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Wikipedia

Stirling

This article is about the city in Scotland. For other uses, see Stirling (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Sterling.

Stirling (; Scots: Stirlin; Scottish Gaelic: Sruighlea ) is a city in central Scotland, 26 miles (42 km) north-east of Glasgow and 37 miles (60 km) north-west of the Scottish capital, Edinburgh. The market town, surrounded by rich farmland, grew up connecting the royal citadel, the medieval old town with its merchants and tradesmen, the Old Bridge and the port. Located on the River Forth, Stirling is the administrative centre for the Stirling council area, and is traditionally the county town of Stirlingshire. Proverbially it is the strategically important "Gateway to the Highlands".

Stirling
City and administrative centre

From top, left to right: Skyline of Stirling, Stirling Old Bridge, Stirling Castle, Statue of William Wallace, the Wallace Monument, The Athenaeum, Stirling Tolbooth, View towards Burgh Buildings
Stirling
Location within the Stirling council area
Area16.7 km2 (6.4 sq mi)
Population37,610 (mid-2016 est.)
Density2,252/km2 (5,830/sq mi)
OS grid referenceNS795935
Edinburgh43 mi (69 km)
Civil parish
  • Stirling
Council area
Lieutenancy area
CountryScotland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townSTIRLING
Postcode districtFK7–FK9
Dialling code01786
PoliceScotland
FireScottish
AmbulanceScottish
UK Parliament
Scottish Parliament
List of places
UK
Scotland
56°07′00″N3°56′13″W /56.1166°N 3.9369°W /56.1166; -3.9369Coordinates: 56°07′00″N3°56′13″W /56.1166°N 3.9369°W /56.1166; -3.9369

It has been said that "Stirling, like a huge brooch clasps Highlands and Lowlands together". Similarly "he who holds Stirling, holds Scotland" is often quoted. Stirling's key position as the lowest bridging point of the River Forth before it broadens towards the Firth of Forth made it a focal point for travel north or south.

When Stirling was temporarily under Anglo-Saxon sway, according to a 9th-century legend, it was attacked by Danish invaders. The sound of a wolf roused a sentry, however, who alerted his garrison, which forced a Viking retreat. This led to the wolf being adopted as a symbol of the town as is shown on the 1511 Stirling Jug. The area is today known as Wolfcraig. Even today the wolf appears with a goshawk on the council's coat of arms along with the recently chosen motto: "Steadfast as the Rock".

Once the capital of Scotland, Stirling is visually dominated by Stirling Castle. Stirling also has a medieval parish church, the Church of the Holy Rude, where, on 29 July 1567, the infant James VI was anointed King of Scots by Adam Bothwell, the Bishop of Orkney, with the service concluding after a sermon by John Knox. The poet King was educated by George Buchanan and grew up in Stirling. He was later also crowned King of England and Ireland on 25 July 1603, bringing closer the countries of the United Kingdom. Modern Stirling is a centre for local government, higher education, tourism, retail, and industry. The mid-2012 census estimate for the population of the city is 36,440; the wider Stirling council area has a population of about 93,750.

One of the principal royal strongholds of the Kingdom of Scotland, Stirling was created a royal burgh by King David I in 1130. In 2002, as part of Queen Elizabeth's Golden Jubilee, Stirling was granted city status.

Contents

The Wolf Craig Seal. The ancient coat of arms of Stirling also show a wolf upon a rock above a stream.
Stirling Castle (southwest aspect)
The Bridge Seal: Hic Armis Brutti Scoti Stant Hic Cruce Tuti
The Castle Seal: Continet Hoc in Se Nemus et Castrum Strivelinse

Etymology

The origin of the name Stirling is uncertain, but folk etymology suggests that it originates in either a Scots or Gaelic term meaning the place of battle, struggle or strife. One proposal is that Stirling derives from Gaelic srib-linn, meaning "stream-pool" or similar. Other sources suggest that it originates in a Brythonic name meaning "dwelling place of Melyn", with the first element being connected to Middle Welsh ystre-, "a dwelling". The name may have originally been a hydronym, and connected to Brittonic *lïnn, "lake, pool" (Welsh llyn). It is often argued that Stirling is the fortress of Iuddeu or Urbs Giudi where Oswiu of Northumbria was besieged by Penda of Mercia in 655, as recorded in Bede and contemporary annals, however, Blackness Castle may be a more likely candidate.[citation needed]

Ancient history

A stone cist, found in Coneypark Nursery in 1879, is Stirling's oldest catalogued artefact. Bones from the cist were radiocarbon dated and found to be over four millennia old, originating within the date range 2152 to 2021 BC. Nicknamed Torbrex Tam, the man, whose bones were discovered by workmen, died while still in his twenties. Other Bronze Age finds near the city come from the area around Cambusbarron. It had been thought that the Randolphfield standing stones were more than 3000 years old but recent radiocarbon dating suggests they may date from the time of Bruce. The earliest known structures in Stirling are now destroyed but comprised two Neolithic Cursus in Bannockburn. The earliest known surviving structure is a fort on Gillies Hill were built by Iron Age people over 2000 years ago. Two structures are known: what is currently called Wallstale Dun on the southern end of Touchadam Craig, and Gillies Hill fort on the northwest end of the craig. The Wallstale structure is later than the Gillies Hill fort and is related in form to brochs, these appear to coincide with the Roman period and there are around 40 or so in the wider area. South of the city, the King's Park prehistoric carvings can still be found. The area is likely associated with the Maeatae and their Early Medieval successors the Miathi.[citation needed] The area sits in the middle of the territory known as Manau. Manau survives in four different place names: Clackmannan (The Stone of Manau); Slamannan (The Plain of Manau); Rathmannan (The fort of Manau)[citation needed] and Cromennane in Balfron (The boundary of Manau). All of these names seem to mark the boundaries of Manau meaning it stretched from Balfron to Fife.

Roman and early Medieval

Its other notable geographic feature is its proximity to the lowest site of subjugation of the River Forth. Control of the bridge brought military advantage in times of unrest and; excise duty, or pontage dues in peacetime. Unsurprisingly excise men were installed in a covered booth in the centre of the bridge to collect tax from any entering the royal burgh with goods. Stirling remained the river's lowest reliable crossing point (that is, without a weather-dependent ferry or seasonal ford) until the construction of the Alloa Swing Bridge between Throsk and Alloa in 1885.

The city has two Latin mottoes, which appeared on the earliest burgh seal of which an impression of 1296 is on record. The first alludes to the story as recorded by Boece who relates that in 855 Scotland was invaded by two Northumbrian princes, Osbrecht and Ella. They united their forces with the Cumbrian Britons in order to defeat the Scots. Having secured Stirling castle, they built the first stone bridge over the Forth.

On the top they reportedly raised a crucifix with the inscription: "Anglos, a Scotis separat, crux ista remotis; Arma hic stant Bruti; stant Scoti hac sub cruce tuti." Bellenden translated this loosely as "I am free marche, as passengers may ken, To Scottis, to Britonis, and to Inglismen." It may be the stone cross was a tripoint for the three kingdom's borders or marches; the cross functioning both as a dividing territorial marker, and as a uniting witness stone like in the Bible story in Joshua 22. "Angles and Scots here demarked, By this cross kept apart. Brits and Scots armed stand near, By this cross stand safe here." This would make the cross on the centre of the first stone bridge the Heart of Scotland.

The Stirling seal only has the second part and it's slightly different.

Hic Armis Bruti Scoti Stant Hic Cruce Tuti
(Brits and Scots armed and near, by this cross stand safe here.)

Apparently the Latin is not first rate having four syllables in "cruce tuti" but the meaning seems to be that the Lowland Strathclyde Britons on the southern shore and the Highland Pictish Scots on the northern shore stand protected from each other by their common Christianity.

A more modern translation suggests that rather than Briton, bruit might be better read as brute, ie brute Scots, implying a non-Scots identity was retained in Stirling for some time after inclusion into the land controlled by the King of Scots. This more likely happened around 1000 AD.[citation needed]

The second motto is:

Continet Hoc in Se Nemus et Castrum Strivelinse
(Contained within this seal pressed down, the wood an' castle o' Stirlin' town.)

It has been claimed that the "Bridge" seal was regarded as the Burgh seal proper, the "Castle" seal being simply a reverse, used when the seal was affixed by a lace to a charter. This agrees with a description in an official publication (which spells Bruti with only one letter t). Clearer images are available with different lettering. Sibbald conflated the two mottos into a single rhyme; he gave no indication that he was aware of Boece's work.

Stirling was first declared a royal burgh by King David in the 12th century, with later charters reaffirmed by subsequent monarchs. A ferry, and later bridge, on the River Forth at Stirling brought wealth and strategic influence, as did its tidal port at Riverside. Major battles during the Wars of Scottish Independence took place at the Stirling Bridge in 1297 and at the nearby village of Bannockburn in 1314 involving William Wallace and Robert the Bruce respectively. After the Battle of Stirling Bridge, Wallace wrote to the Hanseatic leaders of Lübeck and Hamburg to encourage trade between Scottish ports (like Stirling) and these German cities. There were also several Sieges of Stirling Castle in the conflict, notably in 1304.

Late Medieval and early Modern

Church of the Holy Rude (Holy Cross)

Another important historical site in the area is the ruins of Cambuskenneth Abbey, the resting place of King James III of Scotland and his queen, Margaret of Denmark. The king died at the Battle of Sauchieburn by forces nominally led by his son and successor James IV. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, the Battle of Stirling also took place in the centre of Stirling on 12 September 1648. The fortifications continued to play a strategic military role during the 18th-century Jacobite risings. In 1715, the Earl of Mar failed to take control of the castle. In January 1746, the army of Bonnie Prince Charlie seized control of the town but failed to take the Castle. On their consequent retreat northwards, they blew up the church of St. Ninians where they had been storing munitions; only the tower survived and can be seen to this day. The castle and the church are shown on Blaeu's map of 1654 which was derived from Pont's earlier map.

Standing near the castle, the Church of the Holy Rude is one of the town's most historically important buildings. Founded in 1129 it is the second oldest building in the city after Stirling castle. It was rebuilt in the 15th-century after Stirling suffered a catastrophic fire in 1405, and is reputed to be the only surviving church in the United Kingdom apart from Westminster Abbey to have held a coronation. On 29 July 1567 the infant son of Mary, Queen of Scots, was anointed James VI of Scotland in the church. James' bride, Anne of Denmark was crowned in the church at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh. The Holy Rude congregation still meet and some 19th century parish records survive. Musket shot marks that may come from Cromwell's troops during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms are clearly visible on the tower and apse of the church.

Economically, the city's port supported foreign trade, historically doing significant trade in the Low Countries, particularly with Bruges in Belgium and Veere in the Netherlands. In the 16th century there were so many Scots in Danzig in Prussia that they had their own church congregation and trade is mentioned with that city in Stirling Council's minutes of 1560. Around John Cowane's time there is an account which states there were about 30,000 Scots families living in Poland although that was possibly an exaggeration. Trade with the Baltic also took place such as a timber trade with Norway.

Cattle (1878) by Joseph Denovan Adam (1841–1896) The Stirling Smith Art Gallery & Museum

After the Jacobite threat had faded but before the railways were established, the Highland cattle drovers would use the Auld Brig on their way to market at Falkirk or Stenhousemuir. Three times a year, tens of thousands of cattle, sheep and ponies were moved together to the trysts in the south with some drovers going as far as Carlisle or even London's Smithfield. There is a record of a four-mile long tailback (of livestock) developing from St. Ninians to Bridge of Allan after a St. Ninians tollman had a dispute.

Victorian and Modern

In the early 19th century an "exceedingly low" cost steamboat service used to run between Stirling and Newhaven or Granton. The coming of the railways in 1848 started the decline of the river traffic, not least because the Alloa Swing Bridge downstream restricted access for shipping. The railways did provide opportunity too with one Riverside company selling their reaping machines as far afield as Syria and Australia. Similarly, in 1861, a company making baby carriages was set up. These prams were exported to Canada, South America, India and South Africa.

The Princes Street drill hall was completed in 1908 and the Municipal Buildings, which formed the headquarters of Stirling Burgh Council for much of the 20th century, were completed in 1918.

After the blockades of the World Wars there was some increase in the use of the port including a tea trade with India. However, with normal shipping lanes open, the growth of the railways including The Forth Rail Bridge, left the harbour uneconomical and by the mid 20th century the port had ceased to operate.

Old Viewforth is the administrative centre of Stirling Council

In terms of local government, the city of Stirling is a part of the wider Stirling Council area, which is based at Old Viewforth and governs on matters of local administration as set out by the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994. The current members of the Council were voted in 2017 for a term of office of 5 years. The May 2017 local government election resulted in the Scottish Conservative party and Scottish National Party each winning nine councillors, while the Labour Party won four seats and the Scottish Green Party won one. However, subsequently one Conservative councillor left the party to sit as an Independent. The Provost of Stirling is Cllr Christine Simpson.

For the purposes of the Scottish Parliament, the city of Stirling forms part of the Stirling constituency of the Scottish Parliament constituency. The Stirling Scottish Parliament (or Holyrood) constituency created in 1999 is one of nine within the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region. Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional members to produce a form of proportional representation. The constituency's Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) is Bruce Crawford of the Scottish National Party (SNP).

In terms of national government, the city of Stirling forms part of county constituency of Stirling constituency of the House of Commons, electing one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the parliament of the United Kingdom by first past the post system. Alyn Smith of the SNP is the MP for Stirling constituency of the House of Commons since the 2019 general election.

Historical voting records can be found in online databases.

The Abbey Craig is one of a series of local Crag and Tail hills
Stirling Bridge and the National Wallace Monument

Stirling is renowned as the Gateway to the Highlands and is generally regarded as occupying a strategic position at the point where the flatter, largely undulating Scottish Lowlands meet the rugged slopes of the Highlands along the Highland Boundary Fault. The starkness of this contrast is evidenced by the many hills and mountains of the lower Highlands such as Ben Vorlich and Ben Ledi which can be seen to the northwest of the city. On the other hand, the Carse of Stirling, stretching to the west and east of the city, is one of the flattest and most agriculturally productive expanses of land in the whole of Scotland.

The land surrounding Stirling has been most affected by glacial erosion and deposition. The city itself has grown up around its castle which stands atop an ancient quartz-dolerite sill, known as the Stirling Sill, a major defensive position which was at the lowest crossing point on the River Forth. Stirling stands on the Forth at the point where the river widens and becomes tidal. To the east of the city the Ochil Hills dominate the skyline with the highest peak in the range being Ben Cleuch, although Dumyat is more noticeable from Stirling. The Ochils meet the flat carse (floodplain) of the River Forth to the east of the distinctive geographical feature of Abbey Craig, a crag and tail hill upon which stands the 220 ft (67 m) high National Wallace Monument.

Areas of Stirling

Top of the Town consists of Broad Street, Castle Wynd, Ballengeich Pass, Lower Castle Hill Road, Darnley Street, Baker Street ( formerly Baxters St), St John Street and St Mary's Wynd. These streets all lead up to Stirling Castle and are the favourite haunt of tourists who stop off at the Old Town Jail, Mar's Wark, Argyll's Lodging and the castle. Ballengeich Pass leads to the graveyard at Ballengeich and the Castle Wynd winds past the old graveyard. The Top of the Town from Broad Street upwards is renowned for its cobblestoned roads, and cars can be heard rattling over the cobblestones on the way down. Craft shops and tourist-focused shops are evident on the way up and once at the top, panoramic views are available across Stirling and beyond.

All areas

Broad Street at the heart of Stirling's Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals)
  • Abbey Craig
  • Airthrey
  • Allan Park
  • Back o' Hill
  • Bannockburn
  • Borestone
  • Braehead
  • Bridgehaugh
  • Broomridge
  • Brucefields
  • Burghmuir
  • Cambusbarron
  • Cambuskenneth
  • Causewayhead
  • Chartershall
  • Corn Exchange
  • Cornton
  • Coxethill
  • Craigforth
  • Craigmill
  • Craig Leith
  • Cultenhove
  • Dumyat
  • Forthbank
  • Gillies Hill
  • Gowan Hill
  • Hillpark
  • Kenningknowes
  • Kersemill
  • Kildean
  • King's Park
  • Ladyneuk
  • Laurelhill
  • Livilands
  • Loanhead
  • Logie
  • Mote Hill
  • Meadowforth
  • Mercat Cross
  • Pirnhall
  • Queenshaugh
  • Raploch
  • Randolphfield
  • Riverside
  • Spittal Hill
  • Springkerse
  • St. Ninians
  • Top of the Town
  • Torbrex
  • Whins of Milton
  • Viewforth
  • Westhaugh
  • Wolfcraig

Historical place names for Stirling town in 1858–61 were compiled by O.S. map makers.

Climate

Like most of the United Kingdom, Stirling has an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) with mild summers and cool, wet winters. Stirling has some of the warmest summers in all of Scotland, being relatively far away from the cooling effects of the North Sea and the Firth of Clyde.

Climate data for Stirling (25 m or 82 ft asl, averages 1981–2010, extremes 2009–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
15.5
(59.9)
17.1
(62.8)
21.1
(70.0)
27.8
(82.0)
32.3
(90.1)
29.0
(84.2)
24.9
(76.8)
23.8
(74.8)
19.7
(67.5)
15.7
(60.3)
14.5
(58.1)
32.3
(90.1)
Average high °C (°F) 7.1
(44.8)
7.6
(45.7)
9.6
(49.3)
11.9
(53.4)
15.3
(59.5)
17.8
(64.0)
19.7
(67.5)
19.4
(66.9)
16.7
(62.1)
13.2
(55.8)
9.7
(49.5)
7.1
(44.8)
12.9
(55.2)
Average low °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
1.6
(34.9)
2.7
(36.9)
4.1
(39.4)
6.7
(44.1)
9.5
(49.1)
11.3
(52.3)
11.0
(51.8)
8.7
(47.7)
6.1
(43.0)
3.3
(37.9)
0.8
(33.4)
5.6
(42.1)
Record low °C (°F) −11.1
(12.0)
−7.6
(18.3)
−5.8
(21.6)
−3.9
(25.0)
−1.7
(28.9)
3.6
(38.5)
5.0
(41.0)
3.8
(38.8)
1.0
(33.8)
−2.8
(27.0)
−6.6
(20.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−15.6
(3.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 128.8
(5.07)
88.4
(3.48)
86.5
(3.41)
49.2
(1.94)
57.6
(2.27)
61.9
(2.44)
63.8
(2.51)
72.4
(2.85)
90.6
(3.57)
113.7
(4.48)
106.9
(4.21)
99.2
(3.91)
1,018.9
(40.11)
Average rainy days(≥ 1 mm) 16.7 12.1 13.6 9.5 10.2 8.9 10.7 11.4 11.9 14.2 14.2 13.9 147.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 40.6 66.5 98.5 132.7 175.3 166.4 157.9 153.4 119.1 82.9 54.9 32.2 1,280.4
Source 1: MetOffice
Source 2:
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The settlement of Stirling had a population of 48,440 in 2012. According to the 2001 census, 52.7% of the population was female compared to 47.2% male. Stirling had both a smaller proportion of under 16s, at 16.7% compared to the Scottish average of 19.2%, and a smaller proportion of those of pensionable age: 17.8% – compared to the Scottish average of 18.6%. The highest proportion of the population, at 24.3%, was concentrated in the 16–29 age group. Stirling also had a higher proportion of non-Scottish born residents at 16.5%, compared to the Scottish average of 12.8%. The population was also slightly younger than the Scottish average of 37 – the median age for males was 34; and the median age for females was 36, to the national average of 39. The population peaks and troughs significantly when the students come and go from the city.

Historical records also exist both in book form and in online databases.

The Stirling Wolf (1704, oil on canvas, Artist Unknown) The Stirling Smith Art Gallery & Museum

Walking the Marches is a custom probably started in the 12th century. The only way the town's boundaries could be protected was to walk round inspecting them annually. The walk was followed by a dinner. This was traditionally done by the Birlaw men made up from members of the Seven Trades, the Guildry and Council. In 2014 the tradition was revived after an official abeyance of several years.

There are about sixteen libraries and two mobile libraries in Stirling. The Smith Art Gallery and Museum is now free to tourists and residents alike. Shearer's 1895 Penny Guide to Stirling and Neighbourhood used to list it under "How to spend a few hours on a wet day". The Macrobert Arts Centre has a variety of exhibitions and performances. There are many events at the Stirling Tolbooth and at The Albert Halls. Stirling has hosted the National Mòd several times: in 1909, 1961, 1971,1987 and 2008.

In October 2021, Stirling was shortlisted for the UK City of Culture 2025.

Woman Clasping the Bible − George Harvey (1806–1876) The Stirling Smith Art Gallery & Museum
The earliest known version of Psalm 1 in Scots by Alexander Montgomerie from Zabur or The Book of Psalms. He was one of a circle of poets in the Stirling court of James VI.

There are currently about 20 churches in the city. These include:

Church of Scotland

  • Allan Park South Church
  • Cambusbarron Parish Church
  • Church of the Holy Rude
  • North Parish Church
  • St Columba's Church
  • St Mark's Parish Church
  • St Ninians Old Parish Church
  • Viewfield Church

Roman Catholic

  • Holy Spirit, St. Ninians
  • Our Lady and St Ninian's, Bannockburn
  • St Margaret of Scotland and Holy Spirit, Raploch
  • St Mary's Church, Top of the Town

Other churches

  • Cornerstone Community Church
  • Cornton Baptist Church
  • Holy Trinity Episcopal Church
  • St Ninians United Free Church of Scotland
  • Stirling Baptist Church
  • Stirling Free Church
  • Stirling Methodist Church
  • St. Ninian's Community Church
  • The Salvation Army

Islam

  • Central Scotland Islamic Centre
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Hotel Colessio. Tourism is a major part of the economy of Stirling

At the centre of a large rural agricultural hinterland that encompasses some of the flattest and most productive land in Scotland, Stirling principally functioned as a market town, symbolised by its Mercat cross, with farmers coming to sell their products and wares in the large agricultural market that was held in the town. Today, agriculture still plays a part in the economic life of Stirling, given its focus at the heart of a large rural area, but to a much lesser extent than previously.

With Stirling's development as a market town and its location as the focus of transport and communications in the region, it has developed a substantial retail sector serving a wide range of surrounding communities as well as the city itself. Primarily centred on the city centre, there are a large number of chain stores, as well as the Thistles shopping centre. However this has been augmented by out-of-town developments such as the Springkerse Retail Park on the city bypass to the east of Stirling, and the development of a large Sainsbury's in the Raploch.

A major new regeneration project on the site of the former port area and the 40-acre (160,000 m2) former Ministry of Defence site, adjacent to Stirling Railway Station, is currently underway. Known as Forthside, it has the aim of developing a new waterfront district linked to the railway station via Forthside Bridge. The development comprises retail, residential and commercial elements, including a conference centre, hotel and Vue multiplex cinema, that will ultimately expand the city centre area, linking it to the River Forth, which has been cut off from the city centre area since the construction of the A9 bypass under the railway station in the 1960s. For the first time in 100 years, local people will have access to the banks of the River Forth in the city centre with landscaped public areas, footpaths, cycleways and an improved public transport network.

The 19th-century Wallace Monument

In the service sector, financial services as well as tourism are the biggest employers. The financial services and insurance company Prudential have a large and well-established base at Craigforth on the outskirts of Stirling. In terms of tourism, the presence of such historical monuments as Stirling Castle, the National Wallace Monument and other nearby attractions like Blair Drummond Safari Park, the key role which Stirling has played in Scottish history, as well as the scenery of the area, has bolstered Stirling's position as an important tourist destination in Scotland.

The University of Stirling and Stirling Council are two of the biggest employers in the area. Knowledge related industries, research and development as well as life sciences have clustered around the university in the Stirling University Innovation Park, close to its main campus. Other public sector agencies that are major employers in the city include Police Scotland, Scottish Prison Service, NHS Forth Valley and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency.

Mauchline ware started producing wooden snuff-boxes in 1790 in Mauchline, Ayrshire. They were produced of the wood from the trees from the Castle craig. Today they are highly collectible.

Stirling is home to national construction companies Ogilvie Group, chaired by Duncan Ogilvie, who is listed in the Times Rich List as being worth £35 million.

A Bank of Scotland survey in 2009 found that workers in Stirling had the highest average earnings of £716 a week.

The City of Stirling is home to a large number of commuters but has fewer commuting to work in other areas, than travel into the city. About half of Scotland's population live within an hour's travel time of Stirling.

Local bus services to districts within the city are almost completely provided by buses operated by First Scotland East. The surrounding towns, like Bridge of Allan, Alloa, Falkirk and Glasgow via Cumbernauld have services from the bus station.

Coaches to many Scottish towns and cities also run regularly.

There are also railway links from Stirling railway station, including inter-city rail services to Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh Waverley, Inverness, Glasgow Queen Street, and London King's Cross. Services to Alloa, Bridge of Allan, Falkirk and Dunblane also run. Stirling Council provides some approximate journey times. Working lines include the Highland Main Line, the Edinburgh–Dunblane line and the Croy Line. The station formerly provided direct railway services to Callander and Oban, and to Loch Lomond, over very scenic lines, and a fast service to Dunfermline.

Cities with motorways links close to Stirling include Glasgow, via the M80 motorway past Cumbernauld, and Edinburgh, via the M9 motorway past Falkirk. To the north, the M9 provides access to Dunblane with easy links to Perth and further beyond the Central Belt.

Stirling has no airport, but there are international airports at Glasgow and Edinburgh which can be reached within an hour. Light aircraft can be chartered at Cumbernauld Airport.

Stirling used to have steamboats which carried hundreds of passengers a day. There is currently no working port at Stirling but there are plans to develop the river and the harbour which might include links with towns on the Firth of Forth. Since the Forth is tidal at Stirling, development of pontoon style landing stages could potentially allow river taxis and tourist boats to operate during the summer.

The headquarters of the Scottish Institute of Sport located on the campus at the University of Stirling

Stirling is home to professional league teams in football, rugby and cricket.

Marathon

The first Stirling Scottish Marathon was held on 21 May 2017.

Curling

The National Curling Academy is located in Stirling Sports Village. It was opened in 2017 by Eve Muirhead. They use facilities linked to The Peak. It was hoped this would increase the chances of British medals at events like the Winter Olympics and Paralympics.

Football

Men

The senior football team, Stirling Albion, play in the Scottish League Two at their home ground at Forthbank Stadium. In July 2010, the Stirling Albion Supporters' Trust successfully took over the running of the club buying out the long-serving chairman, Peter McKenzie, after 14 months of campaigning. This made Stirling Albion the first fully owned community club in the history of British football, after previous attempts made by Manchester United, Liverpool and Rangers.

Women

Stirling University L.F.C. are the premier women's football team. They play in the Scottish Women's Premier League. Their home ground is The Gannochy Sports Centre at Stirling University.

Rugby

Stirling County currently play in rugby's Scottish Premiership Division One.

Basketball

Stirling Knights Basketball Team are based at the Peak at Forthbank beside Forthbank Stadium.

Athletics

The athletics team Central Athletic Club are based at the University of Stirling.

Hockey

The University Stirling Wanderers Hockey Club have also moved to a brand new (international standard) pitch at Forthbank for season 2008–09.

Cricket

Next to this pitch there is also the ground of Stirling County Cricket Club, whose pavilion captured an architectural award in June 2009, three years after its opening.

Scotland international footballers Billy Bremner, John Colquhoun, Duncan Ferguson, female footballer Frankie Brown and brothers Gary and Steven Caldwell were born in Stirling. So were rugby internationals Kenny Logan, Allister Hogg and Alison McGrandles, jockey Willie Carson, and cricketer Dougie Brown.

The University of Stirling is a major centre of sports training and education in Scotland. It was designated as Scotland's University for Sporting Excellence by the Scottish Government in 2008. The headquarters of the Scottish Institute of Sport is a purpose-built facility on the campus which opened in 2002. Also at the university is the Scottish National Swimming Academy, where Rio 2016, Olympic silver medalists and students at the university, Duncan Scott and Robbie Renwick trained. Commonwealth gold medalist Ross Murdoch, who also competed at Rio 2106, is a student at the university. The Gannochy National Tennis centre, which is seen as a tennis centre of excellence, was where Andy Murray and his brother Jamie Murray honed their skills as juniors. Gordon Reid, wheel chair Olympic gold medalist in 2016, was a tennis scholar at the university. The university men's and women's golf teams are consistently ranked among the best in Europe.

The university has a dedicated sports studies department, which is within the Faculty of Health Science and Sport, and is ranked amongst the best in the United Kingdom for its provision of sports facilities, with the maximum 5-star award, shared by 16 other universities in the UK. The University of Stirling also currently hosts the Scottish men's lacrosse champions.

Stirling and its surrounding area has a number of 9- and 18-hole golf courses, the largest of which is the Stirling Golf Course, located in the Kings Park area of the city. The Peak, a new Sports Village, was opened in April 2009 to cater for a range of sporting activities.

In June 2014, Stirling will become the home of Scottish cricket after an agreement between Stirling County Cricket Club, Cricket Scotland and Stirling Council. It is hoped that the redevelopment of the ground will start at end 2014 with the intention being to upgrade it to international match standards. Scotland will play the majority of their home international games at the ground, starting with the World T20 qualifiers in the summer of 2015.

The development will see a new pavilion and indoor training facility built at New Williamfield, the home of Stirling County Cricket Club, with Cricket Scotland relocating its headquarters from the National Cricket Academy at Ravelston, Edinburgh.

The University of Stirling opened in 1967 on a greenfield site outside the town. Currently there are 11,100 students studying at the university, of which 7,995 are undergraduates and 3,105 are postgraduates. There are 120 nationalities represented on the university campus, with 19% of students coming from overseas. It has grown into a major research centre, with a large Innovation Park located immediately adjacent to the main university campus. Innovation Park has grown since its initiation in 1993, and is now home to 40 companies engaging in various forms of research and development. In January 2008 it was announced that students from Singapore would be able to gain degrees in retail from the University of Stirling in a tie-up with the country's Nanyang Polytechnic (NYP).

Looking out over Airthrey Loch on the main campus of The University of Stirling

Stirling is also home to part of the wider Forth Valley College which was formed on 1 August 2005 from the merger of Falkirk, Stirling and Clackmannan colleges.

There are four main high schools in Stirling itself – Stirling High School, with a school roll of 964 pupils, Wallace High School with 958 pupils, St Modan's High School with 912 pupils, and Bannockburn High School in Broomridge with 752 pupils. All the city's secondary school premises have been redeveloped as a result of a Public-private partnership scheme. Stirling also has a Gaelic-medium unit situated in the city's Riverside Primary School which teaches pupils from across Stirling and Clackmannanshire through the medium of Scottish Gaelic.

  1. Stirling: Gateway to the Highlands (1938) B&W 20 mins silent – video 1: Street scenes from Stirling. video 2: pre-WW2 soldiers at the castle.
  2. Stirling Charities Day (13 May 1939) B&W 7 mins silent – Includes shots of kids, costumes and carriages.
  3. Neighbours – (1952) violent Oscar winning animation by the Stirling-born Canadian film maker Norman McLaren.
  4. River Forth (1956) B&W silent 15 mins – Including animals being herded through the streets.
  5. The Heart of Scotland (1962) colour sound 24 mins – Shots of the castle with commentary on Bruce and Wallace.
  6. Holiday Scotland (1966) colour and sound 42 mins – Includes Stirling Castle and Stirling Bridge.
  7. Kidnapped (1971) dir. Delbert Mann – Starring Michael Caine – with several scenes in Stirling Castle.
  8. Royal Stirling (1972) colour and sound 23 mins – Includes a lion cub at the castle, motor racing and shots of Blair Drummond Safari Park
  9. The University of Stirling (1973) colour and sound 19 min – 1970s campus, students and teachers (includes Norman MacCaig).
  10. FutureWorld Stirling 1984 (1984) 28 minutes – dir. Peter G. Reilly for Stirling District Council – has Magnus Magnusson explaining ambitious plans for the Top of the Town. It is more of a series of pieces to camera than Cumbernauld, Town for Tomorrow, as Magnusson moves from the Smith through various well-known but dilapidated buildings to Gowan Hill and back to the castle. At each stop he presents John W. Morgan's script which gives something of the history or the proposed plans for revitalising the area.
  11. Gregory's Two Girls (1999) dir. Bill Forsyth – has scenes at and around Stirling Castle.
  12. To End all Wars (2001) dir. David L. Cunningham has scenes at Stirling Castle.
  13. Way Back Home (2010) Has Danny MacAskill perform stunts on his bike on Stirling Bridge.
  14. KJB: The Book That Changed the World (2011) Has John Rhys-Davies narrating scenes about James VI at Stirling Castle.
  15. Britain's Lost Routes with Griff Rhys Jones (2012) Episode 3 shows the difficulties "Highland Cattle Drovers" might have had at Frew and shows aerial shots and taking cows across the Auld Brig.
  16. Secrets of Great British Castles (2015) Dan Jones presents the History of Stirling Castle up to James VI.
  17. Netflix drama Outlaw King had scenes filmed at Mugdock Country Park with a production/support team camped at Falleninch Field, situated beneath Stirling Castle.

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Stirling.

Individuals

Military Units

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Stirling
Stirling Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about the city in Scotland For other uses see Stirling disambiguation Not to be confused with Sterling Stirling ˈ s t ɜːr l ɪ ŋ Scots Stirlin Scottish Gaelic Sruighlea ˈs t ɾuʝle is a city in central Scotland 26 miles 42 km north east of Glasgow and 37 miles 60 km north west of the Scottish capital Edinburgh The market town surrounded by rich farmland grew up connecting the royal citadel the medieval old town with its merchants and tradesmen 3 the Old Bridge and the port Located on the River Forth Stirling is the administrative centre for the Stirling council area and is traditionally the county town of Stirlingshire Proverbially it is the strategically important Gateway to the Highlands StirlingScottish Gaelic SruighleaScots StirlinCity and administrative centreFrom top left to right Skyline of Stirling Stirling Old Bridge Stirling Castle Statue of William Wallace the Wallace Monument The Athenaeum Stirling Tolbooth View towards Burgh BuildingsStirlingLocation within the Stirling council areaArea16 7 km2 6 4 sq mi 1 Population37 610 mid 2016 est 2 Density2 252 km2 5 830 sq mi OS grid referenceNS795935 Edinburgh43 mi 69 km Civil parishStirlingCouncil areaStirlingLieutenancy areaStirling and FalkirkCountryScotlandSovereign stateUnited KingdomPost townSTIRLINGPostcode districtFK7 FK9Dialling code01786PoliceScotlandFireScottishAmbulanceScottishUK ParliamentStirlingScottish ParliamentStirlingList of places UK Scotland56 07 00 N 3 56 13 W 56 1166 N 3 9369 W 56 1166 3 9369 Coordinates 56 07 00 N 3 56 13 W 56 1166 N 3 9369 W 56 1166 3 9369 It has been said that Stirling like a huge brooch clasps Highlands and Lowlands together 4 5 Similarly he who holds Stirling holds Scotland is often quoted Stirling s key position as the lowest bridging point of the River Forth before it broadens towards the Firth of Forth made it a focal point 6 for travel north or south 7 When Stirling was temporarily under Anglo Saxon sway according to a 9th century legend 8 it was attacked by Danish invaders The sound of a wolf roused a sentry however who alerted his garrison which forced a Viking retreat 9 This led to the wolf being adopted as a symbol of the town 10 as is shown on the 1511 Stirling Jug 11 12 The area is today known as Wolfcraig 13 Even today the wolf appears with a goshawk on the council s coat of arms along with the recently chosen 14 motto Steadfast as the Rock 15 Once the capital of Scotland Stirling is visually dominated by Stirling Castle Stirling also has a medieval parish church the Church of the Holy Rude where on 29 July 1567 the infant James VI was anointed King of Scots by Adam Bothwell the Bishop of Orkney with the service concluding after a sermon by John Knox 16 The poet King was educated by George Buchanan and grew up in Stirling He was later also crowned King of England and Ireland on 25 July 1603 bringing closer the countries of the United Kingdom Modern Stirling is a centre for local government higher education tourism retail and industry The mid 2012 census estimate for the population of the city is 36 440 the wider Stirling council area has a population of about 93 750 17 One of the principal royal strongholds of the Kingdom of Scotland Stirling was created a royal burgh by King David I in 1130 In 2002 as part of Queen Elizabeth s Golden Jubilee Stirling was granted city status Contents 1 History 1 1 Etymology 1 2 Ancient history 1 3 Roman and early Medieval 1 4 Late Medieval and early Modern 1 5 Victorian and Modern 2 Governance 3 Geography 3 1 Areas of Stirling 3 2 Climate 4 Demography 5 Culture 6 Religion 7 Economy 8 Transport 9 Sports and recreation 9 1 Marathon 9 2 Curling 9 3 Football 9 3 1 Men 9 3 2 Women 9 4 Rugby 9 5 Basketball 9 6 Athletics 9 7 Hockey 9 8 Cricket 10 Education 11 In popular culture 12 Twinned cities 13 Notable people 14 Freedom of the City 14 1 Individuals 14 2 Military Units 15 See also 16 References 17 External linksHistory Edit The Wolf Craig Seal The ancient coat of arms of Stirling also show a wolf upon a rock above a stream 18 Stirling Castle southwest aspect The Bridge Seal Hic Armis Brutti Scoti Stant Hic Cruce Tuti 19 The Castle Seal Continet Hoc in Se Nemus et Castrum Strivelinse 19 Etymology Edit The origin of the name Stirling 20 is uncertain 21 but folk etymology suggests that it originates in either a Scots or Gaelic term meaning the place of battle struggle 22 or strife 23 One proposal is that Stirling derives from Gaelic srib linn meaning stream pool or similar 24 Other sources suggest that it originates in a Brythonic name meaning dwelling place of Melyn 25 with the first element being connected to Middle Welsh ystre a dwelling 26 The name may have originally been a hydronym and connected to Brittonic linn lake pool Welsh llyn 26 It is often argued that Stirling is the fortress of Iuddeu or Urbs Giudi where Oswiu of Northumbria was besieged by Penda of Mercia in 655 as recorded in Bede and contemporary annals however Blackness Castle may be a more likely candidate citation needed Ancient history Edit A stone cist found in Coneypark Nursery 27 in 1879 is Stirling s oldest catalogued artefact 28 Bones from the cist were radiocarbon dated and found to be over four millennia old originating within the date range 2152 to 2021 BC 29 Nicknamed Torbrex Tam the man whose bones were discovered by workmen died while still in his twenties 30 Other Bronze Age finds near the city come from the area around Cambusbarron 31 It had been thought that the Randolphfield standing stones were more than 3000 years old but recent radiocarbon dating suggests they may date from the time of Bruce 32 The earliest known structures in Stirling are now destroyed but comprised two Neolithic Cursus in Bannockburn 33 The earliest known surviving structure is a fort on Gillies Hill 34 were built by Iron Age people over 2000 years ago Two structures are known what is currently called Wallstale Dun 35 on the southern end of Touchadam Craig and Gillies Hill fort 36 on the northwest end of the craig The Wallstale structure is later than the Gillies Hill fort and is related in form to brochs these appear to coincide with the Roman period and there are around 40 or so in the wider area South of the city the King s Park prehistoric carvings can still be found 37 The area is likely associated with the Maeatae and their Early Medieval successors the Miathi citation needed The area sits in the middle of the territory known as Manau Manau survives in four different place names Clackmannan The Stone of Manau Slamannan The Plain of Manau Rathmannan The fort of Manau citation needed and Cromennane in Balfron The boundary of Manau All of these names seem to mark the boundaries of Manau meaning it stretched from Balfron to Fife Roman and early Medieval Edit Its other notable geographic feature is its proximity to the lowest site of subjugation of the River Forth Control of the bridge brought military advantage in times of unrest and excise duty or pontage dues 38 in peacetime Unsurprisingly excise men were installed in a covered booth in the centre of the bridge to collect tax from any entering the royal burgh with goods 39 Stirling remained the river s lowest reliable crossing point that is without a weather dependent ferry or seasonal ford 40 until the construction of the Alloa Swing Bridge between Throsk and Alloa in 1885 41 The city has two Latin mottoes which appeared on the earliest burgh seal 42 of which an impression of 1296 is on record 43 The first alludes to the story as recorded by Boece who relates that in 855 Scotland was invaded by two Northumbrian princes Osbrecht and Ella 44 They united their forces with the Cumbrian Britons 45 in order to defeat the Scots Having secured Stirling castle they built the first stone bridge over the Forth On the top they reportedly raised a crucifix with the inscription Anglos a Scotis separat crux ista remotis Arma hic stant Bruti stant Scoti hac sub cruce tuti 46 Bellenden translated this loosely as I am free marche as passengers may ken To Scottis to Britonis and to Inglismen It may be the stone cross was a tripoint for the three kingdom s borders or marches 47 the cross functioning both as a dividing territorial marker and as a uniting 48 witness stone like in the Bible story in Joshua 22 49 Angles and Scots here demarked By this cross kept apart Brits and Scots armed stand near By this cross stand safe here This would make the cross on the centre of the first stone bridge the Heart of Scotland The Stirling seal only has the second part and it s slightly different Hic Armis Bruti Scoti Stant Hic Cruce Tuti Brits and Scots armed and near by this cross stand safe here Apparently the Latin is not first rate having four syllables in cruce tuti but the meaning seems to be that the Lowland Strathclyde Britons on the southern shore and the Highland Pictish Scots 50 on the northern shore stand protected from each other by their common Christianity 51 A more modern translation suggests that rather than Briton bruit might be better read as brute ie brute Scots implying a non Scots identity was retained in Stirling for some time after inclusion into the land controlled by the King of Scots This more likely happened around 1000 AD citation needed The second motto is Continet Hoc in Se Nemus et Castrum Strivelinse Contained within this seal pressed down the wood an castle o Stirlin town It has been claimed that the Bridge seal was regarded as the Burgh seal proper the Castle seal being simply a reverse used when the seal was affixed by a lace to a charter 52 This agrees with a description in an official publication which spells 53 Bruti with only one letter t 54 Clearer images are available 55 with different lettering 56 Sibbald conflated the two mottos into a single rhyme 57 he gave no indication that he was aware of Boece s work 58 Stirling was first declared a royal burgh by King David in the 12th century with later charters reaffirmed by subsequent monarchs A ferry and later bridge on the River Forth at Stirling brought wealth and strategic influence as did its tidal port at Riverside 59 Major battles during the Wars of Scottish Independence took place at the Stirling Bridge in 1297 and at the nearby village of Bannockburn in 1314 involving William Wallace and Robert the Bruce respectively After the Battle of Stirling Bridge Wallace wrote to the Hanseatic leaders of Lubeck and Hamburg to encourage trade between Scottish ports like Stirling and these German cities 60 There were also several Sieges of Stirling Castle in the conflict notably in 1304 61 Late Medieval and early Modern Edit The tomb of James III King of Scots and Margaret of Denmark at Cambuskenneth Abbey Church of the Holy Rude Holy Cross 62 Another important historical site in the area is the ruins of Cambuskenneth Abbey the resting place of King James III of Scotland and his queen Margaret of Denmark 63 The king died at the Battle of Sauchieburn by forces nominally led by his son and successor James IV During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms the Battle of Stirling also took place in the centre of Stirling on 12 September 1648 The fortifications continued to play a strategic military role during the 18th century Jacobite risings In 1715 the Earl of Mar failed to take control of the castle In January 1746 the army of Bonnie Prince Charlie seized control of the town but failed to take the Castle On their consequent retreat northwards they blew up the church of St Ninians where they had been storing munitions only the tower survived and can be seen to this day 64 The castle and the church are shown on Blaeu s map 65 of 1654 which was derived from Pont s earlier map 66 Standing near the castle the Church of the Holy Rude is one of the town s most historically important buildings Founded in 1129 it is the second oldest building in the city after Stirling castle It was rebuilt in the 15th century after Stirling suffered a catastrophic fire in 1405 and is reputed to be the only surviving church in the United Kingdom apart from Westminster Abbey to have held a coronation 67 On 29 July 1567 the infant son of Mary Queen of Scots was anointed James VI of Scotland in the church 67 James bride Anne of Denmark was crowned in the church at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh The Holy Rude congregation still meet and some 19th century parish records survive 68 Musket shot marks that may come from Cromwell s troops during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms are clearly visible on the tower and apse of the church 67 Economically the city s port supported foreign trade historically doing significant trade in the Low Countries particularly with Bruges 69 in Belgium and Veere 70 in the Netherlands In the 16th century there were so many Scots in Danzig 71 in Prussia that they had their own church congregation and trade is mentioned with that city in Stirling Council s minutes of 1560 72 Around John Cowane s time there is an account which states there were about 30 000 Scots families living in Poland 73 although that was possibly 74 an exaggeration 75 Trade with the Baltic 76 also took place such as a timber trade with Norway Cattle 1878 by Joseph Denovan Adam 1841 1896 The Stirling Smith Art Gallery amp Museum After the Jacobite threat had faded but before the railways were established the Highland cattle drovers would use the Auld Brig on their way to market at Falkirk 77 or Stenhousemuir 78 Three times a year tens of thousands of cattle sheep and ponies were moved together to the trysts in the south with some drovers going as far as Carlisle or even London s Smithfield 79 There is a record of a four mile long tailback of livestock developing from St Ninians to Bridge of Allan after a St Ninians tollman had a dispute 80 Victorian and Modern Edit The Municipal Buildings In the early 19th century an exceedingly low cost steamboat service used to run between Stirling and Newhaven or Granton 81 The coming of the railways in 1848 started the decline of the river traffic 82 not least because the Alloa Swing Bridge downstream restricted access for shipping The railways did provide opportunity too with one Riverside company selling their reaping machines as far afield as Syria and Australia Similarly in 1861 a company making baby carriages was set up These prams were exported to Canada South America India and South Africa 83 The Princes Street drill hall was completed in 1908 84 and the Municipal Buildings which formed the headquarters of Stirling Burgh Council for much of the 20th century were completed in 1918 85 After the blockades of the World Wars there was some increase in the use of the port including a tea trade with India However with normal shipping lanes open the growth of the railways including The Forth Rail Bridge left the harbour uneconomical and by the mid 20th century the port had ceased to operate Governance Edit Old Viewforth is the administrative centre of Stirling Council In terms of local government the city of Stirling is a part of the wider Stirling Council area which is based at Old Viewforth and governs on matters of local administration as set out by the Local Government etc Scotland Act 1994 The current members of the Council were voted in 2017 for a term of office of 5 years The May 2017 local government election resulted in the Scottish Conservative party and Scottish National Party each winning nine councillors while the Labour Party won four seats and the Scottish Green Party won one 86 However subsequently one Conservative councillor left the party to sit as an Independent 87 The Provost of Stirling is Cllr Christine Simpson 88 For the purposes of the Scottish Parliament the city of Stirling forms part of the Stirling constituency of the Scottish Parliament constituency The Stirling Scottish Parliament or Holyrood constituency created in 1999 is one of nine within the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament MSP by the first past the post system of election and the region elects seven additional members to produce a form of proportional representation The constituency s Member of the Scottish Parliament MSP is Bruce Crawford of the Scottish National Party SNP 89 In terms of national government the city of Stirling forms part of county constituency of Stirling constituency of the House of Commons electing one Member of Parliament MP to the House of Commons of the parliament of the United Kingdom by first past the post system Alyn Smith of the SNP is the MP for Stirling constituency of the House of Commons since the 2019 general election 90 Historical voting records can be found in online databases 91 Geography Edit The Abbey Craig is one of a series of local Crag and Tail hills Stirling Bridge and the National Wallace Monument Stirling is renowned as the Gateway to the Highlands and is generally regarded as occupying a strategic position at the point where the flatter largely undulating Scottish Lowlands meet the rugged slopes of the Highlands along the Highland Boundary Fault 92 93 The starkness of this contrast is evidenced by the many hills and mountains of the lower Highlands such as Ben Vorlich and Ben Ledi which can be seen to the northwest of the city On the other hand the Carse of Stirling stretching to the west and east of the city is one of the flattest and most agriculturally productive expanses of land in the whole of Scotland The land surrounding Stirling 94 has been most affected by glacial erosion and deposition The city itself has grown up around its castle which stands atop an ancient quartz dolerite sill known as the Stirling Sill a major defensive position which was at the lowest crossing point on the River Forth Stirling stands on the Forth at the point where the river widens and becomes tidal To the east of the city the Ochil Hills dominate the skyline with the highest peak in the range being Ben Cleuch although Dumyat is more noticeable from Stirling The Ochils meet the flat carse floodplain of the River Forth to the east of the distinctive geographical feature of Abbey Craig a crag and tail hill upon which stands the 220 ft 67 m high National Wallace Monument 95 Areas of Stirling Edit Top of the Town consists of Broad Street Castle Wynd Ballengeich Pass Lower Castle Hill Road Darnley Street Baker Street formerly Baxters St St John Street and St Mary s Wynd These streets all lead up to Stirling Castle and are the favourite haunt of tourists who stop off at the Old Town Jail Mar s Wark Argyll s Lodging and the castle Ballengeich Pass leads to the graveyard at Ballengeich and the Castle Wynd winds past the old graveyard The Top of the Town from Broad Street upwards is renowned for its cobblestoned roads and cars can be heard rattling over the cobblestones on the way down Craft shops and tourist focused shops are evident on the way up and once at the top panoramic views are available across Stirling and beyond All areas 96 Broad Street at the heart of Stirling s Old Town area called Top of the Town by locals Abbey Craig Airthrey Allan Park Back o Hill Bannockburn Borestone Braehead Bridgehaugh Broomridge Brucefields Burghmuir Cambusbarron Cambuskenneth Causewayhead Chartershall Corn Exchange Cornton Coxethill Craigforth Craigmill Craig Leith Cultenhove Dumyat Forthbank Gillies Hill Gowan Hill Hillpark Kenningknowes Kersemill Kildean King s Park Ladyneuk Laurelhill Livilands Loanhead Logie Mote Hill Meadowforth Mercat Cross Pirnhall Queenshaugh Raploch Randolphfield Riverside Spittal Hill Springkerse St Ninians Top of the Town Torbrex Whins of Milton Viewforth Westhaugh Wolfcraig Historical place names for Stirling town in 1858 61 were compiled by O S map makers 97 Climate Edit Like most of the United Kingdom Stirling has an oceanic climate Koppen Cfb with mild summers and cool wet winters Stirling has some of the warmest summers in all of Scotland being relatively far away from the cooling effects of the North Sea and the Firth of Clyde Climate data for Stirling 25 m or 82 ft asl averages 1981 2010 extremes 2009 present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 13 6 56 5 15 5 59 9 17 1 62 8 21 1 70 0 27 8 82 0 32 3 90 1 29 0 84 2 24 9 76 8 23 8 74 8 19 7 67 5 15 7 60 3 14 5 58 1 32 3 90 1 Average high C F 7 1 44 8 7 6 45 7 9 6 49 3 11 9 53 4 15 3 59 5 17 8 64 0 19 7 67 5 19 4 66 9 16 7 62 1 13 2 55 8 9 7 49 5 7 1 44 8 12 9 55 2 Average low C F 1 0 33 8 1 6 34 9 2 7 36 9 4 1 39 4 6 7 44 1 9 5 49 1 11 3 52 3 11 0 51 8 8 7 47 7 6 1 43 0 3 3 37 9 0 8 33 4 5 6 42 1 Record low C F 11 1 12 0 7 6 18 3 5 8 21 6 3 9 25 0 1 7 28 9 3 6 38 5 5 0 41 0 3 8 38 8 1 0 33 8 2 8 27 0 6 6 20 1 15 6 3 9 15 6 3 9 Average rainfall mm inches 128 8 5 07 88 4 3 48 86 5 3 41 49 2 1 94 57 6 2 27 61 9 2 44 63 8 2 51 72 4 2 85 90 6 3 57 113 7 4 48 106 9 4 21 99 2 3 91 1 018 9 40 11 Average rainy days 1 mm 16 7 12 1 13 6 9 5 10 2 8 9 10 7 11 4 11 9 14 2 14 2 13 9 147 4Mean monthly sunshine hours 40 6 66 5 98 5 132 7 175 3 166 4 157 9 153 4 119 1 82 9 54 9 32 2 1 280 4Source 1 MetOffice 98 Source 2 99 Demography EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed November 2017 Learn how and when to remove this template message The settlement of Stirling had a population of 48 440 in 2012 According to the 2001 census 52 7 of the population was female compared to 47 2 male Stirling had both a smaller proportion of under 16s at 16 7 compared to the Scottish average of 19 2 and a smaller proportion of those of pensionable age 17 8 compared to the Scottish average of 18 6 100 The highest proportion of the population at 24 3 was concentrated in the 16 29 age group Stirling also had a higher proportion of non Scottish born residents at 16 5 compared to the Scottish average of 12 8 The population was also slightly younger than the Scottish average of 37 the median age for males was 34 and the median age for females was 36 to the national average of 39 The population peaks and troughs significantly when the students come and go from the city Historical records also exist both in book form 69 and in online databases 101 Culture Edit The Stirling Wolf 1704 oil on canvas Artist Unknown The Stirling Smith Art Gallery amp Museum Walking the Marches 47 is a custom probably started in the 12th century The only way the town s boundaries could be protected was to walk round inspecting them annually The walk was followed by a dinner 102 This was traditionally done by the Birlaw men made up from members of the Seven Trades the Guildry and Council In 2014 the tradition was revived after an official abeyance of several years 103 There are about sixteen libraries and two mobile libraries in Stirling 104 The Smith Art Gallery and Museum is now free to tourists and residents alike Shearer s 1895 Penny Guide to Stirling and Neighbourhood used to list it under How to spend a few hours on a wet day 105 The Macrobert Arts Centre has a variety of exhibitions and performances There are many events at the Stirling Tolbooth and at The Albert Halls 106 Stirling has hosted the National Mod several times in 1909 1961 1971 1987 and 2008 107 In October 2021 Stirling was shortlisted for the UK City of Culture 2025 108 Religion Edit Woman Clasping the Bible George Harvey 1806 1876 The Stirling Smith Art Gallery amp Museum The earliest known version of Psalm 1 in Scots by Alexander Montgomerie from Zabur or The Book of Psalms He was one of a circle of poets in the Stirling court of James VI 109 There are currently about 20 churches in the city These include Church of Scotland 110 Allan Park South Church 111 Cambusbarron Parish Church 112 Church of the Holy Rude 113 North Parish Church 114 St Columba s Church 115 St Mark s Parish Church 116 St Ninians Old Parish Church 117 Viewfield Church 118 Roman Catholic 119 Holy Spirit St Ninians 120 Our Lady and St Ninian s Bannockburn 121 St Margaret of Scotland and Holy Spirit Raploch 122 St Mary s Church Top of the Town 123 Other churches Cornerstone Community Church 124 Cornton Baptist Church 125 Holy Trinity Episcopal Church 126 St Ninians United Free Church of Scotland 127 Stirling Baptist Church 128 Stirling Free Church 129 Stirling Methodist Church 130 St Ninian s Community Church 131 The Salvation Army 132 Islam Central Scotland Islamic Centre 133 Economy EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed January 2017 Learn how and when to remove this template message Hotel Colessio Tourism is a major part of the economy of Stirling At the centre of a large rural agricultural hinterland that encompasses some of the flattest and most productive land in Scotland Stirling principally functioned as a market town symbolised by its Mercat cross with farmers coming to sell their products and wares in the large agricultural market that was held in the town Today agriculture still plays a part in the economic life of Stirling given its focus at the heart of a large rural area but to a much lesser extent than previously With Stirling s development as a market town and its location as the focus of transport and communications in the region it has developed a substantial retail sector serving a wide range of surrounding communities as well as the city itself Primarily centred on the city centre there are a large number of chain stores as well as the Thistles shopping centre However this has been augmented by out of town developments such as the Springkerse Retail Park on the city bypass to the east of Stirling and the development of a large Sainsbury s in the Raploch A major new regeneration project on the site of the former port area and the 40 acre 160 000 m2 former Ministry of Defence site adjacent to Stirling Railway Station is currently underway 134 Known as Forthside it has the aim of developing a new waterfront district linked to the railway station via Forthside Bridge The development comprises retail residential and commercial elements including a conference centre hotel and Vue multiplex cinema that will ultimately expand the city centre area linking it to the River Forth which has been cut off from the city centre area since the construction of the A9 bypass under the railway station in the 1960s 135 For the first time in 100 years local people will have access to the banks of the River Forth in the city centre with landscaped public areas footpaths cycleways and an improved public transport network The 19th century Wallace Monument In the service sector financial services as well as tourism are the biggest employers The financial services and insurance company Prudential have a large and well established base at Craigforth on the outskirts of Stirling In terms of tourism the presence of such historical monuments as Stirling Castle the National Wallace Monument and other nearby attractions like Blair Drummond Safari Park the key role which Stirling has played in Scottish history as well as the scenery of the area has bolstered Stirling s position as an important tourist destination in Scotland The University of Stirling and Stirling Council are two of the biggest employers in the area Knowledge related industries research and development as well as life sciences have clustered around the university in the Stirling University Innovation Park close to its main campus Other public sector agencies that are major employers in the city include Police Scotland Scottish Prison Service NHS Forth Valley and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency Mauchline ware started producing wooden snuff boxes in 1790 in Mauchline Ayrshire They were produced of the wood from the trees from the Castle craig Today they are highly collectible 136 Stirling is home to national construction companies Ogilvie Group chaired by Duncan Ogilvie who is listed in the Times Rich List as being worth 35 million A Bank of Scotland survey in 2009 found that workers in Stirling had the highest average earnings of 716 a week 137 Transport Edit Stirling railway station The City of Stirling is home to a large number of commuters but has fewer commuting to work in other areas than travel into the city About half of Scotland s population live within an hour s travel time of Stirling 138 Local bus services to districts within the city are almost completely provided by buses operated by First Scotland East The surrounding towns like Bridge of Allan Alloa Falkirk and Glasgow via Cumbernauld have services from the bus station Coaches to many Scottish towns and cities also run regularly 139 There are also railway links from Stirling railway station including inter city rail services to Aberdeen Dundee Edinburgh Waverley Inverness Glasgow Queen Street and London King s Cross Services to Alloa Bridge of Allan Falkirk and Dunblane also run Stirling Council provides some approximate journey times 140 Working lines include the Highland Main Line the Edinburgh Dunblane line and the Croy Line The station formerly provided direct railway services to Callander and Oban and to Loch Lomond over very scenic lines and a fast service to Dunfermline Cities with motorways links close to Stirling include Glasgow via the M80 motorway past Cumbernauld and Edinburgh via the M9 motorway past Falkirk To the north the M9 provides access to Dunblane with easy links to Perth and further beyond the Central Belt Stirling has no airport but there are international airports at Glasgow and Edinburgh which can be reached within an hour Light aircraft can be chartered at Cumbernauld Airport Stirling used to have steamboats which carried hundreds of passengers a day 82 There is currently no working port at Stirling but there are plans to develop the river 141 and the harbour 142 which might include links with towns on the Firth of Forth Since the Forth is tidal at Stirling development of pontoon style landing stages could potentially allow river taxis and tourist boats to operate during the summer 143 Sports and recreation Edit The headquarters of the Scottish Institute of Sport located on the campus at the University of Stirling Stirling is home to professional league teams in football rugby and cricket Marathon Edit The first Stirling Scottish Marathon was held on 21 May 2017 144 Curling Edit The National Curling Academy is located in Stirling Sports Village 145 It was opened in 2017 by Eve Muirhead 146 They use facilities linked to The Peak 147 It was hoped this would increase the chances of British medals at events like the Winter Olympics and Paralympics 148 Football Edit Men Edit The senior football team Stirling Albion play in the Scottish League Two at their home ground at Forthbank Stadium In July 2010 the Stirling Albion Supporters Trust successfully took over the running of the club buying out the long serving chairman Peter McKenzie after 14 months of campaigning This made Stirling Albion the first fully owned community club in the history of British football after previous attempts made by Manchester United Liverpool and Rangers 149 Women Edit Stirling University L F C are the premier women s football team They play in the Scottish Women s Premier League Their home ground is The Gannochy Sports Centre at Stirling University 150 Rugby Edit Stirling County currently play in rugby s Scottish Premiership Division One Basketball Edit Stirling Knights Basketball Team are based at the Peak at Forthbank beside Forthbank Stadium 151 Athletics Edit The athletics team Central Athletic Club are based at the University of Stirling Hockey Edit The University Stirling Wanderers Hockey Club have also moved to a brand new international standard pitch at Forthbank for season 2008 09 152 Cricket Edit Next to this pitch there is also the ground of Stirling County Cricket Club whose pavilion captured an architectural award in June 2009 153 three years after its opening Scotland international footballers Billy Bremner John Colquhoun Duncan Ferguson female footballer Frankie Brown and brothers Gary and Steven Caldwell were born in Stirling So were rugby internationals Kenny Logan Allister Hogg and Alison McGrandles jockey Willie Carson and cricketer Dougie Brown The University of Stirling is a major centre of sports training and education in Scotland It was designated as Scotland s University for Sporting Excellence by the Scottish Government in 2008 The headquarters of the Scottish Institute of Sport is a purpose built facility on the campus which opened in 2002 Also at the university is the Scottish National Swimming Academy where Rio 2016 Olympic silver medalists and students at the university Duncan Scott and Robbie Renwick trained Commonwealth gold medalist Ross Murdoch who also competed at Rio 2106 is a student at the university The Gannochy National Tennis centre which is seen as a tennis centre of excellence was where Andy Murray and his brother Jamie Murray honed their skills as juniors Gordon Reid wheel chair Olympic gold medalist in 2016 was a tennis scholar at the university 154 The university men s and women s golf teams are consistently ranked among the best in Europe 155 The university has a dedicated sports studies department which is within the Faculty of Health Science and Sport and is ranked amongst the best in the United Kingdom for its provision of sports facilities with the maximum 5 star award shared by 16 other universities in the UK 156 The University of Stirling also currently hosts the Scottish men s lacrosse champions Stirling and its surrounding area has a number of 9 and 18 hole golf courses the largest of which is the Stirling Golf Course located in the Kings Park area of the city The Peak a new Sports Village was opened in April 2009 to cater for a range of sporting activities 157 In June 2014 Stirling will become the home of Scottish cricket after an agreement between Stirling County Cricket Club Cricket Scotland and Stirling Council It is hoped that the redevelopment of the ground will start at end 2014 with the intention being to upgrade it to international match standards Scotland will play the majority of their home international games at the ground starting with the World T20 qualifiers in the summer of 2015 The development will see a new pavilion and indoor training facility built at New Williamfield the home of Stirling County Cricket Club with Cricket Scotland relocating its headquarters from the National Cricket Academy at Ravelston Edinburgh 158 Education EditThe University of Stirling opened in 1967 on a greenfield site outside the town Currently there are 11 100 students studying at the university of which 7 995 are undergraduates and 3 105 are postgraduates There are 120 nationalities represented on the university campus with 19 of students coming from overseas 159 It has grown into a major research centre with a large Innovation Park located immediately adjacent to the main university campus Innovation Park has grown since its initiation in 1993 and is now home to 40 companies engaging in various forms of research and development 160 In January 2008 it was announced that students from Singapore would be able to gain degrees in retail from the University of Stirling in a tie up with the country s Nanyang Polytechnic NYP 161 Looking out over Airthrey Loch on the main campus of The University of Stirling Stirling is also home to part of the wider Forth Valley College which was formed on 1 August 2005 from the merger of Falkirk Stirling and Clackmannan colleges There are four main high schools in Stirling itself Stirling High School with a school roll of 964 pupils Wallace High School with 958 pupils St Modan s High School with 912 pupils and Bannockburn High School in Broomridge with 752 pupils 162 163 164 165 All the city s secondary school premises have been redeveloped as a result of a Public private partnership scheme Stirling also has a Gaelic medium unit situated in the city s Riverside Primary School which teaches pupils from across Stirling and Clackmannanshire through the medium of Scottish Gaelic 166 In popular culture EditStirling Gateway to the Highlands 167 1938 B amp W 20 mins silent video 1 Street scenes from Stirling video 2 pre WW2 soldiers at the castle Stirling Charities Day 168 13 May 1939 B amp W 7 mins silent Includes shots of kids costumes and carriages Neighbours 169 1952 violent Oscar winning animation by the Stirling born Canadian film maker Norman McLaren River Forth 170 1956 B amp W silent 15 mins Including animals being herded through the streets The Heart of Scotland 171 1962 colour sound 24 mins Shots of the castle with commentary on Bruce and Wallace Holiday Scotland 172 1966 colour and sound 42 mins Includes Stirling Castle and Stirling Bridge Kidnapped 173 1971 dir Delbert Mann Starring Michael Caine with several scenes in Stirling Castle Royal Stirling 174 1972 colour and sound 23 mins Includes a lion cub at the castle motor racing and shots of Blair Drummond Safari Park The University of Stirling 175 1973 colour and sound 19 min 1970s campus students and teachers includes Norman MacCaig FutureWorld Stirling 1984 176 1984 28 minutes dir Peter G Reilly for Stirling District Council has Magnus Magnusson explaining ambitious plans for the Top of the Town It is more of a series of pieces to camera than Cumbernauld Town for Tomorrow as Magnusson moves from the Smith through various well known but dilapidated buildings to Gowan Hill and back to the castle At each stop he presents John W Morgan s script which gives something of the history or the proposed plans for revitalising the area Gregory s Two Girls 177 1999 dir Bill Forsyth has scenes at and around Stirling Castle To End all Wars 178 2001 dir David L Cunningham has scenes at Stirling Castle Way Back Home 2010 Has Danny MacAskill perform stunts on his bike on Stirling Bridge 179 KJB The Book That Changed the World 2011 Has John Rhys Davies narrating scenes about James VI at Stirling Castle 180 Britain s Lost Routes with Griff Rhys Jones 2012 Episode 3 shows the difficulties Highland Cattle Drovers might have had at Frew and shows aerial shots and taking cows across the Auld Brig 181 Secrets of Great British Castles 2015 Dan Jones presents the History of Stirling Castle up to James VI 182 Netflix drama Outlaw King 183 had scenes filmed at Mugdock Country Park with a production support team camped at Falleninch Field situated beneath Stirling Castle Twinned cities Edit Vyborg Russia Villeneuve d Ascq France 184 Dunedin Florida United States 184 obuda Hungary 184 Summerside Prince Edward Island Canada 184 Kecioren Turkey 184 Notable people EditDorothy Angus embroidery artist Frank and Harold Barnwell pilots and aircraft designers Frank Beattie footballer Alexander Beith Moderator of the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland Billy Bremner former Leeds and Internationalist footballer Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman former Prime Minister Gary Caldwell Former Scotland International footballer and manager Steven Caldwell footballer Willie Carson jockey 185 Duncan Ferguson footballer Robert Garnock Covenanter hanged in Edinburgh John Grierson documentary film pioneer James Guthrie minister and Protester Michael Hay lawyer Gail Honeyman novelist 186 King James VI of Scotland former resident Stephen Kingsley footballer John Joseph Jolly Kyle pioneer chemist Christian Maclagan Sunday School teacher antiquarian early archaeologist and suffragist Bill Macnaught National Librarian of New Zealand 2011 2020 Mary Queen of Scots former resident Mirren Mack actress Muir Mathieson film music composer Lauren Mayberry musician John McAleese team leader during the SAS assault on the Iranian embassy in May 1980 187 188 Norman McLaren animation pioneer Neil Oliver television presenter John Paton Victoria Cross recipient Patrick Simson minister respected by James VI Anna Sloan Olympic curler bronze medalists at the 2014 Winter Olympics 189 Kirsty Young television presenterFreedom of the City EditThe following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Stirling Individuals Edit HRH Duke of York 29 August 1928 HRH Duchess of York 29 August 1928 190 HRH Duchess of Edinburgh 1948 Lieutenant Colonel Francis William Saunders MBE ERD 17 July 2008 191 Irvin Iffla 3 April 2009 192 Sir Andrew Murray OBE 22 April 2014 193 Military Units Edit The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 1947 194 195 196 43 Squadron RAF 2005 197 198 The Royal Regiment of Scotland 10 March 2012 199 See also EditBlack Bond Lecropt List of places in Stirling district List of places in Scotland Stirling City ChoirReferences Edit Stirling Stirling Scotland United Kingdom Population Statistics Charts Map Location Weather and Web Information www citypopulation info Archived from the original on 28 March 2019 Retrieved 28 March 2019 Mid 2016 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland National Records of Scotland 12 March 2018 Retrieved 30 December 2020 Drysdale William 1898 Old faces old places and old stories of Stirling E Mackay pp 292 303 Retrieved 5 April 2017 Durie Bruce 2014 The Story of Stirling History Press p 27 ISBN 978 0 7509 6040 3 Smith Alexander 1865 A summer in Skye London Sampson Low Marston Retrieved 6 April 2017 Ronald James 1897 The Merchants guide book to Stirling and district Stirling E MacKay pp 38 40 Stair Kerr Eric 1913 Stirling Castle its place in Scottish history Glasgow James Maclehose and Sons p 159 Retrieved 5 April 2017 Groome Francis H Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland A Survey of Scottish Topography Statistical Biographical and Historical Gazetteer for Scotland Thomas C Jack Grange Publishing Works Archived from the original on 6 April 2017 Retrieved 5 April 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engravings from original drawings by G F Sargent 3rd ed London T Tegg p 41 Retrieved 8 April 2017 Clancy Thomas Owen The Etymologies of Pluscarden and Stirling PDF Clann Tuirc University of Glasgow Retrieved 1 July 2019 Iain Taylor Place names PDF Archived PDF from the original on 5 July 2013 Retrieved 24 April 2013 a b James Alan A Guide to the Place Name Evidence PDF SPNS The Brittonic Language in the Old North Archived from the original PDF on 13 August 2017 Retrieved 25 November 2018 OS 25 inch map 1892 1949 with Bing opacity slider National Library of Scotland Ordnance Survey Archived from the original on 30 November 2012 Retrieved 12 October 2017 Historic Environment Scotland Cairn Period Unassigned Cist S Period Unassigned Beaker 46189 Canmore Retrieved 11 February 2017 McNeill Alastair 1 November 2017 Stirling s oldest resident revealed to be 4000 year old Torbrex Tam Daily Record Archived from the original on 4 November 2017 Retrieved 3 November 2017 Hutchison A F 1898 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from the original on 21 June 2017 Retrieved 4 April 2017 Interview Danny MacAskill An internet sensation but who is the man behind the crash helmet The Scotsman 2 23 February 2011 Archived from the original on 6 April 2017 Retrieved 5 April 2017 Clips from KJB The Book That Changed The World BBC Archived from the original on 24 November 2018 Retrieved 8 April 2017 Highland Cattle Drovers BBC Archived from the original on 9 August 2016 Retrieved 10 April 2017 Secrets of Great British Castles Channel 5 Archived from the original on 28 April 2017 Retrieved 27 April 2017 Rowbotham John 20 September 2017 Production company filming forthcoming Outlaw King movie set up camp in Stirling dailyrecord Archived from the original on 12 December 2018 Retrieved 16 September 2019 a b c d e Stirling to become first UK city in more than 10 years to link with Turkey BBC News 8 April 2013 Retrieved 19 December 2020 BBC A Sporting Nation Willie Carson King of the Derby www bbc co uk Retrieved 19 December 2020 Scots author wins prize for completely fantastic first book www scotsman com Retrieved 19 December 2020 John McAleese Leader of the SAS team that ended the 1980 siege of the Archived from the original on 9 February 2018 Retrieved 29 January 2018 Taylor Steven 1 October 2017 Story of heroic Scots born SAS soldier to be turned into Netflix blockbuster Archived from the original on 10 January 2018 Retrieved 10 January 2018 Anna Sloan from The Gazetteer for Scotland www scottish places info Retrieved 7 October 2021 British Pathe 23 August 2021 Duke And Duchess Of York 1928 Archived from the original on 7 November 2021 via YouTube Dailyrecord co uk 17 July 2008 Stirling honours Colonel Frank dailyrecord Retrieved 23 July 2020 Cricketer given Freedom of City 3 April 2009 Retrieved 24 July 2020 Andy Murray given freedom of the city in Stirling The Independent 22 April 2014 Retrieved 24 July 2020 The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders Princess Louise s Scottish Regiments 1st Battalion A amp SH National Service world war time peace time and active service with the Argylls in Stirling Cyprus Limni and Dhekelia Aden Libya Tobruk Germany Lemgo Crete North Africa Borneo and Singapore www theargylls co uk Retrieved 24 July 2020 PRINCESS ELIZABETH AT STIRLING Receives Freedom for herself and Regiment Archived from the original on 7 November 2021 via www youtube com Princess Elizabeth Receives The Freedom Of Stirling 1947 Archived from the original on 7 November 2021 via www youtube com Morton Donald 9 January 2009 43 Squadron set for city parade The Daily Record Retrieved 21 August 2021 Archived copy Archived from the original on 14 November 2008 Retrieved 8 February 2017 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Regiment awarded freedom of city BBC News 10 March 2012 via www bbc com Mair Craig 1990 Stirling The Royal Burgh John Donald Publishers ISBN 0 85976 420 6 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Stirling Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Stirling Stirling Council Website Mapping the Town the history of Stirling presented by Julian Richards BBC Radio 4 RealAudio format Video footage of St Ninian s Chapel and Well series of lectures about the history of Stirling by Dr Murray Cook Stirling Council s archaeologist Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stirling amp oldid 1054495995, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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