fbpx
Wikipedia

Stephen Kaminski

In this Slavic name, the surname is Kamiński, sometimes transliterated as Kaminski.

Stephen Kaminski (born Fryderyk Roeder, 1859 – September 19, 1911) was the bishop of an independent Christian diocese known as the Polish Independent Catholic Church of America.

Stephen Kaminski
Personal details
Birth nameFryderyk Roeder
Born1859
Died(1911-09-19)September 19, 1911
Buffalo, New York
Denominationindependent Catholic
Ordination history of
Stephen Kaminski
History
Priestly ordination
Ordained byJoseph René Vilatte
DateAugust 24, 1894
PlaceCleveland, Ohio
Episcopal consecration
Consecrated byJoseph René Vilatte
DateMarch 20, 1898
PlaceBuffalo, New York

He is considered an episcopus vagans.: –: 197

Contents

Stephen Kaminski, whose real name was Frydryk Roeder,: 189–190 was born in West Prussia.: 44 According to Wacław Kruszka in Historya Polska w Ameryce, Kaminski did not attend any college, but learned how to play the organ from a local organist.: 44 After leaving the army, he forged official documents for which he received a two-year prison term.: 44 Upon his release, he emigrated to the United States where he clung to various priests as an organist. He felt called to the religious life and joined the Franciscan order in Pulaski, Wisconsin, but was expelled and moved to Manitowoc, Wisconsin, where he swept a printery but was "driven out"; he then milked cows as a farmhand.: 101

He worked in a nursing home in Manitowoc.

He was organist at Father Dominic Hippolytus Kolasinski [pl]'s independent Sweetest Heart of Mary Church in Detroit, Michigan (which Vilatte consecrated in 1893: 42) but later quarreled with Kolasinski and wrote against him in newspapers.: 44

As a result, he joined Archbishop Joseph René Vilatte's Old Catholic group.

Vilatte ordained Kaminski a priest in Cleveland on 24 August 1894.

In the same year, at a congress of representatives of the national parish was elected bishop of Polish Independent Catholic Church also known as Polish Catholic Church in North America.

When Vilatte visited Cleveland, Ohio, to dedicate Fr. Anton Francis Kolaszewski [pl]'s original Immaculate Heart of Mary Church building and cemetery on August 18, 1894, he ordained Kaminski.: 50–55 The dedication ceremonies were marred by a riot, caused by protesters in the streets, that included a stabbing and shooting.: 49–51

After ordination, Kaminski took up pastoral activity in independent Polish-American parishes.

In 1895 Kaminski and a faction of his adherents occupied the Polish parish church of St. Paul, a Roman Catholic church of the Diocese of Omaha in South Omaha, Nebraska, where he conducted devotion "in his own way".: 102 It is unclear how this occupation of the church happened, or for how long it lasted, but on the morning of March 11, 1895, while Kaminski celebrated Mass in the church, 40 Polish men gathered at the church and eight of them then entered and called on Kaminski to give them the keys to the church. He refused and, standing before the altar and holding revolvers in both hands with six more revolvers and two carbines on the altar, without saying anything he started shooting. He shot Joseph Dargaszewski through his right knee and then shot at the altar to create the impression that he had also been shot at.: 101–103 Later that month, on March 31, 1895, calling him "a Polish nationalist who posed as a priest", Elia W. Peattie wrote, in the Omaha World-Herald: "Kaminski barricaded himself in the sanctuary and used firearms to retain control, wounding Xavier Dargaczewski and Frank Kraycki." Peattie quoted in her article: "The priest, he say: 'I never leave this town till I see the bare bones of this church!' And he is seein' 'em!" It was rumored he started the fire that burned the church, at the end of that month, to a pile of rubble and ashes; Kaminski's faction damaged fire hydrants so there was no way to extinguish the fire. Kaminski was arrested.: 102–103 From Omaha he went to Freeland, Pennsylvania, where he stayed only a few months because he could not obtain any adherents among the local independent division; from Freeland he went to New Britain, Connecticut.: 44–45 According to Kruszka, the 1895 organization of a Roman Catholic parish in New Britain caused a four-month dispute over the location of its church. The parishioners were scattered throughout the town and wanted to have the church nearby. Two factions formed, at opposite ends of the city. The Roman Catholic priest could not reconcile their differences. One faction purchased property for the new Roman Catholic church; the other faction also purchased property and obtained Kaminski for their church. After a replacement Roman Catholic priest was assigned to the Roman Catholic parish, the dispute was settled and Kaminski was dismissed by the disbanded faction.: 140–141 Finally, from New Britain he went to Buffalo, New York, in 1896.: 44–45

Kruszka described the Buffalo situation as being the same that took place in Omaha.: 43 He wrote that, in June 1894, Apolinary Karwowski announced in Alfons Mieczysław Chrostowski's Jutrzenka, in Cleveland, that Kolaszewski and Wladyslaw Debski arrived in Buffalo to establish an independent parish.: 39

Hieronim Kubiak wrote, in The Polish National Catholic Church in the United States of America from 1897 to 1980, that the first independent parishes in the United States were organized by German, Irish, and French Catholics. A "pattern of a parish conflict" was already in place when Poles set up their independent parishes.: 85 "As long as the conflict continued, the parish most often divorced itself from the jurisdiction of the accused bishop and stood independent of him, which did not mean that the parish did not consider itself belonging to the Catholic Church symbolized by the Pope. In the division with the bishops, the parish kept very strictly to the rules of the norm of religious life, finding in it a further support for the rightness of their cause." Return to the previous state of affairs, exist in isolation and then vanish, or create "a self-determined religious movement" are the three alternative results, according to Kubiak.: 86–87

According to Kruszka, the causes of this "social ulcer" can be found several years earlier when Poles began immigrating to Buffalo in large numbers. They had only one church prior to 1886; they built an additional church, without waiting for the permission of Bishop Stephen V. Ryan of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Buffalo, but a storm demolished it; they demanded another church and only under pressure from the Congregation for Propagation of the Faith was a second church built. Even so, there was by this time resentment and bitterness among the people which created prejudices against the clergy. That "social ulcer" burst in 1895 when a group demanded that Ryan relinquish ownership and management of their church; Ryan did not agree to the conditions, so the rebels schismed from the RCC and organized an independent parish. Their parish did not develop at all, because everyone thought their pastor, Antoni Klawiter, was morally bankrupt. Klawiter eventually left, intent on reconciling with the RCC, and Kaminski, who was according to Kruszka another notorious adventurer like Klawiter, replaced him.: 42–43 From 1896 until May 3, 1907, Kaminski was pastor of Holy Mother of the Rosary Parish in Buffalo.: 189–190 According to Kruszka, Kaminski once counted under his jurisdiction a parish in Buffalo, a parish in Chicopee, Massachusetts, and a parish in Baltimore, Maryland.: 50

After the formal constitution of the Polish Catholic Church in Buffalo, Kaminski as bishop-elect attempted to obtain consecration.

To this end, in 1897, he tried to establish friendly relations with Old Catholic Church in Europe.

The Old Catholic Churches' Union of Utrecht (UU), however, already had a representative in the United States of America, Kozlowski, and did not intent to affect Kozlowski's autonomy.

Kozlowski was willing to consecrate Kaminski.[citation needed]

Kaminski failed to persuade the Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht to raise him to the episcopate.: 113: 12 Soon after, Kaminski was to be consecrated bishop by Vilatte, but this was delayed over the fee charged for consecration.: 43 It was deliberate and premeditated simony, the act of buying and selling an ecclesiastical office, Vilatte demanded $5,000 for the consecration but Kaminski only had $600 to give.: 43 One Episcopal priest reported that Vilatte charged a $15,000 fee for Kaminski's consecration.: 42 Only after Vilatte was bankrupt and had sold his house and cathedral in Green Bay was he less demanding and agreed to consecrate Kaminski.: 43 Kaminski was consecrated, on March 20, 1898, by Vilatte: 189–190 as suffragan bishop for those Polish priests and parishes which accepted Vilatte's doctrinal reforms.: 188 He received $100 in cash from Kaminski and promissory notes for a few hundred dollars more.: 44

Two independent priests assisted in Kaminski's consecration: Kolaszewski and Wladyslaw Debski.[citation needed]

Kaminski threatened to take Grafton to court after Grafton publicly criticized him.: 42

"Notices were sent out," according to Anson, that stated both Cardinal James Gibbons of Baltimore and Archbishop Sebastiano Martinelli, the apostolic delegate to the United States, "would assist at the ceremony. It is hardly necessary to add that neither of these prelates put in an appearance.": 113 Vilatte arrived in Buffalo on March 21, 1898, and consecrated Kaminski. However, the new bishop fled the United States to Canada because of creditors. He was excommunicated by Rome and he abandoned Vilatte.

Kaminski's consecration met with an immediate response from the Holy See. On September 9, 1898, Pope Leo XIII condemned the ceremony and took Kaminski's.[contradictory]

Kaminski was consecrated after the 1889 establishment of the UU and its IBC, "the orders of episcopi vagantes in general, and specifically those of [...] Kaminski, [...] and of all those consecrated by them, are not recognized, and all connections with these persons is formally denied" by the IBC.: 197

On September 9, 1898, Vilatte was excommunicated by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch,[contradictory] Ignatius Peter IV, for consecrating Kaminski in a way contrary to the canon law of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch.: 67 Anson wrote that in his agreement with Alvarez, Vilatte acknowledged that if he "deviated from their Canons and Rules, he would be subject to dismissal from the dignity of Metropolitan.": 108 Bishops were consecrated by Vilatte "without authority" from the Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, who "therefore does not recognize such consecrations or their derivative consecrations and ordinations.": 39–40: 1070

For both Kaminski and Kozlowski, according to Kubiak, "their movements became isolated in the Polonia community, not so much because of the propaganda of the RCC, but rather because of the public opinion negative assessment of the associations of Polonia toward the dissenters.": 116 Kubiak wrote:

There is no doubt that in many cases, [...] the same followers and inspirers of the independent parishes were activists in [...] unions and [...] the Socialist party. In any case, in many instances independent parishes and groups of the Polish Socialist Alliance arose at the same time. The social postulates, [...] even the language of their propaganda, seems to indicate to a large extent a convergence in the two movements, [...]: 116–117

Kubiak quoted Hodur:

Socialists reacted very favorably from the very beginning to the National Church movement for they thought that the movement would ease their access to the Polish people, but then they became aware that the National Church had its own goals and would not allow itself to be used as an instrument; the leaders turned from it and began to abuse it with yet a greater hate than they had to the Roman Catholic clergy.: 117

Just before the Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland and wider Revolution of 1905 in the Russian Empire, Stanislaw Osada, in Historya Związku Narodowego Polskiego i rozwój ruchu narodowego Polskiego w Ameryce Północne, wrote in the United States, that Russian agents endeavored to draw believers into Old Catholicism, not for faith but for "implanting in the womb of Catholicism" the basis for Polish discord, to facilitate the russification of the Catholic Church.: 502 Kubiak quoted Osada: "There exists yet another danger, namely that in recent times the leaders of that movement (independent) quite unequivocally help spread among the Polish masses the slogans of the Revolutionary-Socialists.": 117: 502

Over the next several years, Kaminski developed his Church.He ordained several priests.[citation needed]But he never managed to collect more than 35,000 faithful gathered in 14 parishes.[citation needed]

From 1898 to 1911 he edited and published a weekly Polish newspaper Warta, an organ of his independent church. He died in Buffalo on September 19, 1911.: 189–190

After Kaminski died in 1911, the diocese was administered by a priest, Leon Zakrzewski.[citation needed]

Eventually, the Buffalo center of the independent movement ceased to exist and most of his parishioners affiliated themselves with the Polish National Catholic Church (PNCC), the Scranton center of the independent movement.: 95

In 1914, it merged with PNCC.[citation needed]Some of the faithful Polish Catholic Church in North America, who did not join the PNCC, founded a separate Christian denomination, which later took the name Mariavite Old Catholic Church in North America.[citation needed][contradictory][discuss]

Kaminski's death led to the creation of the PNCC, which was a UU member Church c. 1907 – c. 2003.[citation needed]

He was editor of the following Polish language newspaper:

Notes

  1. According to Henry R. T. Brandreth, in Episcopi Vagantes and the Anglican Church, a modern episcopus vagans is one "who has, or claims to have, received irregular or clandestine consecration; or, having been consecrated regularly and canonically, has been excommunicated by, or otherwise cut off from, the Church which consecrated him, and is not in communion with any historic metropolitical See. The main ground of objection against him is that, in spite of resounding claims to the contrary, his episcopal status is doubtful, and that, even if his orders are valid, the exercise of them is not legitimate. In many cases the church over which he claims to preside appears to exist, if it exists at all except on paper, for the sake of the bishop rather than the bishop for the sake of the Church.": 1–2
  2. A sense-for-sense translation of the Polish idiomatic expression "po swojemu" is "in his own way".: 102 The literal translation does not convey the meaning. See: Brooks, Maria Zagórska (1975). Polish Reference Grammar. Slavistic printings and reprintings., Text-book series. 2. The Hague: Mouton. p. 302. ISBN 9027933138.
  3. A calque of the Polish idiomatic expression "wrzód społeczny" is "social ulcer".: 39
  4. See Wieczerzak, Joseph W (Autumn 1983). "Bishop Francis Hodur and the Socialists: associations and disassociations". Polish American Studies. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. 40 (2): 5–35. ISSN 0032-2806. JSTOR 20148131.
  5. A calque of the Polish idiomatic expression "zaszczepienia w łonie katolicyzmu".: 502
  6. Edward Roslof wrote, in Red priests, that by 1905, renovationists in Saint Petersburg had an agenda for reform and joined with Christian Socialists to form the Union of Church Regeneration. "Orthodox adaptation of revolutionary rhetoric in 1905 disturbed the church leaders, who viewed it as incompatible with church teaching." Roslof quoted Sergei Bulgakov, that the reform "sought 'not only to renovate the church life, but even to create its new forms, almost a new religion' following the model of Martin Luther." According to Roslof, this "charge of creating a 'new religion' surfaced repeatedly.": 7–8
  7. The "Polish National Catholic Church" is also known as the "Polish National Catholic Church of America" and formerly known as the "Polish National Church of America",: 546

References

  1. Brandreth, Henry R. T. (1987) [First published in 1947]. Episcopi vagantes and the Anglican Church. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press. ISBN 0-89370-558-6.
  2. Smit, Peter-Ben (2011). Old Catholic and Philippine Independent Ecclesiologies in History: The Catholic Church in every place. Brill's Series in Church History and Religious Culture. Brill's Series in Church History. 52. Leiden: Brill. pp. 50, 180–285. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004206472.i-548.19. ISBN 978-9004206472. ISSN 1572-4107.
  3. Bolek, Francis, ed. (1943). "Kaminski, Rt. Rev. Stephen". Who's Who in Polish America (3rd ed.). New York: Harbinger House. pp. 189–190. Bolek, Francis (1943). Kozlowski, Anthony, Most Rev. Bishop. p. 230.
  4. Zukowski, Edward (Jan–Jun 1967). "Polish-American Old Catholic Bishops". Polish American Studies. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. 24 (1): 43. ISSN 0032-2806. JSTOR 20147743.
  5. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Kruszka, Wacław (1908). Historya polska w Ameryce; poczatek, wzrost i rozwój dziejowy osad polskich w Pólnocnej Ameryce (w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie) [Polish History in America; beginning, growth and development of the historical Polish settlements in North America (U.S. and Canada)] (in Polish). 13 (poprawione i illustrowane ed.). Milwaukee: Drukiem Spólki Wydawniczej Kuryera. pp. 39–45. LCCN 06003780. Retrieved2013-05-28.
  6. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Kruszka, Wacław (1907). Historya polska w Ameryce; poczatek, wzrost i rozwój dziejowy osad polskich w Pólnocnej Ameryce (w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie) [Polish History in America; beginning, growth and development of the historical Polish settlements in North America (U.S. and Canada)] (in Polish). 11 (poprawione i illustrowane ed.). Milwaukee: Drukiem Spólki Wydawniczej Kuryera. pp. 101–103. LCCN 06003780. Retrieved2013-05-28.
  7. Orzell, Laurence J (Autumn 1983). "Curious Allies: Bishop Antoni Kozlowski and the Episcopalians". Polish American Studies. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. 40 (2): 36–58. ISSN 0032-2806. JSTOR 20148132.
  8. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Kruszka, Wacław (1908). Historya polska w Ameryce; poczatek, wzrost i rozwój dziejowy osad polskich w Pólnocnej Ameryce (w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie) [Polish History in America; beginning, growth and development of the historical Polish settlements in North America (U.S. and Canada)] (in Polish). 12 (poprawione i illustrowane ed.). Milwaukee: Drukiem Spólki Wydawniczej Kuryera. pp. 50–55. LCCN 06003780. Retrieved2013-05-28.
  9. Kaczynski, Charles R (1998). "'What Mean Ye By These Stones?' Cleveland's Immaculate Heart of Mary Parish and the Construction of a Polish American Rhetoric". Polish American Studies. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press. 55 (2): 25–54. ISSN 0032-2806. JSTOR 20148543.
  10. Peattie, Elia W (2005) [Newspaper article dated 1895-03-31]. "How they live at Sheely: pen picture of a strange settlement and its queer set of inhabitants". In George-Bloomfield, Susanne (ed.). Impertinences: selected writings of Elia Peattie, a journalist in the Gilded Age. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-8032-3748-0.
  11. Kubiak, Hieronim E (1982). The Polish National Catholic Church in the United States of America from 1897 to 1980: its social conditioning and social functions. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego: Prace Polonijne. 6. Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński. pp. 18, 85–96, 110–111, 115–117. ISBN 9788301040192. Translation, with additional chapter, of Kubiak, Hieronim E (1970). Polski Narodowy Kościól Katolicki w Stanach Zjednoczonych Ameryki w latach 1897–1965 jego spoleczne unwarunkowania i spoleczne funkcje. Prace Komisji Socjologicznej (in Polish). 18. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im Ossolińskich. hdl:2027/mdp.39015002274887. LCCN 70266428.
  12. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Kruszka, Wacław (1905). Historya polska w Ameryce; poczatek, wzrost i rozwój dziejowy osad polskich w Pólnocnej Ameryce (w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie) [Polish History in America; beginning, growth and development of the historical Polish settlements in North America (U.S. and Canada)] (in Polish). 2 (poprawione i illustrowane ed.). Milwaukee: Drukiem Spólki Wydawniczej Kuryera. p. 50. LCCN 06003780. Retrieved2013-05-28.
  13. Anson, Peter F (2006) [©1964]. Bishops at large. Independent Catholic Heritage series (1st Apocryphile ed.). Berkeley: Apocryphile Press. ISBN 0-9771461-8-9.
  14. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: [s.n.] (Jul 1899). "Recent Schismatical Movements Among Catholics in the United States"(PDF). American Ecclesiastical Review. New York, NY: American Ecclesiastical Review. 21 (1): 1–13. LCCN 46037491. OCLC 9059779. Archived from the original on 2007-05-18. Retrieved2013-03-05.
  15. The dictionary definition of simony at Wiktionary
  16. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Margrander, Ernest C (1912). "Vilatte, Joseph René (Archbishop Mar Timotheus)". In Jackson, Samuel Macauley (ed.). New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 12 (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls. pp. 187–189. Retrieved2012-11-08.
  17. The New York Times. October 18, 1898.
  18. Appolis, Émile (1963). "En marge de la Séparation: les associations culturelles schismatiques" [Margins of Separation: cultural associations schismatics](PDF). Revue d'histoire de l'Église de France (in French). Paris: Société d'histoire ecclésiastique de la France. 49 (146): 47–88. doi:10.3406/rhef.1963.1719. ISSN 2109-9502. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved2013-03-26.
  19. Pearson, Joanne (2007). Wicca and the Christian Heritage: Ritual, sex and magic. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-96198-8. Retrieved2013-05-03.
  20. United States. Bureau of the Census (1929). Religious bodies. 2 (1926 ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 45–49, 1069–1081. hdl:2027/mdp.39015002601345. OCLC 628203882. Retrieved2013-04-24.
  21. Osada, Stanisław (1905). Historya Związku Narodowego Polskiego i rozwój ruchu narodowego Polskiego w Ameryce Północnej: w dwudziestą piątą rocznicę założenia Związku [A history of the Polish National Alliance and the rise of the Polish national movement in America: at the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Alliance] (in Polish). Chicago: Nakładem i drukiem Związku Narodowego Polskiego. hdl:2027/njp.32101058870666. LCCN 05032492. Retrieved2013-07-01.
  22. Roslof, Edward E (2002). Red priests: renovationism, Russian Orthodoxy, and revolution, 1905–1946. Indiana-Michigan series in Russian and East European studies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34128-0.
  23. United States. Bureau of the Census (1919). Religious bodies. 2 (1916 ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 10, 533–535, 546–548. hdl:2027/uiug.30112104110793. LCCN 20026045. OCLC 644719921.Missing or empty |title= ()

Stephen Kaminski
Stephen Kaminski Language Watch Edit In this Slavic name the surname is Kaminski sometimes transliterated as Kaminski Stephen Kaminski born Fryderyk Roeder 1859 September 19 1911 was the bishop of an independent Christian diocese known as the Polish Independent Catholic Church of America Stephen KaminskiPersonal detailsBirth nameFryderyk RoederBorn1859Died 1911 09 19 September 19 1911 Buffalo New YorkDenominationindependent CatholicOrdination history of Stephen KaminskiHistoryPriestly ordinationOrdained byJoseph Rene VilatteDateAugust 24 1894PlaceCleveland OhioEpiscopal consecrationConsecrated byJoseph Rene VilatteDateMarch 20 1898PlaceBuffalo New York He is considered an episcopus vagans 1 2 197 a Contents 1 Early life 2 Priest 3 Bishop 4 The consequences of the death of Bishop 5 Works or publications 6 Notes and references 6 1 Notes 6 2 ReferencesEarly life EditStephen Kaminski whose real name was Frydryk Roeder 3 189 190 4 was born in West Prussia 5 44 According to Waclaw Kruszka in Historya Polska w Ameryce Kaminski did not attend any college but learned how to play the organ from a local organist 5 44 After leaving the army he forged official documents for which he received a two year prison term 5 44 Upon his release he emigrated to the United States where he clung to various priests as an organist He felt called to the religious life and joined the Franciscan order in Pulaski Wisconsin but was expelled and moved to Manitowoc Wisconsin where he swept a printery but was driven out he then milked cows as a farmhand 6 101 He worked in a nursing home in Manitowoc He was organist at Father Dominic Hippolytus Kolasinski pl s independent Sweetest Heart of Mary Church in Detroit Michigan which Vilatte consecrated in 1893 7 42 but later quarreled with Kolasinski and wrote against him in newspapers 5 44 As a result he joined Archbishop Joseph Rene Vilatte s Old Catholic group Priest EditVilatte ordained Kaminski a priest in Cleveland on 24 August 1894 In the same year at a congress of representatives of the national parish was elected bishop of Polish Independent Catholic Church also known as Polish Catholic Church in North America When Vilatte visited Cleveland Ohio to dedicate Fr Anton Francis Kolaszewski pl s original Immaculate Heart of Mary Church building and cemetery on August 18 1894 he ordained Kaminski 8 50 55 The dedication ceremonies were marred by a riot caused by protesters in the streets that included a stabbing and shooting 9 49 51 After ordination Kaminski took up pastoral activity in independent Polish American parishes In 1895 Kaminski and a faction of his adherents occupied the Polish parish church of St Paul a Roman Catholic church of the Diocese of Omaha in South Omaha Nebraska where he conducted devotion in his own way 6 102 b It is unclear how this occupation of the church happened or for how long it lasted but on the morning of March 11 1895 while Kaminski celebrated Mass in the church 40 Polish men gathered at the church and eight of them then entered and called on Kaminski to give them the keys to the church He refused and standing before the altar and holding revolvers in both hands with six more revolvers and two carbines on the altar without saying anything he started shooting He shot Joseph Dargaszewski through his right knee and then shot at the altar to create the impression that he had also been shot at 6 101 103 Later that month on March 31 1895 calling him a Polish nationalist who posed as a priest Elia W Peattie wrote in the Omaha World Herald Kaminski barricaded himself in the sanctuary and used firearms to retain control wounding Xavier Dargaczewski and Frank Kraycki Peattie quoted in her article The priest he say I never leave this town till I see the bare bones of this church And he is seein em 10 It was rumored he started the fire that burned the church at the end of that month to a pile of rubble and ashes Kaminski s faction damaged fire hydrants so there was no way to extinguish the fire Kaminski was arrested 6 102 103 From Omaha he went to Freeland Pennsylvania where he stayed only a few months because he could not obtain any adherents among the local independent division from Freeland he went to New Britain Connecticut 5 44 45 According to Kruszka the 1895 organization of a Roman Catholic parish in New Britain caused a four month dispute over the location of its church The parishioners were scattered throughout the town and wanted to have the church nearby Two factions formed at opposite ends of the city The Roman Catholic priest could not reconcile their differences One faction purchased property for the new Roman Catholic church the other faction also purchased property and obtained Kaminski for their church After a replacement Roman Catholic priest was assigned to the Roman Catholic parish the dispute was settled and Kaminski was dismissed by the disbanded faction 5 140 141 Finally from New Britain he went to Buffalo New York in 1896 5 44 45 Kruszka described the Buffalo situation as being the same that took place in Omaha 5 43 He wrote that in June 1894 Apolinary Karwowski announced in Alfons Mieczyslaw Chrostowski s Jutrzenka in Cleveland that Kolaszewski and Wladyslaw Debski arrived in Buffalo to establish an independent parish 5 39 Hieronim Kubiak wrote in The Polish National Catholic Church in the United States of America from 1897 to 1980 that the first independent parishes in the United States were organized by German Irish and French Catholics A pattern of a parish conflict was already in place when Poles set up their independent parishes 11 85 As long as the conflict continued the parish most often divorced itself from the jurisdiction of the accused bishop and stood independent of him which did not mean that the parish did not consider itself belonging to the Catholic Church symbolized by the Pope In the division with the bishops the parish kept very strictly to the rules of the norm of religious life finding in it a further support for the rightness of their cause Return to the previous state of affairs exist in isolation and then vanish or create a self determined religious movement are the three alternative results according to Kubiak 11 86 87 According to Kruszka the causes of this social ulcer c can be found several years earlier when Poles began immigrating to Buffalo in large numbers They had only one church prior to 1886 they built an additional church without waiting for the permission of Bishop Stephen V Ryan of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Buffalo but a storm demolished it they demanded another church and only under pressure from the Congregation for Propagation of the Faith was a second church built Even so there was by this time resentment and bitterness among the people which created prejudices against the clergy That social ulcer c burst in 1895 when a group demanded that Ryan relinquish ownership and management of their church Ryan did not agree to the conditions so the rebels schismed from the RCC and organized an independent parish Their parish did not develop at all because everyone thought their pastor Antoni Klawiter was morally bankrupt Klawiter eventually left intent on reconciling with the RCC and Kaminski who was according to Kruszka another notorious adventurer like Klawiter replaced him 5 42 43 From 1896 until May 3 1907 Kaminski was pastor of Holy Mother of the Rosary Parish in Buffalo 3 189 190 According to Kruszka Kaminski once counted under his jurisdiction a parish in Buffalo a parish in Chicopee Massachusetts and a parish in Baltimore Maryland 12 50 Bishop EditAfter the formal constitution of the Polish Catholic Church in Buffalo Kaminski as bishop elect attempted to obtain consecration To this end in 1897 he tried to establish friendly relations with Old Catholic Church in Europe The Old Catholic Churches Union of Utrecht UU however already had a representative in the United States of America Kozlowski and did not intent to affect Kozlowski s autonomy Kozlowski was willing to consecrate Kaminski citation needed Kaminski failed to persuade the Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht to raise him to the episcopate 13 113 14 12 Soon after Kaminski was to be consecrated bishop by Vilatte but this was delayed over the fee charged for consecration 5 43 It was deliberate and premeditated simony the act of buying and selling an ecclesiastical office 15 Vilatte demanded 5 000 for the consecration but Kaminski only had 600 to give 5 43 One Episcopal priest reported that Vilatte charged a 15 000 fee for Kaminski s consecration 7 42 Only after Vilatte was bankrupt and had sold his house and cathedral in Green Bay was he less demanding and agreed to consecrate Kaminski 5 43 Kaminski was consecrated on March 20 1898 by Vilatte 3 189 190 as suffragan bishop for those Polish priests and parishes which accepted Vilatte s doctrinal reforms 16 188 He received 100 in cash from Kaminski and promissory notes for a few hundred dollars more 5 44 Two independent priests assisted in Kaminski s consecration Kolaszewski and Wladyslaw Debski citation needed Kaminski threatened to take Grafton to court after Grafton publicly criticized him 7 42 Notices were sent out according to Anson that stated both Cardinal James Gibbons of Baltimore and Archbishop Sebastiano Martinelli the apostolic delegate to the United States would assist at the ceremony It is hardly necessary to add that neither of these prelates put in an appearance 13 113 Vilatte arrived in Buffalo on March 21 1898 and consecrated Kaminski However the new bishop fled the United States to Canada because of creditors He was excommunicated by Rome and he abandoned Vilatte Kaminski s consecration met with an immediate response from the Holy See On September 9 1898 Pope Leo XIII condemned the ceremony and took Kaminski s 17 contradictory Kaminski was consecrated after the 1889 establishment of the UU and its IBC the orders of episcopi vagantes in general and specifically those of Kaminski and of all those consecrated by them are not recognized and all connections with these persons is formally denied by the IBC 2 197 On September 9 1898 Vilatte was excommunicated by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch contradictory Ignatius Peter IV for consecrating Kaminski in a way contrary to the canon law of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch 18 67 Anson wrote that in his agreement with Alvarez Vilatte acknowledged that if he deviated from their Canons and Rules he would be subject to dismissal from the dignity of Metropolitan 13 108 Bishops were consecrated by Vilatte without authority from the Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch who therefore does not recognize such consecrations or their derivative consecrations and ordinations 19 39 40 20 1070 For both Kaminski and Kozlowski according to Kubiak their movements became isolated in the Polonia community not so much because of the propaganda of the RCC but rather because of the public opinion negative assessment of the associations of Polonia toward the dissenters 11 116 Kubiak wrote There is no doubt that in many cases the same followers and inspirers of the independent parishes were activists in unions and the Socialist party In any case in many instances independent parishes and groups of the Polish Socialist Alliance arose at the same time The social postulates even the language of their propaganda seems to indicate to a large extent a convergence in the two movements 11 116 117 Kubiak quoted Hodur Socialists reacted very favorably from the very beginning to the National Church movement for they thought that the movement would ease their access to the Polish people but then they became aware that the National Church had its own goals and would not allow itself to be used as an instrument the leaders turned from it and began to abuse it with yet a greater hate than they had to the Roman Catholic clergy 11 117 d Just before the Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland and wider Revolution of 1905 in the Russian Empire Stanislaw Osada in Historya Zwiazku Narodowego Polskiego i rozwoj ruchu narodowego Polskiego w Ameryce Polnocne wrote in the United States that Russian agents endeavored to draw believers into Old Catholicism not for faith but for implanting in the womb of Catholicism e the basis for Polish discord to facilitate the russification of the Catholic Church 21 502 Kubiak quoted Osada There exists yet another danger namely that in recent times the leaders of that movement independent quite unequivocally help spread among the Polish masses the slogans of the Revolutionary Socialists 11 117 21 502 f Over the next several years Kaminski developed his Church He ordained several priests citation needed But he never managed to collect more than 35 000 faithful gathered in 14 parishes citation needed From 1898 to 1911 he edited and published a weekly Polish newspaper Warta an organ of his independent church He died in Buffalo on September 19 1911 3 189 190 The consequences of the death of Bishop EditAfter Kaminski died in 1911 the diocese was administered by a priest Leon Zakrzewski citation needed Eventually the Buffalo center of the independent movement ceased to exist and most of his parishioners affiliated themselves with the Polish National Catholic Church PNCC g the Scranton center of the independent movement 4 11 95 In 1914 it merged with PNCC citation needed Some of the faithful Polish Catholic Church in North America who did not join the PNCC founded a separate Christian denomination which later took the name Mariavite Old Catholic Church in North America citation needed contradictory discuss Kaminski s death led to the creation of the PNCC which was a UU member Church c 1907 c 2003 citation needed Works or publications EditHe was editor of the following Polish language newspaper Warta in Polish Buffalo NY OCLC 859810176Notes and references EditNotes Edit According to Henry R T Brandreth in Episcopi Vagantes and the Anglican Church a modern episcopus vagans is one who has or claims to have received irregular or clandestine consecration or having been consecrated regularly and canonically has been excommunicated by or otherwise cut off from the Church which consecrated him and is not in communion with any historic metropolitical See The main ground of objection against him is that in spite of resounding claims to the contrary his episcopal status is doubtful and that even if his orders are valid the exercise of them is not legitimate In many cases the church over which he claims to preside appears to exist if it exists at all except on paper for the sake of the bishop rather than the bishop for the sake of the Church 1 1 2 A sense for sense translation of the Polish idiomatic expression po swojemu is in his own way 6 102 The literal translation does not convey the meaning See Brooks Maria Zagorska 1975 Polish Reference Grammar Slavistic printings and reprintings Text book series 2 The Hague Mouton p 302 ISBN 9027933138 a b A calque of the Polish idiomatic expression wrzod spoleczny is social ulcer 5 39 See Wieczerzak Joseph W Autumn 1983 Bishop Francis Hodur and the Socialists associations and disassociations Polish American Studies Champaign IL University of Illinois Press 40 2 5 35 ISSN 0032 2806 JSTOR 20148131 A calque of the Polish idiomatic expression zaszczepienia w lonie katolicyzmu 21 502 Edward Roslof wrote in Red priests that by 1905 renovationists in Saint Petersburg had an agenda for reform and joined with Christian Socialists to form the Union of Church Regeneration Orthodox adaptation of revolutionary rhetoric in 1905 disturbed the church leaders who viewed it as incompatible with church teaching Roslof quoted Sergei Bulgakov that the reform sought not only to renovate the church life but even to create its new forms almost a new religion following the model of Martin Luther According to Roslof this charge of creating a new religion surfaced repeatedly 22 7 8 The Polish National Catholic Church is also known as the Polish National Catholic Church of America and formerly known as the Polish National Church of America 23 546 References Edit a b Brandreth Henry R T 1987 First published in 1947 Episcopi vagantes and the Anglican Church San Bernardino CA Borgo Press ISBN 0 89370 558 6 a b Smit Peter Ben 2011 Old Catholic and Philippine Independent Ecclesiologies in History The Catholic Church in every place Brill s Series in Church History and Religious Culture Brill s Series in Church History 52 Leiden Brill pp 50 180 285 doi 10 1163 ej 9789004206472 i 548 19 ISBN 978 9004206472 ISSN 1572 4107 a b c d Bolek Francis ed 1943 Kaminski Rt Rev Stephen Who s Who in Polish America 3rd ed New York Harbinger House pp 189 190 Bolek Francis 1943 Kozlowski Anthony Most Rev Bishop p 230 a b Zukowski Edward Jan Jun 1967 Polish American Old Catholic Bishops Polish American Studies Champaign IL University of Illinois Press 24 1 43 ISSN 0032 2806 JSTOR 20147743 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o This article incorporates text from this source which is in the public domain Kruszka Waclaw 1908 Historya polska w Ameryce poczatek wzrost i rozwoj dziejowy osad polskich w Polnocnej Ameryce w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie Polish History in America beginning growth and development of the historical Polish settlements in North America U S and Canada in Polish 13 poprawione i illustrowane ed Milwaukee Drukiem Spolki Wydawniczej Kuryera pp 39 45 LCCN 06003780 Retrieved 2013 05 28 a b c d e This article incorporates text from this source which is in the public domain Kruszka Waclaw 1907 Historya polska w Ameryce poczatek wzrost i rozwoj dziejowy osad polskich w Polnocnej Ameryce w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie Polish History in America beginning growth and development of the historical Polish settlements in North America U S and Canada in Polish 11 poprawione i illustrowane ed Milwaukee Drukiem Spolki Wydawniczej Kuryera pp 101 103 LCCN 06003780 Retrieved 2013 05 28 a b c Orzell Laurence J Autumn 1983 Curious Allies Bishop Antoni Kozlowski and the Episcopalians Polish American Studies Champaign IL University of Illinois Press 40 2 36 58 ISSN 0032 2806 JSTOR 20148132 This article incorporates text from this source which is in the public domain Kruszka Waclaw 1908 Historya polska w Ameryce poczatek wzrost i rozwoj dziejowy osad polskich w Polnocnej Ameryce w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie Polish History in America beginning growth and development of the historical Polish settlements in North America U S and Canada in Polish 12 poprawione i illustrowane ed Milwaukee Drukiem Spolki Wydawniczej Kuryera pp 50 55 LCCN 06003780 Retrieved 2013 05 28 Kaczynski Charles R 1998 What Mean Ye By These Stones Cleveland s Immaculate Heart of Mary Parish and the Construction of a Polish American Rhetoric Polish American Studies Chicago IL University of Illinois Press 55 2 25 54 ISSN 0032 2806 JSTOR 20148543 Peattie Elia W 2005 Newspaper article dated 1895 03 31 How they live at Sheely pen picture of a strange settlement and its queer set of inhabitants In George Bloomfield Susanne ed Impertinences selected writings of Elia Peattie a journalist in the Gilded Age Lincoln University of Nebraska Press pp 29 30 ISBN 0 8032 3748 0 a b c d e f g Kubiak Hieronim E 1982 The Polish National Catholic Church in the United States of America from 1897 to 1980 its social conditioning and social functions Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego Prace Polonijne 6 Krakow Uniwersytet Jagiellonski pp 18 85 96 110 111 115 117 ISBN 9788301040192 Translation with additional chapter of Kubiak Hieronim E 1970 Polski Narodowy Kosciol Katolicki w Stanach Zjednoczonych Ameryki w latach 1897 1965 jego spoleczne unwarunkowania i spoleczne funkcje Prace Komisji Socjologicznej in Polish 18 Wroclaw Zaklad Narodowy im Ossolinskich hdl 2027 mdp 39015002274887 LCCN 70266428 This article incorporates text from this source which is in the public domain Kruszka Waclaw 1905 Historya polska w Ameryce poczatek wzrost i rozwoj dziejowy osad polskich w Polnocnej Ameryce w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Kanadzie Polish History in America beginning growth and development of the historical Polish settlements in North America U S and Canada in Polish 2 poprawione i illustrowane ed Milwaukee Drukiem Spolki Wydawniczej Kuryera p 50 LCCN 06003780 Retrieved 2013 05 28 a b c Anson Peter F 2006 c 1964 Bishops at large Independent Catholic Heritage series 1st Apocryphile ed Berkeley Apocryphile Press ISBN 0 9771461 8 9 This article incorporates text from this source which is in the public domain s n Jul 1899 Recent Schismatical Movements Among Catholics in the United States PDF American Ecclesiastical Review New York NY American Ecclesiastical Review 21 1 1 13 LCCN 46037491 OCLC 9059779 Archived from the original on 2007 05 18 Retrieved 2013 03 05 The dictionary definition of simony at Wiktionary This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Margrander Ernest C 1912 Vilatte Joseph Rene Archbishop Mar Timotheus In Jackson Samuel Macauley ed New Schaff Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge 12 third ed London and New York Funk and Wagnalls pp 187 189 Retrieved 2012 11 08 The New York Times October 18 1898 Appolis Emile 1963 En marge de la Separation les associations culturelles schismatiques Margins of Separation cultural associations schismatics PDF Revue d histoire de l Eglise de France in French Paris Societe d histoire ecclesiastique de la France 49 146 47 88 doi 10 3406 rhef 1963 1719 ISSN 2109 9502 Archived from the original PDF on 2015 09 24 Retrieved 2013 03 26 Pearson Joanne 2007 Wicca and the Christian Heritage Ritual sex and magic London New York Routledge ISBN 978 0 203 96198 8 Retrieved 2013 05 03 United States Bureau of the Census 1929 Religious bodies 2 1926 ed Washington DC U S Government Printing Office pp 45 49 1069 1081 hdl 2027 mdp 39015002601345 OCLC 628203882 Retrieved 2013 04 24 a b c Osada Stanislaw 1905 Historya Zwiazku Narodowego Polskiego i rozwoj ruchu narodowego Polskiego w Ameryce Polnocnej w dwudziesta piata rocznice zalozenia Zwiazku A history of the Polish National Alliance and the rise of the Polish national movement in America at the twenty fifth anniversary of the founding of the Alliance in Polish Chicago Nakladem i drukiem Zwiazku Narodowego Polskiego hdl 2027 njp 32101058870666 LCCN 05032492 Retrieved 2013 07 01 Roslof Edward E 2002 Red priests renovationism Russian Orthodoxy and revolution 1905 1946 Indiana Michigan series in Russian and East European studies Bloomington Indiana University Press ISBN 0 253 34128 0 United States Bureau of the Census 1919 Religious bodies 2 1916 ed Washington DC U S Government Printing Office pp 10 533 535 546 548 hdl 2027 uiug 30112104110793 LCCN 20026045 OCLC 644719921 Missing or empty title help Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stephen Kaminski amp oldid 1049291275, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.