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Stomach

This article is about the internal organ. For the middle part of the body, see Abdomen. For other uses, see Stomach (disambiguation).
"Cardia" redirects here. For the ancient Greek colony, see Cardia (Thrace).
"Gastric" redirects here. For the sauce flavoring, see Gastrique.

The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, following chewing. It performs a chemical breakdown by means of enzymes and hydrochloric acid.

In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine. The stomach secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion. The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach into the duodenum, where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of intestines.


Contents

In humans, the stomach lies between the oesophagus and the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is in the left upper part of the abdominal cavity. The top of the stomach lies against the diaphragm. Lying behind the stomach is the pancreas. A large double fold of visceral peritoneum called the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach. Two sphincters keep the contents of the stomach contained; the lower oesophageal sphincter (found in the cardiac region), at the junction of the oesophagus and stomach, and the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the stomach with the duodenum.

The stomach is surrounded by parasympathetic (stimulant) and sympathetic (inhibitor) plexuses (networks of blood vessels and nerves in the anterior gastric, posterior, superior and inferior, celiac and myenteric), which regulate both the secretory activity of the stomach and the motor (motion) activity of its muscles.

Because it is a distensible organ, it normally expands to hold about one litre of food. The stomach of a newborn human baby will only be able to retain about 30 millilitres. The maximum stomach volume in adults is between 2 and 4 litres.

Sections

In classical anatomy the human stomach is divided into four sections, beginning at the cardia.

  • The cardia is where the contents of the esophagus empty into the stomach.
  • The fundus (from Latin 'bottom') is formed in the upper curved part.
  • The body is the main, central region of the stomach.
  • The pylorus (from Greek 'gatekeeper') is the lower section of the stomach that empties contents into the duodenum.

The cardia is defined as the region following the "z-line" of the gastroesophageal junction, the point at which the epithelium changes from stratified squamous to columnar. Near the cardia is the lower oesophageal sphincter. Recent research has shown that the cardia is not an anatomically distinct region of the stomach but a region of the oesophageal lining damaged by reflux.

Anatomical proximity

The stomach bed refers to the structures upon which the stomach rests in mammals. These include the pancreas, spleen, left kidney, left suprarenal gland, transverse colon and its mesocolon, and the diaphragm. The term was introduced around 1896 by Philip Polson of the Catholic University School of Medicine, Dublin. However this was brought into disrepute by surgeon anatomist J Massey.

Blood supply

Schematic image of the blood supply to the human stomach: left and right gastric artery, left and right gastroepiploic artery and short gastric artery.

The lesser curvature of the human stomach is supplied by the right gastric artery inferiorly and the left gastric artery superiorly, which also supplies the cardiac region. The greater curvature is supplied by the right gastroepiploic artery inferiorly and the left gastroepiploic artery superiorly. The fundus of the stomach, and also the upper portion of the greater curvature, is supplied by the short gastric arteries, which arise from the splenic artery.

Microanatomy

Wall

The gastrointestinal wall of the human stomach.
Main article: Gastrointestinal wall

Like the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the human stomach walls consist of a mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, subserosa and serosa.

The inner part of the lining of the stomach, the gastric mucosa, consists of an outer layer of column-shaped cells, a lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosa. Beneath the mucosa lies the submucosa, consisting of fibrous connective tissue. Meissner's plexus is in this layer interior to the oblique muscle layer.

Outside of the submucosa lies another muscular layer, the muscularis externa. It consists of three layers of muscular fibres, with fibres lying at angles to each other.[citation needed] These are the inner oblique, middle circular, and outer longitudinal layers. The presence of the inner oblique layer is distinct from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which do not possess this layer. Stomach contains the thickest muscularis layer consisting of three layers, thus maximum peristalsis occurs here.

  • The inner oblique layer: This layer is responsible for creating the motion that churns and physically breaks down the food. It is the only layer of the three which is not seen in other parts of the digestive system. The antrum has thicker skin cells in its walls and performs more forceful contractions than the fundus.
  • The middle circular layer: At this layer, the pylorus is surrounded by a thick circular muscular wall, which is normally tonically constricted, forming a functional (if not anatomically discrete) pyloric sphincter, which controls the movement of chyme into the duodenum. This layer is concentric to the longitudinal axis of the stomach.
  • Auerbach's plexus (myenteric plexus) is found between the outer longitudinal and the middle circular layer and is responsible for the innervation of both (causing peristalsis and mixing).

The outer longitudinal layer is responsible for moving the bolus towards the pylorus of the stomach through muscular shortening.

To the outside of the muscularis externa lies a serosa, consisting of layers of connective tissue continuous with the peritoneum.

Glands

Main article: Gastric glands
Histology of normal fundic mucosa. Fundic glands are simple, branched tubular glands that extend from the bottom of the gastric pits to the muscularis mucosae; the more distinctive cells are parietal cells. H&E stain.
Histology of normal antral mucosa. Antral mucosa is formed by branched coiled tubular glands lined by secretory cells similar in appearance to the surface mucus cells. H&E stain.

The mucosa lining the stomach is lined with a number of these pits, which receive gastric juice, secreted by between 2 and 7 gastric glands.[citation needed] Gastric juice is an acidic fluid containing hydrochloric acid and the digestive enzyme pepsin.[citation needed] The glands contains a number of cells, with the function of the glands changing depending on their position within the stomach.[citation needed]

Within the body and fundus of the stomach lie the fundic glands. In general, these glands are lined by column-shaped cells that secrete a protective layer of mucus and bicarbonate. Additional cells present include parietal cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, chief cells that secrete pepsinogen (this is a precursor to pepsin- the highly acidic environment converts the pepsinogen to pepsin), and neuroendocrine cells that secrete serotonin.[citation needed]

Glands differ where the stomach meets the esophagus and near the pylorus. Near the junction between the stomach and the oesophagus lie cardiac glands, which primarily secrete mucus. They are fewer in number than the other gastric glands and are more shallowly positioned in the mucosa. There are two kinds - either simple tubular with short ducts or compound racemose resembling the duodenal Brunner's glands.[citation needed] Near the pylorus lie pyloric glands located in the antrum of the pylorus. They secrete mucus, as well as gastrin produced by their G cells.[citation needed]

Gene and protein expression

About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and nearly 70% of these genes are expressed in the normal stomach. Just over 150 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the stomach compared to other organs, with only some 20 genes being highly specific. The corresponding specific proteins expressed in stomach are mainly involved in creating a suitable environment for handling the digestion of food for uptake of nutrients. Highly stomach-specific proteins include GKN1, expressed in the mucosa; pepsinogen PGC and the lipase LIPF, expressed in chief cells; and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells.

In early human embryogenesis, the ventral part of the embryo abuts the yolk sac. During the third week of development, as the embryo grows, it begins to surround parts of the sac. The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult gastrointestinal tract. The sac is surrounded by a network of vitelline arteries and veins. Over time, these arteries consolidate into the three main arteries that supply the developing gastrointestinal tract: the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and inferior mesenteric artery. The areas supplied by these arteries are used to define the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The surrounded sac becomes the primitive gut. Sections of this gut begin to differentiate into the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the esophagus, and stomach form from the foregut.

Digestion

Further information: Human digestive system
See also: Gastric acid

In the human digestive system, a bolus (a small rounded mass of chewed up food) enters the stomach through the esophagus via the lower esophageal sphincter. The stomach releases proteases (protein-digesting enzymes such as pepsin) and hydrochloric acid, which kills or inhibits bacteria and provides the acidic pH of 2 for the proteases to work. Food is churned by the stomach through muscular contractions of the wall called peristalsis – reducing the volume of the bolus, before looping around the fundus and the body of stomach as the boluses are converted into chyme (partially digested food). Chyme slowly passes through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum of the small intestine, where the extraction of nutrients begins.

Gastric juice in the stomach also contains pepsinogen. Hydrochloric acid activates this inactive form of enzyme into the active form, pepsin. Pepsin breaks down proteins into polypeptides.

Absorption

Although the absorption in the human digestive system is mainly a function of the small intestine, some absorption of certain small molecules nevertheless does occur in the stomach through its lining. This includes:

The parietal cells of the human stomach are responsible for producing intrinsic factor, which is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. B12 is used in cellular metabolism and is necessary for the production of red blood cells, and the functioning of the nervous system.

Control of secretion and motility

The movement and the flow of chemicals into the stomach are controlled by both the autonomic nervous system and by the various digestive hormones of the digestive system:

Gastrin The hormone gastrin causes an increase in the secretion of HCl from the parietal cells and pepsinogen from chief cells in the stomach. It also causes increased motility in the stomach. Gastrin is released by G cells in the stomach in response to distension of the antrum and digestive products (especially large quantities of incompletely digested proteins). It is inhibited by a pH normally less than 4(high acid), as well as the hormone somatostatin.
Cholecystokinin Cholecystokinin (CCK) has most effect on the gall bladder, causing gall bladder contractions, but it also decreases gastric emptying and increases release of pancreatic juice, which is alkaline and neutralizes the chyme. CCK is synthesized by I-cells in the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine.
Secretin In a different and rare manner, secretin, which has the most effects on the pancreas, also diminishes acid secretion in the stomach. Secretin is synthesized by S-cells, which are located in the duodenal mucosa as well as in the jejunal mucosa in smaller numbers.
Gastric inhibitory peptide Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) decreases both gastric acid release and motility. GIP is synthesized by K-cells, which are located in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa.
Enteroglucagon Enteroglucagon decreases both gastric acid and motility.

Other than gastrin, these hormones all act to turn off the stomach action. This is in response to food products in the liver and gall bladder, which have not yet been absorbed. The stomach needs to push food into the small intestine only when the intestine is not busy. While the intestine is full and still digesting food, the stomach acts as storage for food.

Other

Effects of EGF

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) results in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. EGF is a low-molecular-weight polypeptide first purified from the mouse submandibular gland, but since then found in many human tissues including the submandibular gland, and the parotid gland. Salivary EGF, which also seems to be regulated by dietary inorganic iodine, also plays an important physiological role in the maintenance of oro-oesophageal and gastric tissue integrity. The biological effects of salivary EGF include healing of oral and gastroesophageal ulcers, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, stimulation of DNA synthesis, and mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid, bile acids, pepsin, and trypsin and from physical, chemical, and bacterial agents.

Stomach as nutrition sensor

The human stomach can "taste" sodium glutamate using glutamate receptors and this information is passed to the lateral hypothalamus and limbic system in the brain as a palatability signal through the vagus nerve. The stomach can also sense, independently of tongue and oral taste receptors, glucose, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. This allows the brain to link nutritional value of foods to their tastes.

Thyrogastric syndrome

This syndrome defines the association between thyroid disease and chronic gastritis, which was first described in the 1960s. This term was coined also to indicate the presence of thyroid autoantibodies or autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with pernicious anemia, a late clinical stage of atrophic gastritis. In 1993, has been published a more complete investigation on the stomach and thyroid, reporting that the thyroid is, embryogenetically and phylogenetically, derived from primitive stomach, and that the thyroid cells, such as primitive gastroenteric cells, during vertebrate evolution, migrated and specialized in uptake of iodide and in storage and elaboration of iodine compounds. In fact, stomach and thyroid share iodine-concentranting ability and many morphological and functional similarities, such as cell polarity and apical microvilli, similar organ-specific antigens and associated autoimmune diseases, secretion of glycoproteins (thyroglobulin and mucin) and peptide hormones, the digesting and readsorbing ability, and lastly, similar ability to form iodotyrosines by peroxidase activity, where iodide acts as an electron donor in the presence of H2O2. In the following years, many researchers published reviews about this syndrome.

An endoscopy of a normal stomach of a healthy 65-year-old woman.

Diseases

Main article: Stomach disease

A series of radiographs can be used to examine the stomach for various disorders. This will often include the use of a barium swallow. Another method of examination of the stomach, is the use of an endoscope. A gastric emptying scan is considered the gold standard to assess gastric emptying rate.

A large number of studies have indicated that most cases of peptic ulcers, and gastritis, in humans are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, and an association has been seen with the development of stomach cancer.

A stomach rumble is actually noise from the intestines.

Surgery

In humans, many bariatric surgery procedures involve the stomach, in order to lose weight. A gastric band may be placed around the cardia area, which can adjust to limit intake. The anatomy of the stomach may be modified, or the stomach may be bypassed entirely.

Surgical removal of the stomach is called a gastrectomy, and removal of the cardia area is a called a cardiectomy. "Cardiectomy" is a term that is also used to describe the removal of the heart. A gastrectomy may be carried out because of gastric cancer or severe perforation of the stomach wall.

Fundoplication is stomach surgery in which the fundus is wrapped around the lower esophagus and stitched into place. It is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

There were previously conflicting statements in the academic anatomy community over whether the cardia is part of the stomach, part of the oesophagus or a distinct entity. Modern surgical and medical textbooks have agreed that "the gastric cardia is now clearly considered to be part of the stomach."

Etymology

The word stomach is derived from the Latin stomachus which has roots from the Greek word stomachos (στόμαχος), ultimately from stoma (στόμα), "mouth". Gastro- and gastric (meaning "related to the stomach") are both derived from the Greek word gaster (γαστήρ, meaning "belly").

Comparison of stomach glandular regions from several mammalian species. Frequency of glands may vary more smoothly between regions than is diagrammed here. Asterisk (ruminant) represents the omasum, which is absent in Tylopoda (Tylopoda also have some cardiac glands opening onto ventral reticulum and rumen) Many other variations exist among the mammals.
Yellow
Oesophagus
Green
Oesophageal (nonglandular) region.
Purple
Cardiac gland region.
Red
Fundic gland region.
Blue
Pyloric gland region.
Dark blue
Duodenum

Although the precise shape and size of the stomach varies widely among different vertebrates, the relative positions of the oesophageal and duodenal openings remain relatively constant. As a result, the organ always curves somewhat to the left before curving back to meet the pyloric sphincter. However, lampreys, hagfishes, chimaeras, lungfishes, and some teleost fish have no stomach at all, with the oesophagus opening directly into the intestine. These animals all consume diets that require little storage of food, no predigestion with gastric juices, or both.

The gastric lining is usually divided into two regions, an anterior portion lined by fundic glands and a posterior portion lined with pyloric glands. Cardiac glands are unique to mammals, and even then are absent in a number of species. The distributions of these glands vary between species, and do not always correspond with the same regions as in humans. Furthermore, in many non-human mammals, a portion of the stomach anterior to the cardiac glands is lined with epithelium essentially identical to that of the oesophagus. Ruminants, in particular, have a complex stomach, the first three chambers of which are all lined with oesophageal mucosa.

In birds and crocodilians, the stomach is divided into two regions. Anteriorly is a narrow tubular region, the proventriculus, lined by fundic glands, and connecting the true stomach to the crop. Beyond lies the powerful muscular gizzard, lined by pyloric glands, and, in some species, containing stones that the animal swallows to help grind up food.

In insects there is also a crop. The insect stomach is called the midgut.

Information about the stomach in echinoderms or molluscs can be found under the respective articles.

  • Greater omentum and stomach of humans

  • A more realistic image, showing the celiac artery and its branches in humans; the liver has been raised, and the lesser omentum and anterior layer of the greater omentum removed.

  • An autopsy of a human stomach, showing the many folds (rugae) of the stomach. 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología

  • Human stomach

  • Endoscopic image of human fundic gland polyposis.

  • High-quality image of the stomach

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Stomach
Stomach Language Watch Edit This article is about the internal organ For the middle part of the body see Abdomen For other uses see Stomach disambiguation Cardia redirects here For the ancient Greek colony see Cardia Thrace Gastric redirects here For the sauce flavoring see Gastrique The stomach is a muscular hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals including several invertebrates The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion following chewing It performs a chemical breakdown by means of enzymes and hydrochloric acid StomachScheme of digestive tract with stomach in red Sections of the human stomachDetailsPrecursorForegutSystemDigestive systemArteryRight gastric artery left gastric artery right gastro omental artery left gastro omental artery short gastric arteriesVeinRight gastric vein left gastric vein right gastroepiploic vein left gastroepiploic vein short gastric veinsNerveCeliac ganglia vagus nerve 1 LymphCeliac lymph nodes 2 IdentifiersLatinVentriculusGreekGasterMeSHD013270TA98A05 5 01 001TA22901FMA7148Anatomical terminology edit on Wikidata In humans and many other animals the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine The stomach secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food chyme from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of intestines Contents 1 Structure 1 1 Sections 1 2 Anatomical proximity 1 3 Blood supply 1 4 Microanatomy 1 4 1 Wall 1 4 2 Glands 1 5 Gene and protein expression 2 Development 3 Function 3 1 Digestion 3 2 Absorption 3 3 Control of secretion and motility 3 4 Other 4 Clinical significance 4 1 Diseases 4 2 Surgery 5 History 5 1 Etymology 6 Other animals 7 Additional images 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksStructure EditIn humans the stomach lies between the oesophagus and the duodenum the first part of the small intestine It is in the left upper part of the abdominal cavity The top of the stomach lies against the diaphragm Lying behind the stomach is the pancreas A large double fold of visceral peritoneum called the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach Two sphincters keep the contents of the stomach contained the lower oesophageal sphincter found in the cardiac region at the junction of the oesophagus and stomach and the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the stomach with the duodenum The stomach is surrounded by parasympathetic stimulant and sympathetic inhibitor plexuses networks of blood vessels and nerves in the anterior gastric posterior superior and inferior celiac and myenteric which regulate both the secretory activity of the stomach and the motor motion activity of its muscles Because it is a distensible organ it normally expands to hold about one litre of food 3 The stomach of a newborn human baby will only be able to retain about 30 millilitres The maximum stomach volume in adults is between 2 and 4 litres 4 5 Sections Edit 1 Body of stomach 2 Fundus 3 Anterior wall 4 Greater curvature 5 Lesser curvature 6 Cardia 9 Pyloric sphincter 10 Pyloric antrum 11 Pyloric canal 12 Angular incisure 13 Gastric canal 14 Rugae 6 In classical anatomy the human stomach is divided into four sections beginning at the cardia 7 The cardia is where the contents of the esophagus empty into the stomach 8 The fundus from Latin bottom is formed in the upper curved part The body is the main central region of the stomach The pylorus from Greek gatekeeper is the lower section of the stomach that empties contents into the duodenum The cardia is defined as the region following the z line of the gastroesophageal junction the point at which the epithelium changes from stratified squamous to columnar Near the cardia is the lower oesophageal sphincter 8 Recent research has shown that the cardia is not an anatomically distinct region of the stomach but a region of the oesophageal lining damaged by reflux 9 Anatomical proximity Edit The stomach bed refers to the structures upon which the stomach rests in mammals 10 11 These include the pancreas spleen left kidney left suprarenal gland transverse colon and its mesocolon and the diaphragm The term was introduced around 1896 by Philip Polson of the Catholic University School of Medicine Dublin However this was brought into disrepute by surgeon anatomist J Massey 12 13 14 Blood supply Edit Schematic image of the blood supply to the human stomach left and right gastric artery left and right gastroepiploic artery and short gastric artery 15 The lesser curvature of the human stomach is supplied by the right gastric artery inferiorly and the left gastric artery superiorly which also supplies the cardiac region The greater curvature is supplied by the right gastroepiploic artery inferiorly and the left gastroepiploic artery superiorly The fundus of the stomach and also the upper portion of the greater curvature is supplied by the short gastric arteries which arise from the splenic artery Microanatomy Edit Wall Edit The gastrointestinal wall of the human stomach Main article Gastrointestinal wall Like the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract the human stomach walls consist of a mucosa submucosa muscularis externa subserosa and serosa 16 The inner part of the lining of the stomach the gastric mucosa consists of an outer layer of column shaped cells a lamina propria and a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosa Beneath the mucosa lies the submucosa consisting of fibrous connective tissue 17 Meissner s plexus is in this layer interior to the oblique muscle layer 18 Outside of the submucosa lies another muscular layer the muscularis externa It consists of three layers of muscular fibres with fibres lying at angles to each other citation needed These are the inner oblique middle circular and outer longitudinal layers The presence of the inner oblique layer is distinct from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract which do not possess this layer 19 Stomach contains the thickest muscularis layer consisting of three layers thus maximum peristalsis occurs here The inner oblique layer This layer is responsible for creating the motion that churns and physically breaks down the food It is the only layer of the three which is not seen in other parts of the digestive system The antrum has thicker skin cells in its walls and performs more forceful contractions than the fundus The middle circular layer At this layer the pylorus is surrounded by a thick circular muscular wall which is normally tonically constricted forming a functional if not anatomically discrete pyloric sphincter which controls the movement of chyme into the duodenum This layer is concentric to the longitudinal axis of the stomach Auerbach s plexus myenteric plexus is found between the outer longitudinal and the middle circular layer and is responsible for the innervation of both causing peristalsis and mixing The outer longitudinal layer is responsible for moving the bolus towards the pylorus of the stomach through muscular shortening To the outside of the muscularis externa lies a serosa consisting of layers of connective tissue continuous with the peritoneum Glands Edit Main article Gastric glands Histology of normal fundic mucosa Fundic glands are simple branched tubular glands that extend from the bottom of the gastric pits to the muscularis mucosae the more distinctive cells are parietal cells H amp E stain Histology of normal antral mucosa Antral mucosa is formed by branched coiled tubular glands lined by secretory cells similar in appearance to the surface mucus cells H amp E stain The mucosa lining the stomach is lined with a number of these pits which receive gastric juice secreted by between 2 and 7 gastric glands citation needed Gastric juice is an acidic fluid containing hydrochloric acid and the digestive enzyme pepsin citation needed The glands contains a number of cells with the function of the glands changing depending on their position within the stomach citation needed Within the body and fundus of the stomach lie the fundic glands In general these glands are lined by column shaped cells that secrete a protective layer of mucus and bicarbonate Additional cells present include parietal cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor chief cells that secrete pepsinogen this is a precursor to pepsin the highly acidic environment converts the pepsinogen to pepsin and neuroendocrine cells that secrete serotonin 20 citation needed Glands differ where the stomach meets the esophagus and near the pylorus 21 Near the junction between the stomach and the oesophagus lie cardiac glands which primarily secrete mucus 20 They are fewer in number than the other gastric glands and are more shallowly positioned in the mucosa There are two kinds either simple tubular with short ducts or compound racemose resembling the duodenal Brunner s glands citation needed Near the pylorus lie pyloric glands located in the antrum of the pylorus They secrete mucus as well as gastrin produced by their G cells 22 citation needed Gene and protein expression Edit Further information Bioinformatics Gene and protein expression About 20 000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and nearly 70 of these genes are expressed in the normal stomach 23 24 Just over 150 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the stomach compared to other organs with only some 20 genes being highly specific The corresponding specific proteins expressed in stomach are mainly involved in creating a suitable environment for handling the digestion of food for uptake of nutrients Highly stomach specific proteins include GKN1 expressed in the mucosa pepsinogen PGC and the lipase LIPF expressed in chief cells and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF expressed in parietal cells 25 Development EditIn early human embryogenesis the ventral part of the embryo abuts the yolk sac During the third week of development as the embryo grows it begins to surround parts of the sac The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult gastrointestinal tract 26 The sac is surrounded by a network of vitelline arteries and veins Over time these arteries consolidate into the three main arteries that supply the developing gastrointestinal tract the celiac artery superior mesenteric artery and inferior mesenteric artery The areas supplied by these arteries are used to define the foregut midgut and hindgut 26 The surrounded sac becomes the primitive gut Sections of this gut begin to differentiate into the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the esophagus and stomach form from the foregut 26 Function EditDigestion Edit Further information Human digestive system See also Gastric acid In the human digestive system a bolus a small rounded mass of chewed up food enters the stomach through the esophagus via the lower esophageal sphincter The stomach releases proteases protein digesting enzymes such as pepsin and hydrochloric acid which kills or inhibits bacteria and provides the acidic pH of 2 for the proteases to work Food is churned by the stomach through muscular contractions of the wall called peristalsis reducing the volume of the bolus before looping around the fundus 27 and the body of stomach as the boluses are converted into chyme partially digested food Chyme slowly passes through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum of the small intestine where the extraction of nutrients begins Gastric juice in the stomach also contains pepsinogen Hydrochloric acid activates this inactive form of enzyme into the active form pepsin Pepsin breaks down proteins into polypeptides Absorption Edit Although the absorption in the human digestive system is mainly a function of the small intestine some absorption of certain small molecules nevertheless does occur in the stomach through its lining This includes Water if the body is dehydrated Medication such as aspirin Amino acids 28 10 20 of ingested ethanol e g from alcoholic beverages 29 Caffeine 30 To a small extent water soluble vitamins most are absorbed in the small intestine 31 The parietal cells of the human stomach are responsible for producing intrinsic factor which is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 B12 is used in cellular metabolism and is necessary for the production of red blood cells and the functioning of the nervous system Control of secretion and motility Edit The movement and the flow of chemicals into the stomach are controlled by both the autonomic nervous system and by the various digestive hormones of the digestive system Gastrin The hormone gastrin causes an increase in the secretion of HCl from the parietal cells and pepsinogen from chief cells in the stomach It also causes increased motility in the stomach Gastrin is released by G cells in the stomach in response to distension of the antrum and digestive products especially large quantities of incompletely digested proteins It is inhibited by a pH normally less than 4 high acid as well as the hormone somatostatin Cholecystokinin Cholecystokinin CCK has most effect on the gall bladder causing gall bladder contractions but it also decreases gastric emptying and increases release of pancreatic juice which is alkaline and neutralizes the chyme CCK is synthesized by I cells in the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine Secretin In a different and rare manner secretin which has the most effects on the pancreas also diminishes acid secretion in the stomach Secretin is synthesized by S cells which are located in the duodenal mucosa as well as in the jejunal mucosa in smaller numbers Gastric inhibitory peptide Gastric inhibitory peptide GIP decreases both gastric acid release and motility GIP is synthesized by K cells which are located in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa Enteroglucagon Enteroglucagon decreases both gastric acid and motility Other than gastrin these hormones all act to turn off the stomach action This is in response to food products in the liver and gall bladder which have not yet been absorbed The stomach needs to push food into the small intestine only when the intestine is not busy While the intestine is full and still digesting food the stomach acts as storage for food Other Edit Effects of EGF Epidermal growth factor EGF results in cellular proliferation differentiation and survival 32 EGF is a low molecular weight polypeptide first purified from the mouse submandibular gland but since then found in many human tissues including the submandibular gland and the parotid gland Salivary EGF which also seems to be regulated by dietary inorganic iodine also plays an important physiological role in the maintenance of oro oesophageal and gastric tissue integrity The biological effects of salivary EGF include healing of oral and gastroesophageal ulcers inhibition of gastric acid secretion stimulation of DNA synthesis and mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid bile acids pepsin and trypsin and from physical chemical and bacterial agents 33 Stomach as nutrition sensor The human stomach can taste sodium glutamate using glutamate receptors 34 and this information is passed to the lateral hypothalamus and limbic system in the brain as a palatability signal through the vagus nerve 35 The stomach can also sense independently of tongue and oral taste receptors glucose 36 carbohydrates 37 proteins 37 and fats 38 This allows the brain to link nutritional value of foods to their tastes 36 Thyrogastric syndrome This syndrome defines the association between thyroid disease and chronic gastritis which was first described in the 1960s 39 This term was coined also to indicate the presence of thyroid autoantibodies or autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with pernicious anemia a late clinical stage of atrophic gastritis 40 In 1993 has been published a more complete investigation on the stomach and thyroid 41 reporting that the thyroid is embryogenetically and phylogenetically derived from primitive stomach and that the thyroid cells such as primitive gastroenteric cells during vertebrate evolution migrated and specialized in uptake of iodide and in storage and elaboration of iodine compounds In fact stomach and thyroid share iodine concentranting ability and many morphological and functional similarities such as cell polarity and apical microvilli similar organ specific antigens and associated autoimmune diseases secretion of glycoproteins thyroglobulin and mucin and peptide hormones the digesting and readsorbing ability and lastly similar ability to form iodotyrosines by peroxidase activity where iodide acts as an electron donor in the presence of H2O2 In the following years many researchers published reviews about this syndrome 42 Clinical significance Edit An endoscopy of a normal stomach of a healthy 65 year old woman Diseases Edit Main article Stomach disease A series of radiographs can be used to examine the stomach for various disorders This will often include the use of a barium swallow Another method of examination of the stomach is the use of an endoscope A gastric emptying scan is considered the gold standard to assess gastric emptying rate 43 A large number of studies have indicated that most cases of peptic ulcers and gastritis in humans are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection and an association has been seen with the development of stomach cancer 44 A stomach rumble is actually noise from the intestines Surgery Edit In humans many bariatric surgery procedures involve the stomach in order to lose weight A gastric band may be placed around the cardia area which can adjust to limit intake The anatomy of the stomach may be modified or the stomach may be bypassed entirely Surgical removal of the stomach is called a gastrectomy and removal of the cardia area is a called a cardiectomy Cardiectomy is a term that is also used to describe the removal of the heart 45 46 47 A gastrectomy may be carried out because of gastric cancer or severe perforation of the stomach wall Fundoplication is stomach surgery in which the fundus is wrapped around the lower esophagus and stitched into place It is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD 48 History EditThere were previously conflicting statements in the academic anatomy community 49 50 51 over whether the cardia is part of the stomach part of the oesophagus or a distinct entity Modern surgical and medical textbooks have agreed that the gastric cardia is now clearly considered to be part of the stomach 52 53 Etymology Edit The word stomach is derived from the Latin stomachus which has roots from the Greek word stomachos stomaxos ultimately from stoma stoma mouth 54 Gastro and gastric meaning related to the stomach are both derived from the Greek word gaster gasthr meaning belly 55 56 57 Other animals Edit Comparison of stomach glandular regions from several mammalian species Frequency of glands may vary more smoothly between regions than is diagrammed here Asterisk ruminant represents the omasum which is absent in Tylopoda Tylopoda also have some cardiac glands opening onto ventral reticulum and rumen 58 Many other variations exist among the mammals 59 60 Yellow Oesophagus Green Oesophageal nonglandular region 61 Purple Cardiac gland region 61 Red Fundic gland region 61 Blue Pyloric gland region 61 Dark blue Duodenum Although the precise shape and size of the stomach varies widely among different vertebrates the relative positions of the oesophageal and duodenal openings remain relatively constant As a result the organ always curves somewhat to the left before curving back to meet the pyloric sphincter However lampreys hagfishes chimaeras lungfishes and some teleost fish have no stomach at all with the oesophagus opening directly into the intestine These animals all consume diets that require little storage of food no predigestion with gastric juices or both 62 The gastric lining is usually divided into two regions an anterior portion lined by fundic glands and a posterior portion lined with pyloric glands Cardiac glands are unique to mammals and even then are absent in a number of species The distributions of these glands vary between species and do not always correspond with the same regions as in humans Furthermore in many non human mammals a portion of the stomach anterior to the cardiac glands is lined with epithelium essentially identical to that of the oesophagus Ruminants in particular have a complex stomach the first three chambers of which are all lined with oesophageal mucosa 62 In birds and crocodilians the stomach is divided into two regions Anteriorly is a narrow tubular region the proventriculus lined by fundic glands and connecting the true stomach to the crop Beyond lies the powerful muscular gizzard lined by pyloric glands and in some species containing stones that the animal swallows to help grind up food 62 In insects there is also a crop The insect stomach is called the midgut Information about the stomach in echinoderms or molluscs can be found under the respective articles Additional images Edit Greater omentum and stomach of humans A more realistic image showing the celiac artery and its branches in humans the liver has been raised and the lesser omentum and anterior layer of the greater omentum removed An autopsy of a human stomach showing the many folds rugae of the stomach 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia Human stomach Endoscopic image of human fundic gland polyposis High quality image of the stomachSee also EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Stomach Gastroesophageal reflux disease Human gastrointestinal microbiota Proton pump inhibitorReferences Edit Nosek Thomas M Section 6 6ch2 s6ch2 30 Essentials of Human Physiology Archived from the original on 2016 03 24 The Stomach at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Georgetown University Sherwood Lauralee 1997 Human physiology from cells to systems Belmont CA Wadsworth Pub Co ISBN 978 0 314 09245 8 OCLC 35270048 Wenzel V Idris AH Banner MJ Kubilis PS Band R Williams JL et al 1998 Respiratory system compliance decreases after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and stomach inflation impact of large and small tidal volumes on calculated peak airway pressure Resuscitation 38 2 113 8 doi 10 1016 S0300 9572 98 00095 1 PMID 9863573 Curtis Helena amp N Sue Barnes 1994 Invitation to Biology 5 ed Worth Diagram from cancer gov Archived 2006 12 31 at the Wayback Machine Work of the United States Government Anatomy photo 37 06 0103 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Abdominal Cavity The Stomach a b Brunicardi F Charles Andersen Dana K et al eds 2010 Schwartz s principles of surgery 9th ed New York McGraw Hill Medical Pub Division ISBN 978 0071547703 Lenglinger J et al 2012 The cardia esophageal or gastric Critical reviewing the anatomy and histopathology of the esophagogastric junction Acta Chir Iugosl 59 3 15 26 doi 10 2298 ACI1203015L PMID 23654002 1 Habershon S H Diseases of the Stomach A Manual for Practitioners and Students Chicago Medical Book Company 1909 page 11 2 Weber John and Shearer Edwin Morrill Shearer s manual of human dissection Eighth Edition McGraw Hill 1999 page 157 ISBN 0 07 134624 4 3 Transactions of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland Volume 14 1896 Birmingham A mbrose Topographical anatomy of the spleen pancreas duodenum kidneys amp c pages 363 385 Retrieved 29 February 2011 4 The Lancet Volume 1 Part 1 22 February 1902 page 524 Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland Retrieved 28 February 2012 5 The Dublin journal of medical science Volume 114 page 353 Reviews and bibliographical notes Retrieved 28 February 2012 Anne M R Agur Moore Keith L 2007 Essential Clinical Anatomy Point Lippincott Williams amp Wilkins Hagerstown MD Lippincott Williams amp Wilkins ISBN 978 0 7817 6274 8 OCLC 172964542 p 150 University of Rochester medical center 2020 dead link Stomach histology Kenhub Retrieved 2021 01 09 Welcome Menizibeya Osain 2018 Gastrointestinal physiology development principles and mechanisms of regulation Cham Switzerland Springer p 628 ISBN 978 3 319 91056 7 OCLC 1042217248 SIU SOM Histology GI www siumed edu Archived from the original on 2021 01 11 Retrieved 2021 01 09 a b Dorland s 2012 Dorland s Illustrated Medical Dictionary 32nd ed Elsevier p 777 ISBN 978 1 4160 6257 8 Gallego Huidobro J Pastor L M April 1996 Histology of the mucosa of the oesophagogastric junction and the stomach in adult Rana perezi Journal of Anatomy 188 Pt 2 439 444 ISSN 0021 8782 PMC 1167580 PMID 8621343 Dorland s 2012 Dorland s Illustrated Medical Dictionary 32nd ed Elsevier p 762 ISBN 978 1 4160 6257 8 The human proteome in stomach The Human Protein Atlas www proteinatlas org Retrieved 2017 09 25 Uhlen Mathias Fagerberg Linn Hallstrom Bjorn M Lindskog Cecilia Oksvold Per Mardinoglu Adil Sivertsson Asa Kampf Caroline Sjostedt Evelina 2015 01 23 Tissue based map of the human proteome Science 347 6220 1260419 doi 10 1126 science 1260419 ISSN 0036 8075 PMID 25613900 S2CID 802377 Gremel Gabriela Wanders Alkwin Cedernaes Jonathan Fagerberg Linn Hallstrom Bjorn Edlund Karolina Sjostedt Evelina Uhlen Mathias Ponten Fredrik 2015 01 01 The human gastrointestinal tract specific transcriptome and proteome as defined by RNA sequencing and antibody based profiling Journal of Gastroenterology 50 1 46 57 doi 10 1007 s00535 014 0958 7 ISSN 0944 1174 PMID 24789573 S2CID 21302849 a b c Gary C Schoenwolf 2009 Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract Larsen s human embryology 4th ed Philadelphia Churchill Livingstone Elsevier ISBN 978 0 443 06811 9 Richard M Gore Marc S Levine 2007 Textbook of Gastrointestinal Radiology Philadelphia PA Saunders ISBN 978 1 4160 2332 6 Krehbiel C R Matthews J C Absorption of Amino acids and Peptides PDF In D Mello J P F ed Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition 2nd ed pp 41 70 Archived from the original PDF on 2015 07 15 Retrieved 2015 04 25 Alcohol and the Human Body Intoximeters Inc Retrieved 30 July 2012 Debry Gerard 1994 Coffee and Health PDF eBook Montrouge John Libbey Eurotext p 129 ISBN 9782742000371 Retrieved 2015 04 26 McGuire Michelle Beerman Kathy 2012 01 01 Nutritional Sciences From Fundamentals to Food 3 ed Cengage Learning p 419 ISBN 978 1133707387 Herbst RS 2004 Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 59 2 Suppl 21 6 doi 10 1016 j ijrobp 2003 11 041 PMID 15142631 Venturi S Venturi M 2009 Iodine in evolution of salivary glands and in oral health Nutrition and Health 20 2 119 134 doi 10 1177 026010600902000204 PMID 19835108 S2CID 25710052 Uematsu A Tsurugizawa T Kondoh T Torii K 2009 Conditioned flavor preference learning by intragastric administration of L glutamate in rats Neurosci Lett 451 3 190 3 doi 10 1016 j neulet 2008 12 054 PMID 19146916 S2CID 21764940 Uematsu A Tsurugizawa T Uneyama H Torii K 2010 Brain gut communication via vagus nerve modulates conditioned flavor preference Eur J Neurosci 31 6 1136 43 doi 10 1111 j 1460 9568 2010 07136 x PMID 20377626 S2CID 23319470 a b De Araujo Ivan E Oliveira Maia Albino J Sotnikova Tatyana D Gainetdinov Raul R Caron Marc G Nicolelis Miguel A L Simon Sidney A 2008 Food Reward in the Absence of Taste Receptor Signaling Neuron 57 6 930 41 doi 10 1016 j neuron 2008 01 032 PMID 18367093 S2CID 47453450 a b Perez C Ackroff K Sclafani A 1996 Carbohydrate and protein conditioned flavor preferences effects of nutrient preloads Physiol Behav 59 3 467 474 doi 10 1016 0031 9384 95 02085 3 PMID 8700948 S2CID 23422504 Ackroff K Lucas F Sclafani A 2005 Flavor preference conditioning as a function of fat source Physiol Behav 85 4 448 460 doi 10 1016 j physbeh 2005 05 006 PMID 15990126 S2CID 7875868 Doniach D Roitt I M Taylor K B 1965 Autoimmunity in pernicious anemia and thyroiditis a family study Ann N Y Acad Sci 124 2 605 25 Bibcode 1965NYASA 124 605D doi 10 1111 j 1749 6632 1965 tb18990 x PMID 5320499 S2CID 39456072 Cruchaud A Juditz E 1968 An analysis of gastric parietal cell antibodies and thyroid cell antibodies in patients with pernicious anaemia and thyroid disorders Clin Exp Immunol 3 8 771 81 PMC 1578967 PMID 4180858 Venturi S Venturi A Cimini D Arduini C Venturi M Guidi A 1993 A new hypothesis iodine and gastric cancer Eur J Cancer Prev 2 1 17 23 doi 10 1097 00008469 199301000 00004 PMID 8428171 Lahner E Conti L Cicone F Capriello S Cazzato M Centanni M Annibale B Virili C 2019 Thyro entero gastric autoimmunity Pathophysiology and implications for patient management A review Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 33 6 101373 doi 10 1016 j beem 2019 101373 PMID 31864909 S2CID 209446096 Masaoka Tatsuhiro Tack Jan 30 September 2009 Gastroparesis Current Concepts and Management Gut and Liver 3 3 166 173 doi 10 5009 gnl 2009 3 3 166 PMC 2852706 PMID 20431741 Brown LM 2000 Helicobacter pylori epidemiology and routes of transmission Epidemiologic Reviews 22 2 283 97 doi 10 1093 oxfordjournals epirev a018040 PMID 11218379 cardiectomy at dictionary reference com Barlow O W 1929 The survival of the circulation in the frog web after cardiectomy Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 35 1 17 24 Retrieved February 24 2008 Meltzer S J 1913 The effect of strychnin in cardiectomized frogs with destroyed lymph hearts a demonstration Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 10 2 23 24 doi 10 3181 00379727 10 16 S2CID 76506379 Minjarez Renee C Jobe Blair A 2006 Surgical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease GI Motility Online doi 10 1038 gimo56 inactive 31 October 2021 CS1 maint DOI inactive as of October 2021 link Digestive Disease Library Archived 2009 02 06 at the Wayback Machine hopkins gi nts jhu edu Department of Physiology and Cell Biology physio unr edu Esophagogastroduodenoscopy eMedicine Barrett KE 2006 Chapter 7 Esophageal Motility Archived 2013 06 02 at the Wayback Machine in Gastrointestinal Physiology Lange Medical Books McGraw Hill ISBN 0071104968 Sugarbaker David J et al 2009 Adult chest surgery with Marcia Williams and Ann Adams New York McGraw Hill Medical ISBN 978 0071434140 Simpson J A 1989 The Oxford English dictionary 2nd ed Oxford Clarendon Press Stomach ISBN 9780198611868 gasth r The New Testament Greek Lexicon gaster dictionary reference com Simpson J A 1989 The Oxford English dictionary 2nd ed Oxford Clarendon Press Gastro Gastric ISBN 9780198611868 William O Reece 2005 Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals ISBN 978 0 7817 4333 4 Finegan Esther J amp Stevens C Edward Digestive System of Vertebrates Archived from the original on 2008 12 01 Khalil Muhammad The anatomy of the digestive system onemedicine tuskegee edu Archived from the original on 2010 11 30 a b c d Wilke W L Fails A D Frandson R D 2009 Anatomy and physiology of farm animals Ames Iowa Wiley Blackwell p 346 ISBN 978 0 8138 1394 3 a b c Romer Alfred Sherwood Parsons Thomas S 1977 The Vertebrate Body Philadelphia PA Holt Saunders International pp 345 349 ISBN 978 0 03 910284 5 External links EditLook up stomach in Wiktionary the free dictionary Stomach at the Human Protein Atlas Stomach article from the Encyclopedia of Nursing amp Allied Health from enotes com Digestion of proteins in the stomach or tiyan Site with details of how ruminants process food Control of Gastric Emptying Archived 2019 11 12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stomach amp oldid 1053512354, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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