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Stockfish

Not to be confused with fish stock or the South African hake, known in Afrikaans as 'stokvis'.
For the chess engine, see Stockfish (chess).

Stockfish is unsalted fish, especially cod, dried by cold air and wind on wooden racks (which are called "hjell" in Norway) on the foreshore. The drying of food is the world's oldest known preservation method, and dried fish has a storage life of several years. The method is cheap and effective in suitable climates; the work can be done by the fisherman and family, and the resulting product is easily transported to market.

Drying flake ('hjell') in Norway

Over the centuries, several variants of dried fish have evolved. The stockfish (fresh dried, not salted) category is often mistaken for the clipfish, or salted cod, category where the fish is salted before drying. After 2–3 weeks in salt the fish has salt-matured, and is transformed from wet salted fish to clipfish through a drying process. The salted fish was earlier dried on rocks (clips) on the foreshore. The production method of clipfish was developed by the Portuguese who first mined salt near the brackish water of Aveiro, and brought it to Newfoundland where cod (bacalhau) was available in massive quantities. Salting was not economically feasible until the 17th century, when cheap salt from southern Europe became available to the maritime nations of northern Europe.

Stockfish is cured in a process called fermentation where cold-adapted bacteria matures the fish, similar to the maturing process of cheese. Clipfish is processed in a chemical curing process called salt-maturing, similar to the maturing processes of other salt-matured products such as Parma ham.

In English legal records of the Medieval period, (written in Latin), stock fishmongers are differentiated from ordinary fishmongers when the occupation of a plaintiff or defendant is recorded.

Contents

Stockfish warehouse in the village of Forsøl, Norway

The word stockfish is a loan word from West Frisian stokfisk (stick fish), possibly referring to the wooden racks on which stockfish are traditionally dried or because the dried fish resembles a stick. "Stock" may also refer to a wooden yoke or harness on a horse or mule, once used to carry large fish from the sea or after drying/smoking for trade in nearby villages. This etymology is consistent with the fact that "Stockmaß" is German for the height of a horse at the withers.

Stockfish is Norway's longest sustained export commodity. Stockfish is first mentioned as a commodity in the 13th-century Icelandic prose work Egil's Saga, where chieftain Thorolf Kveldulfsson, in the year 875 AD, ships stockfish from Helgeland in mid-Norway to Britain. This product accounted for most of Norway's trade income from the Viking Age throughout the Medieval period.[citation needed]

Preserved cod fed Iceland for centuries, to the extent that it has been described as a local equivalent of bread.

Stockfish is extremely popular and is widely consumed in Catholic Mediterranean countries, mostly in Portugal and Italy. (Stockfish is called stoccafisso in most Italian dialects, but confusingly baccalà—which normally refers to salt cod—in the Veneto). In Russian cuisine dried stockfish is a very popular dish which is often eaten with vodka and beer. In 16th century Russian and Swedish stockfish were sold to many European countries.

Stockfish is a staple of Nigerian cuisine.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(January 2021) ()
Stockfish from cod in Venice, Italy

The science of producing good stockfish is in many ways comparable to that of making a good cognac, Parma ham, or a well-matured cheese. Practitioners of the Slow Food movement insist that all these artisanal products must be made on a small scale and given time to mature.

The fish is prepared immediately after capture. After gutting the fish, it is either dried whole, or split along the spine leaving the tail connected. The fish is hung on the hjell from February to May. Stable cool weather protects the fish from insects and prevents an uncontrolled bacterial growth. A temperature just above zero degrees Celsius, with little rain, is ideal. Too much frost will spoil the fish, as ice destroys the fibers in the fish. The climate in northern Norway is excellent for stockfish production. Due to the stable conditions, the stockfish produced in Lofoten and Vesterålen is often regarded as the best.[citation needed] The traditional cod harvest in Lofoten also takes place during the best drying time. Due to a milder and more humid climate, salted/dried whitefish (klippfisk) was more common in the fisheries districts of Western Norway.

After its three months hanging on the hjell, the fish is then matured for another two to three months indoors in a dry and airy environment. During the drying, about 80% of the water in the fish evaporates. The stockfish retains all[citation needed] the nutrients from the fresh fish, only concentrated: it is therefore rich in proteins, vitamins, iron, and calcium.

After sorting by quality, most of the stockfish is exported to Italy, Croatia and Nigeria. In Norway and Iceland, the stockfish is mostly used as a snack and for lutefisk production. In Italy, the fish (called stoccafisso) is soaked and used in various courses, and is viewed as a delicacy.

Low-quality stockfish is also commonly used as supplemental food for pets, primarily as dog food or dog treats.

The 2012–2015 project SafeTrackFood developed a method of indoor production of stockfish to accelerate the maturing and drying of the fish in a safe manner.

Baccalà alla lucana: traditional recipe from Basilicata
A Dutch-Surinamese "broodje bakeljauw" in the Netherlands (a bun with sliced cucumbers and shredded and spiced stockfish)

Baccalà alla vicentina, an ancient and traditional Italian dish native to Vicenza, is made from stockfish (confusingly not from dried and salted cod, although the salted form is known in standard Italian as baccalà), and is served on or next to polenta. In the Italian region of Basilicata, the so-called baccalà alla lucana is prepared with typical peppers called "cruschi" (dialect word for "crispy"). Dishes made from stockfish (locally called bakalar) are traditionally eaten on Christmas Eve in Croatia, especially Dalmatia.[citation needed]

In Catalonia, stockfish is an ingredient of a kind of surf and turf named es niu.

Stockfish is popular in West Africa, where it is used in the many soups that complement the grain staples fufu and garri. In the Southwestern part of Nigeria among the Yoruba, it is called panla. Also the main ingredient in the Igbo snack called "Ugba na Okporoko" or "ukazi" amongst the Ohafia people in Abia state in Nigeria. In Abia stockfish is quite popular and a regular ingredient in many local delicacies. Most importers of "okporoko" are based in the town of Aba in Abia State. Among the Umuahia people, at festive periods, the best staple is the Ukazi soup which must necessarily be very well garnished with okporoko or Cod as it is popularly called. The Kwe people, who are a fishing people of the English-speaking part of Cameroon, use stockfish in flavoring their palm nut or banga, which can be eaten with a cocoyam pudding called kwacoco. The name okporoko for stockfish, among the Igbo of Nigeria refers to the sound the hard fish makes in the pot and literally translates as "that which produces sound in the pot".[citation needed]

Both stockfish and salt cod can be made into lutefisk.[citation needed]

  • Cod hung for drying in Lyngen fjord, Norway

  • Stockfish up for drying in Iceland

  • Women working with stock fish in Iceland c. 1915

  • Indian village showing native method of drying salmon, c. 1888.

  • Stomach of a sea lion used by Aleut natives to store dried red salmon

  1. Plea Rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; Henry VI; in 1460; second entry, first line http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT1/H6/CP40no799/aCP40no799fronts/IMG_0704.htm
  2. Kurlansky, chapter 3; cf. OED s.v. 'stockfish': "the reason for the designation is variously conjectured"
  3. Kurlansky, chapter 9
  4. "La differenza tra stoccafisso e baccalà". Archived from the original on 2018-12-26.
  5. Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2016-06-11). World Food: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture and Social Influence from Hunter Gatherers to the Age of Globalization: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture and Social Influence from Hunter Gatherers to the Age of Globalization. Routledge. ISBN 9781317451600.
  6. Molokhovet︠s︡, Elena, 1831-1918. (1992). Classic Russian cooking : Elena Molokhovets' A gift to young housewives. Toomre, Joyce Stetson. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 969. ISBN 0253360269. OCLC 25093512.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. "Nigeria's love affair with a Norwegian fish". BBC News. 28 November 2017.
  8. Kurlansky, chapter 2
  9. Frederick Forsyth, who covered the 1967-1969 Nigerian Civil War as a reporter, noted that dried fish imports from Norway were a key source of protein for the nation. Forsyth, Frederick. The Outsider: My Life in Intrigue. NY: Putnam, p. 176
  10. "Salt Cod with Cruschi Peppers". Basilicata cultural society of Canada. 18 August 2012. Retrieved23 February 2014.
  11. Marques da Silva, António J. (2021). "In the shadow of the saltcod. Writing versus staging the stockfish history in the Iberian Peninsula". Revista TAE - Trabalhos de Antropologia e de Etnologia. Retrieved2021-02-20.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toStockfish.
  • Kurlansky, Mark (1997). Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. New York: Walker. ISBN 0-8027-1326-2.
  • Silva, António J. M. da, In the Shadow of the Salt Cod. Writing vs Staging the Stockfish History in the Iberian Peninsula, TAE - Trabalhos de Antropologia e de Etnologia , vol. 61, 2021, pp. 167–209. PDF
  • http://www.safetrackfood.eu/

Stockfish
Stockfish Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with fish stock or the South African hake known in Afrikaans as stokvis For the chess engine see Stockfish chess Stockfish is unsalted fish especially cod dried by cold air and wind on wooden racks which are called hjell in Norway on the foreshore The drying of food is the world s oldest known preservation method and dried fish has a storage life of several years The method is cheap and effective in suitable climates the work can be done by the fisherman and family and the resulting product is easily transported to market Drying flake hjell in Norway Over the centuries several variants of dried fish have evolved The stockfish fresh dried not salted category is often mistaken for the clipfish or salted cod category where the fish is salted before drying After 2 3 weeks in salt the fish has salt matured and is transformed from wet salted fish to clipfish through a drying process The salted fish was earlier dried on rocks clips on the foreshore The production method of clipfish was developed by the Portuguese who first mined salt near the brackish water of Aveiro and brought it to Newfoundland where cod bacalhau was available in massive quantities Salting was not economically feasible until the 17th century when cheap salt from southern Europe became available to the maritime nations of northern Europe Stockfish is cured in a process called fermentation where cold adapted bacteria matures the fish similar to the maturing process of cheese Clipfish is processed in a chemical curing process called salt maturing similar to the maturing processes of other salt matured products such as Parma ham In English legal records of the Medieval period written in Latin stock fishmongers are differentiated from ordinary fishmongers when the occupation of a plaintiff or defendant is recorded 1 Contents 1 Etymology 2 Importance 3 Manufacturing and usage 4 Dishes 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesEtymology Edit Stockfish warehouse in the village of Forsol Norway The word stockfish is a loan word from West Frisian stokfisk stick fish possibly referring to the wooden racks on which stockfish are traditionally dried or because the dried fish resembles a stick 2 Stock may also refer to a wooden yoke or harness on a horse or mule once used to carry large fish from the sea or after drying smoking for trade in nearby villages This etymology is consistent with the fact that Stockmass is German for the height of a horse at the withers Importance EditStockfish is Norway s longest sustained export commodity Stockfish is first mentioned as a commodity in the 13th century Icelandic prose work Egil s Saga where chieftain Thorolf Kveldulfsson in the year 875 AD ships stockfish from Helgeland in mid Norway to Britain This product accounted for most of Norway s trade income from the Viking Age throughout the Medieval period citation needed Preserved cod fed Iceland for centuries to the extent that it has been described as a local equivalent of bread 3 Stockfish is extremely popular and is widely consumed in Catholic Mediterranean countries mostly in Portugal and Italy Stockfish is called stoccafisso in most Italian dialects but confusingly baccala which normally refers to salt cod in the Veneto 4 In Russian cuisine dried stockfish is a very popular dish which is often eaten with vodka and beer In 16th century Russian and Swedish stockfish were sold to many European countries 5 6 Stockfish is a staple of Nigerian cuisine 7 Manufacturing and usage EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed January 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Stockfish from cod in Venice Italy The science of producing good stockfish is in many ways comparable to that of making a good cognac Parma ham or a well matured cheese Practitioners of the Slow Food movement insist that all these artisanal products must be made on a small scale and given time to mature The fish is prepared immediately after capture After gutting the fish it is either dried whole or split along the spine leaving the tail connected The fish is hung on the hjell from February to May Stable cool weather protects the fish from insects and prevents an uncontrolled bacterial growth A temperature just above zero degrees Celsius with little rain is ideal Too much frost will spoil the fish as ice destroys the fibers in the fish The climate in northern Norway is excellent for stockfish production Due to the stable conditions the stockfish produced in Lofoten and Vesteralen is often regarded as the best citation needed The traditional cod harvest in Lofoten also takes place during the best drying time Due to a milder and more humid climate salted dried whitefish klippfisk was more common in the fisheries districts of Western Norway After its three months hanging on the hjell the fish is then matured for another two to three months indoors in a dry and airy environment During the drying about 80 of the water in the fish evaporates 8 The stockfish retains all citation needed the nutrients from the fresh fish only concentrated it is therefore rich in proteins vitamins iron and calcium After sorting by quality most of the stockfish is exported to Italy Croatia and Nigeria 9 In Norway and Iceland the stockfish is mostly used as a snack and for lutefisk production In Italy the fish called stoccafisso is soaked and used in various courses and is viewed as a delicacy Low quality stockfish is also commonly used as supplemental food for pets primarily as dog food or dog treats The 2012 2015 project SafeTrackFood developed a method of indoor production of stockfish to accelerate the maturing and drying of the fish in a safe manner Dishes Edit Baccala alla lucana traditional recipe from Basilicata A Dutch Surinamese broodje bakeljauw in the Netherlands a bun with sliced cucumbers and shredded and spiced stockfish Baccala alla vicentina an ancient and traditional Italian dish native to Vicenza is made from stockfish confusingly not from dried and salted cod although the salted form is known in standard Italian as baccala and is served on or next to polenta In the Italian region of Basilicata the so called baccala alla lucana is prepared with typical peppers called cruschi dialect word for crispy 10 Dishes made from stockfish locally called bakalar are traditionally eaten on Christmas Eve in Croatia especially Dalmatia citation needed In Catalonia stockfish is an ingredient of a kind of surf and turf named es niu 11 Stockfish is popular in West Africa 11 where it is used in the many soups that complement the grain staples fufu and garri In the Southwestern part of Nigeria among the Yoruba it is called panla Also the main ingredient in the Igbo snack called Ugba na Okporoko or ukazi amongst the Ohafia people in Abia state in Nigeria In Abia stockfish is quite popular and a regular ingredient in many local delicacies Most importers of okporoko are based in the town of Aba in Abia State Among the Umuahia people at festive periods the best staple is the Ukazi soup which must necessarily be very well garnished with okporoko or Cod as it is popularly called The Kwe people who are a fishing people of the English speaking part of Cameroon use stockfish in flavoring their palm nut or banga which can be eaten with a cocoyam pudding called kwacoco The name okporoko for stockfish among the Igbo of Nigeria refers to the sound the hard fish makes in the pot and literally translates as that which produces sound in the pot citation needed Both stockfish and salt cod can be made into lutefisk citation needed Gallery Edit Cod hung for drying in Lyngen fjord Norway Stockfish up for drying in Iceland Women working with stock fish in Iceland c 1915 Indian village showing native method of drying salmon c 1888 Stomach of a sea lion used by Aleut natives to store dried red salmonSee also Edit Food portal Boknafisk Bugeo similarly dried Alaska pollock List of dried foods Lofoten Stockfish MuseumNotes Edit Plea Rolls of the Court of Common Pleas Henry VI in 1460 second entry first line http aalt law uh edu AALT1 H6 CP40no799 aCP40no799fronts IMG 0704 htm Kurlansky chapter 3 cf OED s v stockfish the reason for the designation is variously conjectured Kurlansky chapter 9 La differenza tra stoccafisso e baccala Archived from the original on 2018 12 26 Snodgrass Mary Ellen 2016 06 11 World Food An Encyclopedia of History Culture and Social Influence from Hunter Gatherers to the Age of Globalization An Encyclopedia of History Culture and Social Influence from Hunter Gatherers to the Age of Globalization Routledge ISBN 9781317451600 Molokhovet s Elena 1831 1918 1992 Classic Russian cooking Elena Molokhovets A gift to young housewives Toomre Joyce Stetson Bloomington Indiana University Press pp 969 ISBN 0253360269 OCLC 25093512 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Nigeria s love affair with a Norwegian fish BBC News 28 November 2017 Kurlansky chapter 2 Frederick Forsyth who covered the 1967 1969 Nigerian Civil War as a reporter noted that dried fish imports from Norway were a key source of protein for the nation Forsyth Frederick The Outsider My Life in Intrigue NY Putnam p 176 Salt Cod with Cruschi Peppers Basilicata cultural society of Canada 18 August 2012 Retrieved 23 February 2014 a b Marques da Silva Antonio J 2021 In the shadow of the saltcod Writing versus staging the stockfish history in the Iberian Peninsula Revista TAE Trabalhos de Antropologia e de Etnologia Retrieved 2021 02 20 References EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Stockfish Kurlansky Mark 1997 Cod A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World New York Walker ISBN 0 8027 1326 2 Silva Antonio J M da In the Shadow of the Salt Cod Writing vs Staging the Stockfish History in the Iberian Peninsula TAE Trabalhos de Antropologia e de Etnologia vol 61 2021 pp 167 209 PDF http www safetrackfood eu Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stockfish amp oldid 1053955944, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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