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For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation).
"Sthlm" redirects here. For the Swedish TV series, see Sthlm (TV series).

Stockholm (Swedish: (); Finnish: Tukholma) is the capital of Sweden. It has the most populous urban area in Sweden as well as in Scandinavia. Approximately 975,000 people live in the municipality, with 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Outside the city to the east, and along the coast, is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the county seat of Stockholm County.

Stockholm
Nickname(s):
Eken, the Venice of the North, the Venice of Scandinavia
Stockholm
Location within Stockholm County
Show map of Stockholm
Stockholm
Location within Sweden
Show map of Sweden
Stockholm
Location within the European Union
Show map of European Union
Coordinates:59°19′46″N18°4′7″E /59.32944°N 18.06861°E /59.32944; 18.06861Coordinates: 59°19′46″N18°4′7″E /59.32944°N 18.06861°E /59.32944; 18.06861
CountrySweden
ProvinceSödermanland and Uppland
CountyStockholm County
Municipalities
First mention1252
Charter13th century
Government
• MayorAnna König Jerlmyr (M)
Area
Capital city188 km2 (73 sq mi)
• Urban
381.63 km2 (147.35 sq mi)
• Metro
6,519 km2 (2,517 sq mi)
Elevation
28 m (92 ft)
Population
(30 June 2021)
Capital city975,819
• Density5,200/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
Urban
1,611,776
• Urban density4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
Metro
2,402,609
• Metro density370/km2 (950/sq mi)
Demonyms
  • Stockholmer
  • Stockholmite
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
100 00-199 99
Area code(s)+46-8
Websitewww.stockholm.se

Stockholm is the cultural, media, political, and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, and is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. Ranked as an alpha-global city, it is the largest in Scandinavia and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations; it has been called the longest art gallery in the world. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Avicii Arena, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city. The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag (Swedish parliament) is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence.

During 2020, Stockholm's population increased with 1,477 inhabitants.

Contents

Main article: History of Stockholm
Detail of engraving of Stockholm fromSuecia Antiqua et Hodierna by Erik Dahlbergh and Willem Swidde, printed in 1693
Panorama over Stockholm c. 1868 as seen from a hot air balloon
Stockholm in 1917

After the Ice Age, around 8000 BC, there were already many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created.

Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne. The earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name (stock) means log in Swedish, although it may also be connected to an old German word (Stock) meaning fortification. The second part of the name (holm) means islet and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to the Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.

Stockholm's core, the present Old Town (Gamla Stan) was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Hamburg, Gdańsk, Visby, Reval, and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers.

The strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520, a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that eventually led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.

The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were also created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor (castle) burned and was replaced by Stockholm Palace.

Throughout Sweden's history, walls were created in Stockholm to defend the city from attacks. These defensive walls were modified throughout the 13th to the 16th century. In 1625, the Great Stockholm Fire of 1625 destroyed the southwestern section of Stadsholmen, an island in the center of Stockholm. The amount of destruction led to the beginning of the demolition of the Stockholm walls. Today, most of the younger city walls cannot be found anywhere above ground. However, parts of the northern city walls are preserved in the Museum of Medieval Stockholm.

In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 (36 percent) of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed. The city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III.

Stockholm City Centre after the 1960s

By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden. The population also grew dramatically during this time, mainly through immigration. At the end of the 19th century, less than 40% of the residents were Stockholm-born. Settlement began to expand outside the city limits. The 19th century saw the establishment of a number of scientific institutes, including the Karolinska Institutet. The General Art and Industrial Exposition was held in 1897. From 1887 to 1953 the Old Stockholm telephone tower was a landmark; originally built to link phone lines, it became redundant after these were buried, and it was latterly used for advertising.

Stockholm became a modern, technologically advanced, and ethnically diverse city in the latter half of the 20th century. Many historical buildings were torn down during the modernist era, including substantial parts of the historical district of Klara, and replaced with modern architecture. However, in many other parts of Stockholm (such as in Gamla stan, Södermalm, Östermalm, Kungsholmen and Vasastan), many "old" buildings, blocks and streets built before the modernism and functionalism movements took off in Sweden (around 1930–35) survived this era of demolition. Throughout the century, many industries shifted away from industrial activities into more high-tech and service industry areas.

Stockholm's metropolitan area is one of the fastest-growing regions in Europe, and its population is expected to number 2.5 million by 2024. As a result of this massive population growth, there has been a proposal to build densely packed high-rise buildings in the city center connected by elevated walkways.

A 360-degree panorama of Stockholm inner quarters taken from the City Hall tower. From left to right: Riddarfjärden with Södermalm in the background, Kungsholmen, Klara sjö, Norrmalm with the central station in the foreground, Stockholms ström, Riddarholmen with the Old Town, and again Riddarfjärden with Södermalm.

Location

Stockholm is located on Sweden's east coast, where the freshwater Lake Mälaren — Sweden's third-largest lake — flows out into the Baltic Sea. The central parts of the city consist of fourteen islands that are continuous with the Stockholm archipelago. The geographical city center is situated on the water, in Riddarfjärden bay. Over 30% of the city area is made up of waterways and another 30% is made up of parks and green spaces.

Positioned at the eastern end of the Central Swedish lowland, the city's location reflect the early orientation of Swedish trade toward the Baltic region.

Stockholm belongs to the Temperate deciduous forest biome, which means the climate is very similar to that of the far northeastern area of the United States and coastal Nova Scotia in Canada. The average annual temperature is 7.6 °C (46 °F). The average rainfall is 531 mm (21 in) a year. The deciduous forest has four distinct seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In the autumn the leaves change colour. During the winter months, the trees lose their leaves.

For details about the other municipalities in the Stockholm area, see the pertinent articles. North of Stockholm Municipality: Järfälla, Solna, Täby, Sollentuna, Lidingö, Upplands Väsby, Österåker, Sigtuna, Sundbyberg, Danderyd, Vallentuna, Ekerö, Upplands-Bro, Vaxholm, and Norrtälje. South of Stockholm: Huddinge, Nacka, Botkyrka, Haninge, Tyresö, Värmdö, Södertälje, Salem, Nykvarn and Nynäshamn.

Satellite image of Stockholm in 2018 by ESA

Stockholm Municipality

Stockholm Municipality is an administrative unit defined by geographical borders. The semi-official name for the municipality is City of Stockholm (Stockholms stad in Swedish). As a municipality, the City of Stockholm is subdivided into district councils, which carry responsibility for primary schools, social, leisure and cultural services within their respective areas. The municipality is usually described in terms of its three main parts: Innerstaden (Stockholm City Centre), Söderort (Southern Stockholm) and Västerort (Western Stockholm). The districts of these parts are:

Stockholm City Centre

Söderort

Västerort

The modern centre Norrmalm (concentrated around the town square Sergels torg) is the largest shopping district in Sweden. It is the most central part of Stockholm in business and shopping.

Climate

Stockholm has a humid continental climate in the 0 °C isotherm (Köppen: Dfb) and an oceanic climate (Cfb) in the -3 °C isotherm. Although winters are cold, average temperatures generally remain above 0 °C for much of the year. Summers are pleasantly warm, and precipitation occurs throughout the year.

Due to the city's high northerly latitude, the length of the day varies widely from more than 18 hours around midsummer to only around 6 hours in late December. The nights from late May until mid-July are bright even when cloudy. Stockholm has relatively mild weather compared to other locations at a similar latitude, or even farther south. With an average of 1900 hours of sunshine per year, it is also one of the sunniest cities in Northern Europe, receiving more sunshine than Paris, London and a few other major European cities of a more southerly latitude. Because of the urban heat island effect and the prevailing wind traveling overland rather than sea during summer months, Stockholm has the warmest July months of the Nordic capitals. Stockholm has an annual average snow cover between 75 and 100 days.

In spite of its mild climate, Stockholm is located further north than parts of Canada that are above the Arctic tree line at sea level.

Summers average daytime high temperatures of 20–25 °C (68–77 °F) and lows of around 13 °C (55 °F), but temperatures can reach 30 °C (86 °F) on some days. Days above 30 °C (86 °F) occur on average 1.55 days per year (1992–2011). Days between 25 °C (77 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F) are relatively common especially in July and August. Night-time lows of above 20 °C (68 °F) are rare, and hot summer nights vary from 17 to 18 °C (63 to 64 °F). Winters generally bring cloudy weather with the most precipitation falling in December and January (as either rain or snow). The average winter temperatures range from −3 to −1 °C (27 to 30 °F), and occasionally drop below −20 °C (−4 °F) in the outskirts of the city. Spring and autumn are generally cool to mild.

The climate table below presents weather data from the years 1991–2020. According to ongoing measurements, the temperature has increased during the years 1991–2020 as compared with the last series, from 1961-1990. This increase averages about 1.0 °C (1.8 °F) overall months. Warming is most pronounced during the winter months, with an increase of more than 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) in January. For the 2002–2014 measurements some further increases have been found, although some months such as June have been relatively flat.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Stockholm was 36 °C (97 °F) on 3 July 1811; the lowest was −32 °C (−26 °F) on 20 January 1814. The temperature has not dropped to below −25.1 °C (−13.2 °F) since 10 January 1987.

The warmest month ever recorded was July 2018 with a mean temperature of 22.5 °C (72.5 °F) which is also the nationwide record.

Annual precipitation is 546.4 mm (21.51 in) with around 170 wet days and light to moderate rainfall throughout the year. The precipitation is not uniformly distributed throughout the year. The second half of the year receives 50% more than the first half. Snowfall occurs mainly from December through March. Snowfall may occasionally occur in late October as well as in April.

In Stockholm, the aurora borealis can occasionally be observed.

Climate data for Stockholm (Observatorielunden), 1991-2020 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
11.6
(52.9)
17.5
(63.5)
26.1
(79.0)
29.0
(84.2)
31.7
(89.1)
34.2
(93.6)
32.1
(89.8)
26.2
(79.2)
19.5
(67.1)
15.0
(59.0)
12.7
(54.9)
34.2
(93.6)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
7.1
(44.8)
12.0
(53.6)
18.8
(65.8)
24.3
(75.7)
27.5
(81.5)
29.7
(85.5)
28.2
(82.8)
22.4
(72.3)
15.8
(60.4)
10.7
(51.3)
8.5
(47.3)
30.6
(87.1)
Average high °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
1.2
(34.2)
4.7
(40.5)
10.7
(51.3)
16.5
(61.7)
20.8
(69.4)
23.6
(74.5)
22.1
(71.8)
16.6
(61.9)
10.1
(50.2)
5.4
(41.7)
2.5
(36.5)
11.3
(52.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
1.6
(34.9)
6.3
(43.3)
11.4
(52.5)
15.7
(60.3)
18.7
(65.7)
17.7
(63.9)
13.1
(55.6)
7.7
(45.9)
3.6
(38.5)
0.6
(33.1)
7.9
(46.2)
Average low °C (°F) −2.9
(26.8)
−3.2
(26.2)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.6
(36.7)
7.1
(44.8)
11.6
(52.9)
14.8
(58.6)
14.2
(57.6)
10.2
(50.4)
5.5
(41.9)
1.9
(35.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
5.0
(41.0)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −11.2
(11.8)
−10.9
(12.4)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.6
(27.3)
1.9
(35.4)
7.0
(44.6)
10.6
(51.1)
9.7
(49.5)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.8
(30.6)
−4.5
(23.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
Record low °C (°F) −19.3
(−2.7)
−21.0
(−5.8)
−14.6
(5.7)
−6.7
(19.9)
−1.4
(29.5)
3.7
(38.7)
7.8
(46.0)
6.5
(43.7)
1.2
(34.2)
−6.4
(20.5)
−11.3
(11.7)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−21.0
(−5.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.0
(1.46)
29.4
(1.16)
27.3
(1.07)
29.2
(1.15)
34.0
(1.34)
61.7
(2.43)
61.5
(2.42)
66.2
(2.61)
53.3
(2.10)
51.4
(2.02)
47.6
(1.87)
47.8
(1.88)
546.4
(21.51)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 23.3
(9.2)
25.6
(10.1)
18.1
(7.1)
5.9
(2.3)
1.1
(0.4)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.8
(0.7)
6.6
(2.6)
20.3
(8.0)
102.7
(40.4)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44 75 151 217 278 277 279 235 170 96 45 33 1,900
Source 1: SMHI Open Data
Source 2: SMHI 1991-2020 normals
Climate data for Stockholm (Bromma Airport). 1991-2020 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.5
(52.7)
12.3
(54.1)
17.7
(63.9)
27.0
(80.6)
28.6
(83.5)
30.8
(87.4)
34.2
(93.6)
31.7
(89.1)
26.1
(79.0)
20.7
(69.3)
15.1
(59.2)
13.2
(55.8)
34.2
(93.6)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
7.3
(45.1)
12.6
(54.7)
19.1
(66.4)
24.0
(75.2)
26.9
(80.4)
29.0
(84.2)
27.5
(81.5)
22.1
(71.8)
16.2
(61.2)
10.9
(51.6)
7.6
(45.7)
29.8
(85.6)
Average high °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
1.2
(34.2)
4.9
(40.8)
10.9
(51.6)
16.4
(61.5)
20.4
(68.7)
23.3
(73.9)
22.0
(71.6)
16.8
(62.2)
10.3
(50.5)
5.3
(41.5)
2.3
(36.1)
11.3
(52.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.5
(29.3)
−1.6
(29.1)
1.2
(34.2)
6.0
(42.8)
11.1
(52.0)
15.4
(59.7)
18.3
(64.9)
17.3
(63.1)
12.7
(54.9)
7.2
(45.0)
3.2
(37.8)
0.1
(32.2)
7.4
(45.3)
Average low °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−4.6
(23.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.1
(34.0)
5.7
(42.3)
10.4
(50.7)
13.4
(56.1)
12.7
(54.9)
8.7
(47.7)
4.1
(39.4)
0.8
(33.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
3.7
(38.7)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −14.8
(5.4)
−14.2
(6.4)
−11.3
(11.7)
−5.2
(22.6)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.7
(40.5)
8.6
(47.5)
6.4
(43.5)
1.3
(34.3)
−4.2
(24.4)
−7.1
(19.2)
−11.5
(11.3)
−17.5
(0.5)
Record low °C (°F) −24.7
(−12.5)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−23.5
(−10.3)
−9.1
(15.6)
−4.7
(23.5)
1.9
(35.4)
6.0
(42.8)
2.6
(36.7)
−3.0
(26.6)
−10.0
(14.0)
−14.0
(6.8)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−24.7
(−12.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36.7
(1.44)
29.5
(1.16)
28.0
(1.10)
29.5
(1.16)
33.6
(1.32)
59.2
(2.33)
57.6
(2.27)
65.9
(2.59)
50.2
(1.98)
50.0
(1.97)
47.9
(1.89)
49.1
(1.93)
537.4
(21.16)
Source 1: SMHI Open Data
Source 2: SMHI 1991-2020 normals
Climate data for Stockholm (2002–2018 averages & extremes)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
11.7
(53.1)
17.4
(63.3)
23.5
(74.3)
28.9
(84.0)
31.7
(89.1)
33.6
(92.5)
32.2
(90.0)
26.2
(79.2)
19.4
(66.9)
13.2
(55.8)
12.7
(54.9)
33.6
(92.5)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
6.9
(44.4)
12.5
(54.5)
18.7
(65.7)
24.6
(76.3)
27.9
(82.2)
29.8
(85.6)
28.2
(82.8)
22.6
(72.7)
15.7
(60.3)
11.1
(52.0)
7.5
(45.5)
30.7
(87.3)
Average high °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
1.0
(33.8)
4.8
(40.6)
11.2
(52.2)
17.1
(62.8)
20.9
(69.6)
24.1
(75.4)
22.3
(72.1)
17.1
(62.8)
10.2
(50.4)
5.6
(42.1)
2.6
(36.7)
11.5
(52.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.8
(35.2)
7.0
(44.6)
12.4
(54.3)
16.3
(61.3)
19.6
(67.3)
18.3
(64.9)
13.8
(56.8)
7.8
(46.0)
3.8
(38.8)
0.7
(33.3)
8.3
(46.8)
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
−1.3
(29.7)
2.8
(37.0)
7.6
(45.7)
11.6
(52.9)
15.1
(59.2)
14.3
(57.7)
10.4
(50.7)
5.4
(41.7)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.0
(41.0)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −11.9
(10.6)
−11.0
(12.2)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.2
(28.0)
2.2
(36.0)
6.8
(44.2)
11.1
(52.0)
9.6
(49.3)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.6
(30.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
−14.3
(6.3)
Record low °C (°F) −19.3
(−2.7)
−21.0
(−5.8)
−14.6
(5.7)
−5.0
(23.0)
0.5
(32.9)
3.7
(38.7)
9.0
(48.2)
6.5
(43.7)
1.2
(34.2)
−4.7
(23.5)
−11.3
(11.7)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−21.0
(−5.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40.1
(1.58)
30.4
(1.20)
24.1
(0.95)
23.9
(0.94)
34.2
(1.35)
66.0
(2.60)
57.5
(2.26)
71.1
(2.80)
47.2
(1.86)
51.6
(2.03)
50.0
(1.97)
45.5
(1.79)
541.6
(21.33)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 40.0 69.9 164.6 229.8 278.7 279.7 281.2 234.9 178.4 103.8 47.2 35.8 1,944
Source 1: SMHI average data 2002-2018
Source 2: SMHI
Climate data for Stockholm
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C 1.5
0.6
0.7
2.5
6.6
13.2
17.5
18.6
14.5
9.8
6.0
4.3
8.0
Mean daily daylight hours 6.0 10.0 12.0 15.0 17.0 19.0 18.0 15.0 13.0 10 8.0 6.0 12.4
Average Ultraviolet index 0 1 2 3 5 6 6 5 3 2 0 0 2.5
Source: Weather Atlas

Daylight hours

Stockholm's location just south of the 60th parallel north means that the number of daylight hours is relatively small during winter – about six hours – while in June and the first half of July, the nights are relatively short, with about 18 hours of daylight. Around the summer solstice the sun never reaches further below the horizon than 7.3 degrees. This gives the sky a bright blue colour in summer once the sun has set because it does not get any darker than nautical twilight. Also, when looking straight up towards the zenith, few stars are visible after the sun has gone down. This is not to be confused with the midnight sun, which occurs north of the Arctic Circle, around 7 degrees farther north.

The municipal council chamber (Swedish: Rådssalen), inside Stockholm City Hall

The Stockholm Municipal Council (Swedish: Stockholms kommunfullmäktige) is the name of the local assembly. Its 101 councillors are elected concurrently with general elections, held at the same time as the elections to the Riksdag and county councils. The Council convenes twice every month at Stockholm City Hall, and the meetings are open to the public. The matters on which the councillors decide have generally already been drafted and discussed by various boards and committees. Once decisions are referred for practical implementation, the employees of the City administrations and companies take over.

The elected majority has a Mayor and eight Vice Mayors. The Mayor and each majority Vice Mayor is the head of a department, with responsibility for a particular area of operation, such as City Planning. The opposition also has four Vice Mayors, but they hold no executive power. Together the Mayor and the 12 Vice Mayors form the Council of Mayors, and they prepare matters for the City Executive Board. The Mayor holds a special position among the Vice Mayors, chairing both the Council of Mayors and the City Executive Board.

The City Executive Board (Swedish: Kommunstyrelsen) is elected by the City Council and is equivalent to a cabinet. The City Executive Board renders an opinion in all matters decided by the council and bears the overall responsibility for follow-up, evaluation and execution of its decisions. The Board is also responsible for financial administration and long-term development. The City Executive Board consists of 13 members, who represent both the majority and the opposition. Its meetings are not open to the public.

Following the 2018 Stockholm municipal election a majority of seats in the municipal council is at present held by a centre/right-wing majority and the Mayor of Stockholm (Swedish: Finansborgarråd) is Anna Konig Jerlmyr from the Moderate Party.

Victoria Tower is one of the tallest buildings in Stockholm, located in Kista.
Headquarters of Ericsson

The vast majority of Stockholm residents work in the service industry, which accounts for roughly 85% of jobs in Stockholm. The almost total absence of heavy industry (and fossil fuel power plants) makes Stockholm one of the world's cleanest metropolises. The last decade has seen a significant number of jobs created in high technology companies. Large employers include IBM, Ericsson, and Electrolux. A major IT centre is located in Kista, in northern Stockholm.

Stockholm is Sweden's financial centre. Major Swedish banks, such as Swedbank, Handelsbanken, and SEB, are headquartered in Stockholm, as are the major insurance companies Skandia, Folksam and Trygg-Hansa. Stockholm is also home to Sweden's foremost stock exchange, the Stockholm Stock Exchange (Stockholmsbörsen). Additionally, about 45% of Swedish companies with more than 200 employees are headquartered in Stockholm. Noted clothes retailer H&M is also headquartered in the city. In recent years, tourism has played an important part in the city's economy. Stockholm County is ranked as the 10th largest visitor destination in Europe, with over 10 million commercial overnight stays per year. Among 44 European cities, Stockholm had the 6th highest growth in the number of nights spent in the period 2004–2008.

The largest companies in Stockholm, by number of employees (2017):

The city-owned company Stokab started in 1994 to build a fiber-optic network throughout the municipality as a level playing field for all operators (City of Stockholm, 2011). Around a decade later, the network was 1.2 million kilometres (0.7 million miles) long making it the longest optic fiber network in the world and now has over 90 operators and 450 enterprises as customers. 2011 was the final year of a three-year project which brought fiber to 100% of public housing, meaning an extra 95,000 houses were added. (City of Stockholm, 2011)

Research and higher education in the sciences started in Stockholm in the 18th century, with education in medicine and various research institutions such as the Stockholm Observatory. The medical education was eventually formalized in 1811 as Karolinska Institutet. KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Swedish: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan) was founded in 1827 and is Scandinavia's largest higher education institute of technology with 13,000 students. Stockholm University, founded in 1878 with university status granted in 1960, has 52,000 students as of 2008[update]. It also incorporates historical institutions, such as the Observatory, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, and the botanical garden Bergianska trädgården. The Stockholm School of Economics, founded in 1909, is one of the few private institutions of higher education in Sweden.

In the fine arts, educational institutions include the Royal College of Music, which has a history going back to the conservatory founded as part of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music in 1771, the Royal University College of Fine Arts, which has a similar historical association with the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts and a foundation date of 1735, and the Swedish National Academy of Mime and Acting, which is the continuation of the school of the Royal Dramatic Theatre, once attended by Greta Garbo. Other schools include the design school Konstfack, founded in 1844, the University College of Opera (founded in 1968 but with older roots), the University College of Dance, and the Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut (the University College of Music Education).

The Södertörn University College was founded in 1995 as a multi-disciplinary institution for southern Metropolitan Stockholm, to balance the many institutions located in the northern part of the region.

Other institutes of higher education are:

The biggest complaints from students of higher education in Stockholm are the lack of student accommodations, the difficulty in finding other accommodations and the high rent.

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(June 2017)
Estimated population, 1252–1775
YearPop.±% p.a.
1252100
12893,000+9.63%
14606,000+0.41%
15007,000+0.39%
15233,000−3.62%
15829,000+1.88%
16009,000+0.00%
YearPop.±% p.a.
163516,000+1.66%
165030,000+4.28%
168560,000+2.00%
170040,000−2.67%
172548,800+0.80%
175058,400+0.72%
177572,300+0.86%
Source: Stockholms Stads Utrednings- och Statistikkontor AB Befolkningen i Stockholm 1252–2005, p. 55
Historical population in 10-year intervals, 1800–Present
YearPop.±%
180075,800
181065,600−13.5%
182075,700+15.4%
183080,400+6.2%
184083,600+4.0%
185093,070+11.3%
1860109,878+18.1%
1870133,597+21.6%
1880167,868+25.7%
1890245,331+46.1%
1900300,523+22.5%
1910343,832+14.4%
YearPop.±%
1920419,788+22.1%
1930502,203+19.6%
1940590,543+17.6%
1950744,562+26.1%
1960808,603+8.6%
1970744,911−7.9%
1980647,214−13.1%
1990674,452+4.2%
2000750,348+11.3%
2010847,073+12.9%
2020975,551+15.2%
Source: Stockholms Stads Utrednings- och Statistikkontor AB Befolkningen i Stockholm 1252–2005, p. 55

The Stockholm region is home to around 22% of Sweden's total population, and accounts for about 29% of its gross domestic product. The geographical notion of "Stockholm" has changed over time. By the turn of the 19th century, Stockholm largely consisted of the area today known as City Centre, roughly 35 km2 (14 sq mi) or one-fifth of the current municipal area. In the ensuing decades several other areas were incorporated (such as Brännkyrka Municipality in 1913, at which time it had 25,000 inhabitants, and Spånga in 1949). The municipal border was established in 1971; with the exception of Hansta, in 1982 purchased by Stockholm Municipality from Sollentuna Municipality and today a nature reserve.

Residents by country of birth (2019)
Country Population
Total residents 974,073
Iraq 16,448
Finland 16,238
Iran 12,390
Poland 11,830
Syria 8,180
Somalia 8,178
India 7,831
Turkey 7,699
Eritrea 6,528
China 6,512
UK 5,759
Germany 5,363
Chile 5,306
Ethiopia 5,233
Greece 4,915
Other countries/territories
Thailand 4,059
Yugoslavia 3,680
France 3,598
Bosnia 3,336
Italy 3,212
Romania 3,062
Norway 3,001
Spain 2,868
Morocco 2,693
South Korea 2,306
Lebanon 2,058
Hungary 1,783
Denmark 1,746
Soviet Union 1,382
Iceland 580

Of the population of 935,619 in 2016, 461,677 were men and 473,942 women. The average age is 40 years; 40.1% of the population is between 20 and 44 years. 382,887 people, or 40.9% of the population, over the age 15 were unmarried. 259,153 people, or 27.7% of the population, were married. 99,524 or 10.6% of the population, had been married but divorced. 299,925 people or 32.1% of Stockholm's residents are of an immigrant or non-Swedish background.

As of December 2019, there were 248,708 foreign-born people in Stockholm, making up 25.5% of the population. 329,421 had a foreign-background, 33.8% of the population. The largest group of them are the Finns (17,000), followed by Iraqis (16,275), Poles (11,994) and Iranians (11,429).

Residents of Stockholm are known as Stockholmers ("stockholmare"). Languages spoken in Greater Stockholm outside of Swedish include Finnish, one of the official minority languages of Sweden; and English, as well as Albanian, Bosnian, Syriac, Arabic, Turkish, Kurdish, Persian, Dutch, Spanish, Serbian and Croatian.

The entire Stockholm metropolitan area, consisting of 26 municipalities, has a population of over 2.2 million, making it the most populous city in the Nordic region. The Stockholm urban area, defined only for statistical purposes, had a total population of 1,630,738 in 2015. In the following municipalities some of the districts are contained within the Stockholm urban area, though not all:

Stockholm urban area municipalities
Municipality Population (2016-12-31)
Stockholm 935,619
Botkyrka 90,675
Danderyd 32,653
Haninge 85,693
Huddinge 107,538
Järfälla 74,412
Nacka 99,359
Sollentuna 71,023
Solna 78,129
Sundbyberg 47,750
Tyresö 47,103
Stockholm Municipality population development years 1570–2012

Apart from being Sweden's capital, Stockholm houses many national cultural institutions. The Stockholm region is home to three of Sweden's World Heritage Sites – spots judged as invaluable places that belong to all of humanity: The Drottningholm Palace, Skogskyrkogården (The Woodland Cemetery) and Birka. In 1998, Stockholm was named European Capital of Culture.

Literature

Authors connected to Stockholm include the poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman (1740–1795), novelist and dramatist August Strindberg (1849–1912), and novelist Hjalmar Söderberg (1869–1941), all of whom made Stockholm part of their works.

Martin Beck is a fictional Swedish police detective from Stockholm, who is the main character in a series of 10 novels by Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö, collectively titled The Story of a Crime, and often based in Stockholm.

Other authors with notable heritage in Stockholm were the Nobel Prize laureate Eyvind Johnson (1900–1976) and the popular poet and composer Evert Taube (1890–1976). The novelist Per Anders Fogelström (1917–1998) wrote a popular series of historical novels depicting life in Stockholm from the mid-18th to the mid-20th century.

Architecture

Strandvägen as seen from the island of Djurgården
View of Stockholm from Avicii Arena

The city's oldest section is Gamla stan (Old Town), located on the original small islands of the city's earliest settlements and still featuring the medieval street layout. Some notable buildings of Gamla Stan are the large German Church (Tyska kyrkan) and several mansions and palaces: the Riddarhuset (the House of Nobility), the Bonde Palace, the Tessin Palace and the Oxenstierna Palace.

The oldest building in Stockholm is the Riddarholmskyrkan from the late 13th century. After a fire in 1697 when the original medieval castle was destroyed, Stockholm Palace was erected in a baroque style. Storkyrkan Cathedral, the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Stockholm, stands next to the castle. It was founded in the 13th century but is clad in a baroque exterior dating to the 18th century.

As early as the 15th century, the city had expanded outside of its original borders. Some pre-industrial, small-scale buildings from this era can still be found in Södermalm. During the 19th century and the age of industrialization Stockholm grew rapidly, with plans and architecture inspired by the large cities of the continent such as Berlin and Vienna. Notable works of this time period include public buildings such as the Royal Swedish Opera and private developments such as the luxury housing developments on Strandvägen.

In the 20th century, a nationalistic push spurred a new architectural style inspired by medieval and renaissance ancestry as well as influences of the Jugend/Art Nouveau style. A key landmark of Stockholm, the Stockholm City Hall, was erected 1911–1923 by architect Ragnar Östberg. Other notable works of these times are the Stockholm Public Library and the World Heritage Site Skogskyrkogården.

Söder Torn, an 86-metre-tall (282-foot) building in Södermalm

In the 1930s modernism characterized the development of the city as it grew. New residential areas sprang up such as the development on Gärdet while industrial development added to the growth, such as the KF manufacturing industries on Kvarnholmen located in the Nacka Municipality. In the 1950s, suburban development entered a new phase with the introduction of the Stockholm metro. The modernist developments of Vällingby and Farsta were internationally praised. In the 1960s this suburban development continued but with the aesthetic of the times, the industrialized and mass-produced blocks of flats received a large amount of criticism.

At the same time that this suburban development was taking place, the most central areas of the inner city were being redesigned, known as Norrmalmsregleringen. Sergels Torg, with its five high-rise office towers was created in the 1960s, followed by the total clearance of large areas to make room for new development projects. The most notable buildings from this period include the ensemble of the House of Culture, City Theatre and the Riksbank at Sergels Torg, designed by architect Peter Celsing.

In the 1980s, the planning ideas of modernism were starting to be questioned, resulting in suburbs with denser planning, such as Skarpnäck. In the 1990s this idea was taken further with the development of an old industrial area close to the inner city, resulting in a sort of mix of modernistic and urban planning[clarification needed] in the new area of Hammarby Sjöstad.

The municipality has appointed an official "board of beauty" called "Skönhetsrådet" to protect and preserve the beauty of the city.

Stockholm's architecture (along with Visby, Gotland) provided the inspiration for Japanese anime director Hayao Miyazaki as he sought to evoke an idealized city untouched by World War. His creation called Koriko, draws directly from what Miyazaki felt was Stockholm's sense of well-established architectural unity, vibrancy, independence, and safety.

Museums

The main hall of the Vasa Museum with a scale model of Vasa as it might have looked on its maiden voyage to the left and the preserved ship itself to the right
Moragården, one of many historical homesteads at the Skansen open-air museum

Stockholm is one of the most crowded museum-cities in the world with around 100 museums, visited by millions of people every year.

The Vasa Museum (Swedish: Vasamuseet) is a maritime museum on Djurgården which displays the only almost fully intact 17th century ship that has ever been salvaged, the 64-gun warship Vasa that sank on her maiden voyage in 1628.

The Nationalmuseum houses the largest collection of art in the country: 16,000 paintings and 30,000 objects of art handicraft. The collection dates back to the days of Gustav Vasa in the 16th century, and has since been expanded with works by artists such as Rembrandt, and Antoine Watteau, as well as constituting a main part of Sweden's art heritage, manifested in the works of Alexander Roslin, Anders Zorn, Johan Tobias Sergel, Carl Larsson, Carl Fredrik Hill and Ernst Josephson. From the year 2013 to 2018 the museum was closed due to a restoration of the building.

Moderna Museet (Museum of Modern Art) is Sweden's national museum of modern art. It has works by noted modern artists such as Picasso and Salvador Dalí.

Skansen (in English: the Sconce) is a combined open-air museum and zoo, located on the island of Djurgården. It was founded in 1891 by Artur Hazelius (1833–1901) to show the way of life in the different parts of Sweden before the industrial era.

Other notable museums (in alphabetical order):

Art galleries

Stockholm has a vibrant art scene with a number of internationally recognized art centres and commercial galleries. Amongst others, privately sponsored initiatives such as Bonniers Konsthall, Magasin 3, and state-supported institutions such as Tensta Konsthall and Index all show leading international and national artists. In the last few years, a gallery district has emerged around Hudiksvallsgatan where leading galleries such as Andréhn-Schiptjenko, Brändström & Stene have located. Other important commercial galleries include Nordenhake, Milliken Gallery and Galleri Magnus Karlsson.

Suburbs

The Stockholm suburbs are places with diverse cultural background. Some areas in the inner suburbs, including those of Skärholmen, Tensta, Jordbro, Fittja, Husby, Brandbergen, Rinkeby, Rissne, Kista, Hagsätra, Hässelby, Farsta, Rågsved, Flemingsberg, and the outer suburb of Södertälje, have high percentages of immigrants or second generation immigrants. These mainly come from the Middle East (Assyrians, Syriacs, Turks and Kurds) also Bosnians and Serbs, but there are also immigrants from Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America. Other parts of the inner suburbs, such as Täby, Danderyd, Lidingö, Nacka, Flysta and, as well as some of the suburbs mentioned above, have a majority of ethnic Swedes.

Theatres

Royal Dramatic Theatre, one of Stockholm's many theatres

Distinguished among Stockholm's many theatres are the Royal Dramatic Theatre (Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern), one of Europe's most renowned theatres, and the Royal Swedish Opera, inaugurated in 1773.

Other notable theatres are the Stockholm City Theatre (Stockholms stadsteater), the Peoples Opera (Folkoperan), the Modern Theatre of Dance (Moderna dansteatern), the China Theatre, the Göta Lejon Theatre, the Mosebacke Theatre, and the Oscar Theatre.

Amusement park

Gröna Lund is an amusement park located on the island of Djurgården. This amusement park has over 30 attractions and many restaurants. It is a popular tourist attraction and visited by thousands of people every day. It is open from the end of April to the middle of September. Gröna Lund also serves as a concert venue.

Media

Bookpublisher, Norstedt Building, seen from Vasabron, in Riddarholmen

Stockholm is the media centre of Sweden. It has four nationwide daily newspapers and is also the central location of the publicly funded radio (SR) and television (SVT). In addition, all other major television channels have their base in Stockholm, such as: TV3, TV4 and TV6. All major magazines are also located to Stockholm, as are the largest literature publisher, the Bonnier group. The world's best-selling video game Minecraft was created in Stockholm by Markus 'Notch' Persson in 2009, and its company Mojang is headquartered there.

Sports

Scenes after Hammarby won their first national bandy title in 2010

The most popular spectator sports are football and ice hockey. The three most popular football clubs in Stockholm are AIK, Djurgårdens IF and Hammarby IF, who all play in the first tier, Allsvenskan. AIK play at Sweden's national stadium for football, Friends Arena in Solna, with a capacity of 54,329. The 2017 UEFA Europa League Final was played on 24 May between AFC Ajax and Manchester United at the Friends Arena. Manchester United won the trophy after a 2–0 victory.

Djurgårdens IF and Hammarby play at Tele2 Arena in Johanneshov, with a capacity of 30,000 spectators.

All three clubs are multi-sport clubs, which have ice hockey teams; Djurgårdens IF play in the first tier, AIK in the second and Hammarby in the third tier, as well as teams in bandy, basketball, floorball and other sports, including individual sports.

Historically, the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics. From those days stem the Stockholms Olympiastadion which has since hosted numerous sports events, notably football and athletics. Other major sports arenas are Friends Arena, the new national football stadium, Avicii Arena, a multi-sport arena and one of the largest spherical buildings in the world and the nearby indoor arena Hovet.

Besides the 1912 Summer Olympics, Stockholm hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics Equestrian Games and the UEFA Euro 1992. The city was also second runner up in the 2004 Summer Olympics bids. Stockholm hosted the 1958 FIFA World Cup. Stockholm recently bid jointly with Åre for the 2026 Winter Olympics but lost out to the joint bid of Milan/Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, if awarded it would have been the second city to host both Summer and Winter Olympics after Beijing and for the 2026 Winter Paralympics and with Åre it would have also be to host all three winter event including Winter Olympic Games, Winter Paralympic Games and the Special Olympics World Winter Games in which Åre would have host in 2021 along with Östersund, however Sweden pulled out host the Special Olympic World Winter Games 2021 due to lack of funding instead it moved to Kazan, Russia and was delayed to 2022. Stockholm first bid for the Winter Olympics for 2022 Winter Olympics, but withdrew its bid in 2014 due to financial matters.

Stockholm also hosted all but one of the Nordic Games, a winter multi-sport event that predated the Winter Olympics.

In 2015, the Stockholms Kungar Rugby league club was formed. They are Stockholm's first Rugby league team and will play in Sweden's National Rugby league championship.

Every year Stockholm is host to the ÖTILLÖ Swimrun World Championship.

Stockholm has hosted the Stockholm Open, an ATP World Tour 250 series professional tennis tournament annually since 1969. Each year since 1995, the tournament has been hosted at the Kungliga tennishallen.

Cuisine

There are over 1,000 restaurants in Stockholm. As of 2019[update] Stockholm boasts a total of ten Michelin star restaurants, two with two stars and one with three stars.

Yearly events and festivals

  • Stockholm Jazz Festival is one of Sweden's oldest festivals. The festival takes place at Skeppsholmen in July.
  • Stockholm Early Music Festival, the largest international event for historical music in the Nordic countries. First week in June since 2002.
  • The Stockholm Culture Festival (Swedish: Stockholms kulturfestival) is a free recurring cultural festival in August, which is held by the City of Stockholm. Runs in parallel with We Are Stockholm.
  • We Are Stockholm is a free youth festival people between 13 and 19 years. Runs in parallel with the Stockholm Culture Festival in August and is held by the City of Stockholm. Between 2001 -2013, the festival went by the name Ung08.
  • Stockholm Pride is the largest Pride event in the Nordic countries and takes place in the last week of July every year. The Stockholm Pride festival always ends with a parade and in 2007, 50,000 people marched with the parade and about 500,000 watched.
  • The Stockholm Marathon takes place on a Saturday in early June each year.
  • The Nobel Banquet takes place at Stockholm City Hall every year on 10 December.
  • The Stockholm Water Festival (Swedish: Vattenfestivalen) was a popular summer festival held annually in Stockholm between 1991 and 1999.
  • Manifestation, a yearly ecumenical Christian festival with up to 25,000 participants.
  • Summerburst Music festival
  • The Stockholm International Film Festival is an annual film festival held in Stockholm each year since 1990.
Park on the island of Djurgården in central Stockholm

Green city with a national urban park

Stockholm is one of the cleanest capitals in the world. The city was granted the 2010 European Green Capital Award by the EU Commission; this was Europe's first "green capital". Applicant cities were evaluated in several ways: climate change, local transport, public green areas, air quality, noise, waste, water consumption, waste water treatment, sustainable utilisation of land, biodiversity and environmental management. Out of 35 participant cities, eight finalists were chosen: Stockholm, Amsterdam, Bristol, Copenhagen, Freiburg, Hamburg, Münster, and Oslo. Some of the reasons why Stockholm won the 2010 European Green Capital Award were: its integrated administrative system, which ensures that environmental aspects are considered in budgets, operational planning, reporting, and monitoring; its cut in carbon dioxide emissions by 25% per capita in ten years; and its decision towards being fossil fuel free by 2050. Stockholm has long demonstrated concern for the environment. The city's environmental program is the fifth since the first one was established in the mid-1970s. In 2011, Stockholm passed the title of European Green Capital to Hamburg, Germany.

Role model

At the beginning of 2010, Stockholm launched the program Professional Study Visits in order to share the city's green best practices. The program provides visitors with the opportunity to learn how to address issues such as waste management, urban planning, carbon dioxide emissions, and sustainable and efficient transportation system, among others.

According to the European Cities Monitor 2010, Stockholm is the best city in terms of freedom from pollution. Surrounded by 219 nature reserves, Stockholm has around 1,000 green spaces, which corresponds to 30% of the city's area. Founded in 1995, the Royal National City Park is the world's first legally protected "national urban park". For a description of the formation process, value assets and implementation of the legal protection of The Royal National Urban Park, see Schantz 2006 The water in Stockholm is so clean that people can dive and fish in the centre of the city. The waters of downtown Stockholm serve as spawning grounds for multiple fish species including trout and salmon, though human intervention is needed to keep populations up. Regarding CO2 emissions, the government's target is that Stockholm will be CO2 free before 2050.

Air quality

Stockholm used to have problematic levels of particulates (PM10) due to studded winter tires, but as of 2016 the levels are below limits, after street-specific bans. Instead the current (2016) problem is nitrogen oxides emitted by diesel vehicles. In 2016 the average levels for urban background (roof of Torkel Knutssonsgatan) were: NO2 11 μg/m3, NOx 14 μg/m3, PM10 12 μg/m3, PM2.5 4.9 μg/m3, soot 0.4 μg/m3, ultrafine particles 6200/cm3, CO 0.2 mg/m3, SO2 0.4 μg/m3, ozone 51 μg/m3. For urban street level (the densely trafficked Hornsgatan) the average levels were: NO2 43 μg/m3, NOx 104 μg/m3, PM10 23 μg/m3, PM2.5 5.9 μg/m3, soot 1.0 μg/m3, ultrafine particles 17100/cm3, CO 0.3 mg/m3, ozone 31 μg/m3.

Public transportation

A southbound full-length (3 car) C20 metrotrain departing from the Gamla stan station

Stockholm has an extensive public transport system. It consists of the Stockholm Metro (Swedish: Tunnelbanan), which consist of three color-coded main systems (green, red and blue) with seven lines (10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19); the Stockholm commuter rail (Swedish: Pendeltåget) which runs on the state-owned railroads on six lines (40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48); four light rail/tramway lines (7, 12, 21, and 22); the 891 mm narrow-gauge railway Roslagsbanan, on three lines (27, 28, 29) in the northeastern part; the local railway Saltsjöbanan, on two lines (25, 26) in the southeastern part; a large number of bus lines, and the inner-city Djurgården ferry. The overwhelming majority of the land-based public transport in Stockholm County (save for the airport buses/airport express trains and other few commercially viable bus lines) is organized under the common umbrella of Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (SL), an aktiebolag wholly owned by Stockholm County Council. Since the 1990s, the operation and maintenance of the SL public transport services are contracted out to independent companies bidding for contracts, such as MTR, which operate the Metro. The archipelago boat traffic is handled by Waxholmsbolaget, which is also wholly owned by the County Council.

SL has a common ticket system in the entire Stockholm County, which allows for easy travel between different modes of transport. The tickets are of two main types, single ticket and travel cards, both allowing for unlimited travel with SL in the entire Stockholm County for the duration of the ticket validity. On 1 April 2007, a zone system (A, B, C) and price system was introduced. Single tickets were available in forms of cash ticket, individual unit pre-paid tickets, pre-paid ticket slips of 8, sms-ticket and machine ticket. Cash tickets bought at the point of travel were the most expensive and pre-paid tickets slips of 8 are the cheapest. A single ticket costs 32 SEK with the card and 45 SEK without and is valid for 75 minutes. The duration of the travel card validity depended on the exact type; they were available from 24 hours up to a year. As of 2018, a 30-day card costs 860 SEK. Tickets of all these types were available with reduced prices for students and persons under 20 and over 65 years of age. On 9 January 2017, the zone system was removed, and the cost of the tickets was increased.

The City Line Project

Main article: Stockholm City Line

With an estimated cost of SEK 16.8 billion (January 2007 price level), which equals 2.44 billion US dollars, the City Line, an environmentally certified project, comprises a 6 km (3.7 mi)-long commuter train tunnel (in rock and water) beneath Stockholm, with two new stations (Stockholm City and Stockholm Odenplan), and a 1.4 km (0.87 mi)-long railway bridge at Årsta. The City Line was built by the Swedish Transport Administration in co-operation with the City of Stockholm, Stockholm County Council, and Stockholm Transport, SL. As Stockholm Central Station is overloaded, the purpose of this project was to double the city's track capacity and improve service efficiency. Operations began in July 2017.

Between Riddarholmen and Söder Mälarstrand, the City Line runs through a submerged concrete tunnel. As a green project, the City Line includes the purification of waste water; noise reduction through sound-attenuating tracks; the use of synthetic diesel, which provides users with clean air; and the recycling of excavated rocks.

Roads

Norra länken (North link) motorway in Stockholm

Stockholm is at the junction of the European routes E4, E18 and E20. A half-completed motorway ring road exists on the south, west and north sides of the City Centre. The northern section of the ring road, Norra Länken, opened for traffic in 2015 while the final subsea eastern section is being discussed as a future project. A bypass motorway for traffic between Northern and Southern Sweden, Förbifart Stockholm, is being built. The many islands and waterways make extensions of the road system both complicated and expensive, and new motorways are often built as systems of tunnels and bridges.

Congestion charges

A control point for the congestion charge leading up to Essingeleden

Stockholm has a congestion pricing system, the Stockholm congestion tax, in use on a permanent basis since 1 August 2007, after having had a seven-month trial period in the first half of 2006. The City Centre is within the congestion tax zone. All the entrances and exits of this area have unmanned control points operating with automatic number plate recognition. All vehicles entering or exiting the congestion tax affected area, with a few exceptions, have to pay 10–20 SEK (1.09–2.18 EUR, 1.49–2.98 USD) depending on the time of day between 06:30 and 18:29. The maximum tax amount per vehicle per day is 60 SEK (6.53 EUR). Payment is done by various means within 14 days after one has passed one of the control points; one cannot pay at the control points.

After the trial period was over, consultative referendums were held in Stockholm Municipality and several other municipalities in Stockholm County. The then-reigning government (Persson Cabinet) stated that they would only take into consideration the results of the referendum in Stockholm Municipality. The opposition parties (Alliance for Sweden) stated that if they were to form a cabinet after the general election—which was held the same day as the congestion tax referendums—they would take into consideration the referendums held in several of the other municipalities in Stockholm County as well. The results of the referendums were that the Stockholm Municipality voted for the congestion tax, while the other municipalities voted against it. The opposition parties won the general election and a few days before they formed government (Reinfeldt Cabinet) they announced that the congestion tax would be reintroduced in Stockholm, but that the revenue would go entirely to road construction in and around Stockholm. During the trial period and according to the agenda of the previous government the revenue went entirely to public transport.

Ferries

Viking Grace, one of many cruiseferries on the routes to Finland and Åland

Stockholm has regular ferry lines to Helsinki and Turku in Finland (commonly called "Finlandsfärjan"); Mariehamn, Åland; Tallinn, Estonia; Riga, Latvia, and to Saint Petersburg in Russia. The large Stockholm archipelago is served by the archipelago boats of Waxholmsbolaget (owned and subsidized by Stockholm County Council). Additionally, there are many for-profit private companies offering tours and regular service in the archipelago.

City bikes

Between April and October, during the warmer months, it is possible to rent Stockholm City Bikes by purchasing a bike card online or through retailers. Cards allow users to rent bikes from any Stockholm City Bikes stand spread across the city and return them in any stand. There are two types of cards: the Season Card (valid from 1 April to 31 October) and the 3-day card. When their validity runs out they can be reactivated and are therefore reusable. Bikes can be used for up to three hours per loan and can be rented from Monday to Sunday from 6 am to 10 pm.

Airports

Map showing the locations of airports around Stockholm

The Arlanda Express airport rail link runs between Arlanda Airport and Stockholm Central Station. With a journey of 20 minutes, the train ride is the fastest way of traveling to the city center. Arlanda Central Station is also served by commuter, regional and intercity trains.

Additionally, there are also bus lines, Flygbussarna, that run between central Stockholm and all the airports.

As of 2010[update] there are no airports specifically for general aviation in the Stockholm area.

Inter-city trains

Stockholm Central Station has train connections to many Swedish cities as well as to Oslo, Norway and Copenhagen, Denmark. The popular X 2000 service to Gothenburg takes three hours. Most of the trains are run by SJ AB.

Stockholm often performs well in international rankings, some of which are mentioned below:

  • In the book The Ultimate Guide to International Marathons (1997), written by Dennis Craythorn and Rich Hanna, Stockholm Marathon is ranked as the best marathon in the world.
  • In the 2006 European Innovation Scoreboard, prepared by the Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) and the Joint Research Centre's Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen of the European Commission, Stockholm was ranked as the most innovative city in Europe.
  • In the 2008 World Knowledge Competitiveness Index, published by the Centre for International Competitiveness, Stockholm was ranked as the sixth most competitive region in the world and the most competitive region outside the United States.
  • In the 2006 European Regional Growth Index (E-REGI), published by Jones Lang LaSalle, Stockholm was ranked fifth on the list of European cities with the strongest GDP growth forecast. Stockholm was ranked first in Scandinavia and second outside Central and Eastern Europe.
  • In the 2007 European Cities Monitor, published by Cushman & Wakefield, Stockholm was ranked as the best Nordic city to locate a business. In the same report, Stockholm was ranked first in Europe in terms of freedom from pollution.
  • In a 2007 survey performed by the environmental economist Matthew Kahn for the Reader's Digest magazine, Stockholm was ranked first on its list of the "greenest" and most "livable" cities in the world.
  • In a 2008 survey published by Reader's Digest magazine, Stockholm was ranked fourth in the world in its list of the "world's top ten honest cities".
  • In a 2008 survey published by the National Geographic Traveler magazine, Gamla stan (the old town) in Stockholm was ranked sixth on its list of rated historic places.
  • In a 2008 survey published by the Foreign Policy magazine, Stockholm was ranked twenty-fourth on its list of the world's most global cities.
  • In 2009 Stockholm was awarded the title as European Green Capital 2010, as the first Green capital ever in the European Green Capital Award scheme.
  • In 2013, Stockholm was named the 8th most competitive city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit.
  • In 2016 Stockholm was one of the cities with the most "unicorns" in the world.
  • In 2019 Stockholm was awarded the World Smart City Award in the city category for its leadership of the European Smart Cities and Communities project GrowSmarter.
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Stockholm Article Talk Language Watch Edit For other uses see Stockholm disambiguation Sthlm redirects here For the Swedish TV series see Sthlm TV series Stockholm Swedish ˈstɔ kː h ɔlm listen Finnish Tukholma 8 is the capital of Sweden It has the most populous urban area in Sweden as well as in Scandinavia Approximately 975 000 people live in the municipality 9 with 1 6 million in the urban area 6 and 2 4 million in the metropolitan area 9 The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Malaren flows into the Baltic Sea Outside the city to the east and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago The area has been settled since the Stone Age in the 6th millennium BC and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl It is also the county seat of Stockholm County StockholmCapital cityGamla stan Kastellet Stockholm City Hall Kista Science Tower Avicii Arena and Stockholm PalaceFlagCoat of armsNickname s Eken the Venice of the North the Venice of Scandinavia 1 StockholmLocation within Stockholm CountyShow map of StockholmStockholmLocation within SwedenShow map of SwedenStockholmLocation within the European UnionShow map of European UnionCoordinates 59 19 46 N 18 4 7 E 59 32944 N 18 06861 E 59 32944 18 06861 Coordinates 59 19 46 N 18 4 7 E 59 32944 N 18 06861 E 59 32944 18 06861Country SwedenProvinceSodermanland and UpplandCountyStockholm CountyMunicipalities11 StockholmHuddingeJarfallaSolnaSollentunaBotkyrkaHaningeTyresoSundbybergNackaDanderydFirst mention1252Charter13th centuryGovernment MayorAnna Konig Jerlmyr M Area 2 Capital city188 km2 73 sq mi Urban381 63 km2 147 35 sq mi Metro6 519 km2 2 517 sq mi Elevation28 m 92 ft Population 30 June 2021 3 4 5 6 Capital city975 819 Density5 200 km2 13 000 sq mi Urban 7 1 611 776 Urban density4 200 km2 11 000 sq mi Metro2 402 609 Metro density370 km2 950 sq mi DemonymsStockholmerStockholmiteTime zoneUTC 1 CET Summer DST UTC 2 CEST Postal code100 00 199 99Area code s 46 8Websitewww wbr stockholm wbr se Stockholm is the cultural media political and economic centre of Sweden The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country s GDP 10 and is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita 11 Ranked as an alpha global city 12 it is the largest in Scandinavia and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region 13 The city is home to some of Europe s top ranking universities such as the Stockholm School of Economics Karolinska Institute KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University 14 15 It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall One of the city s most prized museums the Vasa Museum is the most visited non art museum in Scandinavia 16 17 The Stockholm metro opened in 1950 is well known for the decor of its stations it has been called the longest art gallery in the world 18 19 20 Sweden s national football arena is located north of the city centre in Solna Avicii Arena the national indoor arena is in the southern part of the city The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne Victoria Australia Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies 21 including the highest courts in the judiciary 22 23 and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building the Riksdag Swedish parliament is seated in the Parliament House and the Prime Minister s residence is adjacent at Sager House 24 25 26 Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch while Drottningholm Palace a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm serves as the Royal Family s private residence 27 28 During 2020 Stockholm s population increased with 1 477 inhabitants 29 Contents 1 History and name 2 Geography 2 1 Location 2 2 Stockholm Municipality 2 2 1 Stockholm City Centre 2 2 2 Soderort 2 2 3 Vasterort 2 3 Climate 2 4 Daylight hours 3 City governance 4 Fibre optic network 5 Education 6 Demographics 7 Culture 7 1 Literature 7 2 Architecture 7 3 Museums 7 4 Art galleries 7 5 Suburbs 7 6 Theatres 7 7 Amusement park 7 8 Media 7 9 Sports 7 10 Cuisine 7 11 Yearly events and festivals 8 Environment 8 1 Green city with a national urban park 8 1 1 Role model 8 2 Air quality 9 Transport 9 1 Public transportation 9 1 1 The City Line Project 9 2 Roads 9 2 1 Congestion charges 9 3 Ferries 9 4 City bikes 9 5 Airports 9 6 Inter city trains 10 International rankings 11 Twin cities and towns 12 See also 13 References 14 External linksHistory and name EditMain article History of Stockholm Detail of engraving of Stockholm from Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna by Erik Dahlbergh and Willem Swidde printed in 1693 Panorama over Stockholm c 1868 as seen from a hot air balloon Stockholm in 1917 After the Ice Age around 8000 BC there were already many people living in what is today the Stockholm area but as temperatures dropped inhabitants moved south Thousands of years later as the ground thawed the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile people began to migrate back to the North At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Malaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings They had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created Stockholm s location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne The earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252 by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade The first part of the name stock means log in Swedish although it may also be connected to an old German word Stock meaning fortification The second part of the name holm means islet and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm According to the Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Malaren in the summer of 1187 30 Stockholm s core the present Old Town Gamla Stan was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century onward The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lubeck Hamburg Gdansk Visby Reval and Riga during this time 31 Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm s City Council was made up of 24 members half of whom were selected from the town s German speaking burghers The strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520 On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that eventually led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of royal power the population of Stockholm began to grow reaching 10 000 by 1600 The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold In 1634 Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire Trading rules were also created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories In 1697 Tre Kronor castle burned and was replaced by Stockholm Palace Throughout Sweden s history walls were created in Stockholm to defend the city from attacks These defensive walls were modified throughout the 13th to the 16th century In 1625 the Great Stockholm Fire of 1625 destroyed the southwestern section of Stadsholmen an island in the center of Stockholm 32 The amount of destruction led to the beginning of the demolition of the Stockholm walls Today most of the younger city walls cannot be found anywhere above ground However parts of the northern city walls are preserved in the Museum of Medieval Stockholm In 1710 a plague killed about 20 000 36 percent of the population 33 After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated Population growth halted and economic growth slowed The city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power However Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III Stockholm City Centre after the 1960s By the second half of the 19th century Stockholm had regained its leading economic role New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden The population also grew dramatically during this time mainly through immigration At the end of the 19th century less than 40 of the residents were Stockholm born Settlement began to expand outside the city limits The 19th century saw the establishment of a number of scientific institutes including the Karolinska Institutet The General Art and Industrial Exposition was held in 1897 From 1887 to 1953 the Old Stockholm telephone tower was a landmark originally built to link phone lines it became redundant after these were buried and it was latterly used for advertising Stockholm became a modern technologically advanced and ethnically diverse city in the latter half of the 20th century Many historical buildings were torn down during the modernist era including substantial parts of the historical district of Klara and replaced with modern architecture However in many other parts of Stockholm such as in Gamla stan Sodermalm Ostermalm Kungsholmen and Vasastan many old buildings blocks and streets built before the modernism and functionalism movements took off in Sweden around 1930 35 survived this era of demolition Throughout the century many industries shifted away from industrial activities into more high tech and service industry areas Stockholm s metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing regions in Europe and its population is expected to number 2 5 million by 2024 As a result of this massive population growth there has been a proposal to build densely packed high rise buildings in the city center connected by elevated walkways 34 Geography EditMain article Geography of Stockholm A 360 degree panorama of Stockholm inner quarters taken from the City Hall tower From left to right Riddarfjarden with Sodermalm in the background Kungsholmen Klara sjo Norrmalm with the central station in the foreground Stockholms strom Riddarholmen with the Old Town and again Riddarfjarden with Sodermalm Location Edit Stockholm is located on Sweden s east coast where the freshwater Lake Malaren Sweden s third largest lake flows out into the Baltic Sea The central parts of the city consist of fourteen islands that are continuous with the Stockholm archipelago The geographical city center is situated on the water in Riddarfjarden bay Over 30 of the city area is made up of waterways and another 30 is made up of parks and green spaces Positioned at the eastern end of the Central Swedish lowland the city s location reflect the early orientation of Swedish trade toward the Baltic region 35 Stockholm belongs to the Temperate deciduous forest biome which means the climate is very similar to that of the far northeastern area of the United States and coastal Nova Scotia in Canada The average annual temperature is 7 6 C 46 F The average rainfall is 531 mm 21 in a year The deciduous forest has four distinct seasons spring summer autumn and winter In the autumn the leaves change colour During the winter months the trees lose their leaves For details about the other municipalities in the Stockholm area see the pertinent articles North of Stockholm Municipality Jarfalla Solna Taby Sollentuna Lidingo Upplands Vasby Osteraker Sigtuna Sundbyberg Danderyd Vallentuna Ekero Upplands Bro Vaxholm and Norrtalje South of Stockholm Huddinge Nacka Botkyrka Haninge Tyreso Varmdo Sodertalje Salem Nykvarn and Nynashamn Satellite image of Stockholm in 2018 by ESA Stockholm Municipality Edit Main article Stockholm Municipality Stockholm Municipality is an administrative unit defined by geographical borders The semi official name for the municipality is City of Stockholm Stockholms stad in Swedish 36 As a municipality the City of Stockholm is subdivided into district councils which carry responsibility for primary schools social leisure and cultural services within their respective areas The municipality is usually described in terms of its three main parts Innerstaden Stockholm City Centre Soderort Southern Stockholm and Vasterort Western Stockholm The districts of these parts are Stockholm City Centre Edit Gamla stan Kungsholmen Norrmalm Sodermalm Vasastan Ostermalm Soderort Edit Enskede Arsta Vantor Farsta Hagersten Liljeholmen Skarpnack Skarholmen Alvsjo Vasterort Edit Bromma Hasselby Vallingby Rinkeby Kista Spanga Tensta The modern centre Norrmalm concentrated around the town square Sergels torg is the largest shopping district in Sweden 37 It is the most central part of Stockholm in business and shopping Climate Edit Stockholm has a humid continental climate in the 0 C isotherm Koppen Dfb 38 39 and an oceanic climate Cfb in the 3 C isotherm Although winters are cold average temperatures generally remain above 0 C for much of the year Summers are pleasantly warm and precipitation occurs throughout the year 40 Due to the city s high northerly latitude the length of the day varies widely from more than 18 hours around midsummer to only around 6 hours in late December The nights from late May until mid July are bright even when cloudy Stockholm has relatively mild weather compared to other locations at a similar latitude or even farther south With an average of 1900 hours of sunshine per year it is also one of the sunniest cities in Northern Europe receiving more sunshine than Paris 41 London 42 and a few other major European cities of a more southerly latitude Because of the urban heat island effect and the prevailing wind traveling overland rather than sea during summer months Stockholm has the warmest July months of the Nordic capitals Stockholm has an annual average snow cover between 75 and 100 days 43 In spite of its mild climate Stockholm is located further north than parts of Canada that are above the Arctic tree line at sea level 44 Summers average daytime high temperatures of 20 25 C 68 77 F and lows of around 13 C 55 F but temperatures can reach 30 C 86 F on some days Days above 30 C 86 F occur on average 1 55 days per year 1992 2011 45 Days between 25 C 77 F and 30 C 86 F are relatively common especially in July and August Night time lows of above 20 C 68 F are rare and hot summer nights vary from 17 to 18 C 63 to 64 F Winters generally bring cloudy weather with the most precipitation falling in December and January as either rain or snow The average winter temperatures range from 3 to 1 C 27 to 30 F and occasionally drop below 20 C 4 F in the outskirts of the city Spring and autumn are generally cool to mild The climate table below presents weather data from the years 1991 2020 According to ongoing measurements the temperature has increased during the years 1991 2020 as compared with the last series from 1961 1990 This increase averages about 1 0 C 1 8 F overall months Warming is most pronounced during the winter months with an increase of more than 2 0 C 3 6 F in January 46 For the 2002 2014 measurements some further increases have been found although some months such as June have been relatively flat The highest temperature ever recorded in Stockholm was 36 C 97 F on 3 July 1811 the lowest was 32 C 26 F on 20 January 1814 47 The temperature has not dropped to below 25 1 C 13 2 F since 10 January 1987 48 49 The warmest month ever recorded was July 2018 with a mean temperature of 22 5 C 72 5 F which is also the nationwide record Annual precipitation is 546 4 mm 21 51 in with around 170 wet days and light to moderate rainfall throughout the year The precipitation is not uniformly distributed throughout the year The second half of the year receives 50 more than the first half Snowfall occurs mainly from December through March Snowfall may occasionally occur in late October as well as in April In Stockholm the aurora borealis can occasionally be observed Climate data for Stockholm Observatorielunden 1991 2020 normals and extremesMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 11 0 51 8 11 6 52 9 17 5 63 5 26 1 79 0 29 0 84 2 31 7 89 1 34 2 93 6 32 1 89 8 26 2 79 2 19 5 67 1 15 0 59 0 12 7 54 9 34 2 93 6 Mean maximum C F 6 6 43 9 7 1 44 8 12 0 53 6 18 8 65 8 24 3 75 7 27 5 81 5 29 7 85 5 28 2 82 8 22 4 72 3 15 8 60 4 10 7 51 3 8 5 47 3 30 6 87 1 Average high C F 1 0 33 8 1 2 34 2 4 7 40 5 10 7 51 3 16 5 61 7 20 8 69 4 23 6 74 5 22 1 71 8 16 6 61 9 10 1 50 2 5 4 41 7 2 5 36 5 11 3 52 3 Daily mean C F 1 0 30 2 1 0 30 2 1 6 34 9 6 3 43 3 11 4 52 5 15 7 60 3 18 7 65 7 17 7 63 9 13 1 55 6 7 7 45 9 3 6 38 5 0 6 33 1 7 9 46 2 Average low C F 2 9 26 8 3 2 26 2 1 1 30 0 2 6 36 7 7 1 44 8 11 6 52 9 14 8 58 6 14 2 57 6 10 2 50 4 5 5 41 9 1 9 35 4 1 2 29 8 5 0 41 0 Mean minimum C F 11 2 11 8 10 9 12 4 7 5 18 5 2 6 27 3 1 9 35 4 7 0 44 6 10 6 51 1 9 7 49 5 4 6 40 3 0 8 30 6 4 5 23 9 8 3 17 1 13 7 7 3 Record low C F 19 3 2 7 21 0 5 8 14 6 5 7 6 7 19 9 1 4 29 5 3 7 38 7 7 8 46 0 6 5 43 7 1 2 34 2 6 4 20 5 11 3 11 7 18 5 1 3 21 0 5 8 Average precipitation mm inches 37 0 1 46 29 4 1 16 27 3 1 07 29 2 1 15 34 0 1 34 61 7 2 43 61 5 2 42 66 2 2 61 53 3 2 10 51 4 2 02 47 6 1 87 47 8 1 88 546 4 21 51 Average snowfall cm inches 23 3 9 2 25 6 10 1 18 1 7 1 5 9 2 3 1 1 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 0 7 6 6 2 6 20 3 8 0 102 7 40 4 Mean monthly sunshine hours 44 75 151 217 278 277 279 235 170 96 45 33 1 900Source 1 SMHI Open Data 50 Source 2 SMHI 1991 2020 normals 51 Climate data for Stockholm Bromma Airport 1991 2020 normals and extremesMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 11 5 52 7 12 3 54 1 17 7 63 9 27 0 80 6 28 6 83 5 30 8 87 4 34 2 93 6 31 7 89 1 26 1 79 0 20 7 69 3 15 1 59 2 13 2 55 8 34 2 93 6 Mean maximum C F 6 7 44 1 7 3 45 1 12 6 54 7 19 1 66 4 24 0 75 2 26 9 80 4 29 0 84 2 27 5 81 5 22 1 71 8 16 2 61 2 10 9 51 6 7 6 45 7 29 8 85 6 Average high C F 0 9 33 6 1 2 34 2 4 9 40 8 10 9 51 6 16 4 61 5 20 4 68 7 23 3 73 9 22 0 71 6 16 8 62 2 10 3 50 5 5 3 41 5 2 3 36 1 11 3 52 3 Daily mean C F 1 5 29 3 1 6 29 1 1 2 34 2 6 0 42 8 11 1 52 0 15 4 59 7 18 3 64 9 17 3 63 1 12 7 54 9 7 2 45 0 3 2 37 8 0 1 32 2 7 4 45 3 Average low C F 4 1 24 6 4 6 23 7 2 4 27 7 1 1 34 0 5 7 42 3 10 4 50 7 13 4 56 1 12 7 54 9 8 7 47 7 4 1 39 4 0 8 33 4 2 4 27 7 3 7 38 7 Mean minimum C F 14 8 5 4 14 2 6 4 11 3 11 7 5 2 22 6 0 7 30 7 4 7 40 5 8 6 47 5 6 4 43 5 1 3 34 3 4 2 24 4 7 1 19 2 11 5 11 3 17 5 0 5 Record low C F 24 7 12 5 23 6 10 5 23 5 10 3 9 1 15 6 4 7 23 5 1 9 35 4 6 0 42 8 2 6 36 7 3 0 26 6 10 0 14 0 14 0 6 8 24 0 11 2 24 7 12 5 Average precipitation mm inches 36 7 1 44 29 5 1 16 28 0 1 10 29 5 1 16 33 6 1 32 59 2 2 33 57 6 2 27 65 9 2 59 50 2 1 98 50 0 1 97 47 9 1 89 49 1 1 93 537 4 21 16 Source 1 SMHI Open Data 52 Source 2 SMHI 1991 2020 normals 53 Climate data for Stockholm 2002 2018 averages amp extremes Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 11 0 51 8 11 7 53 1 17 4 63 3 23 5 74 3 28 9 84 0 31 7 89 1 33 6 92 5 32 2 90 0 26 2 79 2 19 4 66 9 13 2 55 8 12 7 54 9 33 6 92 5 Mean maximum C F 6 6 43 9 6 9 44 4 12 5 54 5 18 7 65 7 24 6 76 3 27 9 82 2 29 8 85 6 28 2 82 8 22 6 72 7 15 7 60 3 11 1 52 0 7 5 45 5 30 7 87 3 Average high C F 0 6 33 1 1 0 33 8 4 8 40 6 11 2 52 2 17 1 62 8 20 9 69 6 24 1 75 4 22 3 72 1 17 1 62 8 10 2 50 4 5 6 42 1 2 6 36 7 11 5 52 6 Daily mean C F 1 4 29 5 1 1 30 0 1 8 35 2 7 0 44 6 12 4 54 3 16 3 61 3 19 6 67 3 18 3 64 9 13 8 56 8 7 8 46 0 3 8 38 8 0 7 33 3 8 3 46 8 Average low C F 3 3 26 1 3 2 26 2 1 3 29 7 2 8 37 0 7 6 45 7 11 6 52 9 15 1 59 2 14 3 57 7 10 4 50 7 5 4 41 7 2 0 35 6 1 1 30 0 5 0 41 0 Mean minimum C F 11 9 10 6 11 0 12 2 7 5 18 5 2 2 28 0 2 2 36 0 6 8 44 2 11 1 52 0 9 6 49 3 4 6 40 3 0 6 30 9 4 5 23 9 8 3 17 1 14 3 6 3 Record low C F 19 3 2 7 21 0 5 8 14 6 5 7 5 0 23 0 0 5 32 9 3 7 38 7 9 0 48 2 6 5 43 7 1 2 34 2 4 7 23 5 11 3 11 7 18 5 1 3 21 0 5 8 Average precipitation mm inches 40 1 1 58 30 4 1 20 24 1 0 95 23 9 0 94 34 2 1 35 66 0 2 60 57 5 2 26 71 1 2 80 47 2 1 86 51 6 2 03 50 0 1 97 45 5 1 79 541 6 21 33 Mean monthly sunshine hours 40 0 69 9 164 6 229 8 278 7 279 7 281 2 234 9 178 4 103 8 47 2 35 8 1 944Source 1 SMHI average data 2002 2018 54 Source 2 SMHI 55 Climate data for StockholmMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearAverage sea temperature C 1 5 0 6 0 7 2 5 6 6 13 2 17 5 18 6 14 5 9 8 6 0 4 3 8 0Mean daily daylight hours 6 0 10 0 12 0 15 0 17 0 19 0 18 0 15 0 13 0 10 8 0 6 0 12 4Average Ultraviolet index 0 1 2 3 5 6 6 5 3 2 0 0 2 5Source Weather Atlas 56 Daylight hours Edit Stockholm s location just south of the 60th parallel north means that the number of daylight hours is relatively small during winter about six hours while in June and the first half of July the nights are relatively short with about 18 hours of daylight Around the summer solstice the sun never reaches further below the horizon than 7 3 degrees 57 This gives the sky a bright blue colour in summer once the sun has set because it does not get any darker than nautical twilight Also when looking straight up towards the zenith few stars are visible after the sun has gone down This is not to be confused with the midnight sun which occurs north of the Arctic Circle around 7 degrees farther north City governance EditSee also Stockholm Municipality The municipal council chamber Swedish Radssalen inside Stockholm City Hall The Stockholm Municipal Council Swedish Stockholms kommunfullmaktige is the name of the local assembly Its 101 councillors are elected concurrently with general elections held at the same time as the elections to the Riksdag and county councils The Council convenes twice every month at Stockholm City Hall and the meetings are open to the public The matters on which the councillors decide have generally already been drafted and discussed by various boards and committees Once decisions are referred for practical implementation the employees of the City administrations and companies take over 58 The elected majority has a Mayor and eight Vice Mayors The Mayor and each majority Vice Mayor is the head of a department with responsibility for a particular area of operation such as City Planning The opposition also has four Vice Mayors but they hold no executive power Together the Mayor and the 12 Vice Mayors form the Council of Mayors and they prepare matters for the City Executive Board The Mayor holds a special position among the Vice Mayors chairing both the Council of Mayors and the City Executive Board 58 The City Executive Board Swedish Kommunstyrelsen is elected by the City Council and is equivalent to a cabinet The City Executive Board renders an opinion in all matters decided by the council and bears the overall responsibility for follow up evaluation and execution of its decisions The Board is also responsible for financial administration and long term development The City Executive Board consists of 13 members who represent both the majority and the opposition Its meetings are not open to the public 58 Following the 2018 Stockholm municipal election a majority of seats in the municipal council is at present held by a centre right wing majority and the Mayor of Stockholm Swedish Finansborgarrad is Anna Konig Jerlmyr from the Moderate Party Victoria Tower is one of the tallest buildings in Stockholm located in Kista Headquarters of Ericsson The vast majority of Stockholm residents work in the service industry which accounts for roughly 85 of jobs in Stockholm The almost total absence of heavy industry and fossil fuel power plants makes Stockholm one of the world s cleanest metropolises The last decade has seen a significant number of jobs created in high technology companies Large employers include IBM Ericsson and Electrolux A major IT centre is located in Kista in northern Stockholm Stockholm is Sweden s financial centre Major Swedish banks such as Swedbank Handelsbanken and SEB are headquartered in Stockholm as are the major insurance companies Skandia Folksam and Trygg Hansa Stockholm is also home to Sweden s foremost stock exchange the Stockholm Stock Exchange Stockholmsborsen Additionally about 45 of Swedish companies with more than 200 employees are headquartered in Stockholm 59 Noted clothes retailer H amp M is also headquartered in the city In recent years tourism has played an important part in the city s economy Stockholm County is ranked as the 10th largest visitor destination in Europe with over 10 million commercial overnight stays per year Among 44 European cities Stockholm had the 6th highest growth in the number of nights spent in the period 2004 2008 60 The largest companies in Stockholm by number of employees 2017 61 Ericsson 9 850 Sodersjukhuset 5 640 Nordea 4 400 H amp M 4 390 SEB 4 160 Handelsbanken 3 000 Skanska 2 780 Keolis 2 650 Securitas AB 2 250 JAG Personlig assistans 2 060 MTR 2 050 Postnord 2 020Fibre optic network EditThe city owned company Stokab started in 1994 to build a fiber optic network throughout the municipality as a level playing field for all operators City of Stockholm 2011 Around a decade later the network was 1 2 million kilometres 0 7 million miles long making it the longest optic fiber network in the world and now has over 90 operators and 450 enterprises as customers 2011 was the final year of a three year project which brought fiber to 100 of public housing meaning an extra 95 000 houses were added City of Stockholm 2011 Education EditMain article Education in Stockholm Stockholm School of Economics Research and higher education in the sciences started in Stockholm in the 18th century with education in medicine and various research institutions such as the Stockholm Observatory The medical education was eventually formalized in 1811 as Karolinska Institutet KTH Royal Institute of Technology Swedish Kungliga Tekniska hogskolan was founded in 1827 and is Scandinavia s largest higher education institute of technology with 13 000 students Stockholm University founded in 1878 with university status granted in 1960 has 52 000 students as of 2008 update It also incorporates historical institutions such as the Observatory the Swedish Museum of Natural History and the botanical garden Bergianska tradgarden The Stockholm School of Economics founded in 1909 is one of the few private institutions of higher education in Sweden In the fine arts educational institutions include the Royal College of Music which has a history going back to the conservatory founded as part of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music in 1771 the Royal University College of Fine Arts which has a similar historical association with the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts and a foundation date of 1735 and the Swedish National Academy of Mime and Acting which is the continuation of the school of the Royal Dramatic Theatre once attended by Greta Garbo Other schools include the design school Konstfack founded in 1844 the University College of Opera founded in 1968 but with older roots the University College of Dance and the Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut the University College of Music Education The Sodertorn University College was founded in 1995 as a multi disciplinary institution for southern Metropolitan Stockholm to balance the many institutions located in the northern part of the region Other institutes of higher education are Military Academy Karlberg the world s oldest military academy to remain in its original location inaugurated in 1792 and housed in Karlberg Palace Ersta Skondal University College University College Stockholm Enskilda Hogskolan Stockholm Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences Swedish Defence University The biggest complaints from students of higher education in Stockholm are the lack of student accommodations the difficulty in finding other accommodations and the high rent 62 63 Demographics EditThis section needs to be updated Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information June 2017 Estimated population 1252 1775YearPop p a 1252100 12893 000 9 63 14606 000 0 41 15007 000 0 39 15233 000 3 62 15829 000 1 88 16009 000 0 00 YearPop p a 163516 000 1 66 165030 000 4 28 168560 000 2 00 170040 000 2 67 172548 800 0 80 175058 400 0 72 177572 300 0 86 Source Stockholms Stads Utrednings och Statistikkontor AB Befolkningen i Stockholm 1252 2005 p 55Historical population in 10 year intervals 1800 PresentYearPop 180075 800 181065 600 13 5 182075 700 15 4 183080 400 6 2 184083 600 4 0 185093 070 11 3 1860109 878 18 1 1870133 597 21 6 1880167 868 25 7 1890245 331 46 1 1900300 523 22 5 1910343 832 14 4 YearPop 1920419 788 22 1 1930502 203 19 6 1940590 543 17 6 1950744 562 26 1 1960808 603 8 6 1970744 911 7 9 1980647 214 13 1 1990674 452 4 2 2000750 348 11 3 2010847 073 12 9 2020975 551 15 2 Source Stockholms Stads Utrednings och Statistikkontor AB Befolkningen i Stockholm 1252 2005 p 55 The Stockholm region is home to around 22 of Sweden s total population and accounts for about 29 of its gross domestic product 64 The geographical notion of Stockholm has changed over time By the turn of the 19th century Stockholm largely consisted of the area today known as City Centre roughly 35 km2 14 sq mi or one fifth of the current municipal area In the ensuing decades several other areas were incorporated such as Brannkyrka Municipality in 1913 at which time it had 25 000 inhabitants and Spanga in 1949 The municipal border was established in 1971 with the exception of Hansta in 1982 purchased by Stockholm Municipality from Sollentuna Municipality and today a nature reserve 65 Residents by country of birth 2019 66 Country PopulationTotal residents 974 073 Iraq 16 448 Finland 16 238 Iran 12 390 Poland 11 830 Syria 8 180 Somalia 8 178 India 7 831 Turkey 7 699 Eritrea 6 528 China 6 512 UK 5 759 Germany 5 363 Chile 5 306 Ethiopia 5 233 Greece 4 915Other countries territories Thailand 4 059 Yugoslavia 3 680 France 3 598 Bosnia 3 336 Italy 3 212 Romania 3 062 Norway 3 001 Spain 2 868 Morocco 2 693 South Korea 2 306 Lebanon 2 058 Hungary 1 783 Denmark 1 746 Soviet Union 1 382 Iceland 580 Of the population of 935 619 in 2016 461 677 were men and 473 942 women The average age is 40 years 40 1 of the population is between 20 and 44 years 382 887 people or 40 9 of the population over the age 15 were unmarried 259 153 people or 27 7 of the population were married 99 524 or 10 6 of the population had been married but divorced 299 925 people or 32 1 of Stockholm s residents are of an immigrant or non Swedish background 67 As of December 2019 there were 248 708 foreign born people in Stockholm making up 25 5 of the population 329 421 had a foreign background 33 8 of the population The largest group of them are the Finns 17 000 followed by Iraqis 16 275 Poles 11 994 and Iranians 11 429 Residents of Stockholm are known as Stockholmers stockholmare Languages spoken in Greater Stockholm outside of Swedish include Finnish one of the official minority languages of Sweden and English as well as Albanian Bosnian Syriac Arabic Turkish Kurdish Persian Dutch Spanish Serbian and Croatian The entire Stockholm metropolitan area consisting of 26 municipalities has a population of over 2 2 million 68 making it the most populous city in the Nordic region 69 The Stockholm urban area defined only for statistical purposes had a total population of 1 630 738 in 2015 In the following municipalities some of the districts are contained within the Stockholm urban area though not all 5 6 Stockholm urban area municipalities Municipality Population 2016 12 31 70 Stockholm 935 619Botkyrka 90 675Danderyd 32 653Haninge 85 693Huddinge 107 538Jarfalla 74 412Nacka 99 359Sollentuna 71 023Solna 78 129Sundbyberg 47 750Tyreso 47 103 Stockholm Municipality population development years 1570 2012 71 Culture EditApart from being Sweden s capital Stockholm houses many national cultural institutions The Stockholm region is home to three of Sweden s World Heritage Sites spots judged as invaluable places that belong to all of humanity The Drottningholm Palace Skogskyrkogarden The Woodland Cemetery and Birka 28 72 73 In 1998 Stockholm was named European Capital of Culture Literature Edit Authors connected to Stockholm include the poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman 1740 1795 novelist and dramatist August Strindberg 1849 1912 and novelist Hjalmar Soderberg 1869 1941 all of whom made Stockholm part of their works Martin Beck is a fictional Swedish police detective from Stockholm who is the main character in a series of 10 novels by Maj Sjowall and Per Wahloo collectively titled The Story of a Crime and often based in Stockholm Other authors with notable heritage in Stockholm were the Nobel Prize laureate Eyvind Johnson 1900 1976 and the popular poet and composer Evert Taube 1890 1976 The novelist Per Anders Fogelstrom 1917 1998 wrote a popular series of historical novels depicting life in Stockholm from the mid 18th to the mid 20th century Architecture Edit Strandvagen as seen from the island of Djurgarden Djurgardsbron bridge Stockholm Public Library designed by architect Gunnar Asplund Main article Architecture in Stockholm See also Historical fires of Stockholm View of Stockholm from Avicii Arena The city s oldest section is Gamla stan Old Town located on the original small islands of the city s earliest settlements and still featuring the medieval street layout Some notable buildings of Gamla Stan are the large German Church Tyska kyrkan and several mansions and palaces the Riddarhuset the House of Nobility the Bonde Palace the Tessin Palace and the Oxenstierna Palace The oldest building in Stockholm is the Riddarholmskyrkan from the late 13th century After a fire in 1697 when the original medieval castle was destroyed Stockholm Palace was erected in a baroque style Storkyrkan Cathedral the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Stockholm stands next to the castle It was founded in the 13th century but is clad in a baroque exterior dating to the 18th century As early as the 15th century the city had expanded outside of its original borders Some pre industrial small scale buildings from this era can still be found in Sodermalm During the 19th century and the age of industrialization Stockholm grew rapidly with plans and architecture inspired by the large cities of the continent such as Berlin and Vienna Notable works of this time period include public buildings such as the Royal Swedish Opera and private developments such as the luxury housing developments on Strandvagen In the 20th century a nationalistic push spurred a new architectural style inspired by medieval and renaissance ancestry as well as influences of the Jugend Art Nouveau style A key landmark of Stockholm the Stockholm City Hall was erected 1911 1923 by architect Ragnar Ostberg Other notable works of these times are the Stockholm Public Library and the World Heritage Site Skogskyrkogarden 73 Soder Torn an 86 metre tall 282 foot building in Sodermalm In the 1930s modernism characterized the development of the city as it grew New residential areas sprang up such as the development on Gardet while industrial development added to the growth such as the KF manufacturing industries on Kvarnholmen located in the Nacka Municipality In the 1950s suburban development entered a new phase with the introduction of the Stockholm metro The modernist developments of Vallingby and Farsta were internationally praised In the 1960s this suburban development continued but with the aesthetic of the times the industrialized and mass produced blocks of flats received a large amount of criticism At the same time that this suburban development was taking place the most central areas of the inner city were being redesigned known as Norrmalmsregleringen Sergels Torg with its five high rise office towers was created in the 1960s followed by the total clearance of large areas to make room for new development projects The most notable buildings from this period include the ensemble of the House of Culture City Theatre and the Riksbank at Sergels Torg designed by architect Peter Celsing In the 1980s the planning ideas of modernism were starting to be questioned resulting in suburbs with denser planning such as Skarpnack In the 1990s this idea was taken further with the development of an old industrial area close to the inner city resulting in a sort of mix of modernistic and urban planning clarification needed in the new area of Hammarby Sjostad The municipality has appointed an official board of beauty called Skonhetsradet to protect and preserve the beauty of the city 74 Stockholm s architecture along with Visby Gotland 75 provided the inspiration for Japanese anime director Hayao Miyazaki as he sought to evoke an idealized city untouched by World War His creation called Koriko draws directly from what Miyazaki felt was Stockholm s sense of well established architectural unity vibrancy independence and safety 76 Museums Edit Main article List of museums in Stockholm The main hall of the Vasa Museum with a scale model of Vasa as it might have looked on its maiden voyage to the left and the preserved ship itself to the right Moragarden one of many historical homesteads at the Skansen open air museum Stockholm is one of the most crowded museum cities in the world with around 100 museums visited by millions of people every year 77 The Vasa Museum Swedish Vasamuseet is a maritime museum on Djurgarden which displays the only almost fully intact 17th century ship that has ever been salvaged the 64 gun warship Vasa that sank on her maiden voyage in 1628 The Nationalmuseum houses the largest collection of art in the country 16 000 paintings and 30 000 objects of art handicraft The collection dates back to the days of Gustav Vasa in the 16th century and has since been expanded with works by artists such as Rembrandt and Antoine Watteau as well as constituting a main part of Sweden s art heritage manifested in the works of Alexander Roslin Anders Zorn Johan Tobias Sergel Carl Larsson Carl Fredrik Hill and Ernst Josephson From the year 2013 to 2018 the museum was closed due to a restoration of the building 78 Moderna Museet Museum of Modern Art is Sweden s national museum of modern art It has works by noted modern artists such as Picasso and Salvador Dali Skansen in English the Sconce is a combined open air museum and zoo located on the island of Djurgarden It was founded in 1891 by Artur Hazelius 1833 1901 to show the way of life in the different parts of Sweden before the industrial era Other notable museums in alphabetical order ABBA The Museum an interactive exhibit about the pop group ABBA Fotografiska museum of photography Livrustkammaren the royal armoury located at Stockholm Palace Nobel Museum devoted to the Nobel Prize Nobel laureates and the founder of the prize Alfred Nobel 1833 1896 Nordic Museum dedicated to the cultural history and ethnography of Sweden Royal Coin Cabinet dedicated to the history of money and economic history in general Stockholm City Museum Swedish Museum of Natural HistoryArt galleries Edit Stockholm has a vibrant art scene with a number of internationally recognized art centres and commercial galleries Amongst others privately sponsored initiatives such as Bonniers Konsthall Magasin 3 and state supported institutions such as Tensta Konsthall and Index all show leading international and national artists In the last few years a gallery district has emerged around Hudiksvallsgatan where leading galleries such as Andrehn Schiptjenko Brandstrom amp Stene have located Other important commercial galleries include Nordenhake Milliken Gallery and Galleri Magnus Karlsson Suburbs Edit The Stockholm suburbs are places with diverse cultural background Some areas in the inner suburbs including those of Skarholmen Tensta Jordbro Fittja Husby Brandbergen Rinkeby Rissne Kista Hagsatra Hasselby Farsta Ragsved Flemingsberg and the outer suburb of Sodertalje have high percentages of immigrants or second generation immigrants These mainly come from the Middle East Assyrians Syriacs Turks and Kurds also Bosnians and Serbs but there are also immigrants from Africa Southeast Asia and Latin America 79 80 Other parts of the inner suburbs such as Taby Danderyd Lidingo Nacka Flysta and as well as some of the suburbs mentioned above have a majority of ethnic Swedes Theatres Edit Royal Dramatic Theatre one of Stockholm s many theatres Distinguished among Stockholm s many theatres are the Royal Dramatic Theatre Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern one of Europe s most renowned theatres and the Royal Swedish Opera inaugurated in 1773 Other notable theatres are the Stockholm City Theatre Stockholms stadsteater the Peoples Opera Folkoperan the Modern Theatre of Dance Moderna dansteatern the China Theatre the Gota Lejon Theatre the Mosebacke Theatre and the Oscar Theatre Amusement park Edit Grona Lund is an amusement park located on the island of Djurgarden This amusement park has over 30 attractions and many restaurants It is a popular tourist attraction and visited by thousands of people every day It is open from the end of April to the middle of September Grona Lund also serves as a concert venue Media Edit Bookpublisher Norstedt Building seen from Vasabron in Riddarholmen Stockholm is the media centre of Sweden It has four nationwide daily newspapers and is also the central location of the publicly funded radio SR and television SVT In addition all other major television channels have their base in Stockholm such as TV3 TV4 and TV6 All major magazines are also located to Stockholm as are the largest literature publisher the Bonnier group The world s best selling video game Minecraft was created in Stockholm by Markus Notch Persson in 2009 and its company Mojang is headquartered there Sports Edit See also Football in Stockholm Friends Arena Scenes after Hammarby won their first national bandy title in 2010 The most popular spectator sports are football and ice hockey The three most popular football clubs in Stockholm are AIK Djurgardens IF and Hammarby IF who all play in the first tier Allsvenskan AIK play at Sweden s national stadium for football Friends Arena in Solna with a capacity of 54 329 The 2017 UEFA Europa League Final was played on 24 May between AFC Ajax and Manchester United at the Friends Arena Manchester United won the trophy after a 2 0 victory Djurgardens IF and Hammarby play at Tele2 Arena in Johanneshov with a capacity of 30 000 spectators All three clubs are multi sport clubs which have ice hockey teams Djurgardens IF play in the first tier AIK in the second and Hammarby in the third tier as well as teams in bandy basketball floorball and other sports including individual sports Historically the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics From those days stem the Stockholms Olympiastadion which has since hosted numerous sports events notably football and athletics Other major sports arenas are Friends Arena the new national football stadium Avicii Arena a multi sport arena and one of the largest spherical buildings in the world and the nearby indoor arena Hovet Besides the 1912 Summer Olympics Stockholm hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics Equestrian Games and the UEFA Euro 1992 The city was also second runner up in the 2004 Summer Olympics bids Stockholm hosted the 1958 FIFA World Cup Stockholm recently bid jointly with Are for the 2026 Winter Olympics but lost out to the joint bid of Milan Cortina d Ampezzo Italy if awarded it would have been the second city to host both Summer and Winter Olympics after Beijing and for the 2026 Winter Paralympics and with Are it would have also be to host all three winter event including Winter Olympic Games Winter Paralympic Games and the Special Olympics World Winter Games in which Are would have host in 2021 along with Ostersund however Sweden pulled out host the Special Olympic World Winter Games 2021 due to lack of funding instead it moved to Kazan Russia and was delayed to 2022 Stockholm first bid for the Winter Olympics for 2022 Winter Olympics but withdrew its bid in 2014 due to financial matters Stockholm also hosted all but one of the Nordic Games a winter multi sport event that predated the Winter Olympics In 2015 the Stockholms Kungar Rugby league club was formed They are Stockholm s first Rugby league team and will play in Sweden s National Rugby league championship Every year Stockholm is host to the OTILLO Swimrun World Championship 81 Stockholm has hosted the Stockholm Open an ATP World Tour 250 series professional tennis tournament annually since 1969 Each year since 1995 the tournament has been hosted at the Kungliga tennishallen 82 Cuisine Edit There are over 1 000 restaurants in Stockholm 83 As of 2019 update Stockholm boasts a total of ten Michelin star restaurants two with two stars and one with three stars Yearly events and festivals Edit Stockholm Marathon near Kungstradgarden in 2008 Stockholm Jazz Festival is one of Sweden s oldest festivals The festival takes place at Skeppsholmen in July 84 Stockholm Early Music Festival the largest international event for historical music in the Nordic countries First week in June since 2002 85 The Stockholm Culture Festival Swedish Stockholms kulturfestival is a free recurring cultural festival in August which is held by the City of Stockholm Runs in parallel with We Are Stockholm 86 We Are Stockholm is a free youth festival people between 13 and 19 years Runs in parallel with the Stockholm Culture Festival in August and is held by the City of Stockholm Between 2001 2013 the festival went by the name Ung08 Stockholm Pride is the largest Pride event in the Nordic countries and takes place in the last week of July every year The Stockholm Pride festival always ends with a parade and in 2007 50 000 people marched with the parade and about 500 000 watched The Stockholm Marathon takes place on a Saturday in early June each year The Nobel Banquet takes place at Stockholm City Hall every year on 10 December The Stockholm Water Festival Swedish Vattenfestivalen was a popular summer festival held annually in Stockholm between 1991 and 1999 Manifestation a yearly ecumenical Christian festival with up to 25 000 participants Summerburst Music festival The Stockholm International Film Festival is an annual film festival held in Stockholm each year since 1990 Environment Edit Park on the island of Djurgarden in central Stockholm Green city with a national urban park Edit Stockholm is one of the cleanest capitals in the world 87 The city was granted the 2010 European Green Capital Award by the EU Commission this was Europe s first green capital 88 Applicant cities were evaluated in several ways climate change local transport public green areas air quality noise waste water consumption waste water treatment sustainable utilisation of land biodiversity and environmental management 89 Out of 35 participant cities eight finalists were chosen Stockholm Amsterdam Bristol Copenhagen Freiburg Hamburg Munster and Oslo 90 Some of the reasons why Stockholm won the 2010 European Green Capital Award were its integrated administrative system which ensures that environmental aspects are considered in budgets operational planning reporting and monitoring its cut in carbon dioxide emissions by 25 per capita in ten years and its decision towards being fossil fuel free by 2050 89 Stockholm has long demonstrated concern for the environment The city s environmental program is the fifth since the first one was established in the mid 1970s 91 In 2011 Stockholm passed the title of European Green Capital to Hamburg Germany 90 Role model Edit At the beginning of 2010 Stockholm launched the program Professional Study Visits 92 in order to share the city s green best practices The program provides visitors with the opportunity to learn how to address issues such as waste management urban planning carbon dioxide emissions and sustainable and efficient transportation system among others 88 According to the European Cities Monitor 2010 93 Stockholm is the best city in terms of freedom from pollution Surrounded by 219 nature reserves Stockholm has around 1 000 green spaces which corresponds to 30 of the city s area 94 Founded in 1995 the Royal National City Park is the world s first legally protected national urban park 95 96 For a description of the formation process value assets and implementation of the legal protection of The Royal National Urban Park see Schantz 2006 The water in Stockholm is so clean that people can dive and fish in the centre of the city 94 The waters of downtown Stockholm serve as spawning grounds for multiple fish species including trout and salmon though human intervention is needed to keep populations up 97 Regarding CO2 emissions the government s target is that Stockholm will be CO2 free before 2050 94 Air quality Edit Stockholm used to have problematic levels of particulates PM10 due to studded winter tires but as of 2016 the levels are below limits after street specific bans Instead the current 2016 problem is nitrogen oxides emitted by diesel vehicles In 2016 the average levels for urban background roof of Torkel Knutssonsgatan were NO2 11 mg m3 NOx 14 mg m3 PM10 12 mg m3 PM2 5 4 9 mg m3 soot 0 4 mg m3 ultrafine particles 6200 cm3 CO 0 2 mg m3 SO2 0 4 mg m3 ozone 51 mg m3 For urban street level the densely trafficked Hornsgatan the average levels were NO2 43 mg m3 NOx 104 mg m3 PM10 23 mg m3 PM2 5 5 9 mg m3 soot 1 0 mg m3 ultrafine particles 17100 cm3 CO 0 3 mg m3 ozone 31 mg m3 98 Transport EditPublic transportation Edit Main article Public transport in Stockholm A southbound full length 3 car C20 metrotrain departing from the Gamla stan station Stockholm has an extensive public transport system It consists of the Stockholm Metro Swedish Tunnelbanan which consist of three color coded main systems green red and blue with seven lines 10 11 13 14 17 18 19 the Stockholm commuter rail Swedish Pendeltaget which runs on the state owned railroads on six lines 40 41 42 43 44 48 four light rail tramway lines 7 12 21 and 22 the 891 mm narrow gauge railway Roslagsbanan on three lines 27 28 29 in the northeastern part the local railway Saltsjobanan on two lines 25 26 in the southeastern part a large number of bus lines and the inner city Djurgarden ferry The overwhelming majority of the land based public transport in Stockholm County save for the airport buses airport express trains and other few commercially viable bus lines is organized under the common umbrella of Storstockholms Lokaltrafik SL an aktiebolag wholly owned by Stockholm County Council Since the 1990s the operation and maintenance of the SL public transport services are contracted out to independent companies bidding for contracts such as MTR which operate the Metro The archipelago boat traffic is handled by Waxholmsbolaget which is also wholly owned by the County Council An A34 tram on line 7 at Djurgardsbron SL has a common ticket system in the entire Stockholm County which allows for easy travel between different modes of transport The tickets are of two main types single ticket and travel cards both allowing for unlimited travel with SL in the entire Stockholm County for the duration of the ticket validity On 1 April 2007 a zone system A B C and price system was introduced Single tickets were available in forms of cash ticket individual unit pre paid tickets pre paid ticket slips of 8 sms ticket and machine ticket Cash tickets bought at the point of travel were the most expensive and pre paid tickets slips of 8 are the cheapest A single ticket costs 32 SEK with the card and 45 SEK without and is valid for 75 minutes The duration of the travel card validity depended on the exact type they were available from 24 hours up to a year As of 2018 a 30 day card costs 860 SEK Tickets of all these types were available with reduced prices for students and persons under 20 and over 65 years of age On 9 January 2017 the zone system was removed and the cost of the tickets was increased 99 The City Line Project Edit Main article Stockholm City Line With an estimated cost of SEK 16 8 billion January 2007 price level which equals 2 44 billion US dollars the City Line an environmentally certified project comprises a 6 km 3 7 mi long commuter train tunnel in rock and water beneath Stockholm with two new stations Stockholm City and Stockholm Odenplan and a 1 4 km 0 87 mi long railway bridge at Arsta The City Line was built by the Swedish Transport Administration in co operation with the City of Stockholm Stockholm County Council and Stockholm Transport SL As Stockholm Central Station is overloaded the purpose of this project was to double the city s track capacity and improve service efficiency Operations began in July 2017 100 101 Between Riddarholmen and Soder Malarstrand the City Line runs through a submerged concrete tunnel 100 As a green project the City Line includes the purification of waste water noise reduction through sound attenuating tracks the use of synthetic diesel which provides users with clean air and the recycling of excavated rocks 100 Roads Edit Norra lanken North link motorway in Stockholm Stockholm is at the junction of the European routes E4 E18 and E20 A half completed motorway ring road exists on the south west and north sides of the City Centre The northern section of the ring road Norra Lanken opened for traffic in 2015 while the final subsea eastern section is being discussed as a future project A bypass motorway for traffic between Northern and Southern Sweden Forbifart Stockholm is being built The many islands and waterways make extensions of the road system both complicated and expensive and new motorways are often built as systems of tunnels and bridges Congestion charges Edit Main article Stockholm congestion tax A control point for the congestion charge leading up to Essingeleden Stockholm has a congestion pricing system the Stockholm congestion tax 102 in use on a permanent basis since 1 August 2007 103 104 after having had a seven month trial period in the first half of 2006 105 The City Centre is within the congestion tax zone All the entrances and exits of this area have unmanned control points operating with automatic number plate recognition All vehicles entering or exiting the congestion tax affected area with a few exceptions have to pay 10 20 SEK 1 09 2 18 EUR 1 49 2 98 USD depending on the time of day between 06 30 and 18 29 The maximum tax amount per vehicle per day is 60 SEK 6 53 EUR 106 Payment is done by various means within 14 days after one has passed one of the control points one cannot pay at the control points 107 After the trial period was over consultative referendums were held in Stockholm Municipality and several other municipalities in Stockholm County The then reigning government Persson Cabinet stated that they would only take into consideration the results of the referendum in Stockholm Municipality The opposition parties Alliance for Sweden stated that if they were to form a cabinet after the general election which was held the same day as the congestion tax referendums they would take into consideration the referendums held in several of the other municipalities in Stockholm County as well The results of the referendums were that the Stockholm Municipality voted for the congestion tax while the other municipalities voted against it The opposition parties won the general election and a few days before they formed government Reinfeldt Cabinet they announced that the congestion tax would be reintroduced in Stockholm but that the revenue would go entirely to road construction in and around Stockholm During the trial period and according to the agenda of the previous government the revenue went entirely to public transport Ferries Edit Viking Grace one of many cruiseferries on the routes to Finland and Aland Stockholm has regular ferry lines to Helsinki and Turku in Finland commonly called Finlandsfarjan Mariehamn Aland Tallinn Estonia Riga Latvia and to Saint Petersburg in Russia The large Stockholm archipelago is served by the archipelago boats of Waxholmsbolaget owned and subsidized by Stockholm County Council Additionally there are many for profit private companies offering tours and regular service in the archipelago City bikes Edit Between April and October during the warmer months it is possible to rent Stockholm City Bikes by purchasing a bike card online or through retailers 108 Cards allow users to rent bikes from any Stockholm City Bikes stand spread across the city and return them in any stand 109 There are two types of cards the Season Card valid from 1 April to 31 October and the 3 day card When their validity runs out they can be reactivated and are therefore reusable 110 Bikes can be used for up to three hours per loan and can be rented from Monday to Sunday from 6 am to 10 pm 109 Airports Edit ARN BMA NYO VSTMap showing the locations of airports around Stockholm International and domestic Stockholm Arlanda Airport IATA ARN ICAO ESSA is the largest and busiest airport in Sweden with 27 million passengers in 2017 It is located about 40 km 25 mi north of Stockholm and serves as a hub for Scandinavian Airlines Stockholm Bromma Airport IATA BMA ICAO ESSB is located about 8 km 5 0 mi west of Stockholm Only international Stockholm Skavsta Airport IATA NYO ICAO ESKN is located 108 km 67 mi south of Stockholm It is located 5 km 3 mi away from Sodermanland County capital Nykoping Stockholm Vasteras Airport IATA VST ICAO ESOW is located 103 km 64 mi west of Stockholm in the city of Vasteras The Arlanda Express airport rail link runs between Arlanda Airport and Stockholm Central Station With a journey of 20 minutes the train ride is the fastest way of traveling to the city center Arlanda Central Station is also served by commuter regional and intercity trains Additionally there are also bus lines Flygbussarna that run between central Stockholm and all the airports As of 2010 update there are no airports specifically for general aviation in the Stockholm area Inter city trains Edit Stockholm Central Station Stockholm Central Station has train connections to many Swedish cities as well as to Oslo Norway and Copenhagen Denmark The popular X 2000 service to Gothenburg takes three hours Most of the trains are run by SJ AB International rankings EditStockholm often performs well in international rankings some of which are mentioned below In the book The Ultimate Guide to International Marathons 1997 written by Dennis Craythorn and Rich Hanna Stockholm Marathon is ranked as the best marathon in the world 111 In the 2006 European Innovation Scoreboard prepared by the Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology MERIT and the Joint Research Centre s Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen of the European Commission Stockholm was ranked as the most innovative city in Europe 112 In the 2008 World Knowledge Competitiveness Index published by the Centre for International Competitiveness Stockholm was ranked as the sixth most competitive region in the world and the most competitive region outside the United States 113 In the 2006 European Regional Growth Index E REGI published by Jones Lang LaSalle Stockholm was ranked fifth on the list of European cities with the strongest GDP growth forecast Stockholm was ranked first in Scandinavia and second outside Central and Eastern Europe 114 In the 2007 European Cities Monitor published by Cushman amp Wakefield Stockholm was ranked as the best Nordic city to locate a business In the same report Stockholm was ranked first in Europe in terms of freedom from pollution 115 In a 2007 survey performed by the environmental economist Matthew Kahn for the Reader s Digest magazine Stockholm was ranked first on its list of the greenest and most livable cities in the world 116 In a 2008 survey published by Reader s Digest magazine Stockholm was ranked fourth in the world in its list of the world s top ten honest cities 117 In a 2008 survey published by the National Geographic Traveler magazine Gamla stan the old town in Stockholm was ranked sixth on its list of rated historic places 118 In a 2008 survey published by the Foreign Policy magazine Stockholm was ranked twenty fourth on its list of the world s most global cities 119 In 2009 Stockholm was awarded the title as European Green Capital 2010 as the first Green capital ever in the European Green Capital Award scheme In 2013 Stockholm was named the 8th most competitive city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit 120 In 2016 Stockholm was one of the cities with the most unicorns in the world 121 In 2019 Stockholm was awarded the World Smart City Award in the city category for its leadership of the European Smart Cities and Communities project GrowSmarter 122 Twin cities and towns EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed June 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message La Paz Bolivia Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina Cali Colombia Copenhagen Denmark Tallinn Estonia Torshavn Faroe Islands Helsinki Finland Addis Ababa Ethiopia Nuuk Greenland Reykjavik Iceland Bassano del Grappa Italy Syracuse Sicily Italy Riga Latvia Vilnius Lithuania Podgorica Montenegro Khemisset Morocco Amsterdam Netherlands Saint Petersburg Russia Belgrade Serbia Istanbul Turkey Kyiv Ukraine Guadalajara Mexico Lusaka ZambiaSee also Edit Sweden portal Holmium a chemical element named after Stockholm List of people from Stockholm Outline of Stockholm Ports of the Baltic Sea Stockholm syndromeReferences Edit 20 Famous Cities You Can Visit Without Breaking The Bank TripAdvisor Vacation Rentals TripAdvisor Vacation Rentals Archived from the original on 5 February 2016 Retrieved 10 February 2016 Localities 2010 area population and density in localities 2005 and 2010 and change in area and population Statistics Sweden 29 May 2012 Archived from the original on 16 January 2013 Folkmangd i riket lan och kommuner 30 juni 2021 och befolkningsforandringar 1 april 30 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Jonathan November December 2008 Historic Places Rated National Geographic Traveler Archived from the original on 27 October 2008 Retrieved 1 December 2008 The 2008 Global Cities Index Foreign Policy November 2008 Archived from the original on 10 January 2010 Retrieved 9 December 2008 European Commission Environment 29 March 2020 Archived from the original on 1 March 2021 Retrieved 29 March 2020 Skog A Lewan M Karlstrom M Morgulis Yakushev S Lu Y amp Teigland R 2016 Chasing the Tale of the Unicorn PDF 29 March 2020 Archived PDF from the original on 25 February 2021 Retrieved 29 March 2020 Steven Perlberg 9 June 2013 The 17 Most Competitive Cities In The World Business Insider Archived from the original on 3 February 2014 Retrieved 30 January 2014 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Stockholm Stockholmat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Stockholm official website Stockholm Visitors Board the official visitors guide Selma Lagerlof s account of the history of Stockholm in Ch VII of The Wonderful Adventures of Nils 2 lt ref gt Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stockholm amp oldid 1066899246, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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