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Steward Observatory is the research arm of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona (UArizona). Its offices are located on the UArizona campus in Tucson, Arizona (US). Established in 1916, the first telescope and building were formally dedicated on April 23, 1923. It now operates, or is a partner in telescopes at five mountain-top locations in Arizona, one in New Mexico, one in Hawaii, and one in Chile. It has provided instruments for three different space telescopes and numerous terrestrial ones. Steward also has one of the few facilities in the world that can cast and figure the very large primary mirrors used in telescopes built in the early 21st century.

Steward Observatory
The observatory on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson
OrganizationUniversity of Arizona
Observatory code 692
LocationTucson, Arizona
Coordinates32°14′00″N110°56′56″W /32.2333°N 110.9490°W /32.2333; -110.9490Coordinates: 32°14′00″N110°56′56″W /32.2333°N 110.9490°W /32.2333; -110.9490
Altitude792 meters (2,598 ft)
Established1916 (1916)
WebsiteSteward Observatory
Telescopes
Mount Graham10 m Submillimeter Telescope
1.8 m VATT
2 x 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope
Catalina Station1.6 m Kuiper Telescope
0.7 m Schmidt camera
Mount Lemmon1.5 m NASA Telescope
1.0 m telescope
Kitt PeakARO 12m Radio Telescope
2.3 m Bok Telescope
1.8 m Spacewatch telescope
0.9 m Spacewatch telescope
Super-LOTIS
Mount Hopkins6.5 m MMT
Location of Steward Observatory
Related media on Wikimedia Commons

Contents

Steward Observatory owes its existence to the efforts of American astronomer and dendrochronologist Andrew Ellicott Douglass. In 1906, Douglass accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Physics and Geography at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. Almost immediately upon his arrival in Tucson, Douglass established astronomical research programs using an 8-inch refracting telescope on loan from the Harvard College Observatory and actively began to pursue funding to construct a large research-class telescope in Tucson. Over the next 10 years, all of Douglass’ efforts to secure funding from the University and the Arizona Territorial (and later State) Legislatures ended in failure. During this time period, Douglass served UArizona as Head of the Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Interim President, and finally Dean of the College of Letters, Arts, & Sciences.

Then on October 18, 1916, University President Rufus B. von KleinSmid announced that an anonymous donor had given the University $60,000 “…to be used to buy a telescope of huge size.” That donor was later revealed to be Mrs. Lavinia Steward of Oracle, Arizona. Mrs. Steward was a wealthy widow who had an interest in astronomy and a desire to memorialize her late husband, Mr. Henry Steward. Douglass made plans to use the Steward gift to construct a 36-inch diameter Newtonian reflecting telescope. The Warner & Swasey Company of Cleveland, Ohio was contracted to build the telescope, but the United States entry into World War I delayed the contract since Warner & Swasey had war contracts that took priority. The situation was further delayed by the fact that up until this time, the expertise in large telescope mirror making was in Europe. The war made it impossible to contract with a European company. So Douglass had to find an American glass company that was willing to develop this expertise. After a couple of failed castings, the Spencer Lens Co. of Buffalo, New York ultimately produced a 36-inch mirror for the Steward Telescope.

The telescope was finally installed in the observatory building in July 1922, and the Steward Observatory was officially dedicated on April 23, 1923. In his dedication address, Douglass recounted the trials and tribulations of establishing the observatory, then gave the following eloquent justification for the scientific endeavor:

In concluding I wish to leave with you a more general view. This installation is to be devoted to scientific research. Scientific research is business foresight on a large scale. It is knowledge obtained before it is needed. Knowledge is power, but we cannot tell which fact in the domain of knowledge is the one which is going to give the power, and we therefore develop the idea of knowledge for its own sake, confident that some one fact or training will pay for all the effort. This I believe is the essence of education wherever such education is not strictly vocational. The student learns many facts and has much training. He can only dimly see which fact and which training will be of eminent use to him, but some special part of his education will take root in him and grow and pay for all of the effort which he and his friends have put into it. So it is with the research institutions. In this Observatory I sincerely hope and expect that the boundaries of human knowledge will be advanced along astronomical lines. Astronomy was the first science developed by our primitive ancestors thousands of years ago because it measured time. Performing that same function, it has played a vast part in human history, and today it is telling us facts, forever wonderful, about the size of our universe; perhaps tomorrow it will give us practical help in showing us how to predict climatic conditions in the future.

Steward Observatory manages three different observing locations in southern Arizona: Mount Graham International Observatory (MGIO), Mount Lemmon Observatory, and Catalina Station on Mount Bigelow. It also operates telescopes at two additional important observatories: Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins. Steward is a partner in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III, which is located in New Mexico at Apache Point Observatory. Steward maintains a student observatory on Tumamoc Hill approximately 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) west of the campus. The original observatory building in Tucson is used only for public outreach and undergraduate general education.

The Arizona Radio Observatory, a subsidiary of Steward Observatory, operates one telescope each at KPNO and MGIO.

Steward Observatory participates in three international projects. It is a full member in the twin Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in northern Chile. It is also a member in two projects planned for same region: the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Giant Magellan Telescope, a next generation extremely large telescope. The Richard F. Caris Mirror Laboratory is fabricating and finishing the mirrors for both telescopes, and also made the two Magellan mirrors.

The Richard F. Caris Mirror Laboratory, located under the east side of Arizona Stadium, has pioneered new techniques of large mirror production, including spin-casting lightweight honeycomb mirrors in a rotating furnace, and stressed-lap polishing. The Mirror Laboratory completed the second mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope in September, 2005. The Mirror Lab also cast the 8.4 meter diameter primary/tertiary mirror for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and has started work on two of the seven off-axis primary mirrors for the Giant Magellan Telescope.

The Infrared Detector Laboratory built the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope and the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) instrument for the Spitzer Space Telescope. For the James Webb Space Telescope, Steward built the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) and helped build the Mid-IR Instrument (MIRI). Both instruments have been delivered to NASA; launch is currently scheduled for December 2021.

Other groups include the Center for Astronomical Adaptive Optics (CAAO), the Imaging Technology Laboratory (ITL), the Steward Observatory Radio Astronomy Laboratory (SORAL), the Earths in Other Solar Systems (EOS) group, and the Astrochemistry/Spectroscopy Laboratory.

  • Kuiper telescope image of Plutonian system

  • 36-inch telescope in 1922 (in 1963 moved to Kitt Peak)

  1. Webb, George (1983). Tree Rings and Telescopes. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-0798-8.
  2. "Anonymous Friend Gives U.A. $60,000". Arizona Daily Star. Oct 19, 1916.
  3. Douglass, Andrew E. "Historical Address upon the Dedication of Steward Observatory". Steward Observatory. Retrieved15 July 2014.
  4. Mirror Castings, SOML, archived from the original on 2012-06-23, retrieved2012-04-12
  5. "NASA Readies James Webb Space Telescope for December Launch" (Press release). NASA. 8 September 2021. Retrieved23 September 2021.

Steward Observatory Article Talk Language Watch Edit Steward Observatory is the research arm of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona UArizona Its offices are located on the UArizona campus in Tucson Arizona US Established in 1916 the first telescope and building were formally dedicated on April 23 1923 It now operates or is a partner in telescopes at five mountain top locations in Arizona one in New Mexico one in Hawaii and one in Chile It has provided instruments for three different space telescopes and numerous terrestrial ones Steward also has one of the few facilities in the world that can cast and figure the very large primary mirrors used in telescopes built in the early 21st century Steward ObservatoryThe observatory on the campus of the University of Arizona in TucsonOrganizationUniversity of ArizonaObservatory code692 LocationTucson ArizonaCoordinates32 14 00 N 110 56 56 W 32 2333 N 110 9490 W 32 2333 110 9490 Coordinates 32 14 00 N 110 56 56 W 32 2333 N 110 9490 W 32 2333 110 9490Altitude792 meters 2 598 ft Established1916 1916 WebsiteSteward ObservatoryTelescopesMount Graham10 m Submillimeter Telescope 1 8 m VATT 2 x 8 4 m Large Binocular TelescopeCatalina Station1 6 m Kuiper Telescope 0 7 m Schmidt cameraMount Lemmon1 5 m NASA Telescope 1 0 m telescopeKitt PeakARO 12m Radio Telescope 2 3 m Bok Telescope 1 8 m Spacewatch telescope 0 9 m Spacewatch telescope Super LOTISMount Hopkins6 5 m MMTLocation of Steward ObservatoryRelated media on Wikimedia Commons edit on Wikidata Contents 1 History 2 Observatories 3 Research groups 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory EditSteward Observatory owes its existence to the efforts of American astronomer and dendrochronologist Andrew Ellicott Douglass In 1906 Douglass accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Physics and Geography at the University of Arizona in Tucson Arizona Almost immediately upon his arrival in Tucson Douglass established astronomical research programs using an 8 inch refracting telescope on loan from the Harvard College Observatory and actively began to pursue funding to construct a large research class telescope in Tucson Over the next 10 years all of Douglass efforts to secure funding from the University and the Arizona Territorial and later State Legislatures ended in failure During this time period Douglass served UArizona as Head of the Dept of Physics and Astronomy Interim President and finally Dean of the College of Letters Arts amp Sciences 1 Then on October 18 1916 University President Rufus B von KleinSmid announced that an anonymous donor had given the University 60 000 to be used to buy a telescope of huge size That donor was later revealed to be Mrs Lavinia Steward of Oracle Arizona Mrs Steward was a wealthy widow who had an interest in astronomy and a desire to memorialize her late husband Mr Henry Steward 2 Douglass made plans to use the Steward gift to construct a 36 inch diameter Newtonian reflecting telescope The Warner amp Swasey Company of Cleveland Ohio was contracted to build the telescope but the United States entry into World War I delayed the contract since Warner amp Swasey had war contracts that took priority The situation was further delayed by the fact that up until this time the expertise in large telescope mirror making was in Europe The war made it impossible to contract with a European company So Douglass had to find an American glass company that was willing to develop this expertise After a couple of failed castings the Spencer Lens Co of Buffalo New York ultimately produced a 36 inch mirror for the Steward Telescope 1 The telescope was finally installed in the observatory building in July 1922 and the Steward Observatory was officially dedicated on April 23 1923 In his dedication address Douglass recounted the trials and tribulations of establishing the observatory then gave the following eloquent justification for the scientific endeavor 3 In concluding I wish to leave with you a more general view This installation is to be devoted to scientific research Scientific research is business foresight on a large scale It is knowledge obtained before it is needed Knowledge is power but we cannot tell which fact in the domain of knowledge is the one which is going to give the power and we therefore develop the idea of knowledge for its own sake confident that some one fact or training will pay for all the effort This I believe is the essence of education wherever such education is not strictly vocational The student learns many facts and has much training He can only dimly see which fact and which training will be of eminent use to him but some special part of his education will take root in him and grow and pay for all of the effort which he and his friends have put into it So it is with the research institutions In this Observatory I sincerely hope and expect that the boundaries of human knowledge will be advanced along astronomical lines Astronomy was the first science developed by our primitive ancestors thousands of years ago because it measured time Performing that same function it has played a vast part in human history and today it is telling us facts forever wonderful about the size of our universe perhaps tomorrow it will give us practical help in showing us how to predict climatic conditions in the future Observatories EditSteward Observatory manages three different observing locations in southern Arizona Mount Graham International Observatory MGIO Mount Lemmon Observatory and Catalina Station on Mount Bigelow It also operates telescopes at two additional important observatories Kitt Peak National Observatory KPNO and Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins Steward is a partner in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III which is located in New Mexico at Apache Point Observatory Steward maintains a student observatory on Tumamoc Hill approximately 5 kilometers 3 1 mi west of the campus The original observatory building in Tucson is used only for public outreach and undergraduate general education The Arizona Radio Observatory a subsidiary of Steward Observatory operates one telescope each at KPNO and MGIO Steward Observatory participates in three international projects It is a full member in the twin Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in northern Chile It is also a member in two projects planned for same region the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Giant Magellan Telescope a next generation extremely large telescope The Richard F Caris Mirror Laboratory is fabricating and finishing the mirrors for both telescopes and also made the two Magellan mirrors Research groups EditThe Richard F Caris Mirror Laboratory located under the east side of Arizona Stadium has pioneered new techniques of large mirror production including spin casting lightweight honeycomb mirrors in a rotating furnace and stressed lap polishing The Mirror Laboratory completed the second mirror for the Large Binocular Telescope in September 2005 The Mirror Lab also cast the 8 4 meter diameter primary tertiary mirror for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and has started work on two of the seven off axis primary mirrors for the Giant Magellan Telescope 4 The Infrared Detector Laboratory built the Near Infrared Camera and Multi Object Spectrometer NICMOS instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope and the Multiband Imaging Photometer MIPS instrument for the Spitzer Space Telescope For the James Webb Space Telescope Steward built the Near Infrared Camera NIRCam and helped build the Mid IR Instrument MIRI Both instruments have been delivered to NASA launch is currently scheduled for December 2021 5 Other groups include the Center for Astronomical Adaptive Optics CAAO the Imaging Technology Laboratory ITL the Steward Observatory Radio Astronomy Laboratory SORAL the Earths in Other Solar Systems EOS group and the Astrochemistry Spectroscopy Laboratory Gallery Edit Kuiper telescope image of Plutonian system 36 inch telescope in 1922 in 1963 moved to Kitt Peak See also EditLowell Observatory List of astronomical observatoriesReferences Edit a b Webb George 1983 Tree Rings and Telescopes Tucson University of Arizona Press ISBN 0 8165 0798 8 Anonymous Friend Gives U A 60 000 Arizona Daily Star Oct 19 1916 Douglass Andrew E Historical Address upon the Dedication of Steward Observatory Steward Observatory Retrieved 15 July 2014 Mirror Castings SOML archived from the original on 2012 06 23 retrieved 2012 04 12 NASA Readies James Webb Space Telescope for December Launch Press release NASA 8 September 2021 Retrieved 23 September 2021 External links Edit Media related to Steward Observatory at Wikimedia Commons Public tours of Mt Graham are available Richard F Caris Mirror Lab Portals Arizona Astronomy Stars Spaceflight Outer space Solar System Education Science Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Steward Observatory amp oldid 1071326004, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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