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Steppe

This article is about the ecological zone type. For other uses, see Steppe (disambiguation).
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In physical geography, a steppe () is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. Steppe biomes may include:

The Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map), a path of passage for cultures – a possible origin for the Indo-European languages, the domesticated horse, the wheel and chariot
Steppe in Ukraine
Steppe in Kazakhstan
Steppe in Mongolia

The prairie of North America (especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. A steppe may be semi-arid or covered with grass or with shrubs or with both, depending on the season and latitude. The term "steppe climate" denotes the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. Steppe soils are typically of the chernozem type.

Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid or continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (115 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−65 °F). Besides this major seasonal difference, fluctuations between day and night are also very great. In both the highlands of Mongolia and northern Nevada, 30 °C (85 °F) can be reached during the day with sub-freezing readings at night.

Steppe in Russia

Mid-latitude steppes feature hot summers and cold winters, averaging 250–510 mm (10–20 in) of precipitation per year. Precipitation level alone does not define a steppe climate; potential evapotranspiration also plays a role in the trees origin.

Contents

Southern Siberian steppe: windbreaker trees in the wintertime

Steppe can be classified by climate:

  • Temperate steppe: the "true" steppe, found in continental areas of the world; they can be further subdivided, as in the Rocky Mountains Steppes
  • Subtropical steppe: a similar association of plants that can be found in the driest areas with a Mediterranean-like climate; it usually has a short wet period

It can also be classified by vegetation type, e.g. shrub-steppe and alpine-steppe.

The Eurasian Grass-Steppe of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands had a role in the spread of the horse, the wheel, and the Indo-European languages. The Indo-European expansion and diverse invasions of horse archer civilizations of the steppe eventually led to the rise of Mycenaean Greece by amalgamation of Indo-Europeans with the autochthonous pre-Greek population and also its destruction during the Dorian invasion in the Late Bronze Age collapse, followed by the demise of the Achaeans, the spread of the Sea Peoples, and eventually the rise of Archaic and ultimately Classical Greece.

Cold Patagonian steppe near Fitz Roy, Argentina

Cold steppe

The world's largest steppe region, often referred to as "the Great Steppe", is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and neighbouring countries stretching from Ukraine in the west through Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan to the Altai, Koppet Dag and Tian Shan ranges in China.

The inner parts of Anatolia in Turkey, Central Anatolia and East Anatolia in particular and also some parts of Southeast Anatolia, as well as much of Armenia and Iran are largely dominated by cold steppe.

The Pannonian Plain is another steppe region in Central Europe, primarily Hungary.

Prairie in Alberta, Canada

Another large steppe area (prairie) is located in the central United States, western Canada and northern part of Mexico. The shortgrass prairie steppe is the westernmost part of the Great Plains region. The Columbia Plateau in Southern British Columbia, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington state, is an example of a steppe region in North America outside of the Great Plains.

In South America, cold steppe can be found in Patagonia and much of the high elevation regions east of the southern Andes.

Relatively small steppe areas can be found in the interior of the South Island of New Zealand.

Subtropical steppe

In Europe, some Mediterranean areas have a steppe-like vegetation, such as central Sicily in Italy, southern Portugal, parts of Greece in the southern Athens area, and central-eastern Spain, especially the southeastern coast (around Murcia), and places cut off from adequate moisture due to rain shadow effects such as Zaragoza.

In Asia, a subtropical steppe can be found in semi-arid lands that fringe the Thar Desert of the Indian subcontinent and the Badia of the Arabian peninsula.

In Australia, "subtropical steppe" can be found in a belt surrounding the most severe deserts of the continent and around the Musgrave Ranges.

In North America this environment is typical of transition areas between zones with a Mediterranean climate and true deserts, such as Reno, Nevada, the inner part of California, and much of western Texas and adjacent areas in Mexico.

  1. Compare: Chibilyov, Alexander (2002). "Steppe and Forest-steppe". In Shahgedanova, Maria (ed.). The Physical Geography of Northern Eurasia. Oxford regional environments. 3 (reprint ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press (published 2003). p. 248. ISBN 9780198233848. Retrieved30 January 2020. There are many definitions of steppes. For example, Allan (1946) provides fifty-four definitions of this term. Stamp and Clark (1979) define steppes as 'mid-latitude areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation and termed locally steppes, prairies, pampas, high veldts, downland, etc.'
  2. "Ecoregions of the United States-Ecological Subregions of the United States". fs.fed.us. U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved25 October 2016.
  3. "Hellinikon". HNMS.gr. Greece: Rudar partap singh. Archived from the original on 2007-03-12. Retrieved2013-09-08.

Sources

  • Ecology and Conservation of Steppe-land Birds by Manuel B.Morales, Santi Mañosa, Jordi Camprodón, Gerard Bota. International Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of steppe-land birds. Lleida, Spain. December 2004.{{ISBN|84ECQWEowcqpeiwwqewqqeeqweW
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSteppes.
  • "The Steppes". barramedasoft.com.ar. 1998–2008. Retrieved2008-04-04.

Steppe
Steppe Language Watch Edit This article is about the ecological zone type For other uses see Steppe disambiguation This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Steppe news newspapers books scholar JSTOR February 2014 Learn how and when to remove this template message Look up steppe in Wiktionary the free dictionary In physical geography a steppe s t ɛ p is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes 1 Steppe biomes may include the montane grasslands and shrublands biome the temperate grasslands savannas and shrublands biomeThe Eurasian Steppe Belt in on the map a path of passage for cultures a possible origin for the Indo European languages the domesticated horse the wheel and chariot Steppe in Ukraine Steppe in Kazakhstan Steppe in Mongolia The prairie of North America especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie is an example of a steppe though it is not usually called such A steppe may be semi arid or covered with grass or with shrubs or with both depending on the season and latitude The term steppe climate denotes the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert Steppe soils are typically of the chernozem type Steppes are usually characterized by a semi arid or continental climate Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 C 115 F and in winter 55 C 65 F Besides this major seasonal difference fluctuations between day and night are also very great In both the highlands of Mongolia and northern Nevada 30 C 85 F can be reached during the day with sub freezing readings at night Steppe in Russia Mid latitude steppes feature hot summers and cold winters averaging 250 510 mm 10 20 in of precipitation per year Precipitation level alone does not define a steppe climate potential evapotranspiration also plays a role in the trees origin Contents 1 Two types 2 Locations 2 1 Cold steppe 2 2 Subtropical steppe 3 See also 4 References 4 1 Sources 5 External linksTwo types Edit Southern Siberian steppe windbreaker trees in the wintertime Steppe can be classified by climate 2 Temperate steppe the true steppe found in continental areas of the world they can be further subdivided as in the Rocky Mountains Steppes 2 Subtropical steppe a similar association of plants that can be found in the driest areas with a Mediterranean like climate it usually has a short wet period It can also be classified by vegetation type e g shrub steppe and alpine steppe The Eurasian Grass Steppe of the temperate grasslands savannas and shrublands had a role in the spread of the horse the wheel and the Indo European languages The Indo European expansion and diverse invasions of horse archer civilizations of the steppe eventually led to the rise of Mycenaean Greece by amalgamation of Indo Europeans with the autochthonous pre Greek population and also its destruction during the Dorian invasion in the Late Bronze Age collapse followed by the demise of the Achaeans the spread of the Sea Peoples and eventually the rise of Archaic and ultimately Classical Greece Locations Edit Cold Patagonian steppe near Fitz Roy Argentina Cold steppe Edit The world s largest steppe region often referred to as the Great Steppe is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia and neighbouring countries stretching from Ukraine in the west through Russia Kazakhstan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan to the Altai Koppet Dag and Tian Shan ranges in China The inner parts of Anatolia in Turkey Central Anatolia and East Anatolia in particular and also some parts of Southeast Anatolia as well as much of Armenia and Iran are largely dominated by cold steppe The Pannonian Plain is another steppe region in Central Europe primarily Hungary Prairie in Alberta Canada Another large steppe area prairie is located in the central United States western Canada and northern part of Mexico The shortgrass prairie steppe is the westernmost part of the Great Plains region The Columbia Plateau in Southern British Columbia Oregon Idaho and Washington state is an example of a steppe region in North America outside of the Great Plains In South America cold steppe can be found in Patagonia and much of the high elevation regions east of the southern Andes Relatively small steppe areas can be found in the interior of the South Island of New Zealand Subtropical steppe Edit In Europe some Mediterranean areas have a steppe like vegetation such as central Sicily in Italy southern Portugal parts of Greece in the southern Athens area 3 and central eastern Spain especially the southeastern coast around Murcia and places cut off from adequate moisture due to rain shadow effects such as Zaragoza In Asia a subtropical steppe can be found in semi arid lands that fringe the Thar Desert of the Indian subcontinent and the Badia of the Arabian peninsula In Australia subtropical steppe can be found in a belt surrounding the most severe deserts of the continent and around the Musgrave Ranges In North America this environment is typical of transition areas between zones with a Mediterranean climate and true deserts such as Reno Nevada the inner part of California and much of western Texas and adjacent areas in Mexico See also EditBaraba steppe Canadian Prairies Coastal plain California coastal prairie Western Gulf coastal grasslands Desert Eurasian Steppe Field agriculture Flooded grasslands and savannas Flood meadow Forest steppe Grassland Great Hungarian Plain High Plains Kazakh Steppe Mammoth steppe Meadow Mongolian Manchurian grassland Pasture Plain Pontic Caspian steppe Pannonian Steppe Pannonian steppe in Hungary Puszta Rangeland Savanna Steppe Route Syrian Steppe Temperate grasslands savannas and shrublands Tugay type of river forests related with steppes Tundra Water meadow Wet meadow VeldReferences Edit Compare Chibilyov Alexander 2002 Steppe and Forest steppe In Shahgedanova Maria ed The Physical Geography of Northern Eurasia Oxford regional environments 3 reprint ed Oxford Oxford University Press published 2003 p 248 ISBN 9780198233848 Retrieved 30 January 2020 There are many definitions of steppes For example Allan 1946 provides fifty four definitions of this term Stamp and Clark 1979 define steppes as mid latitude areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation and termed locally steppes prairies pampas high veldts downland etc a b Ecoregions of the United States Ecological Subregions of the United States fs fed us U S Forest Service U S Department of Agriculture Retrieved 25 October 2016 Hellinikon HNMS gr Greece Rudar partap singh Archived from the original on 2007 03 12 Retrieved 2013 09 08 Sources Edit Ecology and Conservation of Steppe land Birds by Manuel B Morales Santi Manosa Jordi Camprodon Gerard Bota International Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of steppe land birds Lleida Spain December 2004 ISBN 84ECQWEowcqpeiwwqewqqeeqweWExternal links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Steppes The Steppes barramedasoft com ar 1998 2008 Retrieved 2008 04 04 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Steppe amp oldid 1053316841, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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