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Wikipedia

Stephenie Meyer

Stephenie Meyer (; née Morgan; born December 24, 1973) is an American novelist. She is best known for writing the vampire romance series Twilight, which has sold over 100 million copies, with translations into 37 different languages. Meyer was the bestselling author of 2008 and 2009 in the U.S., having sold over 29 million books in 2008, and 26.5 million in 2009. Meyer received the 2009 Children's Book of the Year award from the British Book Awards for Breaking Dawn, the Twilight series finale.

Stephenie Meyer
Meyer at the 2012 Comic-Con in San Diego
BornStephenie Morgan
(1973-12-24)December 24, 1973 (age 47)
Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.
OccupationNovelist, producer
NationalityAmerican
Alma materBrigham Young University (BA)
GenreVampire romance, young adult fiction, science fiction
Notable works
Spouse
Christiaan Meyer
(m. 1994)​
Children3
Signature
Website
stepheniemeyer.com

An avid young reader, she attended Brigham Young University, marrying at the age of twenty-one before graduating with a degree in English in 1997. Having no prior experience as an author, she conceived the idea for the Twilight series in a dream. Influenced by the work of Jane Austen and William Shakespeare, she wrote Twilight soon thereafter. After many rejections, Little, Brown and Company offered her a $750,000 three-book deal which led to a four-book series, several spin-off novels and novellas, and a series of commercially successful film adaptations. Aside from young adult novels, Meyer has ventured into adult novels with The Host (2008) and The Chemist (2016). Meyer has worked in film production and cofounded production company Fickle Fish Films. Meyer produced both parts of Breaking Dawn and two other novel adaptations.

Meyer's membership in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints shaped her novels: there are no drinking, smoking, or explicit sex scenes, and the characters Edward and Bella in her Twilight series remain sexually abstinent until marriage. Themes consistent with her religion, including agency, mortality, temptation, and eternal life, are prominent in her work. Meyer's work has been criticized for her overly-simplistic writing style, and feminists assert that the novel encourages traditional gender roles and that furthermore, Bella and Edward's romance has signs of an abusive relationship. Despite this criticism, Meyer considers herself a feminist. Meyer's stories have also received praise and she has acquired a fan following.

Meyer was included on Time magazine's list of the "100 Most Influential People in 2008", and was included in the Forbes Celebrity 100 list of the world's most powerful celebrities in 2009, with her annual earnings exceeding $50 million.

Contents

Stephenie Meyer was born on December 24, 1973, in Hartford, Connecticut, the second of six children to financial officer Stephen Morgan and Candy Morgan, a homemaker. Meyer was raised in Phoenix, Arizona and attended Chaparral High School in Scottsdale, Arizona. In 1992, Meyer won a National Merit Scholarship, which helped fund her undergraduate studies at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, where she received a BA in English Literature in 1997. Although she began and finished her degree at BYU, she took classes at Arizona State University in fall 1996 and spring 1997. Meyer met her future husband, Christiaan "Pancho", in Arizona when they were both children. They married in 1994, when Meyer was 21. Together they have three sons. Christiaan Meyer, formerly an auditor, retired to take care of the children.

Before writing her first novel, Twilight, Meyer had considered going to law school because she felt she had no chance of becoming a writer; she later noted that the birth of her oldest son Gabe in 1997 changed her mind, saying, "Once I had Gabe, I just wanted to be his mom." Before becoming an author, Meyer's only professional work was as a receptionist at a property company.

The Twilight novels

According to Meyer, the idea for Twilight came to her in a dream on June 2, 2003 about a human girl and a vampire who was in love with her but thirsted for her blood. Based on this dream, Meyer wrote the draft of what became chapter 13 of the book. She wrote from chapter 13 to the end of the novel and then backfilled the first 12 chapters, in secret, without an ideal audience in mind or the intention to publish the novel. Meyer researched the Quileute Native Americans to include their legends and traditions in the novel, though some Quileute tribe members members found her use of their legends offensive. Meyer joined the American Night Writers Association (ANWA) for aspiring LDS female writers. In three months she had transformed the dream into a complete novel. Her sister's response to the book was enthusiastic and she persuaded Meyer to send the manuscript to literary agencies.

Of the 15 letters she wrote, five went unanswered, nine brought rejections, and the last was a positive response from Jodi Reamer of Writers House. Eight publishers competed for the rights to publish Twilight in a 2003 auction. By November, Meyer had signed a $750,000 three-book deal with Little, Brown and Company. Twilight was published in 2005 with a print run of 75,000 copies. Bimonthly books signings and events at the Changing Hands Bookstore in Tempe, Arizona early in her writing career helped cultivate her fanbase. Twilight reached No. 5 on The New York Times Best Seller list for Children's Chapter Books within a month of its release, and later rose to #1. The novel was named the Publishers Weekly Best Book of the Year and a New York Times Editor's Choice. Despite its success, Twilight was one of the most challenged books of 2009 according to the American Library Association for being sexually explicit, being age-inappropriate, and for religious views; some schools and libraries were asked to remove the books from their shelves.

Upon publishing Twilight, Meyer had already outlined a story for a sequel. However, her publisher insisted that she follow Twilight with two sequels following Bella and Edward in college. Consequently, Meyer expanded the story into a series with three more books: New Moon (2006), Eclipse (2007), and Breaking Dawn (2008). The original story she pitched for the sequel would later be published in Breaking Dawn. Meanwhile, Meyer wrote a short story "Hell on Earth", about demons at prom night which was published in April 2007 in Prom Nights from Hell, a collection of stories about bad prom nights with supernatural effects. Meyer's fans urged her to expand "Hell on Earth" into a full novel, but Meyer was occupied finishing Eclipse.

In its first week after publication, New Moon reached No. 5 on The New York Times Best Seller list for Children's Chapter Books, and in its second week rose to the No. 1 position, where it remained for the next 11 weeks. In total, it spent over 50 weeks on the list. In May 2007, Meyer held two promotional prom events at an Arizona State University gymnasium to celebrate the special edition release of New Moon and the release of Eclipse. For the event, Meyer wore a blood-red evening gown and signed over 1,000 books. Meyer's red dress was later auctioned for $5,500 at a fundraiser for a book seller's battle with breast cancer called Project Book Babe.

After the release of Eclipse, the first three "Twilight" books spent a combined 143 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list. The fourth installment of the Twilight series, Breaking Dawn, was released with an initial print run of 3.7 million copies. Over 1.3 million copies were sold on the first day. The novel won Meyer a British Book Award for Children's Book of the Year, despite competition from J. K. Rowling's The Tales of Beedle the Bard. In 2009, Meyer faced plagiarism accusations for Breaking Dawn. Author of The Nocturne, Jordan Scott, claimed the circumstances around Bella's supernatural pregnancy and subsequent transformation into a vampire were similar to the storyline of her novel and indicated that Meyer plagiarized the plot of The Nocturne. Meyer dismissed the accusation, claiming she had not heard of the writer nor the novel. Scott failed to produce a copy of the novel to support her accusation; The Nocturne is not available on Amazon and is listed as "temporarily sold out" on her website.

The series has sold over 100 million copies worldwide in 37 languages. In 2008, the four Twilight books were in the top four spots on USA Today's year-end bestseller list. Meyer was the bestselling author of 2008, and the first author to have books in all four of the top-selling spots. The Twilight novels held the top four spots on USA Today's year-end list again in 2009. The success of the Twilight series has been attributed to the Internet which allowed Meyer to directly reach out to her fans, leading the series to be called "the first social networking bestseller." According to scholar Lykke Guanio-Uluru, the Twilight series "popularized and helped redefine, the paranormal romance subgenre".

Twilight saga films

In 2004, Paramount's MTV Films and Maverick Films optioned Twilight before the book was published in order to maximize its potential profits. The written script deviated greatly from the novel. However, the film was put into turnaround. In 2006, Erik Feig, president of Summit Entertainment, attempted to make a deal with Meyer by assuring her that the film would be true to the novel and that "no vampire character [would] be depicted with canine or incisor teeth longer or more pronounced than may be found in human beings." In 2007, the rights were sold to Summit Entertainment. Catherine Hardwicke was chosen to direct the film and Melissa Rosenberg wrote the new script. Kristen Stewart was cast first as Bella Swan and Robert Pattinson was cast as Edward Cullen after an audition with Stewart and Pattinson revealed they had good chemistry. Taylor Lautner plays the role of Jacob Black. Released on November 21, 2008, the film received favorable reviews; Roger Ebert called the film, "lush and beautiful" and Peter Bradshaw said it was, "wildly enjoyable". The film was a box-office success and became the fourth-highest grossing November opening weekend release up to that time. Meyer makes a brief cameo appearance in a diner scene. The same year Meyer began her work in film with Jack's Mannequin music video "The Resolution" which she co-directed with Noble Jones.

Following the success of Twilight, Summit greenlit a film adaptation of the sequel, The Twilight Saga: New Moon. Each novel adaptation was headed by a different director, chosen by Summit in order to provide each film a different atmosphere already existent in the novels. Chris Weitz directed New Moon, which was released on November 20, 2009. On opening night, New Moon broke the record for the highest single-day domestic gross on opening day which had previously been set by Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. Despite its commercial success, the film received poor reviews; Roger Ebert criticized the slow pace of the film and Tim Robey of The Telegraph similarly said, "the movie gives us all the requiste looks of tortured longing, and not a lot else". Directed by David Slade, The Twilight Saga: Eclipse, an adaptation of the third book in the series, was released on June 30, 2010. An article from The Guardian reported that it was the best film of the series according to critical consensus for being more "cinematic" and striking a better balance between romance and the supernatural. However, an article from The Telegraph, rebutted The Guardian's claim, arguing that Twilight remained the best film in the series due to the "entirely straight-faced contrast between the forces of eternal darkness and the rigors of high school". Having already obtained the rights to Breaking Dawn, Summit approved a two-part adaptation.

In 2011, Meyer started her own production company, Fickle Fish Films, with producer Meghan Hibbett. Meyer spent much of 2011 producing both parts of Breaking Dawn as well as the film adaptation of Shannon Hale's novel Austenland. The Breaking Dawn-Part 1 was released on November 18, 2011, and the second part on November 16, 2012. Part one of the film received mixed reviews. Part two of the film received more positive reviews with Roger Ebert calling the ending, "sensational". Critics also praised the acting, particularly that of Stewart.

The Twilight Saga was successful in the box office. With a combined budget of $373 million, the five-film series earned $3.341 billion worldwide. Despite the commercial success, the films were extensively criticized. Breaking Dawn: Part II won seven Golden Raspberry Awards (Razzie awards) including Worst Picture, Worst Sequel, and Worst Screen Couple (for Taylor Lautner and Mackenzie Foy). The series spawned two parody films: Vampires Suck and Breaking Wind which were critical failures.

In 2009, Stephenie Meyer was included in the Forbes Celebrity 100 list of the world's most powerful celebrities, entering at No. 26. Her annual earnings exceeded $50 million. The same year, Meyer was ranked No. 5 on Forbes' list of "Hollywood's Top-Earning Women", the only author on the list, and it was noted that the "Twilight series of young-adult vampire books have taken the publishing and film worlds by storm." In 2010, Forbes ranked her as the No. 59 most powerful celebrity with annual earnings of $40 million.

Meyer in 2009

Subsequent Twilight publications

In August 2009, USA Today revealed that Meyer broke J. K. Rowling's record on their bestseller list; the four Twilight books had spent 52 straight weeks in the top 10. In all, the books have spent more than 235 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list. Upon the completion of the fourth entry in the series, Meyer indicated that Breaking Dawn would be the final novel to be told from Bella Swan's perspective. In 2015, she published a new book in honor of the 10th anniversary of the best-selling franchise, titled Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined, with the genders of the original protagonists switched.

On March 30, 2010, it was announced that Meyer had written a 200-page novella The Short Second Life of Bree Tanner. The book was released on June 5, 2010, by Atom and was available for free between June 7 and July 5 on the official website. Following the release of The Short Second Life of Bree Tanner, Stephenie Meyer donated $1.5 million to the American Red Cross Relief Fund to aid victims of the earthquakes in Haiti and Chile. Those who took advantage of the free ebook were also encouraged to make donations to the Red Cross.

Midnight Sun was to be a companion novel to the series, intending to be a retelling of the events of the novel Twilight, but from the perspective of Edward Cullen. Meyer had hoped to have Midnight Sun published shortly after the release of Breaking Dawn, but after an online leak of a rough draft of its first 12 chapters, Meyer chose to delay the project indefinitely. Upset by the release of a draft she called "messy and flawed", Meyer decided to pursue books unrelated to Twilight as a result of the leak. She made the unedited and unfinished manuscript of a lengthy character development exercise of Midnight Sun available on her website.

The release of Midnight Sun was tentatively re-planned after re-visiting the Twilight series with Life and Death, a gender-swapped retelling of the novel in 2015. However, the release of Grey: Fifty Shades of Grey as Told by Christian in 2015 halted and soured Meyer's plans to release the Midnight Sun because Grey was also told from the male perspective. Meyer stated in a New York Comic-Con panel that it was "a literal flip the table moment", admitting that "Midnight Sun is kind of cursed". This led to the novel being on indefinite hold. According to an article from The Guardian in 2018, Midnight Sun was "no longer in the pipeline". However, in May 2020, it was announced that Midnight Sun would be released on August 4, 2020. Following its release, it sold over one million copies, was number two on Amazon's "most sold" list, and was number one on USA Today's bestseller list one week after its release date.

Meyer mentions having several other book ideas on file, including a ghost story titled Summer House, a novel involving time travel, as well as another about mermaids.

The Host

In May 2008, Meyer's adult sci-fi novel The Host, was released by the adult division of Little, Brown and Company. It follows the story of Melanie Stryder and Wanderer, a young woman and an invading alien "soul", who are forced to work as one. The Host debuted at No. 1 on The New York Times Best Seller list and remained on the list for 26 weeks. Despite having expressed intention to write a trilogy, with the second and third books being called The Soul and The Seeker, respectively, Meyer has not published any follow-up novels to The Host as of 2020[update].

In April 2009, Meyer took part in Project Book Babe, a benefit designed to help pay her friend Faith Hochhalter's medical bills after Hochhalter was diagnosed with breast cancer. Meyer donated many advance reader copies and original manuscripts for auction.

The Host was adapted into a film with Andrew Niccol directing and Saoirse Ronan starring as Melanie Stryder, Max Irons as Jared Howe and Jake Abel as Ian O'Shea. The film was released on March 29, 2013, to generally negative reviews. It received poor critical reviews and was a box office flop compared to the Twilight series films.

The Chemist and television productions

In late 2015, it was announced that Meyer was producing a TV series based on Daniel O'Malley's book, The Rook. Despite having purchased the rights for the novel with her production company, she left the project shortly after filming due to creative differences.

In July 2016, Little, Brown and Company announced that Meyer has written an adult action thriller titled The Chemist, about "an ex-agent on the run from her former employers". The book was released on November 8, 2016. In 2018, it was announced that Meyer's production company Fickle Fish would be working with Tomorrow Studios to produce a television series based on The Chemist.

Meyer on her book tour for Eclipse in 2007

The reception of Meyer and her novels has been mixed. Entertainment Weekly has stated that Meyer is "the world's most popular vampire novelist since Anne Rice", while The Guardian described her as an "imaginative storyteller, a prolific author and a newly powerful figure in the publishing market." Wayne Janes of the Toronto Sun agreed, saying "Meyer's success points up another trend—the virtual domination of the best-seller lists the last few years by what would normally be classified as young adult fiction," and noted, "In the absence of a new Harry Potter adventure, teens, fantasy enthusiasts and women (sales are mostly to females) who swoon at the idea of a virginal James Dean-ish vampire made Meyer the go-to gal for chaste love." Tymon Smith of The Times has described her as the "superstar of young adult fiction".

Meyer was named one of MSN Lifestyle's "Most Influential Women of 2008" where she was described as a "literary luminary". She was also ranked No. 49 on Time magazine's list of the "100 Most Influential People in 2008", and was included in their list of "People Who Mattered", with author Lev Grossman noting, "Maybe Americans aren't ready for a Mormon presidential nominee yet. But they're more than ready to anoint a Mormon as the best-selling novelist of the year."

She was ranked No. 82 on Vanity Fair's list of the "Top 100 Information Age Powers" of 2009. Meyer was featured in an issue of the biographical comic Female Force, a Bluewater Productions title which celebrates influential women in society and pop culture. Meyer was the second bestselling author of the decade, according to a list published by Amazon, beaten by J. K. Rowling.

Despite Meyer's success, her novels have been highly criticized. The New York Times called the premise of Twilight "attractive and compelling"; however, the review continues, "the book suffers at times from overearnest, amateurish writing", indicating that Meyer's relied too much on "telling" rather than "showing" and that there were excessive references to Edward's attractiveness and Bella's swooning. An article from The Guardian criticized Bella's character, calling her "a clumsy, selfish nincompoop with the charisma of a boiled potato" and criticized Edward's portrayal as the "perfect little gentleman" who constantly counters Bella's sexual advances. NPR criticized the novel for being a repetitive "jackhammer" masked behind ornate language. Furthermore, they found the story uninteresting and the main character unlikeable. Entertainment Weekly stated that the narrative of Breaking Dawn was at times so chaotic and outrageous that Meyer shifted the point of view to Jacob Black which only toned down the mayhem of the plot for so long.

Novelist Orson Scott Card said, "[Stephenie Meyer] writes with luminous clarity, never standing between the reader and the dream they share. She's the real thing". In an interview with Newsweek, author Jodi Picoult said, "Stephenie Meyer has gotten people hooked on books, and that's good for all of us." Comparing Meyer to J. K. Rowling, Stephen King stated: "The real difference is that Jo Rowling is a terrific writer, and Stephenie Meyer can't write worth a darn. She's not very good". King went on to say that the appeal of her books were because, "[she's] opening up kind of a safe joining of love and sex in those books." American religious history scholar Jana Riess had mixed reactions to Meyer's novels. She found the Mormon theology which influences her imaginative works at times beautiful and complex. However, she qualifies Meyer as a gifted storyteller, not a gifted writer, noting numerous technical flaws in her novels. Furthermore, Riess criticized the "retrogressive gender stereotypes" in Meyer's novels.

The Quileute do have a tradition that their ancestors transformed from wolves to people, but most of the descriptions of the Quileute in the novel are inaccurate. The Quileute tribe described her use of their traditions in the books and films and subsequent merchandising as cultural theft.

Fan following

Meyer has gained a following among young adult readers of her Twilight novels, which are set in the small town of Forks on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington state. Forks has thus received attention from fans, and celebrates "Stephenie Meyer Day" on September 13, the date of character Bella Swan's birthday. Meyer's fans cosplay her book characters, write fan fiction related to the stories, and attend book signings. Extreme fans are known as "Twihards".

Inspired by Meyer's Twilight series, evolved a genre of geek rock called "Twi-rock", similar in purpose to wizard rock inspired by J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series. Examples of these Twilight-themed bands include the Bella Cullen Project, Twilight Music Girls, Be Safe Bella, Bella Rocks, and the Mitch Hansen Band. The Mitch Hansen Band wrote the song "By You" in hopes that it would be included on the New Moon film soundtrack. An unofficial Twilight themed fan convention called TwiCon was organized in Dallas, Texas in summer 2009 which included "Twi-rock" band performances, a Volturi Ball, panels, workshops, and vendors.

Originally an online novelized "fan-fiction" of the Twilight series, the novel Fifty Shades of Grey by E. L. James loosely explores the relationship between the main characters, had they not remained celibate before marriage. Though the publisher claims the novel is "original and no longer based on Twilight", James did not receive copyright authorization to write the novel and some have argued that Fifty Shades of Grey may be a copyright infringement. Though Meyer has stated that the novel is "too smutty" and does not interest her, she has not filed a copyright claim.

Style

Since the release of Twilight, Meyer has been described as writing with "all plot and no style" and including "very little characterization", and her writing characterized as "fairly" poor. Meyer's prose lacks a consistent style or voice; for example, her short story "Hell on Earth" is driven more by dialogue alone, in contrast with the ornate descriptions found in the Twilight series. Meyer relies on detailed expository descriptions in her novels, and on active voice; she often opens her sentences with the most important information. While a stylistic focus of most novels is character development, Meyer has stated that she intentionally avoided describing her characters in detail, which she believes allows the reader to more easily "step into [their] shoes". In some works such as New Moon, in which Bella is largely on her own, Meyer offers "deeper insight into Bella's psyche" through the chapter titles, rather than the prose itself.

Meyer's work is typically classified as melodrama. In Twilight, Meyer makes allusions to canonical texts such as the Book of Genesis, Wuthering Heights, Macbeth, Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Meyer has said that the individual style of each of her novels came from various genres of music she listened to while writing. A corpus stylistics analysis of the Twilight saga revealed that much of Meyer's description and characterization revolved around the physical attributes of the characters as shown through eyes, face, and expression. Some of Meyer's most frequent descriptions related to eye color and expression, the juxtaposition of warmth and cold, and the words "black" and "dark". The study authors concluded that the predictability and superficiality of Meyer's descriptions indicate that Meyer's writing style is unexceptional and the success of her novels was related more to clever marketing.

William Shakespeare's plays influenced two of the Twilight novels.

Influences

Stephenie Meyer has named Mormonism as her greatest influence. However, according to actor Robert Pattinson, Meyer did not intend to include Mormon references in the novels and films. Yet professor of film and religion Angela Aleiss noted numerous clear influence of Mormonism in the Twilight series. Meyer has said, "Unconsciously, I put a lot of my basic beliefs into the story. Free agency is a big theme." Meyer cited BYU professor Steven Walker as having influenced her work. She explained that he revealed a new way for her to see and study literature which impacts her writing.

Meyer cites many novels as inspiration for the Twilight series, including Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë and L. M. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables and its sequels. Each book in the series was also inspired specifically by a different literary classic: Twilight by Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice; New Moon by William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet; Eclipse by Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights; and Breaking Dawn's theme by Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice and A Midsummer Night's Dream. Although Meyer claims to have based Twilight on Pride and Prejudice, film studies scholar Anne Morey claims that the novel bears resemblance to Jane Eyre. The choice to name Edward came from the works of Charlotte Brontë and Jane Austen and her novels are influenced by both medieval courtly love and 19th-century etiquette. Although Meyer has claimed that she did not read vampire literature and thus could not be influenced by it, scholars Anne Klaus and Stefanie Krüger argue that Meyer's characters bear similarities to "traditional vampire figures" and that Edward resembles both gothic villains and Byronic heroes. Meyer has indicated that despite the supernatural and vampire themes in her novels, she was influenced far more by Austen and Shakespeare than by Anne Rice or Stephen King. Meyer has described Austen, Shakespeare, and Orson Scott Card as her favorite authors.

Meyer cites music as a prominent influence of her writing, and she posts playlists on her website of songs which specifically inspired her books. Bands included most often in her playlists are Muse, Blue October, My Chemical Romance, Coldplay and Linkin Park. Meyer cites Muse as a particular inspiration because she uses the different emotions portrayed in their songs as influences for various genres of scenes.

Agency

According to professor of American religious history Jana Riess, a prominent theme in Meyer's novels is agency. In The Host, the Seeker believes that she is saving the human race by perfecting and controlling, similar to the Latter-day Saint belief that Satan's plan for human salvation was to "save" all souls by removing their agency and ability to sin. Seeker plays a Satan-like role in the novel, as Meyer attempts to convey the message that the maintenance of agency is crucial. Additionally, Meyer's novels contain the themes of opposition. In The Host, Wanda learns that despite the lows and evils of humanity, beauty and pleasure could not be found on her previous planets because darkness did not exist. Wanda learns in the novel that it is only in facing darkness and sorrow, that light and joy could be experienced, echoing a quotation from the Book of Mormon, "It musts needs be that there is an opposition in all things". However, "imprinting" in her Twilight series, the involuntary formation of a mate relationship, undermines Meyer's prolific theme of free agency. According to literature and women's studies scholar Natalie Wilson, the juxtaposition between Bella's agency to choose her mate and Jacob, a Native American male's, inability to choose has racial and cultural implications.

Mortality and temptation

Another theme is overcoming the circumstances and temptations of mortality referred to in the Book of Mormon as overcoming the "natural man" which is exemplified by Meyer's character Edward. As a vampire, Edward's purpose is to be carnal, killing and feeding on human blood. As led by Carlisle, Edward chooses to give up this life and transcend his circumstances by becoming a "vegetarian", choosing to feed only on animals. He chooses to uphold these values despite the daily temptation which only augments when he meets Bella; he finds her blood nearly irresistible. Edward undergoes a transformation in which Bella's trust in Edward allows him to trust his own ability to overcome temptation and keep Bella safe. Self-control is a prominent theme in the Twilight series, the word appears 125 times throughout the novels, as the main characters struggle to control their emotions, attraction, thirst, or jealousy.

Immortality and eternal life

Apparent in Meyer's Twilight series is the theme of the distinction between immortality and eternal life. In Meyer's novels, vampires are immortal and have superhuman gifts and abilities; however, the Cullen family longs for things they cannot have. Their circumstances prevent them from forming meaningful relationships with humans or other vampires, isolating them within their small clan. Furthermore, the couples in the Cullen family are unable to procreate which causes severe bitterness in Rosalie who envies Bella's ability to be pregnant. According to Riess, the distinction between eternal life and immortality is represented by Bella, who in Breaking Dawn, has achieved eternal life rather than immortality because she achieved the Mormon tenets of eternal life: immortality and a perfected body, eternal parenthood, and an eternal marriage. Riess indicates that Bella receives immortality in an act of self-sacrifice rather than self-service as she dies for the birth of her child. Bella is subsequently resurrected in a perfected vampire body. In Mormonism, resurrection occurs in the context of relationships, exemplified by Bella who enjoys her resurrected body in the company of her husband, child, and the rest of the Cullen family. The titles of the novels serve to reinforce this idea. At the beginning of the series, Bella discusses leaving Phoenix and heading to Forks where she says, "[goodbye] to the sun". The titles of the first three novels: Twilight, New Moon, and Eclipse, serve as natural phenomenon in which the sun is darkened. However, the final novel is titled Breaking Dawn, which symbolizes the beginning of a new day and Bella's transformation into a vampire and subsequent transcendence of her old life.

Religion

The Book of Mormon influenced Meyer more than any other book.

Meyer is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and does not drink alcohol, drink coffee, smoke, or watch R-rated movies. Similarly, there is no drinking and smoking in the novels. Despite pressure to include a major sex scene, Meyer was adamant against including graphic sex in her series. According to Lev Grossman of Time, some of the series' appeal is due to its lack of sex and its eroticizing of abstinence. As a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Meyer acknowledges that her faith has influenced her work. In particular, she says that her characters "tend to think more about where they came from, and where they are going, than might be typical." Meyer says that she does not consciously intend her novels to be influenced by her religion, or to promote the virtues of sexual abstinence and spiritual purity, but admits that her writing is shaped by her values, saying, "I don't think my books are going to be really graphic or dark, because of who I am. There's always going to be a lot of light in my stories."

Growing up, Meyer's life and family revolved around The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. They were involved in their community and a young Meyer met her future husband at church. She studiously read the Book of Mormon, citing the book as having "the most significant impact on [her] life." However, Meyer dislikes when media constantly mentions her religion, claiming that the press does not emphasize the religions of other authors.

Meyer is cited as having helped bring The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints more into the mainstream by books The Mormon People: The Making of an American Faith by Matthew Bowman and LDS in the USA: Mormonism and the Making of American Culture by Lee Trepanier and Lynita K. Newswander.

Feminism

According to an article from The Guardian, Meyer considers herself a feminist. Meyer has stated that, "the world is a better place when women are in charge." Additionally, she supported the massive success of Catherine Hardwicke, the director of Twilight and appreciated working with a nearly all-female production for Austenland. Meyer has explained that her definition of feminism is the ability for a woman to choose and the definition of anti-feminism is removing the choice, whether it fits gender stereotypes or not, from the woman entirely. She continued that some modern feminists contradict their message of equality for women by limiting or shaming certain women's choices. Furthermore, she stated that women who choose to stay home or have children are particularly criticized and that limitations on what women can do are anti-feminist in nature. Women's studies scholar Donna Ashcraft argues that Meyer is not a feminist, by definition, because her novels encourage traditional gender roles. However, although Ashcraft qualifies Meyer as traditional or nonfeminist, she clarifies that Meyer is not antifeminist.

However, Meyer has been criticized by feminists who consider Meyer an antifeminist writer. They say that the series romanticizes a physically abusive relationship, pointing to red flags that include Bella's entire life revolving around Edward; never being in control of her own life; being absolutely dependent on Edward's ability to protect her life, her virginity, and her humanity; and the physical injuries Bella suffers from finally consummating her relationship with Edward. Meyer has dismissed such criticisms, saying both that the books center around Bella's choice, and that her damsel in distress persona is due only to her humanity.

Noah Berlatsky of The Atlantic, in contrast, found Meyer's characters to be heroic. He continued that Meyer is a different kind of feminist that values motherhood, romance, and relationships and consequently, her characters lack the autonomy that comes from avoiding investment in relationships. After being asked in an interview with The Guardian whether she is anti-abortion, Meyer refused to directly answer the question, insisting that she does not like to talk about politics and that she abhors when celebrities use their popularity to influence voters. Berlatsky argues that her refusal to answer the question was not to avoid revealing her political position, but rather out of "respect for women's lives and women's choices".

Year Category Institution or publication Result Notes Ref.
2006 Best Fiction for Young Adults Young Adult Library Services Association Won For Twilight
2008 Author of the Year USA Today Won
2009 Children's Book of the Year British Book Awards Won For Breaking Dawn

Young adult novels

Twilight series:

Novels

Young adult short stories

Comics

Twilight series:

  1. Twilight: The Graphic Novel (2010–2011), with Young Kim
  2. New Moon: The Graphic Novel (2012), with Young Kim

Non-fiction

  • "Hero at the Grocery Store" (2006), article
Year Title Credited as Notes Ref.
Actress Producer Director
2008 Twilight Yes Diner customer (uncredited)
2008 The Resolution Yes Music video for The Resolution by Jack's Mannequin, co-director with Noble Jones
2011 Breaking Dawn – Part 1 Yes Yes Part one of film based on her novel Breaking Dawn, wedding guest (uncredited)
2012 Breaking Dawn – Part 2 Yes Part two of film based on her novel Breaking Dawn
2013 The Host Yes Film based on her novel The Host
Austenland Yes Film based on novel of the same name by Shannon Hale
2018 Down a Dark Hall Yes Film based on novel of the same name by Lois Duncan

Notes

  1. Spelled Christian in some sources.

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Works cited

Stephenie Meyerat Wikipedia's sister projects

Stephenie Meyer
Stephenie Meyer Language Watch Edit Stephenie Meyer ˈ m aɪ er nee Morgan born December 24 1973 is an American novelist She is best known for writing the vampire romance series Twilight which has sold over 100 million copies with translations into 37 different languages Meyer was the bestselling author of 2008 and 2009 in the U S having sold over 29 million books in 2008 1 and 26 5 million in 2009 2 Meyer received the 2009 Children s Book of the Year award from the British Book Awards for Breaking Dawn the Twilight series finale Stephenie MeyerMeyer at the 2012 Comic Con in San DiegoBornStephenie Morgan 1973 12 24 December 24 1973 age 47 Hartford Connecticut U S OccupationNovelist producerNationalityAmericanAlma materBrigham Young University BA GenreVampire romance young adult fiction science fictionNotable worksTwilight series The Host The ChemistSpouseChristiaan Meyer m 1994 wbr Children3SignatureWebsitestepheniemeyer wbr com An avid young reader she attended Brigham Young University marrying at the age of twenty one before graduating with a degree in English in 1997 Having no prior experience as an author she conceived the idea for the Twilight series in a dream Influenced by the work of Jane Austen and William Shakespeare she wrote Twilight soon thereafter After many rejections Little Brown and Company offered her a 750 000 three book deal which led to a four book series several spin off novels and novellas and a series of commercially successful film adaptations Aside from young adult novels Meyer has ventured into adult novels with The Host 2008 and The Chemist 2016 Meyer has worked in film production and cofounded production company Fickle Fish Films Meyer produced both parts of Breaking Dawn and two other novel adaptations Meyer s membership in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints shaped her novels there are no drinking smoking or explicit sex scenes and the characters Edward and Bella in her Twilight series remain sexually abstinent until marriage Themes consistent with her religion including agency mortality temptation and eternal life are prominent in her work 3 Meyer s work has been criticized for her overly simplistic writing style and feminists assert that the novel encourages traditional gender roles and that furthermore Bella and Edward s romance has signs of an abusive relationship Despite this criticism Meyer considers herself a feminist Meyer s stories have also received praise and she has acquired a fan following Meyer was included on Time magazine s list of the 100 Most Influential People in 2008 4 and was included in the Forbes Celebrity 100 list of the world s most powerful celebrities in 2009 with her annual earnings exceeding 50 million 5 Contents 1 Early and personal life 2 The Twilight series 2 1 The Twilight novels 2 2 Twilight saga films 2 3 Subsequent Twilight publications 3 Adult fiction publications 3 1 The Host 3 2 The Chemist and television productions 4 Reception 4 1 Fan following 5 Style and influences 5 1 Style 5 2 Influences 6 Recurring themes 6 1 Agency 6 2 Mortality and temptation 6 3 Immortality and eternal life 7 Views 7 1 Religion 7 2 Feminism 8 Awards 9 Bibliography 9 1 Young adult novels 9 2 Novels 9 3 Young adult short stories 9 4 Comics 9 5 Non fiction 10 Filmography 11 Adaptations 12 References 12 1 Notes 12 2 Citations 12 3 Works cited 13 External linksEarly and personal life EditStephenie Meyer was born on December 24 1973 in Hartford Connecticut the second of six children to financial officer Stephen Morgan and Candy Morgan a homemaker 6 7 Meyer was raised in Phoenix Arizona and attended Chaparral High School in Scottsdale Arizona 8 9 In 1992 Meyer won a National Merit Scholarship 10 which helped fund her undergraduate studies at Brigham Young University in Provo Utah where she received a BA in English Literature in 1997 11 12 Although she began and finished her degree at BYU she took classes at Arizona State University in fall 1996 and spring 1997 13 Meyer met her future husband Christiaan N 1 Pancho in Arizona when they were both children 15 16 They married in 1994 when Meyer was 21 7 17 Together they have three sons Christiaan Meyer formerly an auditor retired to take care of the children 15 9 Before writing her first novel Twilight Meyer had considered going to law school because she felt she had no chance of becoming a writer she later noted that the birth of her oldest son Gabe in 1997 changed her mind saying Once I had Gabe I just wanted to be his mom 18 19 Before becoming an author Meyer s only professional work was as a receptionist at a property company 15 The Twilight series EditThe Twilight novels Edit Main article Twilight novel series According to Meyer the idea for Twilight came to her in a dream on June 2 2003 about a human girl and a vampire who was in love with her but thirsted for her blood 20 21 22 Based on this dream Meyer wrote the draft of what became chapter 13 of the book 23 She wrote from chapter 13 to the end of the novel and then backfilled the first 12 chapters in secret without an ideal audience in mind or the intention to publish the novel 24 Meyer researched the Quileute Native Americans to include their legends and traditions in the novel 25 though some Quileute tribe members members found her use of their legends offensive 26 Meyer joined the American Night Writers Association ANWA for aspiring LDS female writers 27 In three months she had transformed the dream into a complete novel 28 29 Her sister s response to the book was enthusiastic and she persuaded Meyer to send the manuscript to literary agencies 15 Of the 15 letters she wrote five went unanswered nine brought rejections and the last was a positive response from Jodi Reamer of Writers House 30 31 Eight publishers competed for the rights to publish Twilight in a 2003 auction 30 By November Meyer had signed a 750 000 three book deal with Little Brown and Company 32 Twilight was published in 2005 with a print run of 75 000 copies 30 Bimonthly books signings and events at the Changing Hands Bookstore in Tempe Arizona early in her writing career helped cultivate her fanbase 33 Twilight reached No 5 on The New York Times Best Seller list for Children s Chapter Books within a month of its release 34 and later rose to 1 35 The novel was named the Publishers Weekly Best Book of the Year and a New York Times Editor s Choice 36 Despite its success Twilight was one of the most challenged books of 2009 according to the American Library Association for being sexually explicit being age inappropriate and for religious views some schools and libraries were asked to remove the books from their shelves 37 Upon publishing Twilight Meyer had already outlined a story for a sequel However her publisher insisted that she follow Twilight with two sequels following Bella and Edward in college 38 Consequently Meyer expanded the story into a series with three more books New Moon 2006 Eclipse 2007 and Breaking Dawn 2008 39 The original story she pitched for the sequel would later be published in Breaking Dawn 38 Meanwhile Meyer wrote a short story Hell on Earth about demons at prom night which was published in April 2007 in Prom Nights from Hell a collection of stories about bad prom nights with supernatural effects 39 Meyer s fans urged her to expand Hell on Earth into a full novel but Meyer was occupied finishing Eclipse 40 In its first week after publication New Moon reached No 5 on The New York Times Best Seller list for Children s Chapter Books and in its second week rose to the No 1 position where it remained for the next 11 weeks In total it spent over 50 weeks on the list 41 In May 2007 Meyer held two promotional prom events at an Arizona State University gymnasium to celebrate the special edition release of New Moon and the release of Eclipse For the event Meyer wore a blood red evening gown and signed over 1 000 books 42 Meyer s red dress was later auctioned for 5 500 at a fundraiser for a book seller s battle with breast cancer called Project Book Babe 43 After the release of Eclipse the first three Twilight books spent a combined 143 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list 28 The fourth installment of the Twilight series Breaking Dawn was released with an initial print run of 3 7 million copies 44 Over 1 3 million copies were sold on the first day 45 The novel won Meyer a British Book Award for Children s Book of the Year despite competition from J K Rowling s The Tales of Beedle the Bard 46 In 2009 Meyer faced plagiarism accusations for Breaking Dawn Author of The Nocturne Jordan Scott claimed the circumstances around Bella s supernatural pregnancy and subsequent transformation into a vampire were similar to the storyline of her novel and indicated that Meyer plagiarized the plot of The Nocturne Meyer dismissed the accusation claiming she had not heard of the writer nor the novel Scott failed to produce a copy of the novel to support her accusation The Nocturne is not available on Amazon and is listed as temporarily sold out on her website 47 The series has sold over 100 million copies worldwide 48 49 in 37 languages 50 51 52 In 2008 the four Twilight books were in the top four spots on USA Today s year end bestseller list Meyer was the bestselling author of 2008 and the first author to have books in all four of the top selling spots 53 The Twilight novels held the top four spots on USA Today s year end list again in 2009 54 The success of the Twilight series has been attributed to the Internet which allowed Meyer to directly reach out to her fans leading the series to be called the first social networking bestseller 55 According to scholar Lykke Guanio Uluru the Twilight series popularized and helped redefine the paranormal romance subgenre 56 Twilight saga films Edit Main article The Twilight Saga film series In 2004 Paramount s MTV Films and Maverick Films optioned Twilight before the book was published in order to maximize its potential profits The written script deviated greatly from the novel 57 However the film was put into turnaround In 2006 Erik Feig president of Summit Entertainment attempted to make a deal with Meyer by assuring her that the film would be true to the novel and that no vampire character would be depicted with canine or incisor teeth longer or more pronounced than may be found in human beings 58 In 2007 the rights were sold to Summit Entertainment 57 Catherine Hardwicke was chosen to direct the film and Melissa Rosenberg wrote the new script 59 Kristen Stewart was cast first as Bella Swan and Robert Pattinson was cast as Edward Cullen after an audition with Stewart and Pattinson revealed they had good chemistry 60 Taylor Lautner plays the role of Jacob Black 61 Released on November 21 2008 62 the film received favorable reviews Roger Ebert called the film lush and beautiful and Peter Bradshaw said it was wildly enjoyable 63 The film was a box office success and became the fourth highest grossing November opening weekend release up to that time 64 Meyer makes a brief cameo appearance in a diner scene 65 The same year Meyer began her work in film with Jack s Mannequin music video The Resolution which she co directed with Noble Jones 66 67 Following the success of Twilight Summit greenlit a film adaptation of the sequel The Twilight Saga New Moon 68 Each novel adaptation was headed by a different director chosen by Summit in order to provide each film a different atmosphere already existent in the novels 69 Chris Weitz directed New Moon 70 which was released on November 20 2009 71 On opening night New Moon broke the record for the highest single day domestic gross on opening day which had previously been set by Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince 72 73 Despite its commercial success the film received poor reviews Roger Ebert criticized the slow pace of the film and Tim Robey of The Telegraph similarly said the movie gives us all the requiste looks of tortured longing and not a lot else 74 75 Directed by David Slade The Twilight Saga Eclipse an adaptation of the third book in the series was released on June 30 2010 An article from The Guardian reported that it was the best film of the series according to critical consensus for being more cinematic and striking a better balance between romance and the supernatural 76 However an article from The Telegraph rebutted The Guardian s claim arguing that Twilight remained the best film in the series due to the entirely straight faced contrast between the forces of eternal darkness and the rigors of high school 77 Having already obtained the rights to Breaking Dawn 78 Summit approved a two part adaptation 79 In 2011 Meyer started her own production company Fickle Fish Films with producer Meghan Hibbett Meyer spent much of 2011 producing both parts of Breaking Dawn 80 as well as the film adaptation of Shannon Hale s novel Austenland 81 The Breaking Dawn Part 1 was released on November 18 2011 and the second part on November 16 2012 82 83 Part one of the film received mixed reviews 84 85 Part two of the film received more positive reviews with Roger Ebert calling the ending sensational Critics also praised the acting particularly that of Stewart 86 The Twilight Saga was successful in the box office With a combined budget of 373 million the five film series earned 3 341 billion worldwide 87 Despite the commercial success the films were extensively criticized Breaking Dawn Part II won seven Golden Raspberry Awards Razzie awards including Worst Picture Worst Sequel and Worst Screen Couple for Taylor Lautner and Mackenzie Foy 88 The series spawned two parody films Vampires Suck and Breaking Wind which were critical failures 89 90 91 In 2009 Stephenie Meyer was included in the Forbes Celebrity 100 list of the world s most powerful celebrities entering at No 26 Her annual earnings exceeded 50 million 5 The same year Meyer was ranked No 5 on Forbes list of Hollywood s Top Earning Women the only author on the list and it was noted that the Twilight series of young adult vampire books have taken the publishing and film worlds by storm 92 In 2010 Forbes ranked her as the No 59 most powerful celebrity with annual earnings of 40 million 93 Meyer in 2009 Subsequent Twilight publications Edit In August 2009 USA Today revealed that Meyer broke J K Rowling s record on their bestseller list the four Twilight books had spent 52 straight weeks in the top 10 94 In all the books have spent more than 235 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list 95 Upon the completion of the fourth entry in the series Meyer indicated that Breaking Dawn would be the final novel to be told from Bella Swan s perspective 96 In 2015 she published a new book in honor of the 10th anniversary of the best selling franchise titled Life and Death Twilight Reimagined with the genders of the original protagonists switched 97 On March 30 2010 it was announced that Meyer had written a 200 page novella The Short Second Life of Bree Tanner The book was released on June 5 2010 by Atom and was available for free between June 7 and July 5 on the official website 98 Following the release of The Short Second Life of Bree Tanner Stephenie Meyer donated 1 5 million to the American Red Cross Relief Fund to aid victims of the earthquakes in Haiti and Chile Those who took advantage of the free ebook were also encouraged to make donations to the Red Cross 99 100 101 Midnight Sun was to be a companion novel to the series intending to be a retelling of the events of the novel Twilight but from the perspective of Edward Cullen 102 Meyer had hoped to have Midnight Sun published shortly after the release of Breaking Dawn but after an online leak of a rough draft of its first 12 chapters Meyer chose to delay the project indefinitely 9 Upset by the release of a draft she called messy and flawed Meyer decided to pursue books unrelated to Twilight as a result of the leak 102 103 She made the unedited and unfinished manuscript of a lengthy character development exercise of Midnight Sun available on her website 102 The release of Midnight Sun was tentatively re planned after re visiting the Twilight series with Life and Death a gender swapped retelling of the novel in 2015 However the release of Grey Fifty Shades of Grey as Told by Christian in 2015 halted and soured Meyer s plans to release the Midnight Sun because Grey was also told from the male perspective Meyer stated in a New York Comic Con panel that it was a literal flip the table moment admitting that Midnight Sun is kind of cursed 103 104 This led to the novel being on indefinite hold 103 104 According to an article from The Guardian in 2018 Midnight Sun was no longer in the pipeline 89 However in May 2020 it was announced that Midnight Sun would be released on August 4 2020 105 Following its release it sold over one million copies 106 was number two on Amazon s most sold list 107 and was number one on USA Today s bestseller list one week after its release date 108 Meyer mentions having several other book ideas on file including a ghost story titled Summer House a novel involving time travel 109 as well as another about mermaids 110 Adult fiction publications EditThe Host Edit In May 2008 Meyer s adult sci fi novel The Host was released by the adult division of Little Brown and Company It follows the story of Melanie Stryder and Wanderer a young woman and an invading alien soul who are forced to work as one 111 112 The Host debuted at No 1 on The New York Times Best Seller list 113 and remained on the list for 26 weeks 114 Despite having expressed intention to write a trilogy with the second and third books being called The Soul and The Seeker respectively 115 Meyer has not published any follow up novels to The Host as of 2020 update 116 In April 2009 Meyer took part in Project Book Babe a benefit designed to help pay her friend Faith Hochhalter s medical bills after Hochhalter was diagnosed with breast cancer Meyer donated many advance reader copies and original manuscripts for auction 117 The Host was adapted into a film with Andrew Niccol directing and Saoirse Ronan starring as Melanie Stryder Max Irons as Jared Howe and Jake Abel as Ian O Shea 118 119 The film was released on March 29 2013 to generally negative reviews 120 121 It received poor critical reviews and was a box office flop compared to the Twilight series films 122 123 124 The Chemist and television productions Edit In late 2015 it was announced that Meyer was producing a TV series based on Daniel O Malley s book The Rook 125 126 Despite having purchased the rights for the novel with her production company she left the project shortly after filming due to creative differences 127 In July 2016 Little Brown and Company announced that Meyer has written an adult action thriller titled The Chemist about an ex agent on the run from her former employers The book was released on November 8 2016 128 In 2018 it was announced that Meyer s production company Fickle Fish would be working with Tomorrow Studios to produce a television series based on The Chemist 129 Reception Edit Meyer on her book tour for Eclipse in 2007 The reception of Meyer and her novels has been mixed 89 130 Entertainment Weekly has stated that Meyer is the world s most popular vampire novelist since Anne Rice 131 while The Guardian described her as an imaginative storyteller a prolific author and a newly powerful figure in the publishing market 132 Wayne Janes of the Toronto Sun agreed saying Meyer s success points up another trend the virtual domination of the best seller lists the last few years by what would normally be classified as young adult fiction and noted In the absence of a new Harry Potter adventure teens fantasy enthusiasts and women sales are mostly to females who swoon at the idea of a virginal James Dean ish vampire made Meyer the go to gal for chaste love 133 Tymon Smith of The Times has described her as the superstar of young adult fiction 134 Meyer was named one of MSN Lifestyle s Most Influential Women of 2008 where she was described as a literary luminary 135 She was also ranked No 49 on Time magazine s list of the 100 Most Influential People in 2008 4 and was included in their list of People Who Mattered with author Lev Grossman noting Maybe Americans aren t ready for a Mormon presidential nominee yet But they re more than ready to anoint a Mormon as the best selling novelist of the year 136 She was ranked No 82 on Vanity Fair s list of the Top 100 Information Age Powers of 2009 137 Meyer was featured in an issue of the biographical comic Female Force a Bluewater Productions title which celebrates influential women in society and pop culture 138 Meyer was the second bestselling author of the decade according to a list published by Amazon beaten by J K Rowling 139 Despite Meyer s success her novels have been highly criticized The New York Times called the premise of Twilight attractive and compelling however the review continues the book suffers at times from overearnest amateurish writing indicating that Meyer s relied too much on telling rather than showing and that there were excessive references to Edward s attractiveness and Bella s swooning 140 An article from The Guardian criticized Bella s character calling her a clumsy selfish nincompoop with the charisma of a boiled potato and criticized Edward s portrayal as the perfect little gentleman who constantly counters Bella s sexual advances 141 NPR criticized the novel for being a repetitive jackhammer masked behind ornate language Furthermore they found the story uninteresting and the main character unlikeable 142 Entertainment Weekly stated that the narrative of Breaking Dawn was at times so chaotic and outrageous that Meyer shifted the point of view to Jacob Black which only toned down the mayhem of the plot for so long 143 Novelist Orson Scott Card said Stephenie Meyer writes with luminous clarity never standing between the reader and the dream they share She s the real thing 144 In an interview with Newsweek author Jodi Picoult said Stephenie Meyer has gotten people hooked on books and that s good for all of us 145 Comparing Meyer to J K Rowling Stephen King stated The real difference is that Jo Rowling is a terrific writer and Stephenie Meyer can t write worth a darn She s not very good 146 King went on to say that the appeal of her books were because she s opening up kind of a safe joining of love and sex in those books 146 American religious history scholar Jana Riess had mixed reactions to Meyer s novels She found the Mormon theology which influences her imaginative works at times beautiful and complex However she qualifies Meyer as a gifted storyteller not a gifted writer noting numerous technical flaws in her novels Furthermore Riess criticized the retrogressive gender stereotypes in Meyer s novels 147 The Quileute do have a tradition that their ancestors transformed from wolves to people but most of the descriptions of the Quileute in the novel are inaccurate 148 The Quileute tribe described her use of their traditions in the books and films and subsequent merchandising as cultural theft 26 Fan following Edit Meyer has gained a following among young adult readers of her Twilight novels which are set in the small town of Forks on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington state Forks has thus received attention from fans and celebrates Stephenie Meyer Day on September 13 the date of character Bella Swan s birthday 149 Meyer s fans cosplay her book characters write fan fiction related to the stories and attend book signings Extreme fans are known as Twihards 89 150 Inspired by Meyer s Twilight series evolved a genre of geek rock called Twi rock similar in purpose to wizard rock inspired by J K Rowling s Harry Potter series Examples of these Twilight themed bands include the Bella Cullen Project Twilight Music Girls Be Safe Bella Bella Rocks and the Mitch Hansen Band The Mitch Hansen Band wrote the song By You in hopes that it would be included on the New Moon film soundtrack 151 152 An unofficial Twilight themed fan convention called TwiCon was organized in Dallas Texas in summer 2009 which included Twi rock band performances a Volturi Ball panels workshops and vendors 153 Originally an online novelized fan fiction of the Twilight series the novel Fifty Shades of Grey by E L James loosely explores the relationship between the main characters had they not remained celibate before marriage Though the publisher claims the novel is original and no longer based on Twilight James did not receive copyright authorization to write the novel and some have argued that Fifty Shades of Grey may be a copyright infringement Though Meyer has stated that the novel is too smutty and does not interest her she has not filed a copyright claim 154 Style and influences EditStyle Edit Since the release of Twilight Meyer has been described as writing with all plot and no style and including very little characterization and her writing characterized as fairly 155 poor Meyer s prose lacks a consistent style or voice for example her short story Hell on Earth is driven more by dialogue alone in contrast with the ornate descriptions found in the Twilight series 156 Meyer relies on detailed expository descriptions in her novels 157 and on active voice she often opens her sentences with the most important information 158 While a stylistic focus of most novels is character development Meyer has stated that she intentionally avoided describing her characters in detail which she believes allows the reader to more easily step into their shoes 159 In some works such as New Moon in which Bella is largely on her own Meyer offers deeper insight into Bella s psyche through the chapter titles rather than the prose itself 160 Meyer s work is typically classified as melodrama In Twilight Meyer makes allusions to canonical texts such as the Book of Genesis Wuthering Heights Macbeth Pride and Prejudice Sense and Sensibility and Songs of Innocence and of Experience Meyer has said that the individual style of each of her novels came from various genres of music she listened to while writing 161 A corpus stylistics analysis of the Twilight saga revealed that much of Meyer s description and characterization revolved around the physical attributes of the characters as shown through eyes face and expression Some of Meyer s most frequent descriptions related to eye color and expression the juxtaposition of warmth and cold and the words black and dark The study authors concluded that the predictability and superficiality of Meyer s descriptions indicate that Meyer s writing style is unexceptional and the success of her novels was related more to clever marketing 162 William Shakespeare s plays influenced two of the Twilight novels Influences Edit Stephenie Meyer has named Mormonism as her greatest influence 163 However according to actor Robert Pattinson Meyer did not intend to include Mormon references in the novels and films Yet professor of film and religion Angela Aleiss noted numerous clear influence of Mormonism in the Twilight series 164 Meyer has said Unconsciously I put a lot of my basic beliefs into the story Free agency is a big theme 165 Meyer cited BYU professor Steven Walker as having influenced her work She explained that he revealed a new way for her to see and study literature which impacts her writing 166 Meyer cites many novels as inspiration for the Twilight series including Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte and L M Montgomery s Anne of Green Gables and its sequels 167 Each book in the series was also inspired specifically by a different literary classic Twilight by Jane Austen s Pride and Prejudice New Moon by William Shakespeare s Romeo and Juliet Eclipse by Emily Bronte s Wuthering Heights and Breaking Dawn s theme by Shakespeare s The Merchant of Venice and A Midsummer Night s Dream 168 Although Meyer claims to have based Twilight on Pride and Prejudice film studies scholar Anne Morey claims that the novel bears resemblance to Jane Eyre 169 The choice to name Edward came from the works of Charlotte Bronte and Jane Austen and her novels are influenced by both medieval courtly love and 19th century etiquette 170 Although Meyer has claimed that she did not read vampire literature and thus could not be influenced by it scholars Anne Klaus and Stefanie Kruger argue that Meyer s characters bear similarities to traditional vampire figures and that Edward resembles both gothic villains and Byronic heroes 170 Meyer has indicated that despite the supernatural and vampire themes in her novels she was influenced far more by Austen and Shakespeare than by Anne Rice or Stephen King 171 Meyer has described Austen Shakespeare and Orson Scott Card as her favorite authors 172 173 166 Meyer cites music as a prominent influence of her writing and she posts playlists on her website of songs which specifically inspired her books Bands included most often in her playlists are Muse Blue October My Chemical Romance Coldplay and Linkin Park 174 175 176 177 Meyer cites Muse as a particular inspiration because she uses the different emotions portrayed in their songs as influences for various genres of scenes 178 Recurring themes EditAgency Edit According to professor of American religious history Jana Riess a prominent theme in Meyer s novels is agency In The Host the Seeker believes that she is saving the human race by perfecting and controlling similar to the Latter day Saint belief that Satan s plan for human salvation was to save all souls by removing their agency and ability to sin Seeker plays a Satan like role in the novel as Meyer attempts to convey the message that the maintenance of agency is crucial 179 Additionally Meyer s novels contain the themes of opposition In The Host Wanda learns that despite the lows and evils of humanity beauty and pleasure could not be found on her previous planets because darkness did not exist Wanda learns in the novel that it is only in facing darkness and sorrow that light and joy could be experienced echoing a quotation from the Book of Mormon It musts needs be that there is an opposition in all things 180 However imprinting in her Twilight series the involuntary formation of a mate relationship undermines Meyer s prolific theme of free agency 181 According to literature and women s studies scholar Natalie Wilson the juxtaposition between Bella s agency to choose her mate and Jacob a Native American male s inability to choose has racial and cultural implications 182 Mortality and temptation Edit Another theme is overcoming the circumstances and temptations of mortality referred to in the Book of Mormon as overcoming the natural man which is exemplified by Meyer s character Edward 183 As a vampire Edward s purpose is to be carnal killing and feeding on human blood As led by Carlisle Edward chooses to give up this life and transcend his circumstances by becoming a vegetarian choosing to feed only on animals He chooses to uphold these values despite the daily temptation which only augments when he meets Bella he finds her blood nearly irresistible 184 Edward undergoes a transformation in which Bella s trust in Edward allows him to trust his own ability to overcome temptation and keep Bella safe 184 Self control is a prominent theme in the Twilight series the word appears 125 times throughout the novels as the main characters struggle to control their emotions attraction thirst or jealousy 185 Immortality and eternal life Edit Apparent in Meyer s Twilight series is the theme of the distinction between immortality and eternal life In Meyer s novels vampires are immortal and have superhuman gifts and abilities however the Cullen family longs for things they cannot have Their circumstances prevent them from forming meaningful relationships with humans or other vampires isolating them within their small clan Furthermore the couples in the Cullen family are unable to procreate which causes severe bitterness in Rosalie who envies Bella s ability to be pregnant 186 According to Riess the distinction between eternal life and immortality is represented by Bella who in Breaking Dawn has achieved eternal life rather than immortality because she achieved the Mormon tenets of eternal life immortality and a perfected body eternal parenthood and an eternal marriage 186 Riess indicates that Bella receives immortality in an act of self sacrifice rather than self service as she dies for the birth of her child Bella is subsequently resurrected in a perfected vampire body In Mormonism resurrection occurs in the context of relationships exemplified by Bella who enjoys her resurrected body in the company of her husband child and the rest of the Cullen family 187 The titles of the novels serve to reinforce this idea At the beginning of the series Bella discusses leaving Phoenix and heading to Forks where she says goodbye to the sun 188 The titles of the first three novels Twilight New Moon and Eclipse serve as natural phenomenon in which the sun is darkened However the final novel is titled Breaking Dawn which symbolizes the beginning of a new day and Bella s transformation into a vampire and subsequent transcendence of her old life 188 Views EditReligion Edit The Book of Mormon influenced Meyer more than any other book Meyer is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints and does not drink alcohol drink coffee smoke or watch R rated movies 18 28 Similarly there is no drinking and smoking in the novels Despite pressure to include a major sex scene Meyer was adamant against including graphic sex in her series 28 According to Lev Grossman of Time some of the series appeal is due to its lack of sex and its eroticizing of abstinence 28 As a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints Meyer acknowledges that her faith has influenced her work In particular she says that her characters tend to think more about where they came from and where they are going than might be typical 189 Meyer says that she does not consciously intend her novels to be influenced by her religion or to promote the virtues of sexual abstinence and spiritual purity but admits that her writing is shaped by her values saying I don t think my books are going to be really graphic or dark because of who I am There s always going to be a lot of light in my stories 190 Growing up Meyer s life and family revolved around The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints They were involved in their community and a young Meyer met her future husband at church She studiously read the Book of Mormon citing the book as having the most significant impact on her life 191 192 However Meyer dislikes when media constantly mentions her religion claiming that the press does not emphasize the religions of other authors 193 Meyer is cited as having helped bring The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints more into the mainstream by books The Mormon People The Making of an American Faith by Matthew Bowman and LDS in the USA Mormonism and the Making of American Culture by Lee Trepanier and Lynita K Newswander 194 Feminism Edit According to an article from The Guardian Meyer considers herself a feminist Meyer has stated that the world is a better place when women are in charge Additionally she supported the massive success of Catherine Hardwicke the director of Twilight and appreciated working with a nearly all female production for Austenland 195 Meyer has explained that her definition of feminism is the ability for a woman to choose and the definition of anti feminism is removing the choice whether it fits gender stereotypes or not from the woman entirely She continued that some modern feminists contradict their message of equality for women by limiting or shaming certain women s choices Furthermore she stated that women who choose to stay home or have children are particularly criticized and that limitations on what women can do are anti feminist in nature 196 197 Women s studies scholar Donna Ashcraft argues that Meyer is not a feminist by definition because her novels encourage traditional gender roles However although Ashcraft qualifies Meyer as traditional or nonfeminist she clarifies that Meyer is not antifeminist 198 However Meyer has been criticized by feminists who consider Meyer an antifeminist writer They say that the series romanticizes a physically abusive relationship pointing to red flags that include Bella s entire life revolving around Edward never being in control of her own life being absolutely dependent on Edward s ability to protect her life her virginity and her humanity and the physical injuries Bella suffers from finally consummating her relationship with Edward 199 200 201 Meyer has dismissed such criticisms saying both that the books center around Bella s choice and that her damsel in distress persona is due only to her humanity 202 Noah Berlatsky of The Atlantic in contrast found Meyer s characters to be heroic He continued that Meyer is a different kind of feminist that values motherhood romance and relationships and consequently her characters lack the autonomy that comes from avoiding investment in relationships 203 After being asked in an interview with The Guardian whether she is anti abortion Meyer refused to directly answer the question insisting that she does not like to talk about politics and that she abhors when celebrities use their popularity to influence voters Berlatsky argues that her refusal to answer the question was not to avoid revealing her political position but rather out of respect for women s lives and women s choices 203 Awards EditYear Category Institution or publication Result Notes Ref 2006 Best Fiction for Young Adults Young Adult Library Services Association Won For Twilight 204 2008 Author of the Year USA Today Won 205 2009 Children s Book of the Year British Book Awards Won For Breaking Dawn 206 Bibliography EditYoung adult novels Edit Twilight series Main series Twilight 2005 1 5 Midnight Sun 2020 New Moon 2006 Eclipse 2007 3 5 The Short Second Life of Bree Tanner 2010 novella Breaking Dawn 2008 Related Books The Twilight Saga The Official Illustrated Guide 2011 reference guide Life and Death Twilight Reimagined 2015 Novels Edit The Host 2008 The Chemist 2016 Young adult short stories Edit Hell on Earth published in Prom Nights from Hell 2007 Comics Edit Twilight series Twilight The Graphic Novel 2010 2011 with Young Kim New Moon The Graphic Novel 2012 with Young KimNon fiction Edit Hero at the Grocery Store 2006 articleFilmography EditYear Title Credited as Notes Ref Actress Producer Director2008 Twilight Yes Diner customer uncredited 207 2008 The Resolution Yes Music video for The Resolution by Jack s Mannequin co director with Noble Jones 208 2011 Breaking Dawn Part 1 Yes Yes Part one of film based on her novel Breaking Dawn wedding guest uncredited 207 209 2012 Breaking Dawn Part 2 Yes Part two of film based on her novel Breaking Dawn 209 2013 The Host Yes Film based on her novel The Host 210 Austenland Yes Film based on novel of the same name by Shannon Hale 211 2018 Down a Dark Hall Yes Film based on novel of the same name by Lois Duncan 212 Adaptations EditTwilight 2008 film directed by Catherine Hardwicke based on novel Twilight The Twilight Saga New Moon 2009 film directed by Chris Weitz based on novel New Moon The Twilight Saga Eclipse 2010 film directed by David Slade based on novel Eclipse The Twilight Saga Breaking Dawn Part 1 2011 film directed by Bill Condon based on novel Breaking Dawn The Twilight Saga Breaking Dawn Part 2 2012 film directed by Bill Condon based on novel Breaking Dawn The Host 2013 film directed by Andrew Niccol based on novel The Host Twilight Storytellers The Mary Alice Brandon File 2015 short directed by Kailey Spear and Sam Spear based on novel series Twilight Twilight Storytellers Consumed 2015 short directed by Maja Fernqvist based on novel series Twilight Twilight Storytellers The Groundskeeper 2015 short directed by Nicole Eckenroad based on novel series Twilight Twilight Storytellers Masque 2015 short directed by Cate Carson based on novel series Twilight Twilight Storytellers Sunrise 2015 short directed by Amanda Tasse based on novel series Twilight Twilight Storytellers Turncoats 2015 short directed by Lindsey Hancock Williamson based on novel series Twilight Twilight Storytellers We ve Met Before 2015 short directed by Yulin Kuang based on novel series TwilightReferences EditNotes Edit Spelled Christian in some sources 14 Citations Edit The World s Most Powerful Celebrities 26 Stephenie Meyer Forbes Archived from the original on July 19 2009 Retrieved July 23 2009 Diane Roback March 22 2010 Children s Bestsellers 2009 The Reign Continues Publishers Weekly Archived from the original on July 19 2010 Retrieved April 4 2010 Fetters Ashley November 15 2012 At Its Core the Twilight Saga Is a Story About The Atlantic Retrieved July 24 2020 a b The 2008 Time 100 Finalists April 1 2008 Archived from the original on February 3 2011 Retrieved July 23 2009 a b Gil Kaufman June 4 2009 Angelina Jolie Oprah Madonna Top Forbes Celebrity 100 MTV Archived from the original on June 7 2009 Retrieved June 10 2009 Shapiro 2009 pp 20 21 a b Cochrane Kira March 11 2013 Stephenie Meyer on Twilight feminism and true love The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Archived from the original on August 19 2019 Retrieved October 9 2019 Stephenie Meyer profile The Telegraph Telegraph Media Limited November 18 2009 Archived from the original on November 15 2019 Retrieved November 15 2019 a b c Laing Olivia November 14 2009 Stephenie Meyer a squeaky clean vampire queen The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Archived from the original on October 24 2019 Retrieved October 24 2019 Scholars You May Know National Merit Scholarship Corporation National Merit Scholarship Corporation Archived from the original on February 28 2016 Retrieved October 31 2019 Walker Michael R Winter 2007 A Teenage Tale with Bite BYU Magazine Brigham Young University Archived from the original on October 31 2019 Retrieved October 31 2019 McRae Madalyn November 29 2017 4 BYU alumni who became bestselling authors The Daily Universe Brigham Young University Archived from the original on October 31 2019 Retrieved October 31 2019 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 17 So much more than you ever wanted to know about Stephenie Meyer Stephenie Meyer Archived from the original on September 24 2005 Retrieved October 31 2019 a b c d Damian Whitworth May 13 2008 Harry who Meet the new J K Rowling The Times Online London The Times Archived from the original on May 13 2008 Retrieved August 15 2009 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 5 Scherer 2012 p 19 a b Tony Allen Mills August 10 2008 News Review interview Stephenie Meyer The Times London Retrieved August 15 2009 Krohn 2010 pp 24 25 Twilight author It started with a dream CNN Cable News Network November 18 2009 Archived from the original on November 7 2019 Retrieved November 7 2019 Grossman Lev November 23 2009 It s Twilight in America The Vampire Saga Time Time Inc Retrieved November 7 2019 Cobiella Kelly August 3 2008 Stephenie Meyer s Latest Vampire Tale CBS News CBS Interactive Archived from the original on November 7 2019 Retrieved November 7 2019 Walker Michael R Winter 2007 A Teenage Tale With Bite Brigham Young University Magazine Archived from the original on January 8 2016 Retrieved August 1 2008 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 7 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 6 Krohn 2010 p 35 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 7 a b Misconceptions Cultural Theft www burkemuseum org Retrieved July 22 2020 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 8 a b c d e Lev Grossman April 24 2008 Stephenie Meyer A New J K Rowling Time Archived from the original on May 23 2009 Retrieved June 30 2009 BookStories Interview with Stephenie Meyer BookStories Changing 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Retrieved October 10 2019 a b Guanio Uluru 2015 p 5 a b Shapiro 2009 p 96 Shapiro 2009 pp 96 97 Children s Books Best Sellers from The New York Times August 2007 Irwin Megan July 12 2007 Charmed Phoenix New Times Archived from the original on October 17 2019 Retrieved October 17 2019 Standlee PJ April 7 2009 Stephenie Meyer J S Lewis and More Young Adult Authors Fight Cancer with Project Book Babe Phoenix New Times Archived from the original on October 11 2019 Retrieved October 17 2019 Jacks Brian August 4 2008 Breaking Dawn Sells 1 3 Million Copies in One Day MTV com Archived from the original on August 28 2008 Retrieved August 9 2008 Memmott Carol August 4 2008 Record breaking sales for Breaking Dawn USA Today Archived from the original on April 8 2011 Retrieved September 23 2010 Obama biography captures U K book prize CBC CBC Radio Canada April 4 2009 Retrieved November 7 2019 Flood Alison August 5 2009 Stephenie Meyer faces plagiarism claim The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Retrieved October 10 2019 John A Sellers March 30 2010 New Stephenie Meyer Novella Arriving in June Publishers Weekly Archived from the original on October 31 2010 Retrieved March 30 2010 Lev Grossman November 13 2009 It s Twilight in America Time Archived from the original on January 19 2012 Retrieved November 13 2009 Kenneth Turan November 21 2002 Movie Review Twilight Los Angeles Times Archived from the original on December 22 2008 Retrieved November 21 2008 Claudia Parsons November 21 2008 Twilight publisher sees film boosting book sales Reuters Retrieved September 23 2010 Anita Singh August 22 2008 Harry Potter under threat from Bella Swan in new vampire film Twilight The Daily Telegraph London Archived from the original on October 20 2008 Retrieved November 1 2008 Bob Minzesheimer and Anthony DeBarros January 15 2009 Sellers basked in Stephenie Meyer s Twilight in 2008 USA Today Archived from the original on January 17 2009 Retrieved January 16 2009 Bob Minzesheimer and Anthony DeBarros January 14 2010 Stephenie Meyer s Twilight series sweeps top four spots USA Today Retrieved January 14 2010 Guanio Uluru 2015 p 162 Guanio Uluru 2015 p 232 a b Larsson amp Steiner 2011 pp 19 26 Sperling Nicole July 16 2008 Twilight hits Hollywood Entertainment Weekly Meredith Corporation Retrieved January 10 2020 Fleming Michael Hardwicke to direct Meyer s Twilight Archived June 12 2008 at the Wayback Machine Variety October 2 2007 Fernandez Alexia October 16 2018 Twilight Director Recalls Electricity When Kristen Stewart and Robert Pattinson First Met People Meredith Corporation Retrieved January 10 2020 Twilight Series Twilight Twilight the Movie Stepheniemeyer com Archived from the original on June 24 2016 Retrieved August 1 2010 Weiss Sabrina Rojas August 15 2008 Did Harry Potter Release Date Change To Avoid Twilight Competition MTV Archived from the original on September 21 2010 Retrieved September 23 2010 Bradshaw Peter December 18 2008 Twilight The Guardian Guardian News and Media Limited Retrieved January 8 2020 Verrier Richard November 24 2008 Twilight leaves mark on opening weekend Los Angeles Times Retrieved January 8 2020 Larry Carroll April 4 2008 Exclusive Twilight Author Stephenie Meyer Shoots Movie Cameo MTV Archived from the original on February 17 2009 Retrieved February 12 2009 James Montgomery August 28 2008 Twilight Author Stephenie Meyer To Direct Vampire Free Jack s Mannequin Video MTV Archived from the original on September 12 2008 Retrieved October 29 2008 Jennifer Vineyard September 5 2008 Twilight Author Stephenie Meyer Tries To Drown Jack s Mannequin In Resolution Video MTV Archived from the original on September 12 2008 Retrieved October 29 2008 Carroll Larry November 22 2008 Twilight Sequel Confirmed New Moon To Hit The Big Screen MTV MTV Networks Archived from the original on March 9 2009 Retrieved April 20 2009 Morey 2012 p 213 Carroll Larry December 13 2008 BREAKING Chris Weitz Named New Moon Director While Taylor Lautner Comes Up Short MTV MTV Networks Archived from the original on March 9 2009 Retrieved September 23 2010 Sperling Nicole December 10 2008 Twilight sequel New details on New Moon Entertainment Weekly Time Inc Archived from the original on January 9 2010 Retrieved September 23 2010 Guanio Uluru 2015 p 162 Anthony D Alessandro November 21 2009 New Moon takes opening day record Variety Reed Elsevier Inc Archived from the original on November 25 2009 Retrieved November 21 2009 Ebert Roger November 18 2009 The Twilight Saga New Moon Roger Ebert Ebert Digital LLC Retrieved January 10 2020 Robey Tim November 19 2009 The Twilight Saga New Moon review The Telegraph Telegraph Media Group Limited Retrieved January 10 2020 Shoard Catherine June 28 2010 Critics back in The Twilight Saga Eclipse The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Retrieved January 10 2020 Shone Tom July 1 2010 Twilight Saga Eclipse review The Telegraph Telegraph Media Group Limited Retrieved January 10 2020 Steven Zeitchik November 14 2008 Twilight film franchise looks ahead The Hollywood Reporter Archived from the original on December 4 2008 Retrieved January 12 2010 Twilight Breaking Dawn will be released as two films The Christian Science Monitor The Christian Science Monitor June 12 2010 Archived from the original on November 7 2019 Retrieved November 7 2019 Breaking Dawn author Stephenie Meyer discusses her new role as movie producer csmonitor com November 9 2011 Archived from the original on September 7 2014 Retrieved September 7 2014 McNary Dave August 13 2013 Q amp A Stephenie Meyer Twilight Author Trades Undead for Well Bred in Austenland Variety Archived from the original on September 7 2014 Retrieved September 7 2014 Dargis Manohla November 17 2011 Edward You May Now Bite the Bride The New York Times Archived from the original on November 7 2019 Retrieved November 7 2019 Ryzik Melena November 16 2012 A Farewell to Fangs Fur and Fandom The New York Times Archived from the original on November 7 2019 Retrieved November 7 2019 Dargis Manohla November 17 2011 Edward You May Now Bite the Bride The New York Times Retrieved January 10 2020 Bradshaw Peter November 15 2011 The Twilight Saga Breaking Dawn Part 1 review The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Retrieved January 10 2020 Exley Jennifer November 15 2012 The Twilight Saga Breaking Dawn Part 2 What the Critics Are Saying The Hollywood Reporter Retrieved January 10 2020 Mendelson Scott November 21 2018 Twilight Taught Hollywood Lessons That It Has Only Started To Learn Forbes Archived from the original on November 21 2018 Retrieved October 17 2019 Couch Aaron February 23 2013 Twilight Wins 7 Razzie Awards Including Worst Picture The Hollywood Reporter Archived from the original on October 18 2019 Retrieved October 18 2019 a b c d Beasley Tom November 6 2018 Twilight forever how superfans kept the vampire critics at bay The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Archived from the original on October 17 2019 Retrieved October 17 2019 Chaney Jen August 18 2010 Vampires Suck This Twilight spoof does too The Seattle Times The Seattle Times Archived from the original on October 17 2019 Retrieved October 17 2019 Edwards David March 20 2012 Breaking Wind review A Twilight spoof even unfunnier than Vampires Suck Mirror Archived from the original on October 17 2019 Retrieved October 17 2019 Dorothy Pomerantz August 5 2009 Hollywood s Top Earning Women Forbes Archived from the original on August 8 2009 Retrieved August 23 2009 59 Stephenie Meyer Forbes com Forbes 2010 Archived from the original on January 29 2012 Retrieved October 30 2019 Carol Memmott and Mary Cadden August 5 2009 Twilight series eclipses Potter records on Best Selling list USA Today Archived from the original on September 19 2009 Retrieved January 14 2010 Guanio Uluru 2015 p 6 Twilight Series Breaking Dawn Stepheniemeyer com Archived from the original on December 13 2008 Retrieved August 1 2010 Maane Khatchatourian Twilight Gets Gender Swapped Novel Variety Variety Archived from the original on August 21 2017 Retrieved December 9 2017 Flood Alison March 30 2010 Stephenie Meyer to publish new Twilight novella The Guardian London Archived from the original on October 21 2013 Retrieved March 30 2010 Rosenthal Dave March 20 2010 New Stephenie Meyer novella online for free The Baltimore Sun Baltimore Sun Archived from the original on October 11 2019 Retrieved October 11 2019 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 12 Kellogg Carolyn March 31 2010 Stephenie Meyer s new vampire book will benefit the Red Cross Los Angeles Times Archived from the original on October 11 2019 Retrieved October 11 2019 a b c Twilight Series Midnight Sun Stepheniemeyer com August 28 2008 Archived from the original on September 10 2010 Retrieved August 1 2010 a b c Renfro Kim October 2 2015 Fifty Shades of Grey is the reason fans will never get the Twilight spinoff they ve been waiting years for Business Insider Insider Inc Archived from the original on October 10 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 a b Lewis Megan October 9 2015 Stephenie Meyer has no plans to release Midnight Sun after Grey Entertainment Weekly Archived from the original on October 10 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 Flood Alison May 4 2020 Stephenie Meyer announces new Twilight book Midnight Sun The Guardian ISSN 0261 3077 Retrieved May 4 2020 Cain Sian As Midnight Sun hits No 1 Stephenie Meyer plans two more Twilight books www msn com El Mamoud Sarah August 20 2020 Apparently We Can Thank Stephenie Meyer s Own Mother For Midnight Sun s Existence Cinemablend Retrieved August 24 2020 Cadden Mary August 12 2020 Stephenie Meyer says more books coming in Twilight saga as Midnight Sun sells 1M copies USA TODAY Retrieved August 24 2020 Stephenie Meyer s vampire empire Stephenie Meyer Cover Story Books Entertainment Weekly 4 Ew com Archived from the original on October 22 2014 Retrieved August 1 2010 Twilight series offers young people a twist on vampire fiction CBC Arts Books Cbc ca September 24 2007 Archived from the original on March 31 2009 Retrieved August 1 2010 Schillaci Sophie March 28 2013 From Twilight to The Host A Stephenie Meyer Timeline The Hollywood Reporter Archived from the original on December 16 2019 Retrieved December 16 2019 Nance Kevin March 23 2013 Stephenie Meyer talks about The Host Chicago Tribune Archived from the original on December 16 2019 Retrieved December 16 2019 Books Best Seller Lists The New York Times May 25 2008 Archived from the original on June 4 2011 Retrieved August 1 2010 The 25 Entertainers of the Year Entertainment Weekly November 13 2008 Archived from the original on December 1 2008 Retrieved November 13 2008 Carroll Larry April 9 2008 Twilight Writer Stephenie Meyer Wants Matt Damon For Host Movie Movie News Story MTV Movie News Mtv com Archived from the original on April 27 2010 Retrieved August 1 2010 Alter Alexandra November 9 2016 Sorry Twilight Fans Stephenie Meyer s Latest Is a Twister Spy Thriller The New York Times Archived from the original on October 9 2019 Retrieved October 9 2019 PJ Standlee April 7 2009 Stephenie Meyer J S Lewis and More Young Adult Authors Fight Cancer With Project Book Babe Phoenix New Times Archived from the original on April 23 2009 Retrieved August 15 2009 McNary Dave May 12 2011 Meyer s Host finds a helmer Variety Archived from the original on November 8 2012 Retrieved November 30 2012 Staskiewicz Keith May 3 2011 Saoirse Ronan cast in film of Stephenie Meyer s The Host Entertainment Weekly Archived from the original on October 22 2012 Retrieved November 30 2012 The Host Lands Release Date Here s What We Know About Stephenie Meyer Adaptation MTV com June 27 2011 Archived from the original on January 18 2012 Retrieved June 27 2011 Lee Stephan April 1 2013 Box office report G I Joe wins Easter Weekend with a muscular 41 2M CNN Archived from the original on October 21 2013 Retrieved April 1 2013 McCarthy Todd March 28 2013 The Host Film Review The Hollywood Reporter Archived from the original on October 2 2015 Retrieved January 8 2020 Dargis Manohla March 28 2013 Fighting the Peacenik Alien Within Her Saoirse Ronan in The Host From a Stephenie Meyer Novel The New York Times Archived from the original on December 15 2017 Retrieved January 8 2020 Dean Michelle July 19 2016 Twilight author Stephenie Meyer to publish new thriller for adults The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Archived from the original on October 17 2019 Retrieved October 17 2019 Stephenie Meyer to produce The Rook TV series The Bookseller Archived from the original on October 22 2016 Retrieved September 19 2016 Robinson Joanna July 28 2017 New Details on The Rook TV Series from Twilight s Stephenie Meyer Vanity Fair Conde Nast Archived from the original on April 22 2018 Retrieved October 17 2019 Andreeva Nellie June 1 2018 The Rook Lisa Zwerling amp Karyn Usher Join As Showrunners EP Stephenie Meyer Exits Starz Spy Series Deadline Penske Business Media Archived from the original on December 7 2019 Retrieved October 8 2019 France Lisa Respers Twilight author publishing thriller CNN Archived from the original on September 16 2016 Retrieved September 19 2016 Andreeva Nellie January 29 2018 Twilight Author Stephenie Meyer s The Chemist to Be Adapted As TV Series By Tomorrow Studios Deadline Penske Business Media Archived from the original on October 10 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 Jancovich Mark 2014 Cue the Shrieking Virgins The Critical Reception of the Twilight Saga In Clayton Wickham Harman Sarah eds Screening Twilight International Library of the Moving Image London I B Tauris ISBN 9781780766669 Retrieved January 10 2020 Gregory Kirschling August 2 2007 Stephenie Meyer s Twilight Zone Entertainment Weekly Archived from the original on April 21 2009 Retrieved April 14 2009 All fangs no bite The Guardian London August 7 2008 Archived from the original on October 21 2013 Retrieved August 16 2009 Wayne Janes December 28 2008 The might of bite Toronto Sun Archived from the original on October 28 2012 Retrieved August 23 2009 Tymon Smith August 7 2009 Stephanie sic Meyer vs Jordan Scott The Times Archived from the original on April 11 2010 Retrieved August 23 2009 MSN Lifestyle s Most Influential Women of 2008 MSN Archived from the original on February 10 2009 Retrieved August 23 2009 Lev Grossman December 17 2008 People Who Mattered Stephenie Meyer Time Archived from the original on October 21 2013 Retrieved August 23 2009 The New Establishment 2009 Vanity Fair September 1 2009 Archived from the original on September 4 2009 Retrieved September 2 2009 Mandi Bierly August 4 2009 Twilight author Stephenie Meyer featured in Female Force comic Entertainment Weekly Archived from the original on August 7 2009 Retrieved August 23 2009 Liew Jonathan December 16 2009 Amazon top 10 best selling books of the decade The Daily Telegraph London Archived from the original on May 29 2010 Retrieved May 24 2010 Spires Elizabeth February 12 2006 Enthusiasm by Polly Shulman and Twilight by Stephenie Meyer The New York Times Archived from the original on October 17 2019 Retrieved October 17 2019 Russell Williams Imogen January 8 2009 Twilight vampires Bah Fangs ain t what they used to be The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Archived from the original on October 17 2019 Retrieved October 17 2019 Holmes Linda March 22 2010 The Writing Style of Twilight We Kick Off The I will If You Will Book Club NPR National Public Radio Retrieved October 17 2019 Reese Jennifer August 8 2008 Breaking Dawn Entertainment Weekly Archived from the original on October 18 2019 Retrieved October 18 2019 Orson Scott Card April 30 2009 The 2008 Time 100 Stephenie Meyer Time Archived from the original on May 24 2009 Retrieved August 23 2009 Jennie Yabroff April 11 2009 Why Is It A Sin To Read For Fun Newsweek Archived from the original on September 21 2009 Retrieved September 29 2009 a b Flood Alison February 5 2009 Twilight author Stephenie Meyer can t write worth a darn says Stephen King The Guardian The Guardian News amp Media Limited Archived from the original on November 7 2019 Retrieved November 7 2019 Reiss 2009 p 146 Misconceptions Facts vs Fiction www burkemuseum org Retrieved July 22 2020 Paige Dickerson September 6 2010 Forks Stephenie Meyer Day to celebrate Twilight author s books Peninsula Daily News Archived from the original on July 15 2011 Retrieved September 23 2010 Lev Grossman April 24 2008 Stephenie Meyer A New J K Rowling Time Archived from the original on May 23 2009 Retrieved November 16 2011 Vineyard Jennifer August 18 2008 Harry Potter vs Twilight Battle of the Bands About Books MTV News MTV Archived from the original on October 16 2019 Retrieved October 16 2019 Carroll Larry August 31 2009 Mitch Hansen Band Hope For Spot on New Moon Soundtrack MTV News MTV Archived from the original on October 16 2019 Retrieved October 16 2019 Barrett Annie April 30 2009 Twilight TwiCon is coming Do not put away that pea coat Entertainment Weekly Archived from the original on October 16 2019 Retrieved October 16 2019 Mulligan Christina February 11 2015 The most scandalous part of Fifty Shades of Grey isn t the sex and bondage The Washington Post Archived from the original on October 10 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 Krohn 2010 p 53 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 27 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 28 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 pp 29 30 Meyer Stephenie 2019 Frequently Asked Questions Twilight retrieved January 28 2021 Blasingame Deakin amp Walsh 2012 p 68 Krohn 2010 p 49 Cesiri Daniela Coccetta Francesca 2019 Narrative Descriptions in Stephenie Meyer s Twilight Saga A Corpus stylistics perspective Umanistica Digitale Retrieved January 6 2020 Sanders Eli August 21 2008 10 Questions for Stephenie Meyer Time Time Archived from the original on October 11 2019 Retrieved October 11 2019 Aleiss Angela June 24 2010 Mormon Influence Imagery Run Deep Through Twilight Huffington Post Retrieved January 10 2020 Smyth Karen Elizabeth 2011 What s a Nice Mormon Girl Like You Doing Writing about Vampires Stephenie Meyer s Twilight Saga and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints PDF College of William amp Mary 15 doi 10 21220 s2 sy93 gw28 S2CID 199200226 Archived from the original PDF on October 11 2019 Retrieved October 11 2019 a b Interview Twilight author Stephenie Meyer A Motley Vision Archived from the original on October 20 2007 Retrieved October 31 2019 Karen Valby November 5 2008 Stephenie Meyer 12 of My Twilight Inspirations Entertainment Weekly Archived from the original on February 24 2015 Retrieved November 5 2008 Clarke amp Osborn 2010 pp 39 50 Morey 2012 pp 15 17 Morey 2012 pp 15 17 a b Klaus amp Kruger 2011 Associated Press April 30 2008 Teen star Stephenie Meyer writes adult novel Today NBC Universal Archived from the original on October 11 2019 Retrieved October 11 2019 Kirschling Gregory July 5 2008 Interview with vampire writer Stephenie Meyer Entertainment Weekly Archived from the original on July 9 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 Margolis Rick Love at First Bite Stephenie Meyer talks about vampires teen live and her first novel Twilight School Library Journal Archived from the original on August 28 2008 Retrieved October 31 2019 Twilight Series Twilight Playlist Stepheniemeyer com Archived from the original on July 11 2016 Retrieved August 1 2010 Twilight Series New Moon Playlist Stepheniemeyer com Archived from the original on June 20 2016 Retrieved August 1 2010 Twilight Series Eclipse Playlist Stepheniemeyer com Archived from the original on May 26 2016 Retrieved August 1 2010 Twilight Series Breaking Dawn Playlist Stepheniemeyer com Archived from the original on June 20 2016 Retrieved August 1 2010 Krohn 2010 p 35 Reiss 2009 p 142 Reiss 2009 p 145 Jepson Eric W December 2009 Saturday s Werewolf The Doctrine that Makes Stephenie Meyer s Lycanthropes Golden Investigators PDF Sunstone Magazine Sunstone Education Foundation Retrieved January 13 2020 Wilson 2011 p 152 Reiss 2009 pp 142 143 a b Reiss 2009 p 143 Morey 2012 p 65 a b Reiss 2009 p 144 Reiss 2009 pp 144 145 a b Guanio Uluru 2015 p 177 Trachtenberg Jeffrey A August 10 2007 Booksellers Find Life After Harry in a Vampire Novel The Wall Street Journal Archived from the original on February 15 2015 Retrieved December 11 2008 Mills Tony Allen August 10 2008 News Review interview Stephenie Meyer The Times London Archived from the original on September 17 2008 Retrieved December 12 2008 Shapiro 2009 pp 22 23 Hanks 2009 p 26 Bosman Julie August 2 2008 Book Stokes Vampire Fever at Stores Parties The New York Times Archived from the original on October 17 2019 Retrieved October 17 2019 Winston Diane March 9 2012 The Mormon People The Making of an American Faith by Matthew Bowman and LDS in the USA Mormonism and the Making of American Culture by Lee Trepanier and Lynita K Newswander The Washington Post Archived from the original on October 11 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 Cochrane Kira March 11 2013 Stephenie Meyer on Twilight feminism and true love The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Archived from the original on August 19 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 Fetters Ashley November 15 2012 At Its Core the Twilight Saga Is a Story About The Atlantic Archived from the original on October 10 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 Ashcraft 2013 p 22 Ashcraft 2013 p 22 Laura Miller July 30 2008 Touched by a vampire salon com Archived from the original on November 24 2011 Retrieved December 3 2009 Christine Seifert Bite Me Or Don t bitchmagazine org Archived from the original on January 7 2010 Retrieved December 3 2009 Natalie Wilson November 17 2011 Breaking Dawn Part 1 An Anti Abortion Message in a Bruised Apple Package msmagazine com Archived from the original on March 14 2012 Retrieved November 21 2011 Ashcraft 2013 p 108 a b Berlatsky Noah March 12 2013 How Could Someone Who Writes About Lovesick Teen Girls Be a Feminist The Atlantic Archived from the original on October 10 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 Best Fiction for Young Adults American Library Association Archived from the original on October 10 2019 Retrieved October 10 2019 Books year in review USA Today December 28 2008 Archived from the original on October 3 2009 Retrieved July 23 2009 Wardrop Murray April 4 2009 Barack Obama triumphs at British Book Awards with Dreams From My Father The Telegraph Telegraph Media Group Limited Archived from the original on October 11 2019 Retrieved October 11 2019 a b Durand Elizabeth June 6 2011 Stephenie Meyer Makes Cameo in Breaking Dawn Part 1 MTV News MTV Archived from the original on October 8 2019 Retrieved October 8 2019 Vineyard Jennifer September 5 2008 Twilight Author Stephanie Meyer Tries to Drown Jack s Mannequin in Resolution Video MTV News MTV Archived from the original on October 22 2016 Retrieved October 8 2019 a b Richmond Krista November 9 2011 Breaking Dawn author Stephenie Meyer discusses her new role as movie producer The Christian Science Monitor The Christian Science Monitor Archived from the original on July 9 2019 Retrieved October 8 2019 Kit Zorianna March 27 2013 A Minute With Twilight author Stephanie Meyer on The Host Reuters Reuters Archived from the original on October 8 2019 Retrieved October 8 2019 McNary Dave August 13 2013 Q amp A Stephenie Meyer Twilight Author Trades Undead for Well Bred in Austenland Variety Variety Media Archived from the original on June 28 2017 Retrieved October 8 2019 Vary Adam B April 19 2012 Stephenie Meyer optioning suspense novel Down a Dark Hall Entertainment Weekly Archived from the original on October 8 2019 Retrieved October 8 2019 Works cited Edit Ashcraft Donna M 2013 Deconstructing Twilight Psychological and Feminist Perspectives on the Series New York Peter Lang ISBN 9781433116384 Blasingame James Deakin Kathleen Walsh Laura A 2012 Stephenie Meyer In the Twilight Lanham The Scarecrow Press Inc p 12 ISBN 9780810883734 Retrieved October 11 2019 Clarke Amy M Osborn Marijane eds 2010 The Twilight Mystique Critical Essays on the Novels and Films Jefferson North Carolina McFarland amp Company ISBN 9780786449989 Guanio Uluru Lykke 2015 Ethics and Form in Fantasy Literature Tolkien Rowling and Meyer New York Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 9781137469687 Hanks Maxine December 2009 Do Mormon Moms Dream of Monstrous Gods Stephenie Meyer s Twilight Myth as Mormon Heroine s Journey PDF Sunstone 26 30 Retrieved October 10 2019 Klaus Anne Kruger Stefanie 2011 Vampires Without Fangs The Amalgamation of Genre in Stephenie Meyer s Twilight The Looking Glass New Perspectives on Children s Literature 15 1 Retrieved January 10 2020 Krohn Katherine October 1 2010 Stephenie Meyer Dreaming of Twilight USA Today ISBN 9780761363705 Retrieved January 6 2020 Larsson Mariah Steiner Ann eds 2011 Interdisciplinary Approaches to Twilight Studies in Fiction Media and a Contemporary Cultural Experience Lund Sweden Nordic Academic Press ISBN 9789185509638 Retrieved January 10 2020 Morey Anne 2012 Genre Reception and Adaptation in the Twilight Series Farnham Ashgate ISBN 9781409436614 Reiss Jana 2009 Book of Mormon Stories that Steph Meyer Tells to Me LDS Themes in the Twilight Saga and The Host BYU Studies 48 3 Retrieved October 18 2019 Shapiro Marc 2009 Stephenie Meyer The Unauthorized Biography of the Creator of the Twilight Saga New York St Martin s Griffin ISBN 9780312638290 Scherer Lauri S 2012 People in the News Stephenie Meyer Farmington Hills MI Lucent Books ISBN 9781420507614 Retrieved October 31 2019 Wilson Natalie 2011 Seduced by Twilight The Allure and Contradictory Messages of the Popular Saga Jefferson North Carolina McFarland amp Company ISBN 9780786460427 External links EditStephenie Meyerat Wikipedia s sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Official website Stephenie Meyer at IMDb Works by Stephenie Meyer at Open Library Stephenie Meyer at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Stephenie Meyer at the MLCA Database Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stephenie Meyer amp oldid 1053090144, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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