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Stephen I of Hungary

"King Saint Stephen", "Stephen of Hungary", and "Szent István" redirect here. For the first-century martyr, see Saint Stephen. For other people, see Stephen of Hungary (disambiguation). For the dreadnought, see SMS Szent István.

Stephen I, also known as King Saint Stephen (Hungarian: Szent István király ; Latin: Sanctus Stephanus; Slovak: Štefan I. or Štefan Veľký; c. 975 – 15 August 1038), was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001, until his death in 1038. The year of his birth is uncertain, but many details of his life suggest that he was born in, or after, 975, in Esztergom. At his birth, he was given the pagan name Vajk. The date of his baptism is unknown. He was the only son of Grand Prince Géza and his wife, Sarolt, who was descended from a prominent family of gyulas. Although both of his parents were baptized, Stephen was the first member of his family to become a devout Christian. He married Gisela of Bavaria, a scion of the imperial Ottonian dynasty.

Saint Stephen I
King of the Hungarians, King of the Pannonians or King of Hungary
Portrayal of Stephen I on the Hungarian coronation pall from 1031
King of Hungary
Reign1000 or 1001–1038
Coronation25 December 1000 or 1 January 1001
SuccessorPeter
Grand Prince of the Hungarians
Reign997–1000 or 1001
PredecessorGéza
BornVajk
c. 975
Esztergom, Principality of Hungary
Died15 August 1038 (aged 62–63)
Esztergom or Székesfehérvár, Kingdom of Hungary
Burial
SpouseGisela of Bavaria (m. 996)
IssueOtto
Saint Emeric
DynastyÁrpád
FatherGéza of Hungary
MotherSarolt
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Signature

After succeeding his father in 997, Stephen had to fight for the throne against his relative, Koppány, who was supported by large numbers of pagan warriors. He defeated Koppány with the assistance of foreign knights including Vecelin, Hont and Pázmány, and native lords. He was crowned on 25 December 1000 or 1 January 1001 with a crown sent by Pope Sylvester II. In a series of wars against semi-independent tribes and chieftains—including the Black Hungarians and his uncle, Gyula the Younger—he unified the Carpathian Basin. He protected the independence of his kingdom by forcing the invading troops of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, to withdraw from Hungary in 1030.

Stephen established at least one archbishopric, six bishoprics and three Benedictine monasteries, leading the Church in Hungary to develop independently from the archbishops of the Holy Roman Empire. He encouraged the spread of Christianity by meting out severe punishments for ignoring Christian customs. His system of local administration was based on counties organized around fortresses and administered by royal officials. Hungary enjoyed a lasting period of peace during his reign, and became a preferred route for pilgrims and merchants traveling between Western Europe, the Holy Land and Constantinople.

He survived all of his children, dying on 15 August 1038, and was buried in his new basilica, built in Székesfehérvár and dedicated to the Holy Virgin. His death was followed by civil wars which lasted for decades. He was canonized by Pope Gregory VII, together with his son, Emeric, and Bishop Gerard of Csanád, in 1083. Stephen is a popular saint in Hungary and neighboring territories. In Hungary, his feast day (celebrated on 20 August) is also a public holiday commemorating the foundation of the state, known as State Foundation Day.

Contents

Stephen's birth date is uncertain as it was not recorded in contemporaneous documents. Hungarian and Polish chronicles written centuries later give three different years: 967, 969 and 975. The unanimous testimony of his three late 11th-century or early 12th-century hagiographies and other Hungarian sources, which state that Stephen was "still an adolescent" in 997, substantiate the reliability of the latest year (975). Stephen's Lesser Legend adds that he was born in Esztergom, which implies that he was born after 972 because his father, Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians, chose Esztergom as royal residence around that year. Géza promoted the spread of Christianity among his subjects by force, but never ceased worshipping pagan gods. Both his son's Greater Legend and the nearly contemporaneous Thietmar of Merseburg described Géza as a cruel monarch, suggesting that he was a despot who mercilessly consolidated his authority over the rebellious Hungarian lords.

Hungarian chronicles agree that Stephen's mother was Sarolt, daughter of Gyula, a Hungarian chieftain with jurisdiction either in Transylvania or in the wider region of the confluence of the rivers Tisza and Maros. Many historians—including Pál Engel and Gyula Kristó—propose that her father was identical with "Gylas", who had been baptized in Constantinople around 952 and "remained faithful to Christianity", according to Byzantine chronicler John Skylitzes. However, this identification is not unanimously accepted; historian György Györffy states that it was not Sarolt's father, but his younger brother, who was baptized in the Byzantine capital. In contrast with all Hungarian sources, the Polish-Hungarian Chronicle and later Polish sources state that Stephen's mother was Adelhaid, an otherwise unknown sister of Duke Mieszko I of Poland, but the reliability of this report is not accepted by modern historians.

Stephen's birth depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle

Stephen was born as Vajk, a name derived from the Turkic word baj, meaning "hero", "master", "prince" or "rich". Stephen's Greater Legend narrates that he was baptized by the saintly Bishop Adalbert of Prague, who stayed in Géza's court several times between 983 and 994. However, Saint Adalbert's nearly contemporaneous Legend, written by Bruno of Querfurt, does not mention this event. Accordingly, the date of Stephen's baptism is unknown: Györffy argues that he was baptized soon after birth, while Kristó proposes that he only received baptism just before his father's death in 997.

Stephen's official hagiography, written by Bishop Hartvic and sanctioned by Pope Innocent III, narrates that he "was fully instructed in the knowledge of the grammatical art" in his childhood. This implies that he studied Latin, though some scepticism is warranted as few kings of this era were able to write. His two other late 11th-century hagiographies do not mention any grammatical studies, stating only that he "was brought up by receiving an education appropriate for a little prince". Kristó says that the latter remark only refers to Stephen's physical training, including his participation in hunts and military actions. According to the Illuminated Chronicle, one of his tutors was a Count Deodatus from Italy, who later founded a monastery in Tata.

According to Stephen's legends, Grand Prince Géza convoked an assembly of the Hungarian chieftains and warriors when Stephen "ascended to the first stage of adolescence", at the age of 14 or 15. Géza nominated Stephen as his successor and all those present took an oath of loyalty to the young prince. Györffy also writes, without identifying his source, that Géza appointed his son to rule the "Nyitra ducate" around that time. Slovak historians, including Ján Steinhübel and Ján Lukačka, accept Györffy's view and propose that Stephen administered Nyitra (now Nitra, Slovakia) from around 995.

Géza arranged Stephen's marriage, to Gisela, daughter of Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, in or after 995. This marriage established the first family link between a Hungarian ruler and a Western European ruling house, as Gisela was closely related to the Ottonian dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. According to popular tradition preserved in the Scheyern Abbey in Bavaria, the ceremony took place at the Scheyern castle and was celebrated by Saint Adalbert. Gisela was accompanied to her new home by Bavarian knights, many of whom received land grants from her husband and settled in Hungary, helping to strengthen Stephen's military position. Györffy writes that Stephen and his wife "presumably" settled in Nyitra after their marriage.

Grand Prince (997–1000)

Grand Prince Géza died in 997. Stephen convoked an assembly at Esztergom where his supporters declared him grand prince. Initially, he only controlled the northwestern regions of the Carpathian Basin; the rest of the territory was still dominated by tribal chieftains. Stephen's ascension to the throne was in line with the principle of primogeniture, which prescribed that a father was succeeded by his son. On the other hand, it contradicted the traditional idea of seniority, according to which Géza should have been succeeded by the most senior member of the Árpád dynasty, which was Koppány at that time. Koppány, who held the title Duke of Somogy, had for many years administered the regions of Transdanubia south of Lake Balaton.

Koppány's execution after his defeat by Stephen, depicted in the Chronicon Pictum.

Koppány proposed to Géza's widow, Sarolt, in accordance with the pagan custom of levirate marriage. He also announced his claim to the throne. Although it is not impossible that Koppány had already been baptized, in 972, most of his supporters were pagans, opponents of the Christianity represented by Stephen and his predominantly German retinue. A charter of 1002 for the Pannonhalma Archabbey writes of a war between "the Germans and the Hungarians" when referring to the armed conflicts between Stephen and Koppány. Even so, Györffy says that Oszlar ("Alan"), Besenyő ("Pecheneg"), Kér and other place names, referring to ethnic groups or Hungarian tribes in Transdanubia around the supposed borders of Koppány's duchy, suggest that significant auxiliary units and groups of Hungarian warriors—who had been settled there by Grand Prince Géza—fought in Stephen's army.

Kristó states that the entire conflict between Stephen and Koppány was only a feud between two members of the Árpád dynasty, with no effect on other Hungarian tribal leaders. Koppány and his troops invaded the northern regions of Transdanubia, took many of Stephen's forts and plundered his lands. Stephen, who, according to the Illuminated Chronicle, "was for the first time girded with his sword", placed the brothers Hont and Pázmány at the head of his own guard and nominated Vecelin to lead the royal army. The last was a German knight who had come to Hungary in the reign of Géza. Hont and Pázmány were, according to Simon of Kéza's Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum and the Illuminated Chronicle, "knights of Swabian origin" who settled in Hungary either under Géza or in the first years of Stephen's reign. On the other hand, Lukačka and other Slovak historians say that Hont and Pázmány were "Slovak" noblemen who had joined Stephen during his rule in Nyitra.

Koppány was besieging Veszprém when he was informed of the arrival of Stephen's army. In the ensuing battle, Stephen won a decisive victory over his enemies. Koppány was killed on the battlefield. His body was quartered and its parts were displayed at the gates of the forts of Esztergom, Győr, Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia, Romania) and Veszprém in order to threaten all of those who were conspiring against the young monarch.

Stephen occupied Koppány's duchy and granted large estates to his own partisans. He also prescribed that Koppány's former subjects were to pay tithes to the Pannonhalma Archabbey, according to the deed of the foundation of this monastery which has been preserved in a manuscript containing interpolations. The same document declares that "there were no other bishoprics and monasteries in Hungary" at that time. On the other hand, the nearly contemporary Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg stated that Stephen "established bishoprics in his kingdom" before being crowned king. If the latter report is valid, the dioceses of Veszprém and Győr are the most probable candidates, according to historian Gábor Thoroczkay.

Coronation (1000–1001)

King Saint Stephen's modern sculpture in Budapest

By ordering the display of one part of Koppány's quartered corpse in Gyulafehérvár, the seat of his maternal uncle, Gyula the Younger, Stephen asserted his claim to rule all lands dominated by Hungarian lords. He also decided to strengthen his international status by adopting the title of king. However, the exact circumstances of his coronation and its political consequences are subject to scholarly debate.

Thietmar of Merseburg writes that Stephen received the crown "with the favour and urging" of Emperor Otto III (r. 996–1002), implying that Stephen accepted the Emperor's suzerainty before his coronation. On the other hand, all of Stephen's legends emphasize that he received his crown from Pope Sylvester II (r. 999–1003). Kristó and other historians point out that Pope Sylvester and Emperor Otto were close allies, which implies that both reports are valid: Stephen "received the crown and consecration" from the Pope, but not without the Emperor's consent. Around 75 years after the coronation, Pope Gregory VII (r. 1075–1085), who claimed suzerainty over Hungary, declared that Stephen had "offered and devotedly surrendered" Hungary "to Saint Peter" (that is, to the Holy See). In a contrasting report, Stephen's Greater Legend states that the King offered Hungary to the Virgin Mary. Modern historians—including Pál Engel, and Miklós Molnár—write that Stephen always asserted his sovereignty and never accepted papal or imperial suzerainty. For instance, none of his charters were dated according to the years of the reign of the contemporary emperors, which would have been the case if he had been their vassal. Furthermore, Stephen declared in the preamble to his First Book of Laws that he governed his realm "by the will of God".

The exact date of Stephen's coronation is unknown. According to later Hungarian tradition, he was crowned on the first day of the second millennium, which may refer either to 25 December 1000 or to 1 January 1001. Details of Stephen's coronation preserved in his Greater Legend suggest that the ceremony, which took place in Esztergom or Székesfehérvár followed the rite of the coronation of the German kings. Accordingly, Stephen was anointed with consecrated oil during the ceremony. Stephen's portrait, preserved on his royal cloak from 1031, shows that his crown, like the Holy Roman Emperor's diadem, was a hoop crown decorated with gemstones.

Besides his crown, Stephen regarded a spear with a flag as an important symbol of his sovereignty. For instance, his first coins bear the inscription LANCEA REGIS ("the king's spear") and depict an arm holding a spear with flag. According to the contemporaneous Adémar de Chabannes, a spear had been given to Stephen's father by Emperor Otto III as a token of Géza's right to "enjoy the most freedom in the possession of his country". Stephen is styled in various ways—Ungarorum rex ("king of the Hungarians"), Pannoniorum rex ("king of the Pannonians") or Hungarie rex ("king of Hungary")—in his charters.

The old contemporary Hungarian and foreign documents usually called the Hungarians as Scythians. Pope Sylvester II, in connection with the coronation of King Stephen of Hungary, also called Stephen as King of the Scythians:

Ours, ours is the Roman Empire. The fruits of Italia give it strength, Gaul and Germania provide soldiers, and we may include the powerful King of the Scythians.

Pope Sylvester II

Consolidation (1001–c. 1009)

Although Stephen's power did not rely on his coronation, the ceremony granted him the internationally accepted legitimacy of a Christian monarch who ruled his realm "by the Grace of God". All his legends testify that he established an archbishopric with its see in Esztergom shortly after his coronation. This act ensured that the Church in Hungary became independent of the prelates of the Holy Roman Empire. The earliest reference to an archbishop of Esztergom, named Domokos, has been preserved in the deed of foundation of the Pannonhalma Archabbey from 1002. According to historian Gábor Thoroczkay, Stephen also established the Diocese of Kalocsa in 1001. Stephen invited foreign priests to Hungary to evangelize his kingdom. Associates of the late Adalbert of Prague, including Radla and Astrik, arrived in Hungary in the first years of his reign. The presence of an unnamed "Archbishop of the Hungarians" at the synod of 1007 of Frankfurt and the consecration of an altar in Bamberg in 1012 by Archbishop Astrik show that Stephen's prelates maintained a good relationship with the clergy of the Holy Roman Empire.

The transformation of Hungary into a Christian state was one of Stephen's principal concerns throughout his reign. Although the Hungarians' conversion had already begun in his father's reign, it was only Stephen who systematically forced his subjects to give up their pagan rituals. His legislative activity was closely connected with Christianity. For example, his First Book of Laws from the first years of his reign includes several provisions prescribing the observance of feast days and the confession before death. His other laws protected property rights and the interests of widows and orphans, or regulated the status of serfs.

If someone has such a hardened heart—God forbid it to any Christian—that he does not want to confess his faults according to the counsel of a priest, he shall lie without any divine service and alms like an infidel. If his relatives and neighbors fail to summon the priest, and therefore he should die unconfessed, prayers and alms should be offered, but his relatives shall wash away their negligence by fasting in accordance with the judgement of the priests. Those who die a sudden death shall be buried with all ecclesiastical honor; for divine judgment is hidden from us and unknown.

Laws of King Stephen I
Stephen's forces seize his uncle, Gyula the Younger

Many Hungarian lords refused to accept Stephen's suzerainty even after his coronation. The new King first turned against his own uncle, Gyula the Younger, whose realm "was most wide and rich", according to the Illuminated Chronicle. Stephen invaded Transylvania and seized Gyula and his family around 1002 or in 1003. The contemporary Annals of Hildesheim adds that Stephen converted his uncle's "country to the Christian faith by force" after its conquest. Accordingly, historians date the establishment of the Diocese of Transylvania to this period. If the identification, proposed by Kristó, Györffy and other Hungarian historians, of Gyula with one Prokui—who was Stephen's uncle according to Thietmar of Merseburg—is valid, Gyula later escaped from captivity and fled to Bolesław I the Brave, Duke of Poland (r. 992–1025).

[Duke Boleslav the Brave's] territory included a certain burg, located near the border with the Hungarians. Its guardian was lord Prokui, an uncle of the Hungarian king. Both in the past and more recently, Prokui had been driven from his lands by the king and his wife had been taken captive. When he was unable to free her, his nephew arranged for her unconditional release, even though he was Prokui's enemy. I have never heard of anyone who showed such restraint towards a defeated foe. Because of this, God repeatedly granted him victory, not only in the burg mentioned above, but in others as well.

Thietmar of Merseburg, Chronicon

About a hundred years later, the chronicler Gallus Anonymus also made mention of armed conflicts between Stephen and Boleslav, stating that the latter "defeated the Hungarians in battle and made himself master of all their lands as far as the Danube". Györffy says that the chronicler's report refers to the occupation of the valley of the river Morava—a tributary of the Danube—by the Poles in the 1010s. On the other hand, the Polish-Hungarian Chronicle states that the Polish duke occupied large territories north of the Danube and east of the Morava as far as Esztergom in the early 11th century. According to Steinhübel, the latter source proves that a significant part of the lands that now form Slovakia were under Polish rule between 1002 and 1030. In contrast with the Slovak historian, Györffy writes that this late chronicle "in which one absurdity follows another" contradicts all facts known from 11th-century sources.

Stephen defeats Kean "Duke of the Bulgarians and Slavs"

The Illuminated Chronicle narrates that Stephen "led his army against Kean, Duke of the Bulgarians and Slavs whose lands are by their natural position most strongly fortified" following the occupation of Gyula's country. According to a number of historians, including Zoltán Lenkey and Gábor Thoroczkay, Kean was the head of a small state located in the southern parts of Transylvania and Stephen occupied his country around 1003. Other historians, including Györffy, say that the chronicle's report preserved the memory of Stephen's campaign against Bulgaria in the late 1010s.

Likewise, the identification of the "Black Hungarians"—who were mentioned by Bruno of Querfurt and Adémar de Chabannes among the opponents of Stephen's proselytizing policy—is uncertain. Györffy locates their lands to the east of the river Tisza; while Thoroczkay says they live in the southern parts of Transdanubia. Bruno of Querfurt's report of the Black Hungarians' conversion by force suggests that Stephen conquered their lands at the latest in 1009 when "the first mission of Saint Peter"—a papal legate, Cardinal Azo—arrived in Hungary. The latter attended the meeting in Győr where the royal charter determining the borders of the newly established Bishopric of Pécs was issued on 23 August 1009.

The Diocese of Eger was also set up around 1009. According to Thoroczkay, "it is very probable" that the bishopric's establishment was connected with the conversion of the Kabars—an ethnic group of Khazar origin— and their chieftain. The head of the Kabars—who was either Samuel Aba or his father— married Stephen's unnamed younger sister on this occasion. The Aba clan was the most powerful among the native families who joined Stephen and supported him in his efforts to establish a Christian monarchy. The reports by Anonymus, Simon of Kéza and other Hungarian chroniclers of the Bár-Kalán, Csák and other 13th-century noble families descending from Hungarian chieftains suggest that other native families were also involved in the process.

Stephen set up a territory-based administrative system, establishing counties. Each county, headed by a royal official known as a count or ispán, was an administrative unit organized around a royal fortress. Most fortresses were earthworks in this period, but the castles at Esztergom, Székesfehérvár and Veszprém were built of stone. Forts serving as county seats also became the nuclei of Church organization. The settlements developing around them, where markets were held on each Sunday, were important local economic centers.

Wars with Poland and Bulgaria (c. 1009–1018)

Stephen's brother-in-law, Henry II, became King of Germany in 1002 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1013. Their friendly relationship ensured that the western borders of Hungary experienced a period of peace in the first decades of the 11th century. Even when Henry II's discontented brother, Bruno, sought refuge in Hungary in 1004, Stephen preserved the peace with Germany and negotiated a settlement between his two brothers-in-law. Around 1009, he gave his younger sister in marriage to Otto Orseolo, Doge of Venice (r. 1008–1026), a close ally of the Byzantine Emperor, Basil II (r. 976–1025), which suggests that Hungary's relationship with the Byzantine Empire was also peaceful. On the other hand, the alliance between Hungary and the Holy Roman Empire brought her into a war with Poland lasting from around 1014 until 1018. The Poles occupied the Hungarian posts along the river Morava. Györffy and Kristó write that a Pecheneg incursion into Transylvania, the memory of which has been preserved in Stephen's legends, also took place in this period, because the Pechenegs were close allies of the Polish duke's brother-in-law, Grand Prince Sviatopolk I of Kiev (r. 1015–1019).

Poland and the Holy Roman Empire concluded the Peace of Bautzen in January 1018. Later in the same year, 500 Hungarian horsemen accompanied Boleslav of Poland to Kiev, suggesting that Hungary had been included in the peace treaty. The historian Ferenc Makk says that the Peace of Bautzen obliged Boleslav to hand over all the territories he had occupied in the Morava valley to Stephen. According to Leodvin, the first known Bishop of Bihar (r. c. 1050 – c. 1060), Stephen allied with the Byzantines and led a military expedition to assist them against "barbarians" in the Balkan Peninsula. The Byzantine and Hungarian troops jointly took "Cesaries" which Györffy identifies as the present-day town of Ohrid. Leodvin's report suggests that Stephen joined the Byzantines in the war ending with their conquest of Bulgaria in 1018. However, the exact date of his expedition is uncertain. Györffy argues that it was only in the last year of the war that Stephen led his troops against the Bulgarians.

Domestic policies (1018–1024)

Modern statute of Bishop Gerard of Csanád and his disciple, Prince Emeric (both were canonized along with King Stephen in 1083). Püspökkút-statue in Székesfehérvár, installment
Ruins of the Pécsvárad Abbey, established by Stephen

Bishop Leodvin wrote that Stephen collected relics of a number of saints in "Cesaries" during his campaign in the Balkans, including Saint George and Saint Nicholas. He donated them to his new triple-naved basilica dedicated to the Holy Virgin in Székesfehérvár, where he also set up a cathedral chapter and his new capital. His decision was influenced by the opening, in 1018 or 1019, of a new pilgrimage route that bypassed his old capital, Esztergom. The new route connected Western Europe and the Holy Land through Hungary. Stephen often met the pilgrims, contributing to the spread of his fame throughout Europe. Abbot Odilo of Cluny, for example, wrote in a letter to Stephen that "those who have returned from the shrine of our Lord" testify to the king's passion "towards the honour of our divine religion". Stephen also established four hostels for pilgrims in Constantinople, Jerusalem, Ravenna and Rome.

[Almost] all those from Italy and Gaul who wished to go to the Sepulchre of the Lord at Jerusalem abandoned the usual route, which was by sea, making their way through the country of King Stephen. He made the road safe for everyone, welcomed as brothers all he saw and gave them enormous gifts. This action led many people, nobles and commoners, to go to Jerusalem.

Rodulfus Glaber, The Five Books of the Histories

In addition to pilgrims, merchants often used the safe route across Hungary when travelling between Constantinople and Western Europe. Stephen's legends refer to 60 wealthy Pechenegs who travelled to Hungary, but were attacked by Hungarian border guards. The king sentenced his soldiers to death in order to demonstrate his determination to preserve internal peace. Regular minting of coinage began in Hungary in the 1020s. Stephen's silver dinars bearing the inscriptions STEPHANUS REX ("King Stephen") and REGIA CIVITAS ("royal city") were popular in contemporary Europe, as demonstrated by counterfeited copies unearthed in Sweden.

Stephen convinced some pilgrims and merchants to settle in Hungary. Gerard, a Benedictine monk who arrived in Hungary from the Republic of Venice between 1020 and 1026, initially planned to continue his journey to the Holy Land, but decided to stay in the country after his meeting with the king. Stephen also established a number of Benedictine monasteries—including the abbeys at Pécsvárad, Zalavár and Bakonybél—in this period.

The Long Life of Saint Gerard mentions Stephen's conflict with Ajtony, a chieftain in the region of the river Maros. Many historians date their clash to the end of the 1020s, although Györffy and other scholars put it at least a decade earlier. The conflict arose when Ajtony, who "had taken his power from the Greeks", according to Saint Gerard's legend, levied tax on the salt transported to Stephen on the river. The king sent a large army led by Csanád against Ajtony, who was killed in battle. His lands were transformed into a Hungarian county and the king set up a new bishopric at Csanád (Cenad, Romania), Ajtony's former capital, which was renamed after the commander of the royal army. According to the Annales Posonienses, the Venetian Gerard was consecrated as the first bishop of the new diocese in 1030.

Conflicts with the Holy Roman Empire (1024–1031)

Stephen's brother-in-law, Emperor Henry, died on 13 July 1024. He was succeeded by a distant relative, Conrad II (r. 1024–1039), who adopted an offensive foreign policy. Conrad II expelled Doge Otto Orseolo—the husband of Stephen's sister—from Venice in 1026. He also persuaded the Bavarians to proclaim his own son, Henry, as their duke in 1027, although Stephen's son Emeric had a strong claim to the Duchy of Bavaria through his mother. Emperor Conrad planned a marriage alliance with the Byzantine Empire and dispatched one of his advisors, Bishop Werner of Strasbourg, to Constantinople. In the autumn of 1027, the bishop seemingly travelled as a pilgrim, but Stephen, who had been informed of his actual purpose, refused to let him enter into his country. Conrad II's biographer Wipo of Burgundy narrated that the Bavarians incited skirmishes along the common borders of Hungary and the Holy Roman Empire in 1029, causing a rapid deterioration in relations between the two countries.

Emperor Conrad personally led his armies to Hungary in June 1030 and plundered the lands west of the River Rába. However, according to the Annals of Niederalteich, the emperor, suffering from consequences of the scorched earth tactics used by the Hungarian army, returned to Germany "without an army and without achieving anything, because the army was threatened by starvation and was captured by the Hungarians at Vienna". Peace was restored after Conrad had ceded the lands between the rivers Lajta and Fischa to Hungary in the summer of 1031.

At this same time, dissensions arose between the Pannonian nation and the Bavarians, through the fault of the Bavarians. And, as a result, King [Stephen] of Hungary made many incursions and raids in the realm of the Norici (that is, of the Bavarians). Disturbed on this account Emperor Conrad came upon the Hungarians with a great army. But King [Stephen], whose forces were entirely insufficient to meet the Emperor, relied solely on the guardianship of the Lord, which he sought with prayers and fasts proclaimed through his whole realm. Since the Emperor was not able to enter a kingdom so fortified with rivers and forests, he returned, after he had sufficiently avenged his injury with lootings and burnings on the borders of the kingdom; and it was his wish at a more opportune time to complete the things he had begun. His son, King Henry, however, still a young boy entrusted to the care of Eigilbert, bishop of Freising, received a legation of King [Stephen] which asked for peace; and solely with the counsel of the princes of the realm, and without his father's knowledge, he granted the favor of reconciliation.

Wipo, The Deeds of Conrad II

Last years (1031–1038)

King Stephen at the funeral of his son, Saint Emeric

Stephen's biographer, Hartvic, narrates that the King, whose children died one by one in infancy, "restrained the grief over their death by the solace on account of the love of his surviving son", Emeric. However, Emeric was wounded in a hunting accident and died in 1031. After the death of his son, the elderly King could never "fully regain his former health", according to the Illuminated Chronicle. Kristó writes that the picture, which has been preserved in Stephen's legends, of the king keeping the vigils and washing the feet of paupers, is connected with Stephen's last years, following the death of his son.

Emeric's death jeopardized his father's achievements in establishing a Christian state, because Stephen's cousin, Vazul—who had the strongest claim to succeed him—was suspected of an inclination towards paganism. According to the Annals of Altaich Stephen disregarded his cousin's claim and nominated his sister's son, the Venetian Peter Orseolo, as his heir. The same source adds that Vazul was captured and blinded, and his three sons, Levente, Andrew and Béla, were expelled from Hungary. Stephen's legends refer to an unsuccessful attempt upon the elderly king's life by members of his court. According to Kristó, the legends refer to a plot in which Vazul participated and his mutilation was a punishment for this act. That Vazul's ears were filled with molten lead was only recorded in later sources, including the Illuminated Chronicle.

In the view of some historians, provisions in Stephen's Second Book of Laws on the "conspiracy against the king and the kingdom" imply that the book was promulgated after Vazul's unsuccessful plot against Stephen. However, this view has not been universally accepted. Györffy states that the law book was issued, not after 1031, but around 1009. Likewise, the authenticity of the decree on tithes is debated: according to Györffy, it was issued during Stephen's reign, but Berend, Laszlovszky and Szakács argue that it "might be a later addition".

Stephen died on 15 August 1038. He was buried in the basilica of Székesfehérvár. His reign was followed by a long period of civil wars, pagan uprisings and foreign invasions. The instability ended in 1077 when Ladislaus, a grandson of Vazul, ascended the throne.

King Stephen and his wife Gisela of Bavaria founding a church at Óbuda from the Chronicon Pictum

Stephen married Gisela, a daughter of Duke Henry the Wrangler of Bavaria, who was a nephew of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor. Gisela's mother was Gisela of Burgundy, a member of the Welf dynasty. Born around 985, Gisela was younger than her husband, whom she survived. She left Hungary in 1045 and died as Abbess of the Niedernburg Abbey in Passau in Bavaria around 1060.

Although the Illuminated Chronicle states that Stephen "begot many sons", only two of them, Otto and Emeric, are known by name. Otto, who was named after Otto III, seems to have been born before 1002. He died as a child.

Emeric, who received the name of his maternal uncle, Emperor Henry II, was born around 1007. His Legend from the early 12th century describes him as a saintly prince who preserved his chastity even during his marriage. According to Györffy, Emeric's wife was a kinswoman of the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. His premature death led to the series of conflicts leading to Vazul's blinding and civil wars.

Be obedient to me, my son. You are a child, descendant of rich parents, living among soft pillows, who has been caressed and brought up in all kinds of comforts; you have had a part neither in the troubles of the campaigns nor in the various attacks of the pagans in which almost my whole life has been worn away.

Stephen's Admonitions to his son, Emeric

The following family tree presents Stephen's ancestors and his relatives who are mentioned in the article.

*A Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian lady.
**Györffy writes that she may have been a member of the Bulgarian Cometopuli dynasty.
***Samuel Aba might have been the son of Stephen's sister instead of her husband.

Founder of Hungary

Stephen has always been considered one of the most important statesmen in the history of Hungary. His main achievement was the establishment of a Christian state that ensured that the Hungarians survived in the Carpathian Basin, in contrast to the Huns, Avars and other peoples who had previously controlled the same territory. As Bryan Cartledge emphasizes, Stephen also gave his kingdom "forty years of relative peace and sound but unspectacular rule".

His successors, including those descended from Vazul, were eager to emphasize their devotion to Stephen's achievements. Although Vazul's son, Andrew I of Hungary, secured the throne due to a pagan uprising, he prohibited pagan rites and declared that his subjects should "live in all things according to the law which King St. Stephen had taught them", according to the 14th-century Illuminated Chronicle. In medieval Hungary, communities that claimed a privileged status or attempted to preserve their own "liberties" often declared that the origin of their special status was to be attributed to King Saint Stephen. An example is a 1347 letter from the people of Táp telling the king about their grievances against the Pannonhalma Archabbey and stating that the taxes levied upon them by the abbot contradicted "the liberty granted to them in the time of King Saint Stephen".

Sainthood

King Saint Stephen
King and Confessor
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Canonized20 August 1083, Székesfehérvár by Pope Gregory VII
Major shrineSt. Stephen's Basilica
Budapest, Hungary
Feast16 August
20 August (in Hungary)
2 September (1686–1969)
30 May (his Holy Dexter in Hungary)
AttributesCrown; Sceptre; globe
PatronagePatron saint of Hungary
Patron of kings, masons, stonecutters, stonemasons and bricklayers
Protector against child death

Stephen's cult emerged after the long period of anarchy characterizing the rule of his immediate successors. However, there is no evidence that Stephen became an object of veneration before his canonization. For instance, the first member of the royal family to be named after him, Stephen II, was born in the early 12th century.

Stephen's canonization was initiated by Vazul's grandson, King Ladislaus I of Hungary, who had consolidated his authority by capturing and imprisoning his cousin, Solomon. According to Bishop Hartvic, the canonization was "decreed by apostolic letter, by order of the Roman see", suggesting that the ceremony was permitted by Pope Gregory VII. The ceremony started at Stephen's tomb, where on 15 August 1083 masses of believers began three days of fasting and praying. Legend tells that Stephen's coffin could not be opened until King Ladislaus held Solomon in captivity at Visegrád. The opening of Stephen's tomb was followed by the occurrence of healing miracles, according to Stephen's legends. Historian Kristó attributes the healings either to mass psychosis or deception. Stephen's legends also say that his "balsam-scented" remains were elevated from the coffin, which was filled with "rose-colored water", on 20 August. On the same day, Stephen's son, Emeric, and the bishop of Csanád, Gerard, were also canonized.

Having completed the office of Vespers the third day, everyone expected the favors of divine mercy through the merit of the blessed man; suddenly with Christ visiting his masses, the signs of miracles poured forth from heaven throughout the whole of the holy house. Their multitude, which that night were too many to count, brings to mind the answer from the Gospel which the Savior of the world confided to John, who asked through messengers whether he was the one who was to come: the blind see, the lame walk, the deaf hear, the lepers are cleansed, the crippled are set straight, the paralyzed are cured...

Hartvic, Life of King Stephen of Hungary

Stephen's first legend, the so-called Greater Legend, was written between 1077 and 1083. It provided an idealized portrait of the king, one who dedicated himself and his kingdom to the Virgin Mary. However, Stephen's Lesser Legend—composed around 1100, under King Coloman—emphasized Stephen's severity. A third legend, also composed during King Coloman's reign by Bishop Hartvic, was based on the two existing legends. Sanctioned in 1201 by Pope Innocent III, Hartvic's work served as Stephen's official legend. Gábor Klaniczay wrote that Stephen's legends "opened a new chapter in the legends of holy rulers as a genre", suggesting that a monarch can achieve sainthood through actively using his royal powers. Stephen was the first triumphant miles Christi ("Christ's soldier") among the canonized monarchs. He was also a "confessor king", one who had not suffered martyrdom, whose cult was sanctioned, in contrast with earlier holy monarchs.

Stephen's cult spread beyond the borders of Hungary. Initially, he was primarily venerated in Scheyern and Bamberg, in Bavaria, but his relics were also taken to Aachen, Cologne, Montecassino and Namur. Upon the liberation of Buda from the Ottoman Turks, Pope Innocent XI expanded King Saint Stephen's cult to the entire Roman Catholic Church in 1686, and declared 2 September his feast day. As the feast of Saint Joachim was moved, in 1969, from 16 August, the day immediately following the day of Stephen's death, Stephen's feast was moved to that date. Stephen is venerated as the patron saint of Hungary, and regarded as the protector of kings, masons, stonecutters, stonemasons and bricklayers, and also of children suffering from severe illnesses. His canonization was recognized by Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople in 2000. In the calendar of the Hungarian Catholic Church, Stephen's feast is observed on 20 August, the day on which his relics were translated. In addition, a separate feast day (30 May) is dedicated to his "Holy Dexter".

Holy Dexter

The Holy Right displayed in St. Stephen's Basilica, Budapest

Stephen's intact dexter, or right hand (Hungarian: Szent Jobb), became the subject of a cult. A cleric named Mercurius stole it, but it was discovered on 30 May 1084 in Bihar County. The theft of sacred relics, or furta sacra, had by that time become a popular topic of saints' biographies. Bishop Hartvic described the discovery of Stephen's right hand in accordance with this tradition, referring to adventures and visions. An abbey erected in Bihar County (now Sâniob, Romania) was named after and dedicated to the veneration of the Holy Dexter.

Why is it, brothers, that his other limbs having become disjointed and, his flesh having been reduced to dust, wholly separated, only the right hand, its skin and sinews adhering to the bones, preserved the beauty of wholeness? I surmise that the inscrutability of divine judgement sought to proclaim by the extraordinary nature of this fact nothing less than that the work of love and alms surpasses the measure of all other virtues. ... The right hand of the blessed man was deservedly exempt from putrefaction, because always reflourishing from the flower of kindness it was never empty from giving gifts to nourish the poor.

Hartvic, Life of King Stephen of Hungary

The Holy Dexter was kept for centuries in the Szentjobb Abbey, except during the Mongol invasion of 1241 and 1242, when it was transferred to Ragusa (now Dubrovnik, Croatia). The relic was then taken to Székesfehérvár around 1420. Following the Ottoman occupation of the central territories of the Kingdom of Hungary in the mid-16th century, it was guarded in many places, including Bosnia, Ragusa and Vienna. It was returned to Hungary in 1771, when Queen Maria Theresa donated it to the cloister of the Sisters of Loreto in Buda. It was kept in Buda Castle's St. Sigismund Chapel between around 1900 and 1944, in a cave near Salzburg in 1944 and 1945, and again by the Sisters of Loreto in Buda, between 1945 and 1950. Finally, since 1950, the Holy Dexter has been in St. Stephen's Basilica in Budapest. An annual procession celebrating the relic was instituted in 1938, and continued until 1950, when the procession was forbidden by the Communist government. It was resumed in 1988.

Admonitions

Main article: Admonitions

According to Stephen's Greater Legend, the king "himself compiled a book for his son on moral education". This work, now known as Admonitions or De institutione morum, was preserved in manuscripts written in the Late Middle Ages. Although scholars debate whether it can actually be attributed to the king or a cleric, most of them agree that it was composed in the first decades of the 11th century.

The Admonitions argues that kingship is inseparably connected with the Catholic faith. Its author emphasized that a monarch is required to make donations to the Church and regularly consult his prelates, but is entitled to punish clergymen who do wrong. One of its basic ideas was that a sovereign has to cooperate with the "pillars of his rule", meaning the prelates, aristocrats, ispáns and warriors.

My dearest son, if you desire to honor the royal crown, I advise, I counsel, I urge you above all things to maintain the Catholic and Apostolic faith with such diligence and care that you may be an example for all those placed under you by God, and that all the clergy may rightly call you a man of true Christian profession. Failing to do this, you may be sure that you will not be called a Christian or a son of the Church. Indeed, in the royal palace, after the faith itself, the Church holds second place, first constituted and spread through the whole world by His members, the apostles and holy fathers, And though she always produced fresh offspring, nevertheless in certain places she is regarded as ancient. However, dearest son, even now in our kingdom the Church is proclaimed as young and newly planted; and for that reason she needs more prudent and trustworthy guardians lest a benefit which the divine mercy bestowed on us undeservedly should be destroyed and annihilated through your idleness, indolence or neglect.

Stephen's Admonitions to his son, Emeric

In arts

King St Stephen has been a popular theme in Hungarian poetry since the end of the 13th century. The earliest poems were religious hymns which portrayed the holy king as the apostle of the Hungarians. Secular poetry, especially poems written for his feast day, followed a similar pattern, emphasizing Stephen's role as the first king of Hungary. Poets described Stephen as the symbol of national identity and independence and of the ability of the Hungarian nation to survive historical cataclysms during the Communist regime between 1949 and 1989.

A popular hymn, still sung in the churches, was first recorded in the late18th century. It hails King St. Stephen as "radiant star of Hungarians". Ludwig van Beethoven composed his King Stephen Overture for the inauguration of the Hungarian theatre in Pest in 1812. According to musician James M. Keller, "[t]he descending unisons that open the King Stephen Overture would seem to prefigure the opening of the Ninth Symphony; ... [a]nd then a later theme, introduced by flutes and clarinets, seems almost to be avariation ... of the famous Ode 'To Joy' melody of the Ninth Symphony's finale". Hungarian composer Ferenc Erkel named his last complete opera from 1885, István király ("King Stephen"), after him. In 1938, Zoltán Kodály wrote a choral piece titled Ének Szent István Királyhoz ("Hymn to King Stephen"). In 1983, Levente Szörényi and János Bródy composed a rock operaIstván, a király ("Stephen, the King")—about the early years of his reign. Seventeen years later, in 2000, Szörényi composed a sequel called Veled, Uram! ("You, Sir").

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Stephen I of Hungary
Born: c. 975 Died: 15 August 1038
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Grand Prince of the Hungarians
997–1000
Vacant
Became king
New title King of Hungary
1000–1038
Succeeded by

Stephen I of Hungary
Stephen I of Hungary Language Watch Edit King Saint Stephen Stephen of Hungary and Szent Istvan redirect here For the first century martyr see Saint Stephen For other people see Stephen of Hungary disambiguation For the dreadnought see SMS Szent Istvan Stephen I also known as King Saint Stephen Hungarian Szent Istvan kiraly ˌsaent ˈiʃtvaːn kiraːj Latin Sanctus Stephanus Slovak Stefan I or Stefan Veľky c 975 15 August 1038 was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001 and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038 The year of his birth is uncertain but many details of his life suggest that he was born in or after 975 in Esztergom At his birth he was given the pagan name Vajk The date of his baptism is unknown He was the only son of Grand Prince Geza and his wife Sarolt who was descended from a prominent family of gyulas Although both of his parents were baptized Stephen was the first member of his family to become a devout Christian He married Gisela of Bavaria a scion of the imperial Ottonian dynasty Saint Stephen IKing of the Hungarians King of the PannoniansorKing of HungaryPortrayal of Stephen I on the Hungarian coronation pall from 1031King of HungaryReign1000 or 1001 1038Coronation25 December 1000 or 1 January 1001SuccessorPeterGrand Prince of the HungariansReign997 1000 or 1001PredecessorGezaBornVajk c 975 Esztergom Principality of HungaryDied15 August 1038 aged 62 63 Esztergom or Szekesfehervar Kingdom of HungaryBurialSzekesfehervar BasilicaSpouseGisela of Bavaria m 996 IssueOtto Saint EmericDynastyArpadFatherGeza of HungaryMotherSaroltReligionRoman CatholicismSignature After succeeding his father in 997 Stephen had to fight for the throne against his relative Koppany who was supported by large numbers of pagan warriors He defeated Koppany with the assistance of foreign knights including Vecelin Hont and Pazmany and native lords He was crowned on 25 December 1000 or 1 January 1001 with a crown sent by Pope Sylvester II In a series of wars against semi independent tribes and chieftains including the Black Hungarians and his uncle Gyula the Younger he unified the Carpathian Basin He protected the independence of his kingdom by forcing the invading troops of Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor to withdraw from Hungary in 1030 Stephen established at least one archbishopric six bishoprics and three Benedictine monasteries leading the Church in Hungary to develop independently from the archbishops of the Holy Roman Empire He encouraged the spread of Christianity by meting out severe punishments for ignoring Christian customs His system of local administration was based on counties organized around fortresses and administered by royal officials Hungary enjoyed a lasting period of peace during his reign and became a preferred route for pilgrims and merchants traveling between Western Europe the Holy Land and Constantinople He survived all of his children dying on 15 August 1038 and was buried in his new basilica built in Szekesfehervar and dedicated to the Holy Virgin His death was followed by civil wars which lasted for decades He was canonized by Pope Gregory VII together with his son Emeric and Bishop Gerard of Csanad in 1083 Stephen is a popular saint in Hungary and neighboring territories In Hungary his feast day celebrated on 20 August is also a public holiday commemorating the foundation of the state known as State Foundation Day Contents 1 Early years c 975 997 2 Reign 997 1038 2 1 Grand Prince 997 1000 2 2 Coronation 1000 1001 2 3 Consolidation 1001 c 1009 2 4 Wars with Poland and Bulgaria c 1009 1018 2 5 Domestic policies 1018 1024 2 6 Conflicts with the Holy Roman Empire 1024 1031 2 7 Last years 1031 1038 3 Family 4 Legacy 4 1 Founder of Hungary 4 2 Sainthood 4 3 Holy Dexter 4 4 Admonitions 4 5 In arts 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 7 1 Primary sources 7 2 Secondary sources 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly years c 975 997 EditStephen s birth date is uncertain as it was not recorded in contemporaneous documents 1 Hungarian and Polish chronicles written centuries later give three different years 967 969 and 975 2 The unanimous testimony of his three late 11th century or early 12th century hagiographies and other Hungarian sources which state that Stephen was still an adolescent in 997 3 substantiate the reliability of the latest year 975 1 2 Stephen s Lesser Legend adds that he was born in Esztergom 1 2 4 which implies that he was born after 972 because his father Geza Grand Prince of the Hungarians chose Esztergom as royal residence around that year 1 Geza promoted the spread of Christianity among his subjects by force but never ceased worshipping pagan gods 5 6 Both his son s Greater Legend and the nearly contemporaneous Thietmar of Merseburg described Geza as a cruel monarch suggesting that he was a despot who mercilessly consolidated his authority over the rebellious Hungarian lords 6 7 Hungarian chronicles agree that Stephen s mother was Sarolt daughter of Gyula a Hungarian chieftain with jurisdiction either in Transylvania or in the wider region of the confluence of the rivers Tisza and Maros 8 9 Many historians including Pal Engel and Gyula Kristo propose that her father was identical with Gylas who had been baptized in Constantinople around 952 and remained faithful to Christianity 10 according to Byzantine chronicler John Skylitzes 11 12 However this identification is not unanimously accepted historian Gyorgy Gyorffy states that it was not Sarolt s father but his younger brother who was baptized in the Byzantine capital 8 In contrast with all Hungarian sources the Polish Hungarian Chronicle and later Polish sources state that Stephen s mother was Adelhaid an otherwise unknown sister of Duke Mieszko I of Poland but the reliability of this report is not accepted by modern historians 13 Stephen s birth depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle Stephen was born as Vajk 4 14 a name derived from the Turkic word baj meaning hero master prince or rich 2 15 Stephen s Greater Legend narrates that he was baptized by the saintly Bishop Adalbert of Prague 15 who stayed in Geza s court several times between 983 and 994 16 17 However Saint Adalbert s nearly contemporaneous Legend written by Bruno of Querfurt does not mention this event 15 16 17 Accordingly the date of Stephen s baptism is unknown Gyorffy argues that he was baptized soon after birth 15 while Kristo proposes that he only received baptism just before his father s death in 997 17 Stephen s official hagiography written by Bishop Hartvic and sanctioned by Pope Innocent III narrates that he was fully instructed in the knowledge of the grammatical art in his childhood 18 2 This implies that he studied Latin though some scepticism is warranted as few kings of this era were able to write 2 His two other late 11th century hagiographies do not mention any grammatical studies stating only that he was brought up by receiving an education appropriate for a little prince 2 Kristo says that the latter remark only refers to Stephen s physical training including his participation in hunts and military actions 2 According to the Illuminated Chronicle one of his tutors was a Count Deodatus from Italy who later founded a monastery in Tata 19 According to Stephen s legends Grand Prince Geza convoked an assembly of the Hungarian chieftains and warriors when Stephen ascended to the first stage of adolescence 18 at the age of 14 or 15 20 21 Geza nominated Stephen as his successor and all those present took an oath of loyalty to the young prince 21 Gyorffy also writes without identifying his source that Geza appointed his son to rule the Nyitra ducate around that time 15 Slovak historians including Jan Steinhubel and Jan Lukacka accept Gyorffy s view and propose that Stephen administered Nyitra now Nitra Slovakia from around 995 22 23 Geza arranged Stephen s marriage to Gisela daughter of Henry II Duke of Bavaria in or after 995 4 24 This marriage established the first family link between a Hungarian ruler and a Western European ruling house 25 as Gisela was closely related to the Ottonian dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors 17 According to popular tradition preserved in the Scheyern Abbey in Bavaria the ceremony took place at the Scheyern castle and was celebrated by Saint Adalbert 21 Gisela was accompanied to her new home by Bavarian knights many of whom received land grants from her husband and settled in Hungary 26 helping to strengthen Stephen s military position 27 Gyorffy writes that Stephen and his wife presumably settled in Nyitra after their marriage 26 Reign 997 1038 EditGrand Prince 997 1000 Edit See also Grand Prince of the Hungarians Grand Prince Geza died in 997 14 28 Stephen convoked an assembly at Esztergom where his supporters declared him grand prince 29 Initially he only controlled the northwestern regions of the Carpathian Basin the rest of the territory was still dominated by tribal chieftains 30 Stephen s ascension to the throne was in line with the principle of primogeniture which prescribed that a father was succeeded by his son 27 On the other hand it contradicted the traditional idea of seniority according to which Geza should have been succeeded by the most senior member of the Arpad dynasty which was Koppany at that time 27 31 Koppany who held the title Duke of Somogy had for many years administered the regions of Transdanubia south of Lake Balaton 25 28 32 Koppany s execution after his defeat by Stephen depicted in the Chronicon Pictum Koppany proposed to Geza s widow Sarolt in accordance with the pagan custom of levirate marriage 29 33 34 He also announced his claim to the throne 29 Although it is not impossible that Koppany had already been baptized in 972 29 most of his supporters were pagans opponents of the Christianity represented by Stephen and his predominantly German retinue 35 A charter of 1002 for the Pannonhalma Archabbey writes of a war between the Germans and the Hungarians when referring to the armed conflicts between Stephen and Koppany 35 36 Even so Gyorffy says that Oszlar Alan Besenyo Pecheneg Ker and other place names referring to ethnic groups or Hungarian tribes in Transdanubia around the supposed borders of Koppany s duchy suggest that significant auxiliary units and groups of Hungarian warriors who had been settled there by Grand Prince Geza fought in Stephen s army 37 Kristo states that the entire conflict between Stephen and Koppany was only a feud between two members of the Arpad dynasty with no effect on other Hungarian tribal leaders 30 Koppany and his troops invaded the northern regions of Transdanubia took many of Stephen s forts and plundered his lands 35 Stephen who according to the Illuminated Chronicle was for the first time girded with his sword 38 placed the brothers Hont and Pazmany at the head of his own guard and nominated Vecelin to lead the royal army 35 39 40 The last was a German knight who had come to Hungary in the reign of Geza 41 Hont and Pazmany were according to Simon of Keza s Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum and the Illuminated Chronicle knights of Swabian origin 42 who settled in Hungary either under Geza or in the first years of Stephen s reign 30 On the other hand Lukacka and other Slovak historians say that Hont and Pazmany were Slovak noblemen who had joined Stephen during his rule in Nyitra 43 Koppany was besieging Veszprem when he was informed of the arrival of Stephen s army 37 In the ensuing battle Stephen won a decisive victory over his enemies 34 Koppany was killed on the battlefield 25 His body was quartered and its parts were displayed at the gates of the forts of Esztergom Gyor Gyulafehervar Alba Iulia Romania and Veszprem in order to threaten all of those who were conspiring against the young monarch 34 44 45 Stephen occupied Koppany s duchy and granted large estates to his own partisans 28 46 He also prescribed that Koppany s former subjects were to pay tithes to the Pannonhalma Archabbey according to the deed of the foundation of this monastery which has been preserved in a manuscript containing interpolations 35 47 The same document declares that there were no other bishoprics and monasteries in Hungary at that time 48 On the other hand the nearly contemporary Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg stated that Stephen established bishoprics in his kingdom 49 before being crowned king 48 If the latter report is valid the dioceses of Veszprem and Gyor are the most probable candidates according to historian Gabor Thoroczkay 50 Coronation 1000 1001 Edit See also King of Hungary and Coronation of the Hungarian monarch King Saint Stephen s modern sculpture in Budapest By ordering the display of one part of Koppany s quartered corpse in Gyulafehervar the seat of his maternal uncle Gyula the Younger Stephen asserted his claim to rule all lands dominated by Hungarian lords 51 He also decided to strengthen his international status by adopting the title of king 52 However the exact circumstances of his coronation and its political consequences are subject to scholarly debate 53 Thietmar of Merseburg writes that Stephen received the crown with the favour and urging 49 of Emperor Otto III r 996 1002 54 implying that Stephen accepted the Emperor s suzerainty before his coronation 53 On the other hand all of Stephen s legends emphasize that he received his crown from Pope Sylvester II r 999 1003 53 Kristo 55 and other historians 56 point out that Pope Sylvester and Emperor Otto were close allies which implies that both reports are valid Stephen received the crown and consecration 49 from the Pope but not without the Emperor s consent Around 75 years after the coronation Pope Gregory VII r 1075 1085 who claimed suzerainty over Hungary declared that Stephen had offered and devotedly surrendered Hungary to Saint Peter that is to the Holy See 54 56 57 In a contrasting report Stephen s Greater Legend states that the King offered Hungary to the Virgin Mary 56 Modern historians including Pal Engel and Miklos Molnar write that Stephen always asserted his sovereignty and never accepted papal or imperial suzerainty 25 53 For instance none of his charters were dated according to the years of the reign of the contemporary emperors which would have been the case if he had been their vassal 58 Furthermore Stephen declared in the preamble to his First Book of Laws that he governed his realm by the will of God 58 59 The exact date of Stephen s coronation is unknown 55 According to later Hungarian tradition he was crowned on the first day of the second millennium which may refer either to 25 December 1000 or to 1 January 1001 14 60 Details of Stephen s coronation preserved in his Greater Legend suggest that the ceremony which took place in Esztergom or Szekesfehervar 61 followed the rite of the coronation of the German kings 62 Accordingly Stephen was anointed with consecrated oil during the ceremony 62 Stephen s portrait preserved on his royal cloak from 1031 shows that his crown like the Holy Roman Emperor s diadem was a hoop crown decorated with gemstones 63 Besides his crown Stephen regarded a spear with a flag as an important symbol of his sovereignty 63 For instance his first coins bear the inscription LANCEA REGIS the king s spear and depict an arm holding a spear with flag 63 According to the contemporaneous Ademar de Chabannes a spear had been given to Stephen s father by Emperor Otto III as a token of Geza s right to enjoy the most freedom in the possession of his country 64 Stephen is styled in various ways Ungarorum rex king of the Hungarians Pannoniorum rex king of the Pannonians or Hungarie rex king of Hungary in his charters 54 The old contemporary Hungarian and foreign documents usually called the Hungarians as Scythians Pope Sylvester II in connection with the coronation of King Stephen of Hungary also called Stephen as King of the Scythians Ours ours is the Roman Empire The fruits of Italia give it strength Gaul and Germania provide soldiers and we may include the powerful King of the Scythians Pope Sylvester II 65 Consolidation 1001 c 1009 Edit Although Stephen s power did not rely on his coronation 54 the ceremony granted him the internationally accepted legitimacy of a Christian monarch who ruled his realm by the Grace of God 66 All his legends testify that he established an archbishopric with its see in Esztergom shortly after his coronation 67 This act ensured that the Church in Hungary became independent of the prelates of the Holy Roman Empire 68 69 The earliest reference to an archbishop of Esztergom named Domokos has been preserved in the deed of foundation of the Pannonhalma Archabbey from 1002 67 According to historian Gabor Thoroczkay Stephen also established the Diocese of Kalocsa in 1001 70 Stephen invited foreign priests to Hungary to evangelize his kingdom 69 Associates of the late Adalbert of Prague including Radla and Astrik arrived in Hungary in the first years of his reign 71 72 The presence of an unnamed Archbishop of the Hungarians at the synod of 1007 of Frankfurt and the consecration of an altar in Bamberg in 1012 by Archbishop Astrik show that Stephen s prelates maintained a good relationship with the clergy of the Holy Roman Empire 7 The transformation of Hungary into a Christian state was one of Stephen s principal concerns throughout his reign 73 Although the Hungarians conversion had already begun in his father s reign it was only Stephen who systematically forced his subjects to give up their pagan rituals 74 His legislative activity was closely connected with Christianity 75 For example his First Book of Laws from the first years of his reign includes several provisions prescribing the observance of feast days and the confession before death 76 77 His other laws protected property rights 78 and the interests of widows and orphans or regulated the status of serfs 77 If someone has such a hardened heart God forbid it to any Christian that he does not want to confess his faults according to the counsel of a priest he shall lie without any divine service and alms like an infidel If his relatives and neighbors fail to summon the priest and therefore he should die unconfessed prayers and alms should be offered but his relatives shall wash away their negligence by fasting in accordance with the judgement of the priests Those who die a sudden death shall be buried with all ecclesiastical honor for divine judgment is hidden from us and unknown Laws of King Stephen I 79 Stephen s forces seize his uncle Gyula the Younger Many Hungarian lords refused to accept Stephen s suzerainty even after his coronation 44 The new King first turned against his own uncle Gyula the Younger whose realm was most wide and rich 80 according to the Illuminated Chronicle 81 Stephen invaded Transylvania and seized Gyula and his family around 1002 82 83 or in 1003 14 81 The contemporary Annals of Hildesheim 83 adds that Stephen converted his uncle s country to the Christian faith by force after its conquest 81 Accordingly historians date the establishment of the Diocese of Transylvania to this period 83 70 If the identification proposed by Kristo Gyorffy and other Hungarian historians of Gyula with one Prokui who was Stephen s uncle according to Thietmar of Merseburg is valid 84 Gyula later escaped from captivity and fled to Boleslaw I the Brave Duke of Poland r 992 1025 81 Duke Boleslav the Brave s territory included a certain burg located near the border with the Hungarians Its guardian was lord Prokui an uncle of the Hungarian king Both in the past and more recently Prokui had been driven from his lands by the king and his wife had been taken captive When he was unable to free her his nephew arranged for her unconditional release even though he was Prokui s enemy I have never heard of anyone who showed such restraint towards a defeated foe Because of this God repeatedly granted him victory not only in the burg mentioned above but in others as well Thietmar of Merseburg Chronicon 85 About a hundred years later the chronicler Gallus Anonymus also made mention of armed conflicts between Stephen and Boleslav stating that the latter defeated the Hungarians in battle and made himself master of all their lands as far as the Danube 22 86 87 Gyorffy says that the chronicler s report refers to the occupation of the valley of the river Morava a tributary of the Danube by the Poles in the 1010s 87 On the other hand the Polish Hungarian Chronicle states that the Polish duke occupied large territories north of the Danube and east of the Morava as far as Esztergom in the early 11th century 87 88 According to Steinhubel the latter source proves that a significant part of the lands that now form Slovakia were under Polish rule between 1002 and 1030 88 In contrast with the Slovak historian Gyorffy writes that this late chronicle in which one absurdity follows another contradicts all facts known from 11th century sources 89 Stephen defeats Kean Duke of the Bulgarians and Slavs The Illuminated Chronicle narrates that Stephen led his army against Kean Duke of the Bulgarians and Slavs whose lands are by their natural position most strongly fortified 90 following the occupation of Gyula s country 91 According to a number of historians including Zoltan Lenkey 91 and Gabor Thoroczkay 70 Kean was the head of a small state located in the southern parts of Transylvania and Stephen occupied his country around 1003 Other historians including Gyorffy say that the chronicle s report preserved the memory of Stephen s campaign against Bulgaria in the late 1010s 92 Likewise the identification of the Black Hungarians 93 who were mentioned by Bruno of Querfurt and Ademar de Chabannes among the opponents of Stephen s proselytizing policy is uncertain 94 Gyorffy locates their lands to the east of the river Tisza 95 while Thoroczkay says they live in the southern parts of Transdanubia 70 Bruno of Querfurt s report of the Black Hungarians conversion by force suggests that Stephen conquered their lands at the latest in 1009 when the first mission of Saint Peter 96 a papal legate Cardinal Azo arrived in Hungary 97 The latter attended the meeting in Gyor where the royal charter determining the borders of the newly established Bishopric of Pecs was issued on 23 August 1009 96 The Diocese of Eger was also set up around 1009 96 98 According to Thoroczkay it is very probable that the bishopric s establishment was connected with the conversion of the Kabars an ethnic group of Khazar origin 99 and their chieftain 100 The head of the Kabars who was either Samuel Aba or his father 101 married Stephen s unnamed younger sister on this occasion 100 102 The Aba clan was the most powerful among the native families who joined Stephen and supported him in his efforts to establish a Christian monarchy 103 The reports by Anonymus Simon of Keza and other Hungarian chroniclers of the Bar Kalan Csak and other 13th century noble families descending from Hungarian chieftains suggest that other native families were also involved in the process 103 Stephen set up a territory based administrative system 81 establishing counties 104 Each county headed by a royal official known as a count or ispan was an administrative unit organized around a royal fortress 104 Most fortresses were earthworks in this period 105 but the castles at Esztergom Szekesfehervar and Veszprem were built of stone 106 Forts serving as county seats also became the nuclei of Church organization 105 The settlements developing around them where markets were held on each Sunday were important local economic centers 105 Wars with Poland and Bulgaria c 1009 1018 Edit Stephen s brother in law Henry II became King of Germany in 1002 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1013 58 Their friendly relationship ensured that the western borders of Hungary experienced a period of peace in the first decades of the 11th century 58 107 Even when Henry II s discontented brother Bruno sought refuge in Hungary in 1004 Stephen preserved the peace with Germany and negotiated a settlement between his two brothers in law 58 108 Around 1009 he gave his younger sister in marriage to Otto Orseolo Doge of Venice r 1008 1026 a close ally of the Byzantine Emperor Basil II r 976 1025 which suggests that Hungary s relationship with the Byzantine Empire was also peaceful 109 On the other hand the alliance between Hungary and the Holy Roman Empire brought her into a war with Poland lasting from around 1014 110 until 1018 111 The Poles occupied the Hungarian posts along the river Morava 112 Gyorffy and Kristo write that a Pecheneg incursion into Transylvania the memory of which has been preserved in Stephen s legends also took place in this period because the Pechenegs were close allies of the Polish duke s brother in law Grand Prince Sviatopolk I of Kiev r 1015 1019 110 113 Poland and the Holy Roman Empire concluded the Peace of Bautzen in January 1018 113 Later in the same year 500 Hungarian horsemen accompanied Boleslav of Poland to Kiev suggesting that Hungary had been included in the peace treaty 113 The historian Ferenc Makk says that the Peace of Bautzen obliged Boleslav to hand over all the territories he had occupied in the Morava valley to Stephen 112 According to Leodvin the first known Bishop of Bihar r c 1050 c 1060 Stephen allied with the Byzantines and led a military expedition to assist them against barbarians in the Balkan Peninsula 114 The Byzantine and Hungarian troops jointly took Cesaries which Gyorffy identifies as the present day town of Ohrid 115 Leodvin s report suggests that Stephen joined the Byzantines in the war ending with their conquest of Bulgaria in 1018 116 However the exact date of his expedition is uncertain 115 Gyorffy argues that it was only in the last year of the war that Stephen led his troops against the Bulgarians 115 Domestic policies 1018 1024 Edit Modern statute of Bishop Gerard of Csanad and his disciple Prince Emeric both were canonized along with King Stephen in 1083 Puspokkut statue in Szekesfehervar installment Ruins of the Pecsvarad Abbey established by Stephen Bishop Leodvin wrote that Stephen collected relics of a number of saints in Cesaries during his campaign in the Balkans including Saint George and Saint Nicholas 116 He donated them to his new triple naved basilica dedicated to the Holy Virgin 117 in Szekesfehervar 118 where he also set up a cathedral chapter and his new capital 119 His decision was influenced by the opening in 1018 or 1019 of a new pilgrimage route that bypassed his old capital Esztergom The new route connected Western Europe and the Holy Land through Hungary 120 121 Stephen often met the pilgrims contributing to the spread of his fame throughout Europe 122 Abbot Odilo of Cluny for example wrote in a letter to Stephen that those who have returned from the shrine of our Lord testify to the king s passion towards the honour of our divine religion 123 Stephen also established four hostels for pilgrims in Constantinople Jerusalem Ravenna and Rome 124 Almost all those from Italy and Gaul who wished to go to the Sepulchre of the Lord at Jerusalem abandoned the usual route which was by sea making their way through the country of King Stephen He made the road safe for everyone welcomed as brothers all he saw and gave them enormous gifts This action led many people nobles and commoners to go to Jerusalem Rodulfus Glaber The Five Books of the Histories 125 In addition to pilgrims merchants often used the safe route across Hungary when travelling between Constantinople and Western Europe 120 Stephen s legends refer to 60 wealthy Pechenegs who travelled to Hungary but were attacked by Hungarian border guards 126 The king sentenced his soldiers to death in order to demonstrate his determination to preserve internal peace 126 Regular minting of coinage began in Hungary in the 1020s 127 Stephen s silver dinars 120 bearing the inscriptions STEPHANUS REX King Stephen and REGIA CIVITAS royal city were popular in contemporary Europe as demonstrated by counterfeited copies unearthed in Sweden 127 Stephen convinced some pilgrims and merchants to settle in Hungary 120 123 Gerard a Benedictine monk who arrived in Hungary from the Republic of Venice between 1020 and 1026 initially planned to continue his journey to the Holy Land but decided to stay in the country after his meeting with the king 122 Stephen also established a number of Benedictine monasteries including the abbeys at Pecsvarad Zalavar and Bakonybel 128 in this period 129 The Long Life of Saint Gerard mentions Stephen s conflict with Ajtony a chieftain in the region of the river Maros 130 Many historians date their clash to the end of the 1020s although Gyorffy 87 and other scholars put it at least a decade earlier 130 The conflict arose when Ajtony who had taken his power from the Greeks according to Saint Gerard s legend levied tax on the salt transported to Stephen on the river 131 The king sent a large army led by Csanad against Ajtony who was killed in battle 132 His lands were transformed into a Hungarian county and the king set up a new bishopric at Csanad Cenad Romania Ajtony s former capital which was renamed after the commander of the royal army 132 According to the Annales Posonienses the Venetian Gerard was consecrated as the first bishop of the new diocese in 1030 133 Conflicts with the Holy Roman Empire 1024 1031 Edit Stephen s brother in law Emperor Henry died on 13 July 1024 134 He was succeeded by a distant relative 135 Conrad II r 1024 1039 who adopted an offensive foreign policy 136 Conrad II expelled Doge Otto Orseolo the husband of Stephen s sister from Venice in 1026 122 136 He also persuaded the Bavarians to proclaim his own son Henry as their duke in 1027 although Stephen s son Emeric had a strong claim to the Duchy of Bavaria through his mother 135 Emperor Conrad planned a marriage alliance with the Byzantine Empire and dispatched one of his advisors Bishop Werner of Strasbourg to Constantinople 117 137 In the autumn of 1027 the bishop seemingly travelled as a pilgrim but Stephen who had been informed of his actual purpose refused to let him enter into his country 117 137 Conrad II s biographer Wipo of Burgundy narrated that the Bavarians incited skirmishes along the common borders of Hungary and the Holy Roman Empire in 1029 causing a rapid deterioration in relations between the two countries 138 139 Emperor Conrad personally led his armies to Hungary in June 1030 and plundered the lands west of the River Raba 138 140 However according to the Annals of Niederalteich the emperor suffering from consequences of the scorched earth tactics used by the Hungarian army 141 returned to Germany without an army and without achieving anything because the army was threatened by starvation and was captured by the Hungarians at Vienna 140 Peace was restored after Conrad had ceded the lands between the rivers Lajta and Fischa to Hungary in the summer of 1031 142 At this same time dissensions arose between the Pannonian nation and the Bavarians through the fault of the Bavarians And as a result King Stephen of Hungary made many incursions and raids in the realm of the Norici that is of the Bavarians Disturbed on this account Emperor Conrad came upon the Hungarians with a great army But King Stephen whose forces were entirely insufficient to meet the Emperor relied solely on the guardianship of the Lord which he sought with prayers and fasts proclaimed through his whole realm Since the Emperor was not able to enter a kingdom so fortified with rivers and forests he returned after he had sufficiently avenged his injury with lootings and burnings on the borders of the kingdom and it was his wish at a more opportune time to complete the things he had begun His son King Henry however still a young boy entrusted to the care of Eigilbert bishop of Freising received a legation of King Stephen which asked for peace and solely with the counsel of the princes of the realm and without his father s knowledge he granted the favor of reconciliation Wipo The Deeds of Conrad II 143 Last years 1031 1038 Edit King Stephen at the funeral of his son Saint Emeric Stephen s biographer Hartvic narrates that the King whose children died one by one in infancy restrained the grief over their death by the solace on account of the love of his surviving son 144 Emeric 145 However Emeric was wounded in a hunting accident and died in 1031 120 After the death of his son the elderly King could never fully regain his former health 146 according to the Illuminated Chronicle 145 Kristo writes that the picture which has been preserved in Stephen s legends of the king keeping the vigils and washing the feet of paupers is connected with Stephen s last years following the death of his son 147 Emeric s death jeopardized his father s achievements in establishing a Christian state 148 because Stephen s cousin Vazul who had the strongest claim to succeed him was suspected of an inclination towards paganism 149 According to the Annals of Altaich Stephen disregarded his cousin s claim and nominated his sister s son the Venetian Peter Orseolo as his heir 150 The same source adds that Vazul was captured and blinded and his three sons Levente Andrew and Bela were expelled from Hungary 150 Stephen s legends refer to an unsuccessful attempt upon the elderly king s life by members of his court 147 According to Kristo the legends refer to a plot in which Vazul participated and his mutilation was a punishment for this act 147 That Vazul s ears were filled with molten lead was only recorded in later sources including the Illuminated Chronicle 147 In the view of some historians provisions in Stephen s Second Book of Laws on the conspiracy against the king and the kingdom imply that the book was promulgated after Vazul s unsuccessful plot against Stephen 77 151 However this view has not been universally accepted 77 Gyorffy states that the law book was issued not after 1031 but around 1009 152 Likewise the authenticity of the decree on tithes is debated according to Gyorffy it was issued during Stephen s reign but Berend Laszlovszky and Szakacs argue that it might be a later addition 47 152 Stephen died on 15 August 1038 153 He was buried in the basilica of Szekesfehervar 150 His reign was followed by a long period of civil wars pagan uprisings and foreign invasions 154 155 The instability ended in 1077 when Ladislaus a grandson of Vazul ascended the throne 156 Family EditSee also Agatha wife of Edward the Exile King Stephen and his wife Gisela of Bavaria founding a church at obuda from the Chronicon Pictum Stephen married Gisela a daughter of Duke Henry the Wrangler of Bavaria who was a nephew of Otto I Holy Roman Emperor 157 Gisela s mother was Gisela of Burgundy a member of the Welf dynasty 21 158 Born around 985 Gisela was younger than her husband whom she survived 21 158 She left Hungary in 1045 and died as Abbess of the Niedernburg Abbey in Passau in Bavaria around 1060 159 Although the Illuminated Chronicle states that Stephen begot many sons 160 161 only two of them Otto and Emeric are known by name 66 Otto who was named after Otto III seems to have been born before 1002 66 He died as a child 161 Emeric who received the name of his maternal uncle Emperor Henry II was born around 1007 66 His Legend from the early 12th century describes him as a saintly prince who preserved his chastity even during his marriage 161 According to Gyorffy Emeric s wife was a kinswoman of the Byzantine Emperor Basil II 115 His premature death led to the series of conflicts leading to Vazul s blinding and civil wars 120 162 Be obedient to me my son You are a child descendant of rich parents living among soft pillows who has been caressed and brought up in all kinds of comforts you have had a part neither in the troubles of the campaigns nor in the various attacks of the pagans in which almost my whole life has been worn away Stephen s Admonitions to his son Emeric 126 The following family tree presents Stephen s ancestors and his relatives who are mentioned in the article 158 163 Gyula the ElderGrand Prince Taksonya Cuman lady Henry of BavariaGisela of BurgundyGyula the YoungerSaroltGrand Prince Gezatwo daughtersdaughterDoge Otto OrseolodaughterSamuel Aba Gisela of BavariaStephen Ia Bulgarian princess Michael of HungaryPeter King of HungaryVazulOttoEmericByzantine princess A Khazar Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian lady Gyorffy writes that she may have been a member of the Bulgarian Cometopuli dynasty Samuel Aba might have been the son of Stephen s sister instead of her husband Legacy EditFounder of Hungary Edit Stephen has always been considered one of the most important statesmen in the history of Hungary 164 His main achievement was the establishment of a Christian state that ensured that the Hungarians survived in the Carpathian Basin in contrast to the Huns Avars and other peoples who had previously controlled the same territory 164 As Bryan Cartledge emphasizes Stephen also gave his kingdom forty years of relative peace and sound but unspectacular rule 165 His successors including those descended from Vazul were eager to emphasize their devotion to Stephen s achievements 166 Although Vazul s son Andrew I of Hungary secured the throne due to a pagan uprising he prohibited pagan rites and declared that his subjects should live in all things according to the law which King St Stephen had taught them according to the 14th century Illuminated Chronicle 166 167 In medieval Hungary communities that claimed a privileged status or attempted to preserve their own liberties often declared that the origin of their special status was to be attributed to King Saint Stephen 168 An example is a 1347 letter from the people of Tap telling the king about their grievances against the Pannonhalma Archabbey and stating that the taxes levied upon them by the abbot contradicted the liberty granted to them in the time of King Saint Stephen 169 Sainthood Edit King Saint Stephen King and ConfessorVenerated inRoman Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox ChurchCanonized20 August 1083 Szekesfehervar by Pope Gregory VIIMajor shrineSt Stephen s Basilica Budapest HungaryFeast16 August 20 August in Hungary 2 September 1686 1969 30 May his Holy Dexter in Hungary AttributesCrown Sceptre globePatronagePatron saint of Hungary Patron of kings masons stonecutters stonemasons and bricklayers Protector against child death Stephen s cult emerged after the long period of anarchy characterizing the rule of his immediate successors 170 171 However there is no evidence that Stephen became an object of veneration before his canonization 172 For instance the first member of the royal family to be named after him Stephen II was born in the early 12th century 173 Stephen s canonization was initiated by Vazul s grandson King Ladislaus I of Hungary who had consolidated his authority by capturing and imprisoning his cousin Solomon 174 175 According to Bishop Hartvic the canonization was decreed by apostolic letter by order of the Roman see 176 suggesting that the ceremony was permitted by Pope Gregory VII 177 The ceremony started at Stephen s tomb where on 15 August 1083 masses of believers began three days of fasting and praying 178 Legend tells that Stephen s coffin could not be opened until King Ladislaus held Solomon in captivity at Visegrad 178 The opening of Stephen s tomb was followed by the occurrence of healing miracles according to Stephen s legends 175 Historian Kristo attributes the healings either to mass psychosis or deception 175 Stephen s legends also say that his balsam scented remains were elevated from the coffin which was filled with rose colored water on 20 August 178 On the same day Stephen s son Emeric and the bishop of Csanad Gerard were also canonized 179 Having completed the office of Vespers the third day everyone expected the favors of divine mercy through the merit of the blessed man suddenly with Christ visiting his masses the signs of miracles poured forth from heaven throughout the whole of the holy house Their multitude which that night were too many to count brings to mind the answer from the Gospel which the Savior of the world confided to John who asked through messengers whether he was the one who was to come the blind see the lame walk the deaf hear the lepers are cleansed the crippled are set straight the paralyzed are cured Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary 180 Stephen s first legend the so called Greater Legend was written between 1077 and 1083 181 It provided an idealized portrait of the king 182 one who dedicated himself and his kingdom to the Virgin Mary 181 However Stephen s Lesser Legend composed around 1100 182 under King Coloman 181 emphasized Stephen s severity 182 A third legend also composed during King Coloman s reign by Bishop Hartvic was based on the two existing legends 181 Sanctioned in 1201 by Pope Innocent III Hartvic s work served as Stephen s official legend 181 Gabor Klaniczay wrote that Stephen s legends opened a new chapter in the legends of holy rulers as a genre suggesting that a monarch can achieve sainthood through actively using his royal powers 183 Stephen was the first triumphant miles Christi Christ s soldier among the canonized monarchs 184 He was also a confessor king one who had not suffered martyrdom whose cult was sanctioned in contrast with earlier holy monarchs 185 Stephen s cult spread beyond the borders of Hungary 171 Initially he was primarily venerated in Scheyern and Bamberg in Bavaria but his relics were also taken to Aachen Cologne Montecassino and Namur 171 Upon the liberation of Buda from the Ottoman Turks Pope Innocent XI expanded King Saint Stephen s cult to the entire Roman Catholic Church in 1686 171 and declared 2 September his feast day 162 171 As the feast of Saint Joachim was moved in 1969 from 16 August 186 the day immediately following the day of Stephen s death Stephen s feast was moved to that date 187 Stephen is venerated as the patron saint of Hungary 171 and regarded as the protector of kings masons stonecutters stonemasons and bricklayers 188 and also of children suffering from severe illnesses 188 His canonization was recognized by Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople in 2000 189 In the calendar of the Hungarian Catholic Church Stephen s feast is observed on 20 August the day on which his relics were translated 171 In addition a separate feast day 30 May is dedicated to his Holy Dexter 171 Holy Dexter Edit The Holy Right displayed in St Stephen s Basilica Budapest Stephen s intact dexter or right hand Hungarian Szent Jobb became the subject of a cult 179 190 A cleric named Mercurius stole it but it was discovered on 30 May 1084 in Bihar County 178 The theft of sacred relics or furta sacra had by that time become a popular topic of saints biographies 191 Bishop Hartvic described the discovery of Stephen s right hand in accordance with this tradition referring to adventures and visions 191 An abbey erected in Bihar County now Saniob Romania was named after and dedicated to the veneration of the Holy Dexter 179 Why is it brothers that his other limbs having become disjointed and his flesh having been reduced to dust wholly separated only the right hand its skin and sinews adhering to the bones preserved the beauty of wholeness I surmise that the inscrutability of divine judgement sought to proclaim by the extraordinary nature of this fact nothing less than that the work of love and alms surpasses the measure of all other virtues The right hand of the blessed man was deservedly exempt from putrefaction because always reflourishing from the flower of kindness it was never empty from giving gifts to nourish the poor Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary 192 The Holy Dexter was kept for centuries in the Szentjobb Abbey except during the Mongol invasion of 1241 and 1242 when it was transferred to Ragusa now Dubrovnik Croatia 190 The relic was then taken to Szekesfehervar around 1420 190 Following the Ottoman occupation of the central territories of the Kingdom of Hungary in the mid 16th century it was guarded in many places including Bosnia Ragusa and Vienna 193 It was returned to Hungary in 1771 when Queen Maria Theresa donated it to the cloister of the Sisters of Loreto in Buda 193 It was kept in Buda Castle s St Sigismund Chapel between around 1900 and 1944 in a cave near Salzburg in 1944 and 1945 and again by the Sisters of Loreto in Buda between 1945 and 1950 Finally since 1950 the Holy Dexter has been in St Stephen s Basilica in Budapest 193 An annual procession celebrating the relic was instituted in 1938 and continued until 1950 when the procession was forbidden by the Communist government 193 It was resumed in 1988 193 Admonitions Edit Main article Admonitions According to Stephen s Greater Legend the king himself compiled a book for his son on moral education 194 This work now known as Admonitions or De institutione morum 195 was preserved in manuscripts written in the Late Middle Ages 54 Although scholars debate whether it can actually be attributed to the king or a cleric most of them agree that it was composed in the first decades of the 11th century 54 196 The Admonitions argues that kingship is inseparably connected with the Catholic faith 54 196 Its author emphasized that a monarch is required to make donations to the Church and regularly consult his prelates but is entitled to punish clergymen who do wrong 54 One of its basic ideas was that a sovereign has to cooperate with the pillars of his rule meaning the prelates aristocrats ispans and warriors 196 My dearest son if you desire to honor the royal crown I advise I counsel I urge you above all things to maintain the Catholic and Apostolic faith with such diligence and care that you may be an example for all those placed under you by God and that all the clergy may rightly call you a man of true Christian profession Failing to do this you may be sure that you will not be called a Christian or a son of the Church Indeed in the royal palace after the faith itself the Church holds second place first constituted and spread through the whole world by His members the apostles and holy fathers And though she always produced fresh offspring nevertheless in certain places she is regarded as ancient However dearest son even now in our kingdom the Church is proclaimed as young and newly planted and for that reason she needs more prudent and trustworthy guardians lest a benefit which the divine mercy bestowed on us undeservedly should be destroyed and annihilated through your idleness indolence or neglect Stephen s Admonitions to his son Emeric 197 In arts Edit Church of Saint Sava Belgrade King St Stephen has been a popular theme in Hungarian poetry since the end of the 13th century 198 The earliest poems were religious hymns which portrayed the holy king as the apostle of the Hungarians 198 Secular poetry especially poems written for his feast day followed a similar pattern emphasizing Stephen s role as the first king of Hungary 198 Poets described Stephen as the symbol of national identity and independence and of the ability of the Hungarian nation to survive historical cataclysms during the Communist regime between 1949 and 1989 198 A popular hymn still sung in the churches was first recorded in the late 18th century 198 It hails King St Stephen as radiant star of Hungarians 198 Ludwig van Beethoven composed his King Stephen Overture for the inauguration of the Hungarian theatre in Pest in 1812 199 According to musician James M Keller t he descending unisons that open the King Stephen Overture would seem to prefigure the opening of the Ninth Symphony a nd then a later theme introduced by flutes and clarinets seems almost to be a variation of the famous Ode To Joy melody of the Ninth Symphony s finale 199 Hungarian composer Ferenc Erkel named his last complete opera from 1885 Istvan kiraly King Stephen after him 200 In 1938 Zoltan Kodaly wrote a choral piece titled Enek Szent Istvan Kiralyhoz Hymn to King Stephen 201 In 1983 Levente Szorenyi and Janos Brody composed a rock opera Istvan a kiraly Stephen the King about the early years of his reign Seventeen years later in 2000 Szorenyi composed a sequel called Veled Uram You Sir 202 See also Edit Catholicism Patron Archive August 16 portal Catholic Church in Hungary History of Christianity in Hungary Isten Hazankert terdelunk God We Kneel for our Country SMS Szent Istvan St Stephen s MausoleumReferences Edit a b c d Gyorffy 1994 p 64 a b c d e f g h Kristo 2001 p 15 Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary ch 5 p 381 a b c Stephen I Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc 2008 Retrieved 29 July 2008 Kontler 1999 p 51 a b Berend Laszlovszky amp Szakacs 2007 p 331 a b Bakay 1999 p 547 a b Gyorffy 1994 p 44 Sălăgean 2005 p 147 John Skylitzes A Synopsis of Byzantine History 811 1057 ch 11 5 p 231 Engel 2001 p 24 Kristo amp Makk 1996 p 28 Gyorffy 1994 p 46 a b c d Engel 2001 p 27 a b c d e Gyorffy 1994 p 78 a b Berend Laszlovszky amp Szakacs 2007 p 329 a b c d Kristo 2001 p 16 a b Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary ch 4 p 381 Gyorffy 1983 p 132 Gyorffy 1994 pp 79 80 a b c d e Kristo 2001 p 17 a b Steinhubel 2011 p 19 Lukacka 2011 p 31 Kristo 2001 pp 16 17 a b c d Molnar 2001 p 20 a b Gyorffy 1994 p 81 a b c Kristo 2001 p 18 a b c Lukacka 2011 p 33 a b c d Gyorffy 1994 p 83 a b c Kristo Gyula 2001 Koppany leverese Koppany s defeat Szent Istvan kiraly King Saint Stephen Magyar Elektronikus Konyvtar Retrieved 17 August 2013 Kontler 1999 pp 52 53 Engel 2001 p 30 Kristo 2001 pp 18 19 a b c Cartledge 2011 p 11 a b c d e Kristo 2001 p 19 Gyorffy 1994 pp 83 84 a b Gyorffy 1994 p 84 The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle ch 39 64 p 105 Gyorffy 1994 pp 63 83 Engel 2001 p 39 Gyorffy 1994 p 63 Simon of Keza The Deeds of the Hungarians ch 78 p 163 Lukacka 2011 pp 32 33 a b Kontler 1999 p 53 Gyorffy 1994 p 85 Gyorffy 1994 pp 85 86 a b Berend Laszlovszky amp Szakacs 2007 p 351 a b Thoroczkay 2001 p 52 a b c The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg ch 29 p 193 Thoroczkay 2001 pp 52 54 Kristo 2001 p 20 Kristo 2001 p 21 a b c d Engel 2001 p 28 a b c d e f g h Berend Laszlovszky amp Szakacs 2007 p 343 a b Kristo 2001 p 22 a b c Gyorffy 1994 p 96 Pope Gregory VII s letter to King Solomon of Hungary claiming suzerainty over that kingdom p 48 a b c d e Makk 2001 p 45 Laws of King Stephen I Stephen I Preface p 1 Kristo 2001 pp 22 23 Kiralykoronazasok es temetesek Szekesfehervaron 2013 6 PDF Archived from the original PDF on 12 November 2016 Retrieved 7 November 2015 a b Gyorffy 1994 p 98 a b c Gyorffy 1994 p 97 Makk 2001 p 41 Nostrum nostrum est Romanum imperium dant vires ferax frugum Italia ferax militum Gallia et Germania nec Scythae nobis desunt fortissimo regna Noster es Caesar Romanorum imperator et Auguste qui summo Graecorum sanguine ortus Graecos imperio superas Romanis haereditario jure imperas utrosque ingenio eloquentia praevenis Gerbert of Aurillac Opera ed A Olleris Paris 1867 p 298 a b c d Kristo 2001 p 23 a b Thoroczkay 2001 p 54 Thoroczkay 2001 p 53 a b Kontler 1999 p 54 a b c d Thoroczkay 2001 p 58 Berend Laszlovszky amp Szakacs 2007 p 336 Thoroczkay 2001 pp 55 57 Cartledge 2011 p 14 Berend Laszlovszky amp Szakacs 2007 pp 331 333 Berend Laszlovszky amp Szakacs 2007 p 333 Berend Laszlovszky amp Szakacs 2007 p 334 a b c d Gyorffy 1994 p 135 Cartledge 2011 p 15 Laws of King Stephen I Stephen I 12 p 4 The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle ch 40 65 p 105 a b c d e Kristo 2001 p 24 Sălăgean 2005 pp 150 151 a b c Curta 2001 p 145 Curta 2001 p 146 The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg ch 8 4 pp 363 364 The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles ch 6 pp 31 33 a b c d Gyorffy 1994 p 142 a b Steinhubel 2011 pp 19 21 Gyorffy 1994 pp 107 108 142 The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle ch 41 66 p 105 a b Lenkey 2003 p 37 Gyorffy 1994 p 91 Life of the Five Brethren by Bruno of Querfurt ch 10 p 245 Lenkey 2003 pp 38 39 Gyorffy 1994 p 187 a b c Thoroczkay 2001 p 60 Lenkey 2003 p 39 Gyorffy 1994 p 108 Engel 2001 p 22 a b Thoroczkay 2001 p 61 Engel 2001 p 29 Kristo amp Makk 1996 p 63 a b Engel 2001 pp 40 85 a b Engel 2001 pp 40 41 a b c Gyorffy 1994 p 119 Engel 2001 p 41 Gyorffy 1994 p 140 Gyorffy 1994 p 133 Gyorffy 1994 p 144 a b Kristo 2003 p 71 Lenkey 2003 p 88 a b Makk 1993 pp 48 49 a b c Gyorffy 1994 p 143 Gyorffy 1994 pp 145 146 a b c d Gyorffy 1994 p 146 a b Kristo 2003 p 72 a b c Butler Cumming amp Burns 1998 p 159 Gyorffy 1994 pp 146 151 Engel 2001 p 43 a b c d e f Cartledge 2011 p 16 Gyorffy 1994 pp 147 151 a b c Gyorffy 1994 p 148 a b Gyorffy 1994 p 147 Gyorffy 1994 p 150 Rodulfus Glaber The Five Books of the Histories ch 3 1 2 p 97 a b c Kristo 2001 p 28 a b Gyorffy 1994 p 160 Berend Laszlovszky amp Szakacs 2007 p 352 Gyorffy 1994 p 110 a b Curta 2001 p 40 Gyorffy 1994 p 101 a b Curta 2001 p 142 Thoroczkay 2001 p 62 Wolfram 2006 p 40 a b Wolfram 2006 p 187 a b Lenkey 2003 p 90 a b Wolfram 2006 pp 197 198 a b Gyorffy 1994 p 149 Kristo 2003 p 74 a b Wolfram 2006 p 231 Kristo 2003 pp 74 75 Gyorffy 1994 pp 149 150 The Deeds of Conrad II Wipo ch 26 pp 85 86 Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary ch 19 p 390 a b Kristo amp Makk 1996 p 48 The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle ch 45 69 p 107 a b c d Kristo 2001 p 32 Gyorffy 1994 p 169 Kontler 1999 pp 58 59 a b c Gyorffy 1994 p 170 Laws of King Stephen I Stephen II 19 p 11 a b Gyorffy 1994 p 136 Guiley 2001 p 136 Engel 2001 pp 29 32 Molnar 2001 pp 25 27 Molnar 2001 p 27 Engel 2001 p 26 a b c Veszpremy 1994 p 236 Veszpremy 1994 p 237 The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle ch 38 63 p 104 a b c Gyorffy 1994 p 168 a b Butler Cumming amp Burns 1998 p 160 Kristo amp Makk 1996 pp 17 Appendices 1 2 a b Kristo amp Makk 1996 p 51 Cartledge 2011 p 17 a b Lenkey 2003 p 106 The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle ch 60 86 p 113 Tringli 2001 p 129 Tringli 2001 p 139 Magyar 1996 p 24 a b c d e f g h Dios Istvan Szent Istvan kiraly King Saint Stephen A szentek elete Lives of Saints Szent Istvan Tarsulat Retrieved 18 August 2013 Klaniczay 2002 p 127 Klaniczay 2002 p 129 Engel 2001 pp 32 33 a b c Kristo 2001 p 35 Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary ch 24 p 393 Klaniczay 2002 p 125 a b c d Klaniczay 2002 p 124 a b c Engel 2001 p 33 Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary ch 24 pp 393 394 a b c d e Berend 2001 p 375 a b c Gyorffy 1994 p 90 Klaniczay 2002 p 136 Klaniczay 2002 p 134 Klaniczay 2002 p 16 Calendarium Romanum Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969 pp 98 and 135 Calendarium Romanum Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969 pp 100 137 a b Guiley 2001 p 314 Papp Tamas 21 August 2005 Az ortodox egyhaz is szentkent tiszteli Orszagalapito kiralyunk es a keleti hagyomanyok kapcsolatarol Venerated also by the Orthodox Church On the connections between our king founding our state and the Oriental traditions Uj Ember in Hungarian Budapest 34 35 LXI ISSN 1418 1657 Archived from the original on 29 April 2014 Retrieved 19 August 2013 a b c Csorba 2004 p 7 a b Klaniczay 2002 p 146 Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary ch 27 p 396 a b c d e A Szent Jobb tortenete History of the Holy Dexter Szent Istvan Bazilika Tortenet St Stephen s Basilica History Szent Istvan Bazilika Budapest 1991 Retrieved 19 August 2013 Gyorffy 1994 pp 166 167 Gyorffy 1994 p 166 a b c Gyorffy 1994 p 167 O Malley 1995 pp 46 47 a b c d e f Pomogats Bela 2000 St Stephen in Hungarian poetry Kisebbsegkutatas Minorities research Budapest 9 3 Archived from the original on 3 October 2014 Retrieved 13 February 2015 a b Keller James M 2013 Beethoven Overture to King Stephen Opus 117 San Francisco Symphony Archived from the original on 21 January 2014 Retrieved 13 February 2015 Boka Gabor 13 August 2013 Istvan kiraly a kottatol az operaig King Stephen from sheet music to the opera Opera Vilag Retrieved 17 February 2015 Breuer Janos 1982 Kodaly kalauz Zenemukiado pp 293 318 ISBN 978 0 328 47359 5 Christopher Rechtenwald 18 April 2012 Veled Uram Izgalmas kiralydrama a Thaliaban You Sir King of the exciting drama Thalia Theatre Viva la Musical Sources EditPrimary sources Edit Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary Translated by Nora Berend 2001 In Head Thomas Medieval Hagiography An Anthology Routledge pp 378 398 ISBN 0 415 93753 1 John Skylitzes A Synopsis of Byzantine History 811 1057 Translated by John Wortley with Introduction by Jean Claude Cheynet and Bernard Flusin and Notes by Jean Claude Cheynet 2010 Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 76705 7 Life of the Five Brethren by Bruno of Querfurt Translated by Marina Miladinov 2013 In Saints of the Christianization Age of Central Europe Tenth Eleventh Centuries Edited by Gabor Klaniczay translated by Cristian Gaspar and Marina Miladinov with an introductory essay by Ian Wood Central European Medieval Texts Volume 6 Central European University Press pp 183 314 ISBN 978 615 5225 20 8 Ottonian Germany The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg Translated and annotated by David A Warner 2001 Manchester University Press ISBN 0 7190 4926 1 Rodulfus Glaber The Five Books of the Histories 2002 In Rodulfus Glaber Opera Edited by John France Neithard Bulst and Paul Reynolds Oxford Medieval Texts Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 822241 6 Simon of Keza The Deeds of the Hungarians Edited and translated by Laszlo Veszpremy and Frank Schaer with a study by Jeno Szucs 1999 Central European University Press ISBN 963 9116 31 9 Pope Gregory VII s letter to King Solomon of Hungary claiming suzerainty over that kingdom In The Correspondence of Pope Gregory Selected Letters from the Registrum Translated with and Introduction and Notes by Ephraim Emerton Columbia University Press pp 48 49 ISBN 978 0 231 09627 0 The Deeds of Conrad II Wipo 2000 In Imperial Lives amp Letters of the Eleventh Century Translated by Theodor E Mommsen and Karl F Morrison with a historical introduction and new suggested readings by Karl F Morrison edited by Robert L Benson Columbia University Press pp 52 100 ISBN 978 0 231 12121 7 The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles Translated and annotated by Paul W Knoll and Frank Schaer with a preface by Thomas N Bisson 2003 Central European University Press ISBN 963 9241 40 7 The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum Edited by Dezso Dercsenyi 1970 Corvina Taplinger Publishing ISBN 0 8008 4015 1 The Laws of King Stephen I 1000 1038 In The Laws of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary 1000 1301 Translated and edited by Janos M Bak Gyorgy Bonis James Ross Sweeney with an essay on previous editions by Andor Czizmadia Second revised edition In collaboration with Leslie S Domonkos 1999 Charles Schlacks Jr Publishers pp 1 11 ISBN 1 884445 29 2 OCLC 495379882 OCLC 248424393 LCCN 89 10492 OL 12153527M ISBN may be misprinted in the book as 88445 29 2 Secondary sources Edit Bakay Kornel 1999 Hungary In Reuter Timothy ed The New Cambridge Medieval History Volume III c 900 c 1024 Cambridge University Press pp 536 552 ISBN 978 0 521 36447 8 Berend Nora 2001 Introduction to Hartvic Life of King Stephen of Hungary In Head Thomas ed Medieval Hagiography An Anthology Routledge pp 375 377 ISBN 978 0 415 93753 5 Berend Nora Laszlovszky Jozsef Szakacs Bela Zsolt 2007 The kingdom of Hungary In Berend Nora ed Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy Scandinavia Central Europe and Rus c 900 1200 Cambridge University Press pp 319 368 ISBN 978 0 521 87616 2 Butler Alban Cumming John Burns Paul 1998 Butler s Lives of the Saints New Full Edition August Burns amp Oates ISBN 978 0 86012 257 9 Cartledge Bryan 2011 The Will to Survive A History of Hungary C Hurst amp Co ISBN 978 1 84904 112 6 Curta Florin 2001 Transylvania around AD 1000 In Urbanczyk Przemyslaw ed Europe around the year 1000 Wydawnictwo DIG pp 141 165 ISBN 978 83 7181 211 8 Csorba Csaba 2004 Szentjobb vara Castle of Szentjobb in Hungarian A Hajdu Bihar Megyei Onkormanyzat Hajdu Bihar Megyei Muzeumok Igazgatosaga ISBN 978 963 7194 15 3 Engel Pal 2001 The Realm of St Stephen A History of Medieval Hungary 895 1526 I B Tauris Publishers ISBN 978 1 86064 061 2 Guiley Rosemary Ellen 2001 The Encyclopedia of Saints Infobase Publishing ISBN 978 1 4381 3026 2 Gyorffy Gyorgy 1983 Istvan kiraly es muve King Stephen and his work in Hungarian Gondolat Konyvkiado ISBN 978 963 9441 87 3 Gyorffy Gyorgy 1994 King Saint Stephen of Hungary Atlantic Research and Publications ISBN 978 0 88033 300 9 Klaniczay Gabor 2002 Holy Rulers and Blessed Princes Dynastic Cults in Medieval Central Europe Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 42018 1 Kontler Laszlo 1999 Millennium in Central Europe A History of Hungary Atlantisz Publishing House ISBN 978 963 9165 37 3 Kristo Gyula Makk Ferenc 1996 Az Arpad haz uralkodoi Rulers of the House of Arpad in Hungarian I P C Konyvek ISBN 978 963 7930 97 3 Kristo Gyula 2001 The Life of King Stephen the Saint In Zsoldos Attila ed Saint Stephen and His Country A Newborn Kingdom in Central Europe Hungary Lucidus Kiado pp 15 36 ISBN 978 963 86163 9 5 Kristo Gyula 2003 Haboruk es hadviseles az Arpadok koraban Wars and Tactics under the Arpads in Hungarian Szukits Konyvkiado ISBN 978 963 9441 87 3 Lenkey Zoltan 2003 Szent Istvan Saint Stephen In Szentpeteri Jozsef ed Szent Istvan es III Andras Saint Stephen and Andrew III in Hungarian Kossuth Kiado pp 5 118 ISBN 978 963 09 4461 8 Lukacka Jan 2011 The beginnings of the nobility in Slovakia In Teich Mikulas Kovac Dusan Brown Martin D eds Slovakia in History Cambridge University Press pp 30 37 ISBN 978 0 521 80253 6 Magyar Zoltan 1996 Szent Istvan a magyar kulturtortenetben Saint Stephen in the History of Hungarian Arts in Hungarian Helikon Kiado ISBN 978 963 208 401 5 Makk Ferenc 2001 On the Foreign Policy of Saint Stephen In Zsoldos Attila ed Saint Stephen and His Country A Newborn Kingdom in Central Europe Hungary Lucidus Kiado pp 37 48 ISBN 978 963 86163 9 5 Makk Ferenc 1993 Magyar kulpolitika 896 1196 Hungarian Foreign Policy 896 1196 in Hungarian Szegedi Kozepkorasz Muhely ISBN 978 963 04 2913 9 Molnar Miklos 2001 A Concise History of Hungary Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 66736 4 O Malley Vincent J CM 1995 Saintly Companions A Cross Reference of Sainted Relationships Alba House ISBN 978 0 8189 0693 0 Sălăgean Tudor 2005 Romanian Society in the Early Middle Ages 9th 14th Centuries AD In Pop Ioan Aurel Bolovan Ioan eds History of Romania Compendium Romanian Cultural Institute Center for Transylvanian Studies pp 133 207 ISBN 978 973 7784 12 4 Steinhubel Jan 2011 The Duchy of Nitra In Teich Mikulas Kovac Dusan Brown Martin D eds Slovakia in History Cambridge University Press pp 15 29 ISBN 978 0 521 80253 6 Thoroczkay Gabor 2001 The Dioceses and Bishops of Saint Stephen In Zsoldos Attila ed Saint Stephen and His Country A Newborn Kingdom in Central Europe Hungary Lucidus Kiado pp 49 68 ISBN 978 963 86163 9 5 Tringli Istvan 2001 The Liberty of the Holy King Saint Stephen and the Holy Kings in the Hungarian Legal Heritaga In Zsoldos Attila ed Saint Stephen and His Country A Newborn Kingdom in Central Europe Hungary Lucidus Kiado pp 127 179 ISBN 978 963 86163 9 5 Veszpremy Laszlo 1994 Gizella In Kristo Gyula Engel Pal Makk Ferenc eds Korai magyar torteneti lexikon 9 14 szazad Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History 9th 14th centuries in Hungarian Akademiai Kiado pp 236 237 ISBN 978 963 05 6722 0 Wolfram Herwig 2006 Conrad II 990 1039 Emperor of Three Kingdoms The Pennsylvania State University Press ISBN 978 0 271 02738 8 Further reading EditHamza Gabor 2015 ZAKONITE DECRETA NA PRVIYa KRAL NA REGNUM HUNGARIAE SV IShVAN I I IUS GRAECO ROMANUM The laws decreta of the first king of the Regnum Hungariae St Stephen and the Ius Graeco Romanum Ius Romanum in Bulgarian II 1 12 ISSN 2367 7007 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Stephen I of Hungary A BBC report on Saint Stephen s day celebrations in Hungary His picture on the Hungarian 10 000 forint banknote Procession of the Holy Right Hand of St Stephen on Videoactive Herbermann Charles ed 1913 St Stephen 2 Catholic Encyclopedia New York Robert Appleton Company in Hungarian Kristo Gyula 2002 Szent Istvan kiraly King Saint Stephen Vince Kiado and Neumann Kht Stephen I of HungaryArpad dynastyBorn c 975 Died 15 August 1038Regnal titlesPreceded by Geza Grand Prince of the Hungarians 997 1000 VacantBecame kingNew title King of Hungary 1000 1038 Succeeded by Peter Portals Access related topics Biography portal Catholicism portal Hungary portal Saints portal Royalty portal Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stephen I of Hungary amp oldid 1050436473, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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