fbpx
Wikipedia

Stibnite

Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the formula Sb2S3. This soft grey material crystallizes in an orthorhombic space group. It is the most important source for the metalloid antimony. The name is from the Greek στίβι stibi through the Latin stibium as the old name for the mineral and the element antimony.

Stibnite
General
CategorySulfide mineral
Formula
(repeating unit)
Sb2S3
Strunz classification2.DB.05a
Crystal systemOrthorhombic
Crystal classDipyramidal (mmm)
H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Space groupPbnm
Unit cella = 11.229 Å, b = 11.31 Å,
c = 3.8389 Å; Z = 4
Identification
ColorLead-gray, tarnishing blackish or iridescent; in polished section, white
Crystal habitMassive, radiating and elongated crystals. Massive and granular
TwinningRare
CleavagePerfect and easy on {010}; imperfect on {100} and {110}
FractureSubconchoidal
TenacityHighly flexible but not elastic; slightly sectile
Mohs scale hardness2
LusterSplendent on fresh crystals surfaces, otherwise metallic
StreakSimilar to color
DiaphaneityOpaque
Specific gravity4.63
Solubilitydecomposed with hydrochloric acid
Other characteristicsAnisotropism: Strong
References
Major varieties
MetastibniteEarthy, reddish deposits
Structure of stibnite.

Stibnite has a structure similar to that of arsenic trisulfide, As2S3. The Sb(III) centers, which are pyramidal and three-coordinate, are linked via bent two-coordinate sulfide ions. However, recent studies confirm that the actual coordination polyhedra of antimony are in fact SbS7, with (3+4) coordination at the M1 site and (5+2) at the M2 site. Some of the secondary bonds impart cohesion and are connected with packing. Stibnite is grey when fresh, but can turn superficially black due to oxidation in air.

The melting point of Sb2S3 is 823 K. The band gap is 1.88 eV at room temperature and it is a photoconductor.

A microscopic section of Stibnite

Pastes of Sb2S3 powder in fat or in other materials have been used since ca. 3000 BC as eye cosmetics in the Mediterranean and farther afield; in this use, Sb2S3 is called kohl. It was used to darken the brows and lashes, or to draw a line around the perimeter of the eye.

Antimony trisulfide finds use in pyrotechnic compositions, namely in the glitter and fountain mixtures. Needle-like crystals, "Chinese Needle", are used in glitter compositions and white pyrotechnic stars. The "Dark Pyro" version is used in flash powders to increase their sensitivity and sharpen their report. It is also a component of modern safety matches. It was formerly used in flash compositions, but its use was abandoned due to toxicity and sensitivity to static electricity.

Stibnite was used ever since protodynastic Ancient Egypt as a medication and a cosmetic. The Sunan Abi Dawood reports, “prophet Muhammad said: 'Among the best types of collyrium is antimony (ithmid) for it clears the vision and makes the hair sprout.'”

The 17th century alchemist Eirenaeus Philalethes, also known as George Starkey, describes stibnite in his alchemical commentary An Exposition upon Sir George Ripley's Epistle. Starkey used stibnite as a precursor to philosophical mercury, which was itself a hypothetical precursor to the Philosopher's stone.

Stibnite occurs in hydrothermal deposits and is associated with realgar, orpiment, cinnabar, galena, pyrite, marcasite, arsenopyrite, cervantite, stibiconite, calcite, ankerite, barite and chalcedony.

Small deposits of stibnite are common, but large deposits are rare. It occurs in Canada, Mexico, Peru, Japan, China, Germany, Romania, Italy, France, England, Algeria, and Kalimantan, Borneo. In the United States it is found in Arkansas, Idaho, Nevada, California, and Alaska.

As of May 2007, the largest specimen on public display (1000 pounds) is at the American Museum of Natural History. The largest documented single crystals of stibnite measured ~60×5×5 cm and originated from different locations including Japan, France and Germany.

  • Stibnite from Herja mine, Romania

  • Needles of stibnite within a transparent crystal of calcite (size: 4.5×3.5×1.8 cm)

  • Ray of sharp, striated, iridescent metallic stibnite blades

  1. Stibnite. Handbook of Mineralogy
  2. Stibnite. Mindat.org
  3. Stibnite. Webmineral
  4. Sabina C. Grund, K. Hanusch, H. J. Breunig, H. U. Wolf, "Antimony and Antimony Compounds" in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_055.pub2
  5. Kyono A (2002). "Low-temperature crystal structures of stibnite implying orbital overlap of Sb 5s 2 inert pair electrons". Physics and Chemistry of Minerals. 29 (4): 254–260. Bibcode:2002PCM....29..254K. doi:10.1007/s00269-001-0227-1. S2CID 95067785.
  6. Mills, K. C. (1974). Thermodynamic data for inorganic sulphides, selenides and tellurides. London: Butterworths. ISBN 040870537X. OCLC 1031663.
  7. Madelung, O. (Otfried) (2004). Semiconductors : data handbook (3rd ed.). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3540404880. OCLC 56192440.
  8. Priesner, Claus; Figala, Karin, eds. (1998). Alchemie. Lexikon einer hermetischen Wissenschaft (in German). München: C.H. Beck. ISBN 978-3-406-44106-6.
  9. Pyrotechnic Chemical Guide. PyroUniverse.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-14.
  10. Sunan Abu-Dawud (Ahmad Hasan translation). Book 32, Number 4050.
  11. Eirenaeus Philalethes and Carl Jung http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rhs_0151-4105_1996_num_49_2_1254
  12. "American Museum of Natural History, Spectacular Stibnite". American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved2007-05-27.
  13. "Chinese stibnite crystal on display in US". Retrieved2009-06-06.
  14. P. C. Rickwood (1981). "The largest crystals"(PDF). American Mineralogist. 66: 885–907.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stibnite.

Stibnite
Stibnite Article Talk Language Watch Edit Stibnite sometimes called antimonite is a sulfide mineral with the formula Sb2S3 This soft grey material crystallizes in an orthorhombic space group It is the most important source for the metalloid antimony 4 The name is from the Greek stibi stibi through the Latin stibium as the old name for the mineral and the element antimony 1 2 StibniteGeneralCategorySulfide mineralFormula repeating unit Sb2S3Strunz classification2 DB 05aCrystal systemOrthorhombicCrystal classDipyramidal mmm H M symbol 2 m 2 m 2 m Space groupPbnmUnit cella 11 229 A b 11 31 A c 3 8389 A Z 4IdentificationColorLead gray tarnishing blackish or iridescent in polished section whiteCrystal habitMassive radiating and elongated crystals Massive and granularTwinningRareCleavagePerfect and easy on 010 imperfect on 100 and 110 FractureSubconchoidalTenacityHighly flexible but not elastic slightly sectileMohs scale hardness2LusterSplendent on fresh crystals surfaces otherwise metallicStreakSimilar to colorDiaphaneityOpaqueSpecific gravity4 63Solubilitydecomposed with hydrochloric acidOther characteristicsAnisotropism StrongReferences 1 2 3 Major varietiesMetastibniteEarthy reddish depositsSee also antimony trisulfide Contents 1 Structure 2 Properties 3 Uses 4 Occurrence 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure Edit Structure of stibnite Stibnite has a structure similar to that of arsenic trisulfide As2S3 The Sb III centers which are pyramidal and three coordinate are linked via bent two coordinate sulfide ions However recent studies confirm that the actual coordination polyhedra of antimony are in fact SbS7 with 3 4 coordination at the M1 site and 5 2 at the M2 site Some of the secondary bonds impart cohesion and are connected with packing 5 Stibnite is grey when fresh but can turn superficially black due to oxidation in air Properties EditThe melting point of Sb2S3 is 823 K 6 The band gap is 1 88 eV at room temperature and it is a photoconductor 7 Uses Edit A microscopic section of Stibnite Pastes of Sb2S3 powder in fat 8 or in other materials have been used since ca 3000 BC as eye cosmetics in the Mediterranean and farther afield in this use Sb2S3 is called kohl It was used to darken the brows and lashes or to draw a line around the perimeter of the eye Antimony trisulfide finds use in pyrotechnic compositions namely in the glitter and fountain mixtures Needle like crystals Chinese Needle are used in glitter compositions and white pyrotechnic stars The Dark Pyro version is used in flash powders to increase their sensitivity and sharpen their report It is also a component of modern safety matches It was formerly used in flash compositions but its use was abandoned due to toxicity and sensitivity to static electricity 9 Stibnite was used ever since protodynastic Ancient Egypt as a medication and a cosmetic The Sunan Abi Dawood reports prophet Muhammad said Among the best types of collyrium is antimony ithmid for it clears the vision and makes the hair sprout 10 The 17th century alchemist Eirenaeus Philalethes also known as George Starkey describes stibnite in his alchemical commentary An Exposition upon Sir George Ripley s Epistle Starkey used stibnite as a precursor to philosophical mercury which was itself a hypothetical precursor to the Philosopher s stone 11 Occurrence EditStibnite occurs in hydrothermal deposits and is associated with realgar orpiment cinnabar galena pyrite marcasite arsenopyrite cervantite stibiconite calcite ankerite barite and chalcedony 1 Small deposits of stibnite are common but large deposits are rare It occurs in Canada Mexico Peru Japan China Germany Romania Italy France England Algeria and Kalimantan Borneo In the United States it is found in Arkansas Idaho Nevada California and Alaska As of May 2007 the largest specimen on public display 1000 pounds is at the American Museum of Natural History 12 13 The largest documented single crystals of stibnite measured 60 5 5 cm and originated from different locations including Japan France and Germany 14 Stibnite from Herja mine Romania Needles of stibnite within a transparent crystal of calcite size 4 5 3 5 1 8 cm Ray of sharp striated iridescent metallic stibnite bladesSee also EditList of mineralsReferences Edit a b c Stibnite Handbook of Mineralogy a b Stibnite Mindat org Stibnite Webmineral Sabina C Grund K Hanusch H J Breunig H U Wolf Antimony and Antimony Compounds in Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006 Wiley VCH Weinheim doi 10 1002 14356007 a03 055 pub2 Kyono A 2002 Low temperature crystal structures of stibnite implying orbital overlap of Sb 5s 2 inert pair electrons Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 29 4 254 260 Bibcode 2002PCM 29 254K doi 10 1007 s00269 001 0227 1 S2CID 95067785 Mills K C 1974 Thermodynamic data for inorganic sulphides selenides and tellurides London Butterworths ISBN 040870537X OCLC 1031663 Madelung O Otfried 2004 Semiconductors data handbook 3rd ed Berlin Springer ISBN 3540404880 OCLC 56192440 Priesner Claus Figala Karin eds 1998 Alchemie Lexikon einer hermetischen Wissenschaft in German Munchen C H Beck ISBN 978 3 406 44106 6 Pyrotechnic Chemical Guide PyroUniverse com Retrieved on 2011 10 14 Sunan Abu Dawud Ahmad Hasan translation Book 32 Number 4050 Eirenaeus Philalethes and Carl Jung http www persee fr web revues home prescript article rhs 0151 4105 1996 num 49 2 1254 American Museum of Natural History Spectacular Stibnite American Museum of Natural History Retrieved 2007 05 27 Chinese stibnite crystal on display in US Retrieved 2009 06 06 P C Rickwood 1981 The largest crystals PDF American Mineralogist 66 885 907 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Stibnite Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Stibnite Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stibnite amp oldid 1054756651, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.