harriet Tomlin, with whom he had a son Neil and a daughter Carola. He married secondly, in 1975, Elizabeth Anne Marie Gabrielle, the former Lady Naylor-Leyland. Lady Hastings was born the younger daughter of the 2nd and last Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent and Joyce Langdale of Houghton Hall, West Riding, Yorkshire, who secondly married Thomas Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, 10th and last Earl Fitzwilliam.

In 1979 Lord Fizwilliam left the bulk of his great art collection and the estates of Milton, Cambridgeshire, Wentworth Woodhouse, near Doncaster, and Malton, North Yorkshire, as well as a grand town house in Belgrave Square to his widow, and to Elizabeth, who was widely known in society as the daughter of Lord Fitzwilliam, a fact which she was known to confirm from time to time, though with reservations. Lady Hastings died from cancer at Milton in 1997. She was succeeded in her stewardship of the Fitzwilliam heritage by her son, Philip Naylor-Leyland, 4th Baronet.

Sir Stephen Hastings died on 10 January 2005 at Stibbington House, Cambridgeshire, from oesophageal cancer.

  1. "Obituary Peterborough Cathedral". peterborough-cathedral.org.uk. Archived from the original on 13 April 2005. Retrieved14 December 2017.
  2. "Hastings, Sir Stephen Lewis Edmonstone (1921–2005), politician | Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". oxforddnb.com. 24 July 2012. Retrieved14 December 2017.
  3. "The Times obituary". timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved14 December 2017.
  • Sir Stephen Hastings' own autobiography The Drums of Memory.
  • Lady Hastings' obituary in Christie's magazine, and various personal reminiscences of Sir Stephen and The Hon. Lady Hastings.

Stephen Hastings Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Stephen Hastings news newspapers books scholar JSTOR December 2011 Learn how and when to remove this template message Sir Stephen Lewis Edmonstone Hastings MC 1 4 May 1921 10 January 2005 2 was a British Conservative politician who was elected Member of Parliament for Mid Bedfordshire in a 1960 by election and held it until he stood down at the 1983 general election 3 He was also a soldier MI6 operative Master of Foxhounds and author Sir Stephen HastingsMCMember of Parliament for Mid BedfordshireIn office 16 November 1960 13 May 1983Preceded byAlan Lennox BoydSucceeded byNicholas LyellPersonal detailsBornStephen Lewis Edmonstone Hastings 1921 05 04 4 May 1921 Knightsbridge London EnglandDied10 January 2005 2005 01 10 aged 83 Wansford Cambridgeshire EnglandNationalityBritishPolitical partyConservativeSpouse s Harriet Tomlin m 1948 div 1971 wbr Elizabeth Naylor Leyland m 1975 died 1997 wbr Children2 by Tomlin RelativesMax Hastings cousin Alma materRoyal Military College SandhurstMilitary serviceAllegiance United KingdomBranch service British ArmyYears of service1940 1948RankScots GuardsAwardsMilitary Cross The son of a Southern Rhodesian farmer Hastings had visited the country only briefly as a young child but he grew up with tales of the veldt and the farm A year after he was elected to Parliament he accepted an invitation from the British South Africa Company to visit the country and from then on made frequent visits getting to know the leading white politicians Over the next 20 years Hastings devoted his political energies to injecting what he felt was much needed balance into the debate about Rhodesia s future When Rhodesia s Prime Minister Ian Smith unilaterally declared the independence of Rhodesia in 1964 Hastings was a prominent member of the Rhodesia lobby opposing sanctions against the official party line Fourteen years later he strongly supported the Internal Settlement between Smith and the moderate nationalist leaders under which Bishop Abel Muzorewa became Prime Minister though effective power remained in white hands He saw the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979 which created an independent Zimbabwe and led to Robert Mugabe s election as a disaster caused by unnecessary deference to the delusion of the Commonwealth the Afro Asian lobby and to the Americans by a series of British governments Although Hastings claimed to have been invited to join Edward Heath s administration his stance on Rhodesia effectively rendered him ineligible for office Even Margaret Thatcher whom he counted as an ally kept him on the backbenches though she recommended him for a knighthood in 1983 In his latter years at his Cambridgeshire home Stibbington House the only person whose photographs were displayed in more than one room apart from those of his beloved late wife Elizabeth were those of Smith Contents 1 Early life 2 Military career 3 1948 onwards 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksEarly life EditHastings was born at Knightsbridge in Central London son of Major Lewis Aloysius Macdonald Hastings 1880 1966 and Meriel Eda St John 1888 1971 daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Neil Edmonstone of the 4th Hussars 2 Lewis Hastings had run away to Southern Rhodesia at the age of 17 after leaving his school going on to prospect for diamonds serve in the Cape Mounted Police and operate as a political organizer after the First World War he bought a farm there founded the Southern Rhodesia Tobacco Growers Association and became an MP and war correspondent for the BBC 2 For the first two years of his life Stephen lived with his parents on the farm then he and his younger sister were sent home to England where they were brought up by their doting and affluent maternal grandmother in Berkshire Hastings was proud of his Scottish ancestry among whose relations were the MacDonalds of Sleat He had an abiding affection for his cousin the historian and journalist Max Hastings He learned to ride in Windsor Great Park becoming an accomplished horseman He attended Durnford School in Dorset 1929 34 2 and Eton College 1934 39 2 At Eton he managed to combine an undistinguished academic career and with the clandestine help of his grandmother and her chauffeur to engage in racing as an amateur jockey and more importantly for his future Hastings began a lifelong love for steeplechasing and fox hunting Military career EditOn leaving school his grandmother offered to pull strings to enable him to pursue a career either as a racehorse trainer or in the Scots Guards He chose the latter Commissioned in the Scots Guards from Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in January 1940 Hastings saw action against the Italians and Germans in the Western Desert taking part in Operation Crusader which relieved Tobruk and threw Rommel out of Cyrenaica After disagreements with his company commander he joined the SAS and before El Alamein participated in a successful operation against an airfield and a disastrous one against Benghazi earning a Mention in Dispatches Then after being diagnosed with chronic bronchitis he landed a job in Cairo as ADC to the Minister of State Richard Casey By mid 1943 Hastings was pronounced fit again and joined SOE His first assignment was to accompany the Franco American landing in the south of France He arrived in the newly liberated Paris in August 1944 then was dropped with a wireless operator and interpreter behind enemy lines in the Apennines as chief liaison officer to the Italian partisans He found them demoralised and largely non existent but successfully trained and armed them despite internal conflicts and frequent enemy attempts to capture him By early April he had organised three divisions of about 4 000 partisans which seized Piacenza and held a bridgehead over the River Po in a three day operation Hastings was constantly to the fore coolly directing and encouraging his men while under constant machine gun and mortar fire according to the citation for his Military Cross 1 After the capture of Piacenza Hastings and a few companions journeyed through German held territory and strode into the piazza of a seaside village on the Adriatic Hastings thereupon convinced the German officer in charge that it would be in his best interest to provide them with a fine seaside villa and supplies of champagne for the weeks that it would take the Allies to arrive At the end of April 1945 Hastings was in the Piazzale Loreto at Milan and saw the bodies of Benito Mussolini and Clara Petacci who along with other executed fascists were hanging upside down He noted that Petacci s skirt had been pinned to her stockings to prevent her underwear from being revealed Hastings considered this to be a perfect example of the often paradoxical delicacy of the Italian temperament The Piacenza operation was universally considered a major contribution to the Allied advance He also found time to assemble a scratch pack the Brindisi Vale Hounds which hunted a reported but probably non existent fox He was spared a posting to Nagasaki by a friend finding him a job in the economic division of the control commission in Austria a post for which he admitted at his interview he had no relevant qualifications When the friend returned to England Hastings remained in Austria taking a staff job with the Army with the sole duty of looking after the polo ponies and occasionally played himself He was then sent to a former Wehrmacht training centre above the Judenburg in Styria where he captained the British troops ski racing team but broke a leg during a competition against the French 1948 onwards EditFinding peacetime duties unexciting Hastings left the Army in 1948 He turned down an offer from Gillette and was refused a job by the BBC Eventually he was invited by a friend to join MI6 which sent him in 1950 to Finland disguised as an assistant military attache Four years later he moved to Paris where he observed the conspiracy over the Suez operation and the machinations that preceded Charles de Gaulle s return to power From 1958 to 1960 he worked in the political office of the Middle East forces in Cyprus As a result of his work countering the KGB Hastings was one of the few Englishmen of his class and age to enjoy vodka neat as well as the company of all and sundry He like his wife Elizabeth was utterly unsnobbish The unproven imputations put forward in the book Spycatcher in which Hastings was portrayed as participating in an attempt to destabilise the Harold Wilson government were always vehemently denied by him The book s author Peter Wright was regularly denounced by Hastings as that traitor though no one knew exactly to what betrayal he was referring His disgust at the Suez Crisis led to his putting his name down with Conservative Central Office as a candidate and in 1960 he was offered the safe seat of Mid Bedfordshire He won a 1960 by election caused by the elevation to the peerage of Alan Lennox Boyd He retained his seat in the subsequent general elections in 1964 1966 1970 February 1974 October 1974 and 1979 but stood down at the 1983 general election when he was succeeded by fellow Conservative Sir Nicholas Lyell 3 Hastings quickly established his credentials on the Right of the party becoming a stalwart of the Monday Club and an ally of the likes of Julian Amery and Ronald Bell He served on various backbench committees becoming a member of the executive of the 1922 Committee and vice chairman of the Conservative backbench Foreign Affairs Committee At the 1964 Conservative Party Conference he was cheered to the rafters by conference delegates for a speech deeply critical of the party leadership he was never invited to speak again He could be an effective Commons performer His self confident upper class drawl and theatrical oratorical style enraged Labour MPs He was often embroiled in controversy concerning Communist infiltration In 1977 he alleged that five prominent trades union officials were agents for communist countries based on tape recordings made by the Czech defector Josef Frolik The following year before Margaret Thatcher came into office Hastings and Brian Crozier wrote her a paper setting out the diabolical nature of the Communist conspiracy against Britain At Hastings s suggestion she appointed a committee comprising Willie Whitelaw Lord Carrington Sir Keith Joseph and Hastings himself This proposed forming a counter subversion executive but the scheme was quietly dropped after the Tories came to power in 1979 In 1986 Hastings successfully sued The Observer newspaper for libel following allegations that he had been one of two Conservative MPs involved in an MI5 plot to oust Harold Wilson Hastings remained a friend of Thatcher after his retirement from the Commons in 1983 He and his wife entertained the Thatchers and other notables at Milton Hall the largest private house in Cambridgeshire In 1982 Margaret and Denis Thatcher were at dinner with the Hastings at Milton when the butler entered to ask the Prime Minister to the telephone by which Mrs Thatcher was informed of Argentina s invasion of the British South Atlantic island of South Georgia This marked the start of the Falklands War Outside his parliamentary duties Hastings continued to ride hunting regularly with the Fitzwilliam and other hunts In 1982 he was elected chairman of the British Field Sports Society in succession to Sir Marcus Kimball After retiring from Parliament he became a partner and manager of the Milton Park Stud a member of the council of the Thoroughbred Breeders Association and joint master of the Fitzwilliam Hunt He had maintained his lifelong love of racing and each evening before dinner a glass of champagne in hand he would watch the races of the day prerecorded by his butler Hastings was chairman of the Peterborough Cathedral Development and Preservation Trust 1 and helped raise millions of pounds for the cathedral s restoration He was patron of 32 livings and took his duty to help provide priests for his parishes seriously He and Elizabeth could be found in the squire s pew at the Church of St Mary the Virgin Marholm any Sunday they were at Milton Hastings was an accomplished painter a fine sculptor and wrote two books The Murder of TSR2 1966 and a well received autobiography The Drums of Memory 1995 He regularly skied in Switzerland until he was in his ninth decade and hunted with the Fitzwilliam over forty times in the year before his death Stephen Hastings married first in 1948 dissolved 1971 Harriet Tomlin with whom he had a son Neil and a daughter Carola He married secondly in 1975 Elizabeth Anne Marie Gabrielle the former Lady Naylor Leyland Lady Hastings was born the younger daughter of the 2nd and last Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent and Joyce Langdale of Houghton Hall West Riding Yorkshire who secondly married Thomas Wentworth Fitzwilliam 10th and last Earl Fitzwilliam In 1979 Lord Fizwilliam left the bulk of his great art collection and the estates of Milton Cambridgeshire Wentworth Woodhouse near Doncaster and Malton North Yorkshire as well as a grand town house in Belgrave Square to his widow and to Elizabeth who was widely known in society as the daughter of Lord Fitzwilliam a fact which she was known to confirm from time to time though with reservations Lady Hastings died from cancer at Milton in 1997 She was succeeded in her stewardship of the Fitzwilliam heritage by her son Philip Naylor Leyland 4th Baronet Sir Stephen Hastings died on 10 January 2005 at Stibbington House Cambridgeshire from oesophageal cancer References Edit a b c Obituary Peterborough Cathedral peterborough cathedral org uk Archived from the original on 13 April 2005 Retrieved 14 December 2017 a b c d e Hastings Sir Stephen Lewis Edmonstone 1921 2005 politician Oxford Dictionary of National Biography oxforddnb com 24 July 2012 Retrieved 14 December 2017 a b The Times obituary timesonline co uk Retrieved 14 December 2017 Further reading EditSir Stephen Hastings own autobiography The Drums of Memory Lady Hastings obituary in Christie s magazine and various personal reminiscences of Sir Stephen and The Hon Lady Hastings External links EditHansard 1803 2005 contributions in Parliament by Stephen HastingsParliament of the United KingdomPreceded byAlan Lennox Boyd Member of Parliament for Mid Bedfordshire 1960 1983 Succeeded bySir Nicholas Lyell Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stephen Hastings amp oldid 1077936843, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.