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Stereopsis

For other uses, see Stereopsis (fungus).

Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- stereo- meaning "solid", and ὄψις opsis, "appearance, sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and three-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision. Because the eyes of humans, and many animals, are located at different lateral positions on the head, binocular vision results in two slightly different images projected to the retinas of the eyes. The differences are mainly in the relative horizontal position of objects in the two images. These positional differences are referred to as "horizontal disparities" or, more generally, "binocular disparities". Disparities are processed in the visual cortex of the brain to yield depth perception. While binocular disparities are naturally present when viewing a real three-dimensional scene with two eyes, they can also be simulated by artificially presenting two different images separately to each eye using a method called stereoscopy. The perception of depth in such cases is also referred to as "stereoscopic depth".

The perception of depth and three-dimensional structure is, however, possible with information visible from one eye alone, such as differences in object size and motion parallax (differences in the image of an object over time with observer movement), though the impression of depth in these cases is often not as vivid as that obtained from binocular disparities. Therefore, the term stereopsis (or stereoscopic depth) can also refer specifically to the unique impression of depth associated with binocular vision; what is colloquially referred to as seeing "in 3D".

It has been suggested that the impression of "real" separation in depth is linked to the precision with which depth is derived, and that a conscious awareness of this precision – perceived as an impression of interactability and realness – may help guide the planning of motor action.

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Coarse and fine stereopsis

There are two distinct aspects to stereopsis: coarse stereopsis and fine stereopsis, and provide depth information of different degree of spatial and temporal precision.

  • Coarse stereopsis (also called gross stereopsis) appears to be used to judge stereoscopic motion in the periphery. It provides the sense of being immersed in one's surroundings and is therefore sometimes also referred to as qualitative stereopsis. Coarse stereopsis is important for orientation in space while moving, for example when descending a flight of stairs.
  • Fine stereopsis is mainly based on static differences. It allows the individual to determine the depth of objects in the central visual area (Panum's fusional area) and is therefore also called quantitative stereopsis. It is typically measured in random-dot tests; persons having coarse but no fine stereopsis are often unable to perform on random-dot tests, also due to visual crowding which is based on interaction effects from adjacent visual contours. Fine stereopsis is important for fine-motor tasks such as threading a needle.

The stereopsis which an individual can achieve is limited by the level of visual acuity of the poorer eye. In particular, patients who have comparatively lower visual acuity tend to need relatively larger spatial frequencies to be present in the input images, else they cannot achieve stereopsis. Fine stereopsis requires both eyes to have a good visual acuity in order to detect small spatial differences, and is easily disrupted by early visual deprivation. There are indications that in the course of the development of the visual system in infants, coarse stereopsis may develop before fine stereopsis and that coarse stereopsis guides the vergence movements which are needed in order for fine stereopsis to develop in a subsequent stage. Furthermore, there are indications that coarse stereopsis is the mechanism that keeps the two eyes aligned after strabismus surgery.

Static and dynamic stimuli

It has also been suggested to distinguish between two different types of stereoscopic depth perception: static depth perception (or static stereo perception) and motion-in-depth perception (or stereo motion perception). Some individuals who have strabismus and show no depth perception using static stereotests (in particular, using Titmus tests, see this article's section on contour stereotests) do perceive motion in depth when tested using dynamic random dot stereograms. One study found the combination of motion stereopsis and no static stereopsis to be present only in exotropes, not in esotropes.

Research on perception mechanisms

There are strong indications that the stereoscopic mechanism consists of at least two perceptual mechanisms, possibly three. Coarse and fine stereopsis are processed by two different physiological subsystems, with a coarse stereopsis being derived from diplopic stimuli (that is, stimuli with disparities well beyond the range of binocular fusion) and yielding only a vague impression of depth magnitude. Coarse stereopsis appears to be associated with the magno pathway which processes low spatial frequency disparities and motion, and fine stereopsis with the parvo pathway which processes high spatial frequency disparities. The coarse stereoscopic system seems to be able to provide residual binocular depth information in some individuals who lack fine stereopsis. Individuals have been found to integrate the various stimuli, for example stereoscopic cues and motion occlusion, in different ways.

How the brain combines the different cues – including stereo, motion, vergence angle and monocular cues – for sensing motion in depth and 3D object position is an area of active research in vision science and neighboring disciplines.

Not everyone has the same ability to see using stereopsis. One study shows that 97.3% are able to distinguish depth at horizontal disparities of 2.3 minutes of arc or smaller, and at least 80% could distinguish depth at horizontal differences of 30 seconds of arc.

Stereopsis has a positive impact on exercising practical tasks such as needle-threading, ball-catching (especially in fast ball games), pouring liquids, and others. Professional activity may involve operating stereoscopic instruments such as a binocular microscope. While some of these tasks may profit from compensation of the visual system by means of other depth cues, there are some roles for which stereopsis is imperative. Occupations requiring the precise judgment of distance sometimes include a requirement to demonstrate some level of stereopsis; in particular, there is such a requirement for aeroplane pilots (even if the first pilot to fly around the world alone, Wiley Post, accomplished his feat with monocular vision only.) Also surgeons normally demonstrate high stereo acuity. As to car driving, a study found a positive impact of stereopsis in specific situations at intermediate distances only; furthermore, a study on elderly persons found that glare, visual field loss, and useful field of view were significant predictors of crash involvement, whereas the elderly persons' values of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereoacuity were not associated with crashes.

Binocular vision has further advantages aside from stereopsis, in particular the enhancement of vision quality through binocular summation; persons with strabismus (even those who have no double vision) have lower scores of binocular summation, and this appears to incite persons with strabismus to close one eye in visually demanding situations.

It has long been recognized that full binocular vision, including stereopsis, is an important factor in the stabilization of post-surgical outcome of strabismus corrections. Many persons lacking stereopsis have (or have had) visible strabismus, which is known to have a potential socioeconomic impact on children and adults. In particular, both large-angle and small-angle strabismus can negatively affect self-esteem, as it interferes with normal eye contact, often causing embarrassment, anger, and feelings of awkwardness. For further details on this, see psychosocial effects of strabismus.

It has been noted that with the growing introduction of 3D display technology in entertainment and in medical and scientific imaging, high quality binocular vision including stereopsis may become a key capability for success in modern society.

Nonetheless, there are indications that the lack of stereo vision may lead persons to compensate by other means: in particular, stereo blindness may give people an advantage when depicting a scene using monocular depth cues of all kinds, and among artists there appear to be a disproportionately high number of persons lacking stereopsis. In particular, a case has been made that Rembrandt may have been stereoblind.

Wheatstone's mirror stereoscope

Stereopsis was first explained by Charles Wheatstone in 1838: “… the mind perceives an object of three dimensions by means of the two dissimilar pictures projected by it on the two retinæ …”. He recognized that because each eye views the visual world from slightly different horizontal positions, each eye's image differs from the other. Objects at different distances from the eyes project images in the two eyes that differ in their horizontal positions, giving the depth cue of horizontal disparity, also known as retinal disparity and as binocular disparity. Wheatstone showed that this was an effective depth cue by creating the illusion of depth from flat pictures that differed only in horizontal disparity. To display his pictures separately to the two eyes, Wheatstone invented the stereoscope.

Leonardo da Vinci had also realized that objects at different distances from the eyes project images in the two eyes that differ in their horizontal positions, but had concluded only that this made it impossible for a painter to portray a realistic depiction of the depth in a scene from a single canvas. Leonardo chose for his near object a column with a circular cross section and for his far object a flat wall. Had he chosen any other near object, he might have discovered horizontal disparity of its features. His column was one of the few objects that projects identical images of itself in the two eyes.

Stereoscopy became popular during Victorian times with the invention of the prism stereoscope by David Brewster. This, combined with photography, meant that tens of thousands of stereograms were produced.

Until about the 1960s, research into stereopsis was dedicated to exploring its limits and its relationship to singleness of vision. Researchers included Peter Ludvig Panum, Ewald Hering, Adelbert Ames Jr., and Kenneth N. Ogle.

In the 1960s, Bela Julesz invented random-dot stereograms. Unlike previous stereograms, in which each half image showed recognizable objects, each half image of the first random-dot stereograms showed a square matrix of about 10,000 small dots, with each dot having a 50% probability of being black or white. No recognizable objects could be seen in either half image. The two half images of a random-dot stereogram were essentially identical, except that one had a square area of dots shifted horizontally by one or two dot diameters, giving horizontal disparity. The gap left by the shifting was filled in with new random dots, hiding the shifted square. Nevertheless, when the two half images were viewed one to each eye, the square area was almost immediately visible by being closer or farther than the background. Julesz whimsically called the square a Cyclopean image after the mythical Cyclops who had only one eye. This was because it was as though we have a cyclopean eye inside our brains that can see cyclopean stimuli hidden to each of our actual eyes. Random-dot stereograms highlighted a problem for stereopsis, the correspondence problem. This is that any dot in one half image can realistically be paired with many same-coloured dots in the other half image. Our visual systems clearly solve the correspondence problem, in that we see the intended depth instead of a fog of false matches. Research began to understand how.

Also in the 1960s, Horace Barlow, Colin Blakemore, and Jack Pettigrew found neurons in the cat visual cortex that had their receptive fields in different horizontal positions in the two eyes. This established the neural basis for stereopsis. Their findings were disputed by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel, although they eventually conceded when they found similar neurons in the monkey visual cortex. In the 1980s, Gian Poggio and others found neurons in V2 of the monkey brain that responded to the depth of random-dot stereograms.

In the 1970s, Christopher Tyler invented autostereograms, random-dot stereograms that can be viewed without a stereoscope. This led to the popular Magic Eye pictures.

In 1989 Antonio Medina Puerta demonstrated with photographs that retinal images with no parallax disparity but with different shadows are fused stereoscopically, imparting depth perception to the imaged scene. He named the phenomenon "shadow stereopsis". Shadows are therefore an important, stereoscopic cue for depth perception. He showed how effective the phenomenon is by taking two photographs of the Moon at different times, and therefore with different shadows, making the Moon to appear in 3D stereoscopically, despite the absence of any other stereoscopic cue.

A stereoscope is a device by which each eye can be presented with different images, allowing stereopsis to be stimulated with two pictures, one for each eye. This has led to various crazes for stereopsis, usually prompted by new sorts of stereoscopes. In Victorian times it was the prism stereoscope (allowing stereo photographs to be viewed), while in the 1920s it was red-green glasses (allowing stereo movies to be viewed). In 1939 the concept of the prism stereoscope was reworked into the technologically more complex View-Master, which remains in production today. In the 1950s polarizing glasses allowed stereopsis of coloured movies. In the 1990s Magic Eye pictures (autostereograms) - which did not require a stereoscope, but relied on viewers using a form of free fusion so that each eye views different images - were introduced.

Stereopsis appears to be processed in the visual cortex of mammals in binocular cells having receptive fields in different horizontal positions in the two eyes. Such a cell is active only when its preferred stimulus is in the correct position in the left eye and in the correct position in the right eye, making it a disparity detector.

When a person stares at an object, the two eyes converge so that the object appears at the center of the retina in both eyes. Other objects around the main object appear shifted in relation to the main object. In the following example, whereas the main object (dolphin) remains in the center of the two images in the two eyes, the cube is shifted to the right in the left eye's image and is shifted to the left when in the right eye's image.

The two eyes converge on the object of attention.
The cube is shifted to the right in left eye's image.
The cube is shifted to the left in the right eye's image.
We see a single, Cyclopean, image from the two eyes' images.
The brain gives each point in the Cyclopean image a depth value, represented here by a grayscale depth map.

Because each eye is in a different horizontal position, each has a slightly different perspective on a scene yielding different retinal images. Normally two images are not observed, but rather a single view of the scene, a phenomenon known as singleness of vision. Nevertheless, stereopsis is possible with double vision. This form of stereopsis was called qualitative stereopsis by Kenneth Ogle.

If the images are very different (such as by going cross-eyed, or by presenting different images in a stereoscope) then one image at a time may be seen, a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry.

There is a hysteresis effect associated with stereopsis. Once fusion and stereopsis have stabilized, fusion and stereopsis can be maintained even if the two images are pulled apart slowly and symmetrically to a certain extent in the horizontal direction. In the vertical direction, there is a similar but smaller effect. This effect, first demonstrated on a random dot stereogram, was initially interpreted as an extension of Panum's fusional area. Later it was shown that the hysteresis effect reaches far beyond Panum's fusional area, and that stereoscopic depth can be perceived in random-line stereograms despite the presence of cyclodisparities of about 15 deg, and this has been interpreted as stereopsis with diplopia.

Under normal circumstances, the depth specified by stereopsis agrees with other depth cues, such as motion parallax (when an observer moves while looking at one point in a scene, the fixation point, points nearer and farther than the fixation point appear to move against or with the movement, respectively, at velocities proportional to the distance from the fixation point), and pictorial cues such as superimposition (nearer objects cover up farther objects) and familiar size (nearer objects appear bigger than farther objects). However, by using a stereoscope, researchers have been able to oppose various depth cues including stereopsis. The most drastic version of this is pseudoscopy, in which the half-images of stereograms are swapped between the eyes, reversing the binocular disparity. Wheatstone (1838) found that observers could still appreciate the overall depth of a scene, consistent with the pictorial cues. The stereoscopic information went along with the overall depth.

Computer stereo vision is a part of the field of computer vision. It is sometimes used in mobile robotics to detect obstacles. Example applications include the ExoMars Rover and surgical robotics.

Two cameras take pictures of the same scene, but they are separated by a distance – exactly like our eyes. A computer compares the images while shifting the two images together over top of each other to find the parts that match. The shifted amount is called the disparity. The disparity at which objects in the image best match is used by the computer to calculate their distance.

For a human, the eyes change their angle according to the distance to the observed object. To a computer this represents significant extra complexity in the geometrical calculations (epipolar geometry). In fact the simplest geometrical case is when the camera image planes are on the same plane. The images may alternatively be converted by reprojection through a linear transformation to be on the same image plane. This is called image rectification.

Computer stereo vision with many cameras under fixed lighting is called structure from motion. Techniques using a fixed camera and known lighting are called photometric stereo techniques, or "shape from shading".

Many attempts have been made to reproduce human stereo vision on rapidly changing computer displays, and toward this end numerous patents relating to 3D television and cinema have been filed in the USPTO. At least in the US, commercial activity involving those patents has been confined exclusively to the grantees and licensees of the patent holders, whose interests tend to last for twenty years from the time of filing.

Discounting 3D television and cinema (which generally require more than one digital projector whose moving images are mechanically coupled, in the case of IMAX 3D cinema), several stereoscopic LCDs are going to be offered by Sharp, which has already started shipping a notebook with a built in stereoscopic LCD. Although older technology required the user to don goggles or visors for viewing computer-generated images, or CGI, newer technology tends to employ Fresnel lenses or plates over the liquid crystal displays, freeing the user from the need to put on special glasses or goggles.

In stereopsis tests (short: stereotests), slightly different images are shown to each eye, such that a 3D image is perceived in case stereovision is present. This can be achieved by means of vectographs (visible with polarized glasses), anaglyphs (visible with red-green glasses), lenticular lenses (visible with the naked eye), or head-mounted display technology. The type of changes from one eye to the other may differ depending on which level of stereoacuity is to be detected. A series of stereotests for selected levels thus constitutes a test of stereoacuity.

There are two types of common clinical tests for stereopsis and stereoacuity: random dot stereotests and contour stereotests. Random-dot stereopsis tests use pictures of stereo figures that are embedded in a background of random dots. Contour stereotests use pictures in which the targets presented to each eye are separated horizontally.

Random dot stereotests

The ability of stereopsis can be tested by, for example, the Lang stereotest, which consists of a random-dot stereogram upon which a series of parallel strips of cylindrical lenses are imprinted in certain shapes, which separate the views seen by each eye in these areas, similarly to a hologram. Without stereopsis, the image looks only like a field of random dots, but the shapes become discernible with increasing stereopsis, and generally consists of a cat (indicating that there is ability of stereopsis of 1200 seconds of arc of retinal disparity), a star (600 seconds of arc) and a car (550 seconds of arc). To standardize the results, the image should be viewed at a distance from the eye of 40 cm and exactly in the frontoparallel plane. There is no need to use special spectacles for such tests, thereby facilitating use in young children.

Contour stereotests

Examples of contour stereotests are the Titmus stereotests, the most well-known example being the Titmus fly stereotest, where a picture of a fly is displayed with disparities on the edges. The patient uses a 3-D glasses to look at the picture and determine whether a 3-D figure can be seen. The amount of disparity in images vary, such as 400-100 sec of arc, and 800-40 sec arc.

Deficiency in stereopsis can be complete (then called stereoblindness) or more or less impaired. Causes include blindness in one eye, amblyopia and strabismus.

Vision therapy is one of the treatments for people lacking in stereopsis. Vision therapy will allow individuals to enhance their vision through several exercises such as by strengthening and improving eye movement. There is recent evidence that stereoacuity may be improved in persons with amblyopia by means of perceptual learning (see also: treatment of amblyopia).

There is good evidence for stereopsis throughout the animal kingdom. It occurs in many mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibia, fish, crustaceans, spiders, and insects. Stomatopods even have stereopsis with just one eye.

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  54. Xi J, Jia WL, Feng LX, Lu ZL, Huang CB (April 2014). "Perceptual learning improves stereoacuity in amblyopia". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 55 (4): 2384–91. doi:10.1167/iovs.13-12627. PMC3989086. PMID 24508791.
  55. Fox, Helen (2001). "The better to see you with..." Retrieved2 March 2021.Cite journal requires |journal= ()
  • Julesz, B. (1971). Foundations of cyclopean perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  • Steinman, Scott B. & Steinman, Barbara A. & Garzia, Ralph Philip (2000). Foundations of Binocular Vision: A Clinical perspective. McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-8385-2670-5.
  • Howard, I. P., & Rogers, B. J. (2012). Perceiving in depth. Volume 2, Stereoscopic vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976415-0
  • Cabani, I. (2007). Segmentation et mise en correspondance couleur – Application: étude et conception d'un système de stéréovision couleur pour l'aide à la conduite automobile. ISBN 978-613-1-52103-4

Stereopsis
Stereopsis Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Stereo vision For other uses see Stereopsis fungus Stereopsis from the Greek stereo stereo meaning solid and ὄpsis opsis appearance sight is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and three dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision 1 Because the eyes of humans and many animals are located at different lateral positions on the head binocular vision results in two slightly different images projected to the retinas of the eyes The differences are mainly in the relative horizontal position of objects in the two images These positional differences are referred to as horizontal disparities or more generally binocular disparities Disparities are processed in the visual cortex of the brain to yield depth perception While binocular disparities are naturally present when viewing a real three dimensional scene with two eyes they can also be simulated by artificially presenting two different images separately to each eye using a method called stereoscopy The perception of depth in such cases is also referred to as stereoscopic depth 1 The perception of depth and three dimensional structure is however possible with information visible from one eye alone such as differences in object size and motion parallax differences in the image of an object over time with observer movement 2 though the impression of depth in these cases is often not as vivid as that obtained from binocular disparities 3 Therefore the term stereopsis or stereoscopic depth can also refer specifically to the unique impression of depth associated with binocular vision what is colloquially referred to as seeing in 3D It has been suggested that the impression of real separation in depth is linked to the precision with which depth is derived and that a conscious awareness of this precision perceived as an impression of interactability and realness may help guide the planning of motor action 4 Contents 1 Distinctions 1 1 Coarse and fine stereopsis 1 2 Static and dynamic stimuli 1 3 Research on perception mechanisms 2 Prevalence and impact of stereopsis in humans 3 History of investigations into stereopsis 4 Human stereopsis in popular culture 5 Geometrical basis 6 Interaction of stereopsis with other depth cues 7 Computer stereo vision 8 Computer stereo display 9 Tests 9 1 Random dot stereotests 9 2 Contour stereotests 10 Deficiency and treatment 11 In animals 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External linksDistinctions EditCoarse and fine stereopsis Edit There are two distinct aspects to stereopsis coarse stereopsis and fine stereopsis and provide depth information of different degree of spatial and temporal precision Coarse stereopsis also called gross stereopsis appears to be used to judge stereoscopic motion in the periphery It provides the sense of being immersed in one s surroundings and is therefore sometimes also referred to as qualitative stereopsis 5 Coarse stereopsis is important for orientation in space while moving for example when descending a flight of stairs Fine stereopsis is mainly based on static differences It allows the individual to determine the depth of objects in the central visual area Panum s fusional area and is therefore also called quantitative stereopsis It is typically measured in random dot tests persons having coarse but no fine stereopsis are often unable to perform on random dot tests also due to visual crowding 5 which is based on interaction effects from adjacent visual contours Fine stereopsis is important for fine motor tasks such as threading a needle The stereopsis which an individual can achieve is limited by the level of visual acuity of the poorer eye In particular patients who have comparatively lower visual acuity tend to need relatively larger spatial frequencies to be present in the input images else they cannot achieve stereopsis 6 Fine stereopsis requires both eyes to have a good visual acuity in order to detect small spatial differences and is easily disrupted by early visual deprivation There are indications that in the course of the development of the visual system in infants coarse stereopsis may develop before fine stereopsis and that coarse stereopsis guides the vergence movements which are needed in order for fine stereopsis to develop in a subsequent stage 7 8 Furthermore there are indications that coarse stereopsis is the mechanism that keeps the two eyes aligned after strabismus surgery 9 Static and dynamic stimuli Edit It has also been suggested to distinguish between two different types of stereoscopic depth perception static depth perception or static stereo perception and motion in depth perception or stereo motion perception Some individuals who have strabismus and show no depth perception using static stereotests in particular using Titmus tests see this article s section on contour stereotests do perceive motion in depth when tested using dynamic random dot stereograms 10 11 12 One study found the combination of motion stereopsis and no static stereopsis to be present only in exotropes not in esotropes 13 Research on perception mechanisms Edit There are strong indications that the stereoscopic mechanism consists of at least two perceptual mechanisms 14 possibly three 15 Coarse and fine stereopsis are processed by two different physiological subsystems with a coarse stereopsis being derived from diplopic stimuli that is stimuli with disparities well beyond the range of binocular fusion and yielding only a vague impression of depth magnitude 14 Coarse stereopsis appears to be associated with the magno pathway which processes low spatial frequency disparities and motion and fine stereopsis with the parvo pathway which processes high spatial frequency disparities 16 The coarse stereoscopic system seems to be able to provide residual binocular depth information in some individuals who lack fine stereopsis 17 Individuals have been found to integrate the various stimuli for example stereoscopic cues and motion occlusion in different ways 18 How the brain combines the different cues including stereo motion vergence angle and monocular cues for sensing motion in depth and 3D object position is an area of active research in vision science and neighboring disciplines 19 20 21 22 Prevalence and impact of stereopsis in humans EditNot everyone has the same ability to see using stereopsis One study shows that 97 3 are able to distinguish depth at horizontal disparities of 2 3 minutes of arc or smaller and at least 80 could distinguish depth at horizontal differences of 30 seconds of arc 23 Stereopsis has a positive impact on exercising practical tasks such as needle threading ball catching especially in fast ball games 24 pouring liquids and others Professional activity may involve operating stereoscopic instruments such as a binocular microscope While some of these tasks may profit from compensation of the visual system by means of other depth cues there are some roles for which stereopsis is imperative Occupations requiring the precise judgment of distance sometimes include a requirement to demonstrate some level of stereopsis in particular there is such a requirement for aeroplane pilots even if the first pilot to fly around the world alone Wiley Post accomplished his feat with monocular vision only 25 Also surgeons 26 normally demonstrate high stereo acuity As to car driving a study found a positive impact of stereopsis in specific situations at intermediate distances only 27 furthermore a study on elderly persons found that glare visual field loss and useful field of view were significant predictors of crash involvement whereas the elderly persons values of visual acuity contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity were not associated with crashes 28 Binocular vision has further advantages aside from stereopsis in particular the enhancement of vision quality through binocular summation persons with strabismus even those who have no double vision have lower scores of binocular summation and this appears to incite persons with strabismus to close one eye in visually demanding situations 29 30 It has long been recognized that full binocular vision including stereopsis is an important factor in the stabilization of post surgical outcome of strabismus corrections Many persons lacking stereopsis have or have had visible strabismus which is known to have a potential socioeconomic impact on children and adults In particular both large angle and small angle strabismus can negatively affect self esteem as it interferes with normal eye contact often causing embarrassment anger and feelings of awkwardness 31 For further details on this see psychosocial effects of strabismus It has been noted that with the growing introduction of 3D display technology in entertainment and in medical and scientific imaging high quality binocular vision including stereopsis may become a key capability for success in modern society 32 Nonetheless there are indications that the lack of stereo vision may lead persons to compensate by other means in particular stereo blindness may give people an advantage when depicting a scene using monocular depth cues of all kinds and among artists there appear to be a disproportionately high number of persons lacking stereopsis 33 In particular a case has been made that Rembrandt may have been stereoblind History of investigations into stereopsis Edit Wheatstone s mirror stereoscope Stereopsis was first explained by Charles Wheatstone in 1838 the mind perceives an object of three dimensions by means of the two dissimilar pictures projected by it on the two retinae 34 He recognized that because each eye views the visual world from slightly different horizontal positions each eye s image differs from the other Objects at different distances from the eyes project images in the two eyes that differ in their horizontal positions giving the depth cue of horizontal disparity also known as retinal disparity and as binocular disparity Wheatstone showed that this was an effective depth cue by creating the illusion of depth from flat pictures that differed only in horizontal disparity To display his pictures separately to the two eyes Wheatstone invented the stereoscope Leonardo da Vinci had also realized that objects at different distances from the eyes project images in the two eyes that differ in their horizontal positions but had concluded only that this made it impossible for a painter to portray a realistic depiction of the depth in a scene from a single canvas 35 Leonardo chose for his near object a column with a circular cross section and for his far object a flat wall Had he chosen any other near object he might have discovered horizontal disparity of its features 36 His column was one of the few objects that projects identical images of itself in the two eyes Stereoscopy became popular during Victorian times with the invention of the prism stereoscope by David Brewster This combined with photography meant that tens of thousands of stereograms were produced Until about the 1960s research into stereopsis was dedicated to exploring its limits and its relationship to singleness of vision Researchers included Peter Ludvig Panum Ewald Hering Adelbert Ames Jr and Kenneth N Ogle In the 1960s Bela Julesz invented random dot stereograms 37 Unlike previous stereograms in which each half image showed recognizable objects each half image of the first random dot stereograms showed a square matrix of about 10 000 small dots with each dot having a 50 probability of being black or white No recognizable objects could be seen in either half image The two half images of a random dot stereogram were essentially identical except that one had a square area of dots shifted horizontally by one or two dot diameters giving horizontal disparity The gap left by the shifting was filled in with new random dots hiding the shifted square Nevertheless when the two half images were viewed one to each eye the square area was almost immediately visible by being closer or farther than the background Julesz whimsically called the square a Cyclopean image after the mythical Cyclops who had only one eye This was because it was as though we have a cyclopean eye inside our brains that can see cyclopean stimuli hidden to each of our actual eyes Random dot stereograms highlighted a problem for stereopsis the correspondence problem This is that any dot in one half image can realistically be paired with many same coloured dots in the other half image Our visual systems clearly solve the correspondence problem in that we see the intended depth instead of a fog of false matches Research began to understand how Also in the 1960s Horace Barlow Colin Blakemore and Jack Pettigrew found neurons in the cat visual cortex that had their receptive fields in different horizontal positions in the two eyes 38 This established the neural basis for stereopsis Their findings were disputed by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel although they eventually conceded when they found similar neurons in the monkey visual cortex 39 In the 1980s Gian Poggio and others found neurons in V2 of the monkey brain that responded to the depth of random dot stereograms 40 In the 1970s Christopher Tyler invented autostereograms random dot stereograms that can be viewed without a stereoscope 41 This led to the popular Magic Eye pictures In 1989 Antonio Medina Puerta demonstrated with photographs that retinal images with no parallax disparity but with different shadows are fused stereoscopically imparting depth perception to the imaged scene He named the phenomenon shadow stereopsis Shadows are therefore an important stereoscopic cue for depth perception He showed how effective the phenomenon is by taking two photographs of the Moon at different times and therefore with different shadows making the Moon to appear in 3D stereoscopically despite the absence of any other stereoscopic cue 42 Human stereopsis in popular culture EditA stereoscope is a device by which each eye can be presented with different images allowing stereopsis to be stimulated with two pictures one for each eye This has led to various crazes for stereopsis usually prompted by new sorts of stereoscopes In Victorian times it was the prism stereoscope allowing stereo photographs to be viewed while in the 1920s it was red green glasses allowing stereo movies to be viewed In 1939 the concept of the prism stereoscope was reworked into the technologically more complex View Master which remains in production today In the 1950s polarizing glasses allowed stereopsis of coloured movies In the 1990s Magic Eye pictures autostereograms which did not require a stereoscope but relied on viewers using a form of free fusion so that each eye views different images were introduced Geometrical basis EditStereopsis appears to be processed in the visual cortex of mammals in binocular cells having receptive fields in different horizontal positions in the two eyes Such a cell is active only when its preferred stimulus is in the correct position in the left eye and in the correct position in the right eye making it a disparity detector When a person stares at an object the two eyes converge so that the object appears at the center of the retina in both eyes Other objects around the main object appear shifted in relation to the main object In the following example whereas the main object dolphin remains in the center of the two images in the two eyes the cube is shifted to the right in the left eye s image and is shifted to the left when in the right eye s image The two eyes converge on the object of attention The cube is shifted to the right in left eye s image The cube is shifted to the left in the right eye s image We see a single Cyclopean image from the two eyes images The brain gives each point in the Cyclopean image a depth value represented here by a grayscale depth map Because each eye is in a different horizontal position each has a slightly different perspective on a scene yielding different retinal images Normally two images are not observed but rather a single view of the scene a phenomenon known as singleness of vision Nevertheless stereopsis is possible with double vision This form of stereopsis was called qualitative stereopsis by Kenneth Ogle 43 If the images are very different such as by going cross eyed or by presenting different images in a stereoscope then one image at a time may be seen a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry There is a hysteresis effect associated with stereopsis 44 Once fusion and stereopsis have stabilized fusion and stereopsis can be maintained even if the two images are pulled apart slowly and symmetrically to a certain extent in the horizontal direction In the vertical direction there is a similar but smaller effect This effect first demonstrated on a random dot stereogram was initially interpreted as an extension of Panum s fusional area 45 Later it was shown that the hysteresis effect reaches far beyond Panum s fusional area 46 and that stereoscopic depth can be perceived in random line stereograms despite the presence of cyclodisparities of about 15 deg and this has been interpreted as stereopsis with diplopia 47 Interaction of stereopsis with other depth cues EditUnder normal circumstances the depth specified by stereopsis agrees with other depth cues such as motion parallax when an observer moves while looking at one point in a scene the fixation point points nearer and farther than the fixation point appear to move against or with the movement respectively at velocities proportional to the distance from the fixation point and pictorial cues such as superimposition nearer objects cover up farther objects and familiar size nearer objects appear bigger than farther objects However by using a stereoscope researchers have been able to oppose various depth cues including stereopsis The most drastic version of this is pseudoscopy in which the half images of stereograms are swapped between the eyes reversing the binocular disparity Wheatstone 1838 found that observers could still appreciate the overall depth of a scene consistent with the pictorial cues The stereoscopic information went along with the overall depth 34 Computer stereo vision EditMain article Computer stereo vision Computer stereo vision is a part of the field of computer vision It is sometimes used in mobile robotics to detect obstacles Example applications include the ExoMars Rover and surgical robotics 48 Two cameras take pictures of the same scene but they are separated by a distance exactly like our eyes A computer compares the images while shifting the two images together over top of each other to find the parts that match The shifted amount is called the disparity The disparity at which objects in the image best match is used by the computer to calculate their distance For a human the eyes change their angle according to the distance to the observed object To a computer this represents significant extra complexity in the geometrical calculations epipolar geometry In fact the simplest geometrical case is when the camera image planes are on the same plane The images may alternatively be converted by reprojection through a linear transformation to be on the same image plane This is called image rectification Computer stereo vision with many cameras under fixed lighting is called structure from motion Techniques using a fixed camera and known lighting are called photometric stereo techniques or shape from shading Computer stereo display EditMany attempts have been made to reproduce human stereo vision on rapidly changing computer displays and toward this end numerous patents relating to 3D television and cinema have been filed in the USPTO At least in the US commercial activity involving those patents has been confined exclusively to the grantees and licensees of the patent holders whose interests tend to last for twenty years from the time of filing Discounting 3D television and cinema which generally require more than one digital projector whose moving images are mechanically coupled in the case of IMAX 3D cinema several stereoscopic LCDs are going to be offered by Sharp which has already started shipping a notebook with a built in stereoscopic LCD Although older technology required the user to don goggles or visors for viewing computer generated images or CGI newer technology tends to employ Fresnel lenses or plates over the liquid crystal displays freeing the user from the need to put on special glasses or goggles Tests EditIn stereopsis tests short stereotests slightly different images are shown to each eye such that a 3D image is perceived in case stereovision is present This can be achieved by means of vectographs visible with polarized glasses anaglyphs visible with red green glasses lenticular lenses visible with the naked eye or head mounted display technology The type of changes from one eye to the other may differ depending on which level of stereoacuity is to be detected A series of stereotests for selected levels thus constitutes a test of stereoacuity There are two types of common clinical tests for stereopsis and stereoacuity random dot stereotests and contour stereotests Random dot stereopsis tests use pictures of stereo figures that are embedded in a background of random dots Contour stereotests use pictures in which the targets presented to each eye are separated horizontally 49 Random dot stereotests Edit Main article Random dot stereogram Random dot stereotests The ability of stereopsis can be tested by for example the Lang stereotest which consists of a random dot stereogram upon which a series of parallel strips of cylindrical lenses are imprinted in certain shapes which separate the views seen by each eye in these areas 50 similarly to a hologram Without stereopsis the image looks only like a field of random dots but the shapes become discernible with increasing stereopsis and generally consists of a cat indicating that there is ability of stereopsis of 1200 seconds of arc of retinal disparity a star 600 seconds of arc and a car 550 seconds of arc 50 To standardize the results the image should be viewed at a distance from the eye of 40 cm and exactly in the frontoparallel plane 50 There is no need to use special spectacles for such tests thereby facilitating use in young children 50 Contour stereotests Edit Examples of contour stereotests are the Titmus stereotests the most well known example being the Titmus fly stereotest where a picture of a fly is displayed with disparities on the edges The patient uses a 3 D glasses to look at the picture and determine whether a 3 D figure can be seen The amount of disparity in images vary such as 400 100 sec of arc and 800 40 sec arc 51 Deficiency and treatment EditMain articles Stereoblindness and Stereopsis recovery Deficiency in stereopsis can be complete then called stereoblindness or more or less impaired Causes include blindness in one eye amblyopia and strabismus Vision therapy is one of the treatments for people lacking in stereopsis Vision therapy will allow individuals to enhance their vision through several exercises such as by strengthening and improving eye movement 52 There is recent evidence that stereoacuity may be improved in persons with amblyopia by means of perceptual learning see also treatment of amblyopia 53 54 In animals EditThere is good evidence for stereopsis throughout the animal kingdom It occurs in many mammals birds reptiles amphibia fish crustaceans spiders and insects 1 Stomatopods even have stereopsis with just one eye 55 See also EditComputer stereo vision Epipolar geometry Horopter Orthoptics Pupillary distance VectographReferences Edit a b c Howard IP Rogers BJ 1995 Binocular vision and stereopsis New York Oxford University Press Howard IP Rogers BJ 2012 Perceiving in Depth Volume 3 New York Oxford University Press Barry S 2009 Fixing My Gaze A Scientist s Journey into Seeing in Three Dimensions New York Basic Books ISBN 9780786744749 Vishwanath D April 2014 Toward a new theory of stereopsis Psychological Review 121 2 151 78 doi 10 1037 a0035233 hdl 10023 5325 PMID 24730596 a b Barry SR 17 December 2012 Beyond the critical period Acquiring stereopsis in adulthood In Steeves JK Harris LR eds Plasticity in Sensory Systems Cambridge University Press pp 187 188 ISBN 978 1 107 02262 1 Craven A Tran T Gustafson K Wu T So K Levi D Li R 2013 Interocular acuity differences alter the spatial frequency tuning of stereopsis Investigative Ophthalmology amp Visual Science 54 15 1518 Narasimhan S Wilcox L Solski A Harrison E Giaschi D 2012 Fine and coarse stereopsis follow different developmental trajectories in children Journal of Vision 12 9 219 doi 10 1167 12 9 219 Giaschi D Lo R Narasimhan S Lyons C Wilcox LM August 2013 Sparing of coarse stereopsis in stereodeficient children with a history of amblyopia Journal of Vision 13 10 17 doi 10 1167 13 10 17 PMID 23986537 Meier K Qiao G Wilcox LM Giaschi D 2014 Coarse stereopsis reveals residual binocular function in children with strabismus Journal of Vision 14 10 698 doi 10 1167 14 10 698 Fujikado T Hosohata J Ohmi G Asonuma S Yamada T Maeda N Tano Y 1998 Use of dynamic and colored stereogram to measure stereopsis in strabismic patients Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 42 2 101 7 doi 10 1016 S0021 5155 97 00120 2 PMID 9587841 Watanabe Y Kezuka T Harasawa K Usui M Yaguchi H Shioiri S January 2008 A new method for assessing motion in depth perception in strabismic patients The British Journal of Ophthalmology 92 1 47 50 doi 10 1136 bjo 2007 117507 PMID 17596334 Heron S Lages M June 2012 Screening and sampling in studies of binocular vision Vision Research 62 228 34 doi 10 1016 j visres 2012 04 012 PMID 22560956 Handa T Ishikawa H Nishimoto H Goseki T Ichibe Y Ichibe H Nobuyuki S Shimizu K 2010 Effect of motion stimulation without changing binocular disparity on stereopsis in strabismus patients The American Orthoptic Journal 60 87 94 doi 10 3368 aoj 60 1 87 PMID 21061889 S2CID 23428336 a b Wilcox LM Allison RS November 2009 Coarse fine dichotomies in human stereopsis Vision Research 49 22 2653 65 doi 10 1016 j visres 2009 06 004 PMID 19520102 S2CID 11575053 Tyler CW 1990 A stereoscopic view of visual processing streams Vision Research 30 11 1877 95 doi 10 1016 0042 6989 90 90165 H PMID 2288096 S2CID 23713665 Stidwill D Fletcher R 8 November 2010 Normal Binocular Vision Theory Investigation and Practical Aspects John Wiley amp Sons p 164 ISBN 978 1 4051 9250 7 See the interpretation of statements by Bela Julesz provided in Leonard J Press The Dual Nature of Stereopsis Part 6 downloaded 8 September 2014 Hildreth EC Royden CS October 2011 Integrating multiple cues to depth order at object boundaries Attention Perception amp Psychophysics 73 7 2218 35 doi 10 3758 s13414 011 0172 0 PMID 21725706 Domini F Caudek C Tassinari H May 2006 Stereo and motion information are not independently processed by the visual system Vision Research 46 11 1707 23 doi 10 1016 j visres 2005 11 018 PMID 16412492 For dynamic disparity processing see also Patterson R 2009 Unresolved issues in stereopsis dynamic disparity processing Spatial Vision 22 1 83 90 doi 10 1163 156856809786618510 PMID 19055888 Ban H Preston TJ Meeson A Welchman AE February 2012 The integration of motion and disparity cues to depth in dorsal visual cortex Nature Neuroscience 15 4 636 43 doi 10 1038 nn 3046 PMC 3378632 PMID 22327475 Fine I Jacobs RA August 1999 Modeling the combination of motion stereo and vergence angle cues to visual depth Neural Computation 11 6 1297 330 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 24 284 doi 10 1162 089976699300016250 PMID 10423497 S2CID 1397246 Coutant BE Westheimer G January 1993 Population distribution of stereoscopic ability Ophthalmic amp Physiological Optics 13 1 3 7 doi 10 1111 j 1475 1313 1993 tb00419 x PMID 8510945 S2CID 32340895 Mazyn LI Lenoir M Montagne G Savelsbergh GJ August 2004 The contribution of stereo vision to one handed catching PDF Experimental Brain Research 157 3 383 90 doi 10 1007 s00221 004 1926 x hdl 1871 29156 PMID 15221161 S2CID 6615928 Elshatory YM Siatkowski RM 2014 Wiley Post around the world with no stereopsis Survey of Ophthalmology 59 3 365 72 doi 10 1016 j survophthal 2013 08 001 PMID 24359807 Biddle M Hamid S Ali N February 2014 An evaluation of stereoacuity 3D vision in practising surgeons across a range of surgical specialities The Surgeon 12 1 7 10 doi 10 1016 j surge 2013 05 002 PMID 23764432 Bauer A Dietz K Kolling G Hart W Schiefer U July 2001 The relevance of stereopsis for motorists a pilot study Graefe s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 239 6 400 6 doi 10 1007 s004170100273 PMID 11561786 S2CID 6288004 Rubin GS Ng ES Bandeen Roche K Keyl PM Freeman EE West SK April 2007 A prospective population based study of the role of visual impairment in motor vehicle crashes among older drivers the SEE study Investigative Ophthalmology amp Visual Science 48 4 1483 91 doi 10 1167 iovs 06 0474 PMID 17389475 Pineles SL Velez FG Isenberg SJ Fenoglio Z Birch E Nusinowitz S Demer JL November 2013 Functional burden of strabismus decreased binocular summation and binocular inhibition JAMA Ophthalmology 131 11 1413 9 doi 10 1001 jamaophthalmol 2013 4484 PMC 4136417 PMID 24052160 Damian McNamara 2013 09 23 Strabismus study reveals visual function deficits Medscape Medical News Strabismus by All About Vision Access Media Group LLC Bradley A Barrett BT Saunders KJ March 2014 Linking binocular vision neuroscience with clinical practice Ophthalmic amp Physiological Optics 34 2 125 8 doi 10 1111 opo 12125 hdl 10454 10180 PMID 24588530 S2CID 29211166 Sandra Blakeslee A Defect That May Lead to a Masterpiece New York Times New York edition page D6 14 June 2011 online June 13 2001 downloaded 22 July 2013 a b Contributions to the Physiology of Vision Part the First On some remarkable and hitherto unobserved Phenomena of Binocular Vision By CHARLES WHEATSTONE F R S Professor of Experimental Philosophy in King s College London Beck J 1979 Leonardo s rules of painting Oxford Phaidon Press ISBN 978 0 7148 2056 9 Wade NJ 1987 On the late invention of the stereoscope Perception 16 6 785 818 doi 10 1068 p160785 PMID 3331425 S2CID 24998020 Julesz B 1960 Binocular depth perception of computer generated images Bell System Technical Journal 39 5 1125 1163 doi 10 1002 j 1538 7305 1960 tb03954 x Barlow HB Blakemore C Pettigrew JD November 1967 The neural mechanism of binocular depth discrimination The Journal of Physiology 193 2 327 42 doi 10 1113 jphysiol 1967 sp008360 PMC 1365600 PMID 6065881 Hubel DH Wiesel TN January 1970 Stereoscopic vision in macaque monkey Cells sensitive to binocular depth in area 18 of the macaque monkey cortex Nature 225 5227 41 2 Bibcode 1970Natur 225 41H doi 10 1038 225041a0 PMID 4983026 S2CID 4265895 Poggio GF Motter BC Squatrito S Trotter Y 1985 Responses of neurons in visual cortex V1 and V2 of the alert macaque to dynamic random dot stereograms Vision Research 25 3 397 406 doi 10 1016 0042 6989 85 90065 3 PMID 4024459 S2CID 43335583 Tyler CW Clarke MB 1990 The autostereogram Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Proc SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications 1258 182 196 Bibcode 1990SPIE 1256 182T doi 10 1117 12 19904 Medina Puerta A February 1989 The power of shadows shadow stereopsis Journal of the Optical Society of America A 6 2 309 11 Bibcode 1989JOSAA 6 309M doi 10 1364 JOSAA 6 000309 PMID 2926527 Ogle KN 1950 Researchers in binocular vision New York Hafner Publishing Company page needed Buckthought A Kim J Wilson HR March 2008 Hysteresis effects in stereopsis and binocular rivalry Vision Research 48 6 819 30 doi 10 1016 j visres 2007 12 013 PMID 18234273 S2CID 17092588 Fender D Julesz B June 1967 Extension of Panum s fusional area in binocularly stabilized vision Journal of the Optical Society of America 57 6 819 30 doi 10 1364 josa 57 000819 PMID 6038008 Piantanida TP 1986 Stereo hysteresis revisited Vision Research 26 3 431 7 doi 10 1016 0042 6989 86 90186 0 PMID 3727409 S2CID 7601967 Duwaer AL May 1983 Patent stereopsis with diplopia in random dot stereograms Perception amp Psychophysics 33 5 443 54 doi 10 3758 bf03202895 PMID 6877990 Levanda R Leshem A 2010 Synthetic aperture radio telescopes IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 27 1 14 29 arXiv 1009 0460 Bibcode 2010ISPM 27 14L doi 10 1109 MSP 2009 934719 S2CID 4695794 Stereoacuity testing ONE Network American Academy of Phthalmology downloaded 2 September 2014 a b c d Lang stereotest in Farlex medical dictionary In turn citing Millodot Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science 7th edition Kalloniatis Michael 1995 Perception of Depth The Organization of the Retina and Visual System PMID 21413376 Retrieved 9 April 2012 Cite journal requires journal help vision therapy The Canadian Association of Optometrists Levi DM June 2012 Prentice award lecture 2011 removing the brakes on plasticity in the amblyopic brain Optometry and Vision Science 89 6 827 38 doi 10 1097 OPX 0b013e318257a187 PMC 3369432 PMID 22581119 Xi J Jia WL Feng LX Lu ZL Huang CB April 2014 Perceptual learning improves stereoacuity in amblyopia Investigative Ophthalmology amp Visual Science 55 4 2384 91 doi 10 1167 iovs 13 12627 PMC 3989086 PMID 24508791 Fox Helen 2001 The better to see you with Retrieved 2 March 2021 Cite journal requires journal help Bibliography EditJulesz B 1971 Foundations of cyclopean perception Chicago University of Chicago Press Steinman Scott B amp Steinman Barbara A amp Garzia Ralph Philip 2000 Foundations of Binocular Vision A Clinical perspective McGraw Hill Medical ISBN 0 8385 2670 5 Howard I P amp Rogers B J 2012 Perceiving in depth Volume 2 Stereoscopic vision Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 976415 0 Cabani I 2007 Segmentation et mise en correspondance couleur Application etude et conception d un systeme de stereovision couleur pour l aide a la conduite automobile ISBN 978 613 1 52103 4External links EditMiddlebury Stereo Vision Page VIP Laparoscopic Endoscopic Video Dataset stereo medical images What is Stereo Vision Learn about Stereograms then make your own Magic Eye International Orthoptic Association Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stereopsis amp oldid 1053045248, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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