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Strait of Sicily

For waters separating Sicily from the rest of Italy, see Strait of Messina.

The Strait of Sicily (also known as Sicilian Strait, Sicilian Channel, Channel of Sicily, Sicilian Narrows and Pantelleria Channel; Italian: Canale di Sicilia or the Stretto di Sicilia; Sicilian: Canali di Sicilia or Strittu di Sicilia, Arabic:مضيق صقليةMaḍīq Ṣiqillīyah orمضيق الوطن القبلي Maḍīq al-Waṭan al-Qiblī) is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia. The strait is about 145 kilometres (90 mi) wide and divides the Tyrrhenian Sea and the western Mediterranean Sea, from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The maximum depth is 316 meters (1,037 ft).

Strait of Sicily
Strait of Sicily
Map showing the location of the Strait of Sicily
Coordinates37°12′N11°12′E /37.20°N 11.20°E /37.20; 11.20Coordinates: 37°12′N11°12′E /37.20°N 11.20°E /37.20; 11.20
Basin countriesItaly, Tunisia
Max. width145 kilometres (90 mi)
Max. depth316 meters (1,037 ft)

Deep currents in the strait flow from east to west, and the current nearer the surface travels from west to east. This unusual water flow is of interest to oceanographers.

There are regular ferries between Sicily and Tunis across the Strait of Sicily.

The island of Pantelleria lies in the middle of the strait.

Basic scheme of the two-sill system in the Strait of Sicily.

The Strait of Sicily is located between, at the eastern side, Tunisia and the Malta Bank and on the northern side, Sicily, Italy. Within the Central Mediterranean sea it is one of the topographically complex regions. With a length of 600 km it connects the Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins. The strait is delimited by two systems; at the eastern side it is connected with the Ionian Sea, south of the Malta Bank with a sill of 560 m deep, and, on the western side, two passages connect the strait with the Western Mediterranean basin. The passage or channel more closely to Sicily is narrow and around 430 m deep while the channel at the side of Tunisia is broader and shallower with a maximum depth of 365 m. Due to this particular bathymetry with two different channels, the strait is called a "two-sill strait". In the central region the strait is around 50 km till 100 km wide and 700 m till 900 m deep, but some parts consist of trenches of even 1800 m deep.

A tunnel is proposed to link Tunisia and Sicily as nowadays ferries cross the Strait regularly.

Contents

At the surface and in the upper 200 m the strait consists of an eastward flow provided by the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW). Underneath this eastward flow, the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) flows in westward direction. Just above the bottom of the Strait a relative small flow has been observed. This vein follows the same route as LIW but consists of different characteristics. The water flow is named 'transitional Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water' (tEMDW) and contains fresher, colder and denser (with a potential seawater density, σθ, of around 29.10) water than the LIW. In the Ionian Sea it fills the transitional layer between the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water and the LIW. This dense water exits the strait at a depth of 300 m at the sill and sinks down, because of its higher density than the LIW, till 1800 m when reaching the Tyrrhenian Sea flowing along the Sicilian slope. This sharp sinking down of the dense water flow is a topic of interest among oceanographers. A second topic of interest regarding this little tEMDW flow is that it crosses the midline of the strait, more precisely the Malta sill. When the dense water flow reaches the western sill, it flows along the Tunisian coast instead of the Sicilian shelf. The water mass flows at a shallow depth of 300 m, while beneath the LIW, the tEMDW flows westward. Further downstream, the LIW has lower velocities and the dense water flow returns to the geostrophic position located naturally along the Sicilian coast. Here the dense water sinks into the deeper ocean sea, around 1500 m–1850 m. This inversion of the interface slope is possible because the buoyancy and Coriolis forces are balancing each other in a so-called 'geostrophic balance' which is possible because of the flow velocities of both LIW and EMDW.

The tEMDW shows little variations in height, width and path and is thus geometrically quite stable.

Cross section of the Strait of Sicily using the horizontal and vertical component of the current from the GODAS data file of 2020.

The Central Mediterranean can be characterized by looking at differences in spatial and temporal scale. Three scales are common to use among oceanographers.

The first is the mesoscale with a horizontal scale around ten kilometers and periods of days till a maximum of ten days. The sea can be influenced within the mesoscale by wind stress, topography and by internal dynamical processes. Boundary currents and jets can be created by these processes which can evolve into vortices and filament patterns that can interact with large scale flows.

The second is the sub-basin scale with scales of 200 km till 300 km. This scale represents two dense water veins; the Atlantic Tunisian Current (ATC) which flows along the African coast and the Atlantic Ionian Stream (AIS) along the Sicilian coast. The AIS flows mainly eastward which can create upwelling on the Adventure Bank (AB) and the southern Sicilian coast. Upwelling is found to be the most intense during summer when the AIS is also relatively stronger than in other seasons. Due to the upwelling these coasts are of great interests of fishery. The ATC shows a specific path in winter while the route is less clearly-marked during summer.

The last common used scale is the large Mediterranean Basin scale which includes the thermohaline circulation. The thermohaline circulation in the Strait of Sicily is anti-estuarine and is driven by, at one site, the fresh waters entering from the Gibraltar Strait and on the other side, the negative freshwater budget from the Mediterranean Basin. Also the westward LIW in the intermediate layer and less saltier eastward Atlantic water on top are considered in this scale.

The outflow of dense-water-masses characteristics of the Strait of Sicily are not stable but have been found to change interannually. Also the thermohaline circulation showed changes in structure and stratification. These changes were caused by deep water formed in the Aegean Sea which replaced the water formed in the Adriatic during the 1990s. This dense water caused enhanced salinity and temperatures in the Aegean Sea for a few years creating the deep/mediate Mediterranean overturning perturbation which has been given the name of Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). The EMT is the major perturbation of the circulation and water mass aspects in this area since systematic observational data is available (1950s). The effect of the EMT on the Strait of Sicily was a freshening of the surface waters.

Another important circulation mechanism that exists in the Strait of Sicily is the Biomodal Oscillating System (BiOS) Which is a feedback mechanism between the Ionic and the Adriatic sea. The thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea show quasi-decadal oscillations that are related to the circulation of the Ionian Sea. The upper-layer of the northern Ionian Sea shows circulations that vary between a cyclonic movement, corresponding advection of waters from the Eastern Mediterranean with very saline waters and low nutrients (oligotrophic water), and anticyclonic movement which results in saline and copiotroph (nutrient-rich) waters from the Western Mediterranean towards the Adriatic. The density of the dense waters that flow from the Adriatic Sea into the northern Ionian Sea highly depends on the type of circulation (cyclonic, or anticyclonic) in the Ionian Sea and at the other hand influences the vorticity in the Ionian Sea itself resulting in a feedback mechanism. BiOS is one of the dominant mechanisms influencing biochemical processes in the Adriatic and therefore has great impact on the organisms within this sea and in the strait.

Through the strait of Sicily passes the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). The LIW is a westward flowing water mass in the intermediate layers (from 200 m till 400 m) formed in the Levantine basin, the most eastern part of the Mediterranean sea and ending in the strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. The LIW is characterized by high salinity and temperature. This high salinity concentrations is one of the important factors for the formation of the deep water in the Southern Adriatic and the Gulf of Lions.

During the past years (measured from 1993 till 1998) the potential temperature and salinity of the LIW have decreased significantly. This change in thermohaline properties of the LIW is in agreement with another event that occurred in the 1990s which is the uplifting of the colder and less saline deep waters in the Eastern Mediterranean referred as the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT).

Pantelleria is an Italian island located in the Strait of Sicily around 64 km from Tunisia. Nowadays the island is one of the destinations migrants, mostly from Tunisia, try to reach. Sometimes over 200 people in only two days cross the strait in little boats.

The winds that are found above the Strait of Sicily are the two Mediterranean winds: Sirocco, bringing dry and warm air from the South East and Mistral, bringing cold air from the northwest.

The Strait of Sicily is rich in biodiversity due to its different water currents. Also its geographical position between the Eastern and Western Mediterranean contributes to the high ecological importance of the strait. Warm temperature and tropical species from the Lavantin basin cross the strait. The vast variety in species cannot only be found near the surface and coasts but also the deep water contains communities of vulnerable species as the Scleractinia, Antipatharians, gorgonians and red corals.

The habitat of one of the corals in the strait, the Corallium rubrum, family of the Coralliidae (Anthozoa, Gorgonacea) is between a few meters to 120 meters deep. Its bright red calcific axis has been used for jewelry from ancient times. Although extinction of these corals is not the case yet because of high productivity in this ecosystem, a decline has been observed in the shallow waters.

These corrals are part of an initiative of worldwide conservation. During the Conference of the Parties of CITES number 14 (CoP14) two workshops were decided to be organized about the corals in the Pacific and Mediterranean.

Among the species that are fished at high rates, are the Cephalopod family. These molluscans, especially the species O. Vulgaris, are of interest both for industrial and artisanal fisheries.

Due to high biodiversity, productivity rates and importance of the different species for the ecosystem, the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Sicily are becoming of more interest for researchers during the recent years.

Also regarding the current climate change, information can be gained by researching the changes in biodiversity in the Strait of Sicily.

Tectonic Plates underneath the Strait of Sicily.

Due to the natural position of the Strait of Sicily, above the conjunction of the Eurasian and African tectonic plate, volcanic activity occurs in the strait.

The volcanic activity is mainly focused on the islands Pantelleria and Linosa. A climax in volcanic activity was found in the Pleistocene. Although minor submarine eruptions can still be found, mostly located on the seafloor along the northwest and southeast regional faults.

During historical times some seamounts did erupt while other seamounts have been covered by Pliocene-Quaternary sediments.

The submarine volcanoes are located in the Adventure Plateau, Graham and Nameless Banks. In 1831 a submarine volcano erupted on the Graham Bank at a depth of around 200 m. This eruption gave rise to the Graham Island 65 m above sea level. Also in the year 1863 this volcano erupted, whereas the youngest eruption in the region was in 1891 around 5 km north of Pantelleria. At the southeast of Graham Bank, at the Pinne Bank an emission was observed in 1941.

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Strait of Sicily
Strait of Sicily Language Watch Edit For waters separating Sicily from the rest of Italy see Strait of Messina The Strait of Sicily also known as Sicilian Strait Sicilian Channel Channel of Sicily Sicilian Narrows and Pantelleria Channel Italian Canale di Sicilia or the Stretto di Sicilia Sicilian Canali di Sicilia or Strittu di Sicilia Arabic مضيق صقلية Maḍiq Ṣiqilliyah or مضيق الوطن القبلي Maḍiq al Waṭan al Qibli is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia 1 2 The strait is about 145 kilometres 90 mi wide and divides the Tyrrhenian Sea and the western Mediterranean Sea from the eastern Mediterranean Sea The maximum depth is 316 meters 1 037 ft Strait of SicilyStrait of SicilyMap showing the location of the Strait of SicilyCoordinates37 12 N 11 12 E 37 20 N 11 20 E 37 20 11 20 Coordinates 37 12 N 11 12 E 37 20 N 11 20 E 37 20 11 20Basin countriesItaly TunisiaMax width145 kilometres 90 mi Max depth316 meters 1 037 ft Deep currents in the strait flow from east to west and the current nearer the surface travels from west to east This unusual water flow is of interest to oceanographers 3 There are regular ferries between Sicily and Tunis across the Strait of Sicily The island of Pantelleria lies in the middle of the strait Basic scheme of the two sill system in the Strait of Sicily The Strait of Sicily is located between at the eastern side Tunisia and the Malta Bank and on the northern side Sicily Italy Within the Central Mediterranean sea it is one of the topographically complex regions With a length of 600 km it connects the Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins The strait is delimited by two systems at the eastern side it is connected with the Ionian Sea south of the Malta Bank with a sill of 560 m deep and on the western side two passages connect the strait with the Western Mediterranean basin The passage or channel more closely to Sicily is narrow and around 430 m deep while the channel at the side of Tunisia is broader and shallower with a maximum depth of 365 m Due to this particular bathymetry with two different channels the strait is called a two sill strait 4 In the central region the strait is around 50 km till 100 km wide and 700 m till 900 m deep but some parts consist of trenches of even 1800 m deep 5 A tunnel is proposed to link Tunisia and Sicily as nowadays ferries cross the Strait regularly Contents 1 Flows 2 Dynamics 3 Levantine intermediate water circulation 4 Migrants 5 Winds 6 Biology 7 Volcanic activity 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksFlows EditAt the surface and in the upper 200 m the strait consists of an eastward flow provided by the Modified Atlantic Water MAW Underneath this eastward flow the Levantine Intermediate Water LIW flows in westward direction Just above the bottom of the Strait a relative small flow has been observed This vein follows the same route as LIW but consists of different characteristics 6 The water flow is named transitional Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water tEMDW 7 and contains fresher colder and denser with a potential seawater density s8 of around 29 10 water than the LIW In the Ionian Sea it fills the transitional layer between the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water and the LIW This dense water exits the strait at a depth of 300 m at the sill and sinks down because of its higher density than the LIW till 1800 m when reaching the Tyrrhenian Sea flowing along the Sicilian slope This sharp sinking down of the dense water flow is a topic of interest among oceanographers A second topic of interest regarding this little tEMDW flow is that it crosses the midline of the strait more precisely the Malta sill When the dense water flow reaches the western sill it flows along the Tunisian coast instead of the Sicilian shelf The water mass flows at a shallow depth of 300 m while beneath the LIW the tEMDW flows westward Further downstream the LIW has lower velocities and the dense water flow returns to the geostrophic position located naturally along the Sicilian coast Here the dense water sinks into the deeper ocean sea around 1500 m 1850 m This inversion of the interface slope is possible because the buoyancy and Coriolis forces are balancing each other in a so called geostrophic balance which is possible because of the flow velocities of both LIW and EMDW The tEMDW shows little variations in height width and path and is thus geometrically quite stable 5 Cross section of the Strait of Sicily using the horizontal and vertical component of the current from the GODAS data file of 2020 8 Dynamics EditThe Central Mediterranean can be characterized by looking at differences in spatial and temporal scale Three scales are common to use among oceanographers The first is the mesoscale with a horizontal scale around ten kilometers and periods of days till a maximum of ten days The sea can be influenced within the mesoscale by wind stress topography and by internal dynamical processes Boundary currents and jets can be created by these processes which can evolve into vortices and filament patterns that can interact with large scale flows 9 10 The second is the sub basin scale with scales of 200 km till 300 km This scale represents two dense water veins the Atlantic Tunisian Current ATC 11 which flows along the African coast and the Atlantic Ionian Stream AIS 12 along the Sicilian coast The AIS flows mainly eastward which can create upwelling on the Adventure Bank AB and the southern Sicilian coast Upwelling is found to be the most intense during summer when the AIS is also relatively stronger than in other seasons Due to the upwelling these coasts are of great interests of fishery The ATC shows a specific path in winter while the route is less clearly marked during summer The last common used scale is the large Mediterranean Basin scale which includes the thermohaline circulation The thermohaline circulation in the Strait of Sicily is anti estuarine and is driven by at one site the fresh waters entering from the Gibraltar Strait and on the other side the negative freshwater budget from the Mediterranean Basin 13 Also the westward LIW in the intermediate layer and less saltier eastward Atlantic water on top are considered in this scale 14 13 15 The outflow of dense water masses characteristics of the Strait of Sicily are not stable but have been found to change interannually 16 Also the thermohaline circulation showed changes in structure and stratification These changes were caused by deep water formed in the Aegean Sea which replaced the water formed in the Adriatic during the 1990s This dense water caused enhanced salinity and temperatures in the Aegean Sea for a few years creating the deep mediate Mediterranean overturning perturbation which has been given the name of Eastern Mediterranean Transient EMT 17 18 The EMT is the major perturbation of the circulation and water mass aspects in this area since systematic observational data is available 1950s The effect of the EMT on the Strait of Sicily was a freshening of the surface waters 19 Another important circulation mechanism that exists in the Strait of Sicily is the Biomodal Oscillating System BiOS 20 Which is a feedback mechanism between the Ionic and the Adriatic sea The thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea show quasi decadal oscillations that are related to the circulation of the Ionian Sea The upper layer of the northern Ionian Sea shows circulations that vary between a cyclonic movement corresponding advection of waters from the Eastern Mediterranean with very saline waters and low nutrients oligotrophic water and anticyclonic movement which results in saline and copiotroph nutrient rich waters from the Western Mediterranean towards the Adriatic The density of the dense waters that flow from the Adriatic Sea into the northern Ionian Sea highly depends on the type of circulation cyclonic or anticyclonic in the Ionian Sea and at the other hand influences the vorticity in the Ionian Sea itself resulting in a feedback mechanism BiOS is one of the dominant mechanisms influencing biochemical processes in the Adriatic and therefore has great impact on the organisms within this sea 21 and in the strait Levantine intermediate water circulation EditThrough the strait of Sicily passes the Levantine Intermediate Water LIW The LIW is a westward flowing water mass in the intermediate layers from 200 m till 400 m formed in the Levantine basin the most eastern part of the Mediterranean sea and ending in the strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean The LIW is characterized by high salinity and temperature This high salinity concentrations is one of the important factors for the formation of the deep water in the Southern Adriatic and the Gulf of Lions 22 During the past years measured from 1993 till 1998 the potential temperature and salinity of the LIW have decreased significantly This change in thermohaline properties of the LIW is in agreement with another event that occurred in the 1990s which is the uplifting of the colder and less saline deep waters in the Eastern Mediterranean referred as the Eastern Mediterranean Transient EMT 4 Migrants EditPantelleria is an Italian island located in the Strait of Sicily around 64 km from Tunisia Nowadays the island is one of the destinations migrants mostly from Tunisia try to reach Sometimes over 200 people in only two days cross the strait in little boats 23 Winds EditThe winds that are found above the Strait of Sicily are the two Mediterranean winds Sirocco bringing dry and warm air from the South East and Mistral bringing cold air from the northwest Biology EditThe Strait of Sicily is rich in biodiversity due to its different water currents Also its geographical position between the Eastern and Western Mediterranean contributes to the high ecological importance of the strait Warm temperature and tropical species from the Lavantin basin cross the strait The vast variety in species cannot only be found near the surface and coasts but also the deep water contains communities of vulnerable species as the Scleractinia Antipatharians gorgonians and red corals 24 The habitat of one of the corals in the strait the Corallium rubrum family of the Coralliidae Anthozoa Gorgonacea is between a few meters to 120 meters deep 25 Its bright red calcific axis has been used for jewelry from ancient times 26 27 Although extinction of these corals is not the case yet because of high productivity in this ecosystem a decline has been observed in the shallow waters 28 29 30 These corrals are part of an initiative of worldwide conservation During the Conference of the Parties of CITES number 14 CoP14 two workshops were decided to be organized about the corals in the Pacific and Mediterranean 31 32 Among the species that are fished at high rates are the Cephalopod family These molluscans especially the species O Vulgaris are of interest both for industrial and artisanal fisheries Due to high biodiversity productivity rates and importance of the different species for the ecosystem the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Sicily are becoming of more interest for researchers during the recent years 33 Also regarding the current climate change information can be gained by researching the changes in biodiversity in the Strait of Sicily 24 Volcanic activity Edit Tectonic Plates underneath the Strait of Sicily 34 Due to the natural position of the Strait of Sicily above the conjunction of the Eurasian and African tectonic plate volcanic activity occurs in the strait The volcanic activity is mainly focused on the islands Pantelleria and Linosa A climax in volcanic activity was found in the Pleistocene Although minor submarine eruptions can still be found mostly located on the seafloor along the northwest and southeast regional faults 35 During historical times some seamounts did erupt while other seamounts have been covered by Pliocene Quaternary sediments The submarine volcanoes are located in the Adventure Plateau Graham and Nameless Banks In 1831 a submarine volcano erupted on the Graham Bank at a depth of around 200 m This eruption gave rise to the Graham Island 65 m above sea level Also in the year 1863 this volcano erupted whereas the youngest eruption in the region was in 1891 around 5 km north of Pantelleria At the southeast of Graham Bank at the Pinne Bank an emission was observed in 1941 36 37 38 See also EditItaly Tunisia Delimitation AgreementReferences Edit Strait of Sicily Britannica Atlas Encyclopaedia Britannica Chicago U S A 1989 Page 36 Geographic coordinates 37 20N 11 20E Scott C Truver 1980 The Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Springer 1st edition Allan R Robinson Wayne G Leslie Alexander Theocharis Alex Lascaratos Mediterranean Sea Circulation PDF robinson seas harvard edu a b Astraldi M Balopoulos S Candela J Font J Gacic M Gasparini G P Manca B Theocharis A Tintore J August 1999 The role of straits and channels in understanding the characteristics of Mediterranean circulation Progress in Oceanography 44 1 3 65 108 Bibcode 1999PrOce 44 65A doi 10 1016 s0079 6611 99 00021 x ISSN 0079 6611 a b Astraldi M Gasparini G P Gervasio L Salusti E 2001 12 01 Dense Water Dynamics along the Strait of Sicily Mediterranean Sea Journal of Physical Oceanography 31 12 3457 3475 Bibcode 2001JPO 31 3457A doi 10 1175 1520 0485 2001 031 lt 3457 DWDATS gt 2 0 CO 2 ISSN 0022 3670 Astraldi M Gasparini G P Moretti M Sansone E Sparnocchia S 1996 The characteristics of the water masses and the water transport in the Sicily Channel at long time scales Dynamics of Mediterranean Straits and Channels Bulletin de l Institut Oceanographique Monaco CIESM Science Series 2 Sparnocchia S Gasparini G P Astraldi M Borghini M Pistek P April 1999 Dynamics and mixing of the Eastern Mediterranean outflow in the Tyrrhenian basin Journal of Marine Systems 20 1 4 301 317 Bibcode 1999JMS 20 301S doi 10 1016 s0924 7963 98 00088 8 ISSN 0924 7963 NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System GODAS GODAS U and V current component data year 2020 Physical Sciences Laboratory Robinson A R Lermusiaux P F J 2001 Data Assimilation In Models Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences Elsevier pp 623 634 doi 10 1006 rwos 2001 0404 ISBN 978 0 12 227430 5 retrieved 2021 05 13 Lermusiaux P F J July 1999 Estimation and study of mesoscale variability in the strait of Sicily Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 29 2 4 255 303 Bibcode 1999DyAtO 29 255L doi 10 1016 s0377 0265 99 00008 1 ISSN 0377 0265 Sammari C Millot C Taupier Letage I Stefani A Brahim M October 1999 Hydrological characteristics in the Tunisia Sardinia Sicily area during spring 1995 Deep Sea Research Part I Oceanographic Research Papers 46 10 1671 1703 Bibcode 1999DSRI 46 1671S doi 10 1016 s0967 0637 99 00026 6 ISSN 0967 0637 Robinson A R Sellschopp J Warn Varnas A Leslie W G Lozano C J Haley P J Anderson L A Lermusiaux P F J April 1999 The Atlantic Ionian Stream Journal of Marine Systems 20 1 4 129 156 Bibcode 1999JMS 20 129R doi 10 1016 s0924 7963 98 00079 7 ISSN 0924 7963 a b Sorgente R Olita A Oddo P Fazioli L Ribotti A 2011 05 24 Numerical simulation and decomposition of kinetic energies in the Central Mediterranean Sea insight on mesoscale circulation and energy conversion dx doi org doi 10 5194 osd 8 1161 2011 Retrieved 2021 05 14 Sorgente R Seasonal variability in the Central Mediterranean Sea circulation OCLC 1188462670 BERANGER K May 2004 The dynamics of the Sicily Strait a comprehensive study from observations and models Deep Sea Research Part II Topical Studies in Oceanography 51 4 5 411 440 doi 10 1016 s0967 0645 04 00027 x ISSN 0967 0645 Gasparini G P Ortona A Budillon G Astraldi M Sansone E June 2005 The effect of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient on the hydrographic characteristics in the Strait of Sicily and in the Tyrrhenian Sea Deep Sea Research Part I Oceanographic Research Papers 52 6 915 935 Bibcode 2005DSRI 52 915G doi 10 1016 j dsr 2005 01 001 ISSN 0967 0637 Roether Wolfgang Klein Birgit Manca Beniamino Bruno Theocharis Alexander Kioroglou Sotiris September 2007 Transient Eastern Mediterranean deep waters in response to the massive dense water output of the Aegean Sea in the 1990s Progress in Oceanography 74 4 540 571 Bibcode 2007PrOce 74 540R doi 10 1016 j pocean 2007 03 001 ISSN 0079 6611 Theocharis A Klein B Nittis K Roether W June 2002 Evolution and status of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient 1997 1999 Journal of Marine Systems 33 34 91 116 Bibcode 2002JMS 33 91T doi 10 1016 s0924 7963 02 00054 4 ISSN 0924 7963 Incarbona Alessandro Martrat Belen Mortyn P Graham Sprovieri Mario Ziveri Patrizia Gogou Alexandra Jorda Gabriel Xoplaki Elena Luterbacher Juerg Langone Leonardo Marino Gianluca July 2016 Mediterranean circulation perturbations over the last five centuries Relevance to past Eastern Mediterranean Transient type events Scientific Reports 6 1 29623 Bibcode 2016NatSR 629623I doi 10 1038 srep29623 ISSN 2045 2322 PMC 4944156 PMID 27412622 Gacic M Borzelli G L Eusebi Civitarese G Cardin V Yari S May 2010 Can internal processes sustain reversals of the ocean upper circulation The Ionian Sea example Geophysical Research Letters 37 9 n a Bibcode 2010GeoRL 37 9608G doi 10 1029 2010gl043216 ISSN 0094 8276 Vilibic I Mihanovic H Sepic J Dunic N Denamiel C Peharda M Somot S Sevault F Gacic M 2018 12 01 The Adriatic Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System relevance phenomenology reproducibility impact AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts 53 A53L 2670 Bibcode 2018AGUFM A53L2670V Nittis K Lascaratos A 1999 Intermediate Water Formation in the Levantine Sea The Response to Interannual Variability of Atmospheric Forcing The Eastern Mediterranean as a Laboratory Basin for the Assessment of Contrasting Ecosystems Dordrecht Springer Netherlands pp 441 446 doi 10 1007 978 94 011 4796 5 31 ISBN 978 0 7923 5586 1 retrieved 2021 05 13 Migranti a Pantelleria riprendono gli sbarchi dalla Tunisia arrivati piu di 200 Giornale di Sicilia in Italian Retrieved 2021 05 13 a b Di Lorenzo Manfredi Sinerchia Matteo Colloca Francesco 2017 10 11 The North sector of the Strait of Sicily a priority area for conservation in the Mediterranean Sea Hydrobiologia 821 1 235 253 doi 10 1007 s10750 017 3389 7 ISSN 0018 8158 S2CID 2514441 Taviani Marco Freiwald Andre Beuck Lydia Angeletti Lorenzo Remia Alessandro Vertino Agostina Dimech Mark Schembri Patrick Joseph The deepest known occurrence of the precious red coral Corallium Rubrum L 1758 in the Mediterranean Sea Conference Proceedings of the International Workshop on Red Coral Science Management and Trade Lessons from the Mediterranean Cattaneo Vietti R Cicogna F 1993 Red Coral in the Mediterranean Sea Art History and Science Ministero delle Risorse Agricole Alimentari e Forestali Rome 263 Tsounis Georgios Rossi Sergio Aranguren Maria Gili Josep Maria Arntz Wolf January 2006 Effects of spatial variability and colony size on the reproductive output and gonadal development cycle of the Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum L Marine Biology 148 3 513 527 doi 10 1007 s00227 005 0100 8 ISSN 0025 3162 S2CID 86404698 Tsounis Georgios Rossi Sergio Gili Josep Maria Arntz Wolf E 2007 08 04 Red Coral Fishery at the Costa Brava NW Mediterranean Case Study of an Overharvested Precious Coral Ecosystems 10 6 975 986 doi 10 1007 s10021 007 9072 5 ISSN 1432 9840 S2CID 25259570 Santangelo Giovanni Abbiati Marco 2001 Red coral conservation and management of an over exploited Mediterranean species Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 11 4 253 259 doi 10 1002 aqc 451 ISSN 1052 7613 Santangelo G Carletti E Maggi E Bramanti L 2003 Reproduction and population sexual structure of the overexploited Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum Marine Ecology Progress Series 248 99 108 Bibcode 2003MEPS 248 99S doi 10 3354 meps248099 ISSN 0171 8630 Red Coral Science Management and Trading Lessons from the Mediterranean Ministero Affari Esteri Ministero dell Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare Universita degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope International Workshop Napoli Villa Doria D Angri 23 26 Settembre 2009 Abstract 49 2009 IAPPCS March 7 2009 Report of the First Meeting in Hong Kong International Forum on Precious Coral 50 Garofalo Germana Ceriola Luca Gristina Michele Fiorentino Fabio Pace Roberta 2010 08 04 Nurseries spawning grounds and recruitment of Octopus vulgaris in the Strait of Sicily central Mediterranean Sea ICES Journal of Marine Science 67 7 1363 1371 doi 10 1093 icesjms fsq101 ISSN 1095 9289 FieldsetJ 2017 11 09 English Map of tectonic plates of Sicily modified from File Tectonic plates empty svg retrieved 2021 05 13 Calanchi N Colantoni P Rossi P L Saitta M Serri G May 1989 The Strait of Sicily continental rift systems Physiography and petrochemistry of the submarine volcanic centres Marine Geology 87 1 55 83 Bibcode 1989MGeol 87 55C doi 10 1016 0025 3227 89 90145 x ISSN 0025 3227 Carapezza M Ferla P Nuccio P M Valenza M 1979 Caratteri petrologici e geochimici delle vulcaniti dell Isola Ferdinandea Rend Soc Ital Mineral Petrol 35 377 388 Imbo G 1965 Catalogue of the active volcanoes of the world including solfatara fields Italy Intern Assoc Volcanology Rome Part XVIII 72 Sicily Channel Sicilian Channel Strait of Sicily Italy www mindat org Retrieved 2021 05 13 External links Edit Media related to Strait of Sicily at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Strait of Sicily amp oldid 1052263771, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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