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Strasbourg

For other uses, see Strasburg (disambiguation).

Strasbourg (UK: ,US: , French: (); Bas Rhin Alsatian: Strossburi (), Haut Rhin Alsatian: Strossburig (); German: Straßburg ()) is the prefecture and largest city of the Grand Est region of eastern France and the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the prefecture of the Bas-Rhin department.

Strasbourg
Strossburi(g) (Alsatian)
From top left: Strasbourg Station; Strasbourg Cathedral and the Old Town; Ponts Couverts; Palais Rohan; Petite France; Palais du Rhin; Hôtel Brion; Hemicycle of the European Parliament; Strasbourg skyline in 2014
Flag
Coat of arms
Location of Strasbourg
Strasbourg
Show map of France
Strasbourg
Show map of Grand Est
Coordinates:48°35′00″N07°44′45″E /48.58333°N 7.74583°E /48.58333; 7.74583Coordinates: 48°35′00″N07°44′45″E /48.58333°N 7.74583°E /48.58333; 7.74583
CountryFrance
RegionGrand Est
DepartmentBas-Rhin
ArrondissementStrasbourg
Canton6 cantons
IntercommunalityEurométropole de Strasbourg
Government
• Mayor(2020-2026)Jeanne Barseghian (The Greens)
Area
1
78.26 km2 (30.22 sq mi)
• Urban
(2017)
240.2 km2 (92.7 sq mi)
• Metro
(2017)
2,197.7 km2 (848.5 sq mi)
Population
(Jan. 2018)
284,677
• Rank8th in France
• Density3,600/km2 (9,400/sq mi)
Urban
(2017)
467,438
• Urban density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
Metro
(2017)
790,087
• Metro density360/km2 (930/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
• Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
Dialling codes0388, 0390, 0368
Elevation132–151 m (433–495 ft)
Websitewww.strasbourg.eu
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

In 2018, the city proper had 284,677 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg (Greater Strasbourg) and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 500,510 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 790,087 in 2017 (not counting the section across the border in Germany), making it the ninth-largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 958,421 inhabitants. Strasbourg is one of the de facto four main capitals of the European Union (alongside Brussels, Luxembourg and Frankfurt), as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the European Parliament, the Eurocorps and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. An organization separate from the European Union, the Council of Europe (with its European Court of Human Rights, its European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines most commonly known in French as "Pharmacopée Européenne", and its European Audiovisual Observatory) is also located in the city.

Together with Basel (Bank for International Settlements), Geneva (United Nations), The Hague (International Court of Justice) and New York City (United Nations world headquarters), Strasbourg is among the few cities in the world that is not a state capital that hosts international organisations of the first order. The city is the seat of many non-European international institutions such as the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights. It is the second city in France in terms of international congress and symposia, after Paris. Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île (Grand Island), was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, with the newer "Neustadt" being added to the site in 2017. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries, especially through the University of Strasbourg, currently the second-largest in France, and the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture. It is also home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque.

Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, rail, and river transportation. The port of Strasbourg is the second-largest on the Rhine after Duisburg in Germany, and the second-largest river port in France after Paris.

Contents

Before the 5th century BC, the city was known as Argantorati (in the nominative, Argantorate in the locative), a Celtic Gaulish name Latinised first as Argentorate (with Gaulish locative ending, as appearing on the first Roman milestones in the 1st century BC) and then as Argentoratum (with regular Latin nominative ending, in later Latin texts). That Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth (see ringfort) and arganto(n)- (cognate to Latin argentum, which gave modern French argent), the Gaulish word for silver, but also any precious metal, particularly gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.

After the 5th century AD, the city became known by a completely different name which was later Gallicized as Strasbourg (Lower Alsatian: Strossburi; German: Straßburg). That name is of Germanic origin and means 'town (at the crossing) of roads'. The modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata ("paved road"), while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz ("hill fort, fortress").

Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood, then taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant" ("to the city of Argentoratum, which they now call Strateburgus"), where he was exiled.

Location

Strasbourg seen from Spot Satellite

Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the Rhine, which also forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl. The historic core of Strasbourg, however, lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, and roughly 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city.

The city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres (433 ft) and 151 metres (495 ft) above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km (12 mi) to the west and the Black Forest 25 km (16 mi) to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, and major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks.

The city is some 397 kilometres (247 mi) east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies approximately 450 kilometres (280 mi) to the north, or 650 kilometres (400 mi) as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres (62 mi) to the south, or 150 kilometres (93 mi) by river.

Climate

In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), though with less maritime influence than the milder climates of Western and Southern France. The city has warm, relatively sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm (24.9 in) annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year.[citation needed]

The second highest temperature ever recorded was 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. This record was broken, on June 30, 2019, when it reached 38.8 °C (101.8 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was −23.4 °C (−10.1 °F) in December 1938.

Strasbourg's location in the Rhine valley, sheltered from strong winds by the Vosges and Black Forest mountains, results in poor natural ventilation, making Strasbourg one of the most atmospherically polluted cities of France. Nonetheless, the progressive disappearance of heavy industry on both banks of the Rhine, as well as effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have reduced air pollution in recent years.

Climate data for Strasbourg-Entzheim (SXB), elevation: 150 m (492 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1924–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
21.1
(70.0)
25.7
(78.3)
30.0
(86.0)
33.8
(92.8)
38.8
(101.8)
38.9
(102.0)
38.7
(101.7)
33.4
(92.1)
29.1
(84.4)
22.1
(71.8)
18.3
(64.9)
38.9
(102.0)
Average high °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
6.4
(43.5)
11.4
(52.5)
15.7
(60.3)
20.2
(68.4)
23.4
(74.1)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
21.0
(69.8)
15.3
(59.5)
8.8
(47.8)
5.2
(41.4)
15.3
(59.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
2.9
(37.2)
6.9
(44.4)
10.5
(50.9)
15.0
(59.0)
18.1
(64.6)
20.1
(68.2)
19.7
(67.5)
15.8
(60.4)
11.2
(52.2)
5.8
(42.4)
2.8
(37.0)
10.9
(51.6)
Average low °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.5
(36.5)
5.2
(41.4)
9.8
(49.6)
12.8
(55.0)
14.5
(58.1)
14.1
(57.4)
10.6
(51.1)
7.1
(44.8)
2.8
(37.0)
0.3
(32.5)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F) −23.6
(−10.5)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−16.7
(1.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.1
(34.0)
4.9
(40.8)
4.8
(40.6)
−1.3
(29.7)
−7.6
(18.3)
−10.8
(12.6)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−23.6
(−10.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32.2
(1.27)
34.5
(1.36)
42.8
(1.69)
45.9
(1.81)
81.9
(3.22)
71.6
(2.82)
72.7
(2.86)
61.4
(2.42)
63.5
(2.50)
61.5
(2.42)
47.0
(1.85)
50.0
(1.97)
665.0
(26.18)
Average precipitation days(≥ 1.0 mm) 8.4 8.1 9.1 9.2 11.5 10.7 10.8 9.9 8.6 9.5 9.3 9.8 114.9
Average snowy days 7.8 6.7 4.0 1.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.4 6.3 29.8
Average relative humidity (%) 86 82 76 72 73 74 72 76 80 85 86 86 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.1 83.8 134.8 180.0 202.5 223.8 228.6 219.6 164.5 98.7 55.3 43.1 1,692.7
Source 1: Meteo France
Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (relative humidity 1961–1990)
Main article: History of Strasbourg
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor visiting Strasbourg in 1414, detail of a painting by Léo Schnug

The Roman camp of Argentoratum was first mentioned in 12 BC; the city of Strasbourg which grew from it celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in 1988. The fertile area in the Upper Rhine Plain between the rivers Ill and Rhine had already been populated since the Middle Paleolithic.

Between 362 and 1262, Strasbourg was governed by the bishops of Strasbourg; their rule was reinforced in 873 and then more in 982. In 1262, the citizens violently rebelled against the bishop's rule (Battle of Hausbergen) and Strasbourg became a free imperial city. It became a French city in 1681, after the conquest of Alsace by the armies of Louis XIV. In 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War, the city became German again, until 1918 (end of World War I), when it reverted to France. After the defeat of France in 1940 (World War II), Strasbourg came under German control again through formal annexation into the Gau Baden-Elsaß under the Nazi Gauleiter Robert Wagner; since the end of 1944, it is again a French city. In 2016, Strasbourg was promoted from capital of Alsace to capital of Grand Est.

Strasbourg played an important part in Protestant Reformation, with personalities such as John Calvin, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, Matthew and Katharina Zell, but also in other aspects of Christianity such as German mysticism, with Johannes Tauler, Pietism, with Philipp Spener, and Reverence for Life, with Albert Schweitzer. Delegates from the city took part in the Protestation at Speyer. It was also one of the first centres of the printing industry with pioneers such as Johannes Gutenberg, Johannes Mentelin, and Heinrich Eggestein. Among the darkest periods in the city's long history were the years 1349 (Strasbourg massacre), 1518 (Dancing plague), 1793 (Reign of Terror), 1870 (Siege of Strasbourg) and the years 1940–1944 with the Nazi occupation (atrocities such as the Jewish skeleton collection) and the British and American bombing raids. Some other notable dates were the years 357 (Battle of Argentoratum), 842 (Oaths of Strasbourg), 1538 (establishment of the university), 1605 (world's first newspaper printed by Johann Carolus), 1792 (La Marseillaise), and 1889 (pancreatic origin of diabetes discovered by Minkowski and Von Mering).

Strasbourg has been the seat of European Institutions since 1949: first of the International Commission on Civil Status and of the Council of Europe, later of the European Parliament, of the European Science Foundation, of Eurocorps, and others as well.

Strasbourg is divided into the following districts:

  1. Bourse, Esplanade, Krutenau
  2. Centre République
  3. Centre Gare
  4. Conseil des XV, Rotterdam
  5. Cronenbourg, Hautepierre, Poteries, Hohberg
  6. Koenigshoffen, Montagne-Verte, Elsau
  7. Meinau
  8. Neudorf, Schluthfeld, Port du Rhin, Musau
  9. Neuhof, Stockfeld, Ganzau
  10. Robertsau, Wacken
Panorama from the Barrage Vauban with the medieval bridge Ponts Couverts in the foreground (the fourth tower is hidden by trees at the left) and the cathedral in the distance on the right.
La Petite France during golden hour

Architecture

The city is chiefly known for its sandstone Gothic Cathedral with its famous astronomical clock, and for its medieval cityscape of Rhineland black and white timber-framed buildings, particularly in the Petite France district or Gerberviertel ("tanners' district") alongside the Ill and in the streets and squares surrounding the cathedral, where the renowned Maison Kammerzell stands out.

Notable medieval streets include Rue Mercière, Rue des Dentelles, Rue du Bain aux Plantes, Rue des Juifs, Rue des Frères, Rue des Tonneliers, Rue du Maroquin, Rue des Charpentiers, Rue des Serruriers, Grand' Rue, Quai des Bateliers, Quai Saint-Nicolas and Quai Saint-Thomas. Notable medieval squares include Place de la Cathédrale, Place du Marché Gayot, Place Saint-Étienne, Place du Marché aux Cochons de Lait and Place Benjamin Zix.

Place du Marché aux Cochons de Lait.
Place Gutenberg with statue of Gutenberg and Carousel.
Maison des tanneurs.
View of the Ill with Église Saint-Thomas.

In addition to the cathedral, Strasbourg houses several other medieval churches that have survived the many wars and destructions that have plagued the city: the Romanesque Église Saint-Étienne, partly destroyed in 1944 by Allied bombing raids; the part-Romanesque, part-Gothic, very large Église Saint-Thomas with its Silbermann organ on which Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Albert Schweitzer played; the Gothic Église protestante Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune with its crypt dating back to the seventh century and its cloister partly from the eleventh century; the Gothic Église Saint-Guillaume with its fine early-Renaissance stained glass and furniture; the Gothic Église Saint-Jean; the part-Gothic, part-Art Nouveau Église Sainte-Madeleine etc. The Neo-Gothic church Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux Catholique (there is also an adjacent church Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux Protestant) serves as a shrine for several 15th-century wood-worked and painted altars coming from other, now destroyed churches and installed there for public display; especially the Passion of Christ. Among the numerous secular medieval buildings, the monumental Ancienne Douane (old custom-house) stands out.

The German Renaissance has bequeathed the city some noteworthy buildings (especially the current Chambre de commerce et d'industrie, former town hall, on Place Gutenberg), as did the French Baroque and Classicism with several hôtels particuliers (i.e. palaces), among which the Palais Rohan (1742, now housing three museums) is the most spectacular. Other buildings of its kind are the "Hôtel de Hanau" (1736, now the city hall); the Hôtel de Klinglin (1736, now residence of the préfet); the Hôtel des Deux-Ponts (1755, now residence of the military governor); the Hôtel d'Andlau-Klinglin (1725, now seat of the administration of the Port autonome de Strasbourg) etc. The largest baroque building of Strasbourg though is the 150-metre-long (490 ft) 1720s main building of the Hôpital civil. As for French Neo-classicism, it is the Opera House on Place Broglie that most prestigiously represents this style.

Strasbourg also offers high-class eclecticist buildings in its very extended German district, the Neustadt, being the main memory of Wilhelmian architecture since most of the major cities in Germany proper suffered intensive damage during World War II. Streets, boulevards and avenues are homogeneous, surprisingly high (up to seven stories) and broad examples of German urban lay-out and of this architectural style that summons and mixes up five centuries of European architecture as well as Neo-Egyptian, Neo-Greek and Neo-Babylonian styles. The former imperial palace Palais du Rhin, the most political and thus heavily criticized of all German Strasbourg buildings epitomizes the grand scale and stylistic sturdiness of this period. But the two most handsome and ornate buildings of these times are the École internationale des Pontonniers (the former Höhere Mädchenschule, with its towers, turrets and multiple round and square angles and the Haute école des arts du Rhin with its lavishly ornate façade of painted bricks, woodwork and majolica.

The baroque organ of the Église Saint-Thomas

Notable streets of the German district include: Avenue de la Forêt Noire, Avenue des Vosges, Avenue d'Alsace, Avenue de la Marseillaise, Avenue de la Liberté, Boulevard de la Victoire, Rue Sellénick, Rue du Général de Castelnau, Rue du Maréchal Foch, and Rue du Maréchal Joffre. Notable squares of the German district include Place de la République, Place de l'Université, Place Brant, and Place Arnold.

Impressive examples of Prussian military architecture of the 1880s can be found along the newly reopened Rue du Rempart, displaying large-scale fortifications among which the aptly named Kriegstor (war gate).

As for modern and contemporary architecture, Strasbourg possesses some fine Art Nouveau buildings (such as the huge Palais des Fêtes and houses and villas like Villa Schutzenberger and Hôtel Brion), good examples of post-World War II functional architecture (the Cité Rotterdam, for which Le Corbusier did not succeed in the architectural contest) and, in the very extended Quartier Européen, some spectacular administrative buildings of sometimes utterly large size, among which the European Court of Human Rights building by Richard Rogers is arguably the finest. Other noticeable contemporary buildings are the new Music school Cité de la Musique et de la Danse, the Musée d'Art moderne et contemporain and the Hôtel du Département facing it, as well as, in the outskirts, the tramway-station Hoenheim-Nord designed by Zaha Hadid.

The city has many bridges, including the medieval and four-towered Ponts Couverts that, despite their name, are no longer covered. Next to the Ponts Couverts is the Barrage Vauban, a part of Vauban's 17th-century fortifications, that does include a covered bridge. Other bridges are the ornate 19th-century Pont de la Fonderie (1893, stone) and Pont d'Auvergne (1892, iron), as well as architect Marc Mimram's futuristic Passerelle over the Rhine, opened in 2004.

The largest square at the centre of the city of Strasbourg is the Place Kléber. Located in the heart of the city's commercial area, it was named after general Jean-Baptiste Kléber, born in Strasbourg in 1753 and assassinated in 1800 in Cairo. In the square is a statue of Kléber, under which is a vault containing his remains. On the north side of the square is the Aubette (Orderly Room), built by Jacques François Blondel, architect of the king, in 1765–1772.

Parks

The Pavillon Joséphine (rear side) in the Parc de l'Orangerie
The Château de Pourtalès (front side) in the park of the same name

Strasbourg features a number of prominent parks, of which several are of cultural and historical interest: the Parc de l'Orangerie, laid out as a French garden by André le Nôtre and remodeled as an English garden on behalf of Joséphine de Beauharnais, now displaying noteworthy French gardens, a neo-classical castle and a small zoo; the Parc de la Citadelle, built around impressive remains of the 17th-century fortress erected close to the Rhine by Vauban; the Parc de Pourtalès, laid out in English style around a baroque castle (heavily restored in the 19th century) that now houses a small three-star hotel, and featuring an open-air museum of international contemporary sculpture. The Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg (botanical garden) was created under the German administration next to the Observatory of Strasbourg, built in 1881, and still owns some greenhouses of those times. The Parc des Contades, although the oldest park of the city, was completely remodeled after World War II. The futuristic Parc des Poteries is an example of European park-conception in the late 1990s. The Jardin des deux Rives, spread over Strasbourg and Kehl on both sides of the Rhine opened in 2004 and is the most extended (60-hectare) park of the agglomeration. The most recent park is Parc du Heyritz (8,7 ha), opened in 2014 along a canal facing the hôpital civil.

Museums

As of 2020, the city of Strasbourg has eleven municipal museums (including Aubette 1928), eleven university museums, and at least two privately owned museums (Musée vodou and Musée du barreau de Strasbourg). Five communes in the metropolitan area also have museums (see below), three of them dedicated to military history.

Overview

The collections in Strasbourg are distributed over a wide range of museums, according to a system that takes into account not only the types and geographical provenances of the items, but also the epochs. This concerns in particular the following domains:

  • Old master paintings from the Germanic Rhenish territories and until 1681 are displayed in the Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame (MOND); old master paintings from all the rest of Europe (including the Dutch Rhenish territories) and until 1871, as well as old master paintings from the Germanic Rhenish territories between 1681 and 1871, are displayed in the Musée des Beaux-Arts; paintings since 1871 are displayed in the Musée d'art moderne et contemporain (MAMCS).
  • Decorative arts until 1681 are on display in the MOND, decorative arts from the years 1681 until 1871 are on display in the Musée des arts décoratifs, decorative arts after 1871 are on display at the MAMCS, with items from each epoch also shown in the Musée historique.
  • Prints and drawings until 1871 are displayed in the Cabinet des estampes et dessins, save for the original plans of Strasbourg Cathedral, displayed in the MOND. Prints and drawings after 1871 are displayed in the MAMCS, and in the Musée Tomi Ungerer/Centre international de l’illustration (the combined number of prints and drawings amounts to well over 200,000).
  • Artefacts from Ancient Egypt are on display in two entirely different collections, one in the Musée archéologique and the other belonging to the Instituts d'Égyptologie et de Papyrologie of the University of Strasbourg.

Fine art museums

Other museums

  • The Musée archéologique presents a large display of regional findings from the first ages of man to the sixth century, focussing especially on the Roman and Celtic period. It also includes a collection of works from Ancient Egypt, and Ancient Greece, assembled and bequeathed by Gustave Schlumberger.
  • The Musée alsacien is dedicated to traditional Alsatian daily life.
  • Le Vaisseau ("The vessel") is a science and technology centre, especially designed for children.
  • The Musée historique (historical museum) is dedicated to the tumultuous history of the city and displays many artifacts of the times, among which the Grüselhorn, the horn that was blown every evening at 10:00, during medieval times, to order the Jews out of the city.
  • The Musée vodou (Voodoo museum) opened its doors on 28 November 2013. Displaying a private collection of artefacts from Haiti, it is located in a former water tower (château d'eau) built in 1883 and classified as a Monument historique.
  • The Musée du barreau de Strasbourg (The Strasbourg bar association museum) is a museum dedicated to the work and the history of lawyers in the city.

University museums

The Université de Strasbourg is in charge of a number of permanent public displays of its collections of scientific artefacts and products of all kinds of exploration and research.

  • The Musée zoologique is one of the oldest in France and is especially famous for its collection of birds. The museum is co-administrated by the municipality.
  • The Gypsothèque (also known as Musée des moulages or Musée Adolf Michaelis) is France's second-largest cast collection and the largest university cast collection in France.
  • The Musée de Sismologie et Magnétisme terrestre displays antique instruments of measure.
  • The Musée Pasteur is a collection of medical curiosities.
  • The Musée de minéralogie is dedicated to minerals.
  • The Musée d'Égyptologie houses a collections of archaeological findings made in and brought from Egypt and Sudan. This collection is entirely separate from the Schlumberger collection of the Musée archéologique (see above).
  • The Crypte aux étoiles ("star crypt") is situated in the vaulted basement below the Observatory of Strasbourg and displays old telescopes and other antique astronomical devices such as clocks and theodolites.

Museums in the suburbs

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(June 2017)

The commune of Strasbourg proper had a population of 284,677 on 1 January 2018, the result of a constant moderate annual growth which is also reflected in the constant growth of the number of students at its university (e. g. from 42,000 students in 2010 to 52,000 students in 2019). The metropolitan area of Strasbourg had a population of 785,839 inhabitants in 2016 (French side of the border only), while the transnational Eurodistrict had a population of 958,421 inhabitants.

In the Middle Ages, Strasbourg (a Free imperial city since 1262), was an important town. According to a 1444 census, the population was circa 20,000; only one third less than Cologne, then a major European city.

Population growth

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 47,254
1800 49,056+0.54%
1806 51,465+0.80%
1821 49,680−0.24%
1831 49,712+0.01%
1836 57,885+3.09%
1841 70,298+3.96%
1846 71,992+0.48%
1851 75,565+0.97%
1856 77,656+0.55%
1861 82,014+1.10%
1866 84,167+0.52%
1871 85,654+0.35%
1875 94,306+2.43%
1880 104,471+2.07%
1885 111,987+1.40%
1890 123,500+1.98%
1895 135,608+1.89%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1900 151,041+2.18%
1905 167,678+2.11%
1910 178,891+1.30%
1921 166,767−0.64%
1926 174,492+0.91%
1931 181,465+0.79%
1936 193,119+1.25%
1946 175,515−0.95%
1954 200,921+1.70%
1962 228,971+1.65%
1968 249,396+1.43%
1975 253,384+0.23%
1982 248,712−0.27%
1990 252,338+0.18%
1999 264,115+0.51%
2007 272,123+0.37%
2012 274,394+0.17%
2017 280,966+0.47%
Source: EHESS and INSEE (1968-2017)
The Ill, seen from the terrace of the Palais Rohan

Population composition

2012 % 2007 %
Total population 274,394 100 272,123 100
0–14 years 47,473 17.3 46,263 17.0
15–29 years 77,719 28.3 78,291 28.8
30–44 years 54,514 19.9 54,850 20.2
45–59 years 45,436 16.6 47,236 17.4
60–74 years 30,321 11.1 27,060 9.9
75+ years 18,931 6.9 18,424 6.8

Strasbourg is the seat of internationally renowned institutions of music and drama:

Other theatres are the Théâtre jeune public, the TAPS Scala, the Kafteur ...

Events

Universities and tertiary education

Strasbourg, well known as centre of humanism, has a long history of excellence in higher-education, at the crossroads of French and German intellectual traditions. Although Strasbourg had been annexed by the Kingdom of France in 1683, it still remained connected to the German-speaking intellectual world throughout the 18th century, and the university attracted numerous students from the Holy Roman Empire, with Goethe, Metternich and Montgelas, who studied law in Strasbourg, among the most prominent. With 19 Nobel prizes in total, Strasbourg is the most eminent French university outside of Paris.

Up until January 2009, there were three universities in Strasbourg, with an approximate total of 48,500 students as of 2007[update] (another 4,500 students are being taught at one of the diverse post-graduate schools):

As of 1 January 2009, those three universities have merged and now constitute the Université de Strasbourg. Schools part of the Université de Strasbourg include:

Primary and secondary education

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(March 2016)

International schools include:

Multiple levels:

For elementary education:

For middle school/junior high school education:

  • Collège International de l'Esplanade

For senior high school/sixth form college:

Lateral view of the National Library.

The Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire (BNU) is, with its collection of more than 3,000,000 titles, the second-largest library in France after the Bibliothèque nationale de France. It was founded by the German administration after the complete destruction of the previous municipal library in 1871 and holds the unique status of being simultaneously a students' and a national library. The Strasbourg municipal library had been marked erroneously as "City Hall" in a French commercial map, which had been captured and used by the German artillery to lay their guns. A librarian from Munich later pointed out "...that the destruction of the precious collection was not the fault of a German artillery officer, who used the French map, but of the slovenly and inaccurate scholarship of a Frenchman."

The municipal library Bibliothèque municipale de Strasbourg (BMS) administrates a network of ten medium-sized librairies in different areas of the town. A six stories high "Grande bibliothèque", the Médiathèque André Malraux, was inaugurated on 19 September 2008 and is considered the largest in Eastern France.

Incunabula

As one of the earliest centers of book-printing in Europe (see above: History), Strasbourg for a long time held a large number of incunabula — books printed before 1500 — in its library as one of its most precious heritages: no less than 7,000. After the total destruction of this institution in 1870, however, a new collection had to be reassembled from scratch. Today, Strasbourg's different public and institutional libraries again display a sizable total number of incunabula, distributed as follows: Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire, ca. 2,120, Médiathèque de la ville et de la communauté urbaine de Strasbourg, 349, Bibliothèque du Grand Séminaire, 238, Médiathèque protestante, 66, and Bibliothèque alsatique du Crédit Mutuel, 5.

One of Strasbourg's trams passes over one of its canals, whilst a tourist trip boat passes underneath

Train services operate from the Gare de Strasbourg, the city's main station in the city centre, eastward to Offenburg and Karlsruhe in Germany, westward to Metz and Paris, and southward to Basel. Strasbourg's links with the rest of France have improved due to its recent connection to the TGV network, with the first phase of the TGV Est (Paris–Strasbourg) in 2007, the TGV Rhin-Rhône (Strasbourg-Lyon) in 2012, and the second phase of the TGV Est in July 2016.

Strasbourg also has its own airport, serving major domestic destinations as well as international destinations in Europe and northern Africa. The airport is linked to the Gare de Strasbourg by a frequent train service.

City transportation in Strasbourg includes the futurist-looking Strasbourg tramway that opened in 1994 and is operated by the regional transit company Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois (CTS), consisting of 6 lines with a total length of 55.8 km (34.7 mi). The CTS also operates a comprehensive bus network throughout the city that is integrated with the trams. With more than 500 km (311 mi) of bicycle paths, biking in the city is convenient and the CTS operates a cheap bike-sharing scheme named Vélhop'. The CTS, and its predecessors, also operated a previous generation of tram system between 1878 and 1960, complemented by trolleybus routes between 1939 and 1962.

Being a city on the Ill and close to the Rhine, Strasbourg has always been an important centre of fluvial navigation, as is attested by archeological findings. In 1682 the Canal de la Bruche was added to the river navigations, initially to provide transport for sandstone from quarries in the Vosges for use in the fortification of the city. That canal has since closed, but the subsequent Canal du Rhône au Rhin, Canal de la Marne au Rhin and Grand Canal d'Alsace are still in use, as is the important activity of the Port autonome de Strasbourg. Water tourism inside the city proper attracts hundreds of thousands of tourists yearly.

The tram system that now criss-crosses the historic city centre complements walking and biking in it. The centre has been transformed into a pedestrian priority zone that enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes are accomplished by applying the principle of "filtered permeability" to the existing irregular network of streets. It means that the network adaptations favour active transportation and, selectively, "filter out" the car by reducing the number of streets that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip. This logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid.

At present the A35 autoroute, which parallels the Rhine between Karlsruhe and Basel, and the A4 autoroute, which links Paris with Strasbourg, penetrate close to the centre of the city. The Grand contournement ouest (GCO) project, programmed since 1999, plans to construct a 24-kilometre-long (15 mi) highway connection between the junctions of the A4 and the A35 autoroutes in the north and of the A35 and A352 autoroutes in the south. This routes well to the west of the city and is meant to divest a significant portion of motorized traffic from the unité urbaine. The GCO project is opposed by environmentalists, who created a ZAD (or Zone to Defend).

Strasbourg Public Transportation Statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Strasbourg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 52 min. 7% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 9 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 3.9 km (2.4 mi), while 0% travel for over 12 km (7.5 mi) in a single direction.

Institutions

Strasbourg is the seat of over twenty international institutions, most famously of the Council of Europe and of the European Parliament, of which it is the official seat. Strasbourg is considered the legislative and democratic capital of the European Union, while Brussels is considered the executive and administrative capital and Luxembourg the judiciary and financial capital.

Strasbourg is the seat of the following organisations, among others:

Eurodistrict

France and Germany have created a Eurodistrict straddling the Rhine, combining the Greater Strasbourg and the Ortenau district of Baden-Württemberg, with some common administration. It was established in 2005 and has been fully functional since 2010.

Sporting teams from Strasbourg are the Racing Club de Strasbourg Alsace (football), SIG Strasbourg (basketball) and the Étoile Noire (ice hockey). The women's tennis Internationaux de Strasbourg is one of the most important French tournaments of its kind outside Roland-Garros. In 1922, Strasbourg was the venue for the XVI Grand Prix de l'A.C.F. which saw Fiat battle Bugatti, Ballot, Rolland Pilain, and Britain's Aston Martin and Sunbeam.

Honours associated with the city of Strasbourg.

  • The Medal of Honor Strasbourg
  • Sakharov Prize seated in Strasbourg
  • City of Strasbourg Silver (gilt) Medal, a former medal with City Coat of Arms and Ten Arms of the Cities of the Dekapolis
For a more comprehensive list, see List of people from Strasbourg.

In chronological order, notable people born in Strasbourg include: Eric of Friuli, Johannes Tauler, Sebastian Brant, Jean Baptiste Kléber, Louis Ramond de Carbonnières, François Christophe Kellermann, Marie Tussaud, Ludwig I of Bavaria, Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, Louis-Frédéric Schützenberger, Gustave Doré, Émile Waldteufel, René Beeh, Jean/Hans Arp, Charles Münch, Hans Bethe, Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont, Marcel Marceau, Tomi Ungerer, Elizabeth Sombart, Arsène Wenger, Petit and Matt Pokora.

In chronological order, notable residents of Strasbourg include: Johannes Gutenberg, Hans Baldung, Martin Bucer, John Calvin, Joachim Meyer, Johann Carolus, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, Georg Büchner, Louis Pasteur, Ferdinand Braun, Albrecht Kossel, Georg Simmel, Albert Schweitzer, Otto Klemperer, Marc Bloch, Alberto Fujimori, Marjane Satrapi, Paul Ricoeur and Jean-Marie Lehn.

Strasbourg is twinned with:

Strasbourg has cooperative agreements with:

In film

  • The opening scenes of the 1977 Ridley Scott film The Duellists take place in Strasbourg in 1800.
  • The 2007 film In the City of Sylvia is set in Strasbourg.
  • Early February 2011, principal photography for Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows (2011) moved for two days to Strasbourg. Shooting took place on, around, and inside the Strasbourg Cathedral. The opening scene of the movie covers an assassination-bombing in the city.

In literature

In music

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called his Third violin concerto (1775) Straßburger Konzert because of one of its most prominent motives, based on a local, minuet-like dance that had already appeared as a tune in a symphony by Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf. It is not related to Mozart's ulterior stay in Strasbourg (1778), where he gave three concert performances on the piano.
  • Havergal Brian's Symphony No. 7 was inspired by passages in Goethe's memoirs recalling his time spent at Strasbourg University. The work ends with an orchestral bell sounding the note E, the strike-note of the bell of Strasbourg Cathedral.
  • British art-punk band The Rakes had a minor hit in 2005 with their song "Strasbourg". This song features witty lyrics with themes of espionage and vodka and includes a count of 'eins, zwei, drei, vier!!', even though Strasbourg's spoken language is French.
  • On their 1974 album Hamburger Concerto, Dutch progressive band Focus included a track called "La Cathédrale de Strasbourg", which included chimes from a cathedral-like bell.
  • Strasbourg pie, a dish containing foie gras, is mentioned in the finale of the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical Cats.
  • Several works have specifically been dedicated to Strasbourg Cathedral, notably ad hoc compositions (masses, motets etc.) by Kapellmeisters Franz Xaver Richter and Ignaz Pleyel and, more recently, It is Finished by John Tavener.
  1. Only the part of the urban area on French territory.

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Sources

  • Connaître Strasbourg by Roland Recht, Georges Foessel and Jean-Pierre Klein, 1988, ISBN 2-7032-0185-0.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related toStrasbourg.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Strasbourg.

Strasbourg
Strasbourg Language Watch Edit For other uses see Strasburg disambiguation Strasbourg UK ˈ s t r ae z b ɜːr ɡ 4 US ˈ s t r ɑː s b ʊer ɡ ˈ s t r ɑː z b ɜːr ɡ 5 French stʁazbuʁ stʁasbuʁ listen Bas Rhin Alsatian Strossburi ˈʃd ʁɔːsb uʁi listen Haut Rhin Alsatian Strossburig 6 ˈʃd ʁɔːsb uʁiɡ listen German Strassburg ˈʃtʁaːsbʊʁk listen is the prefecture and largest city of the Grand Est region of eastern France and the official seat of the European Parliament Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace it is the prefecture of the Bas Rhin department Strasbourg Strossburi g Alsatian Prefecture and communeFrom top left Strasbourg Station Strasbourg Cathedral and the Old Town Ponts Couverts Palais Rohan Petite France Palais du Rhin Hotel Brion Hemicycle of the European Parliament Strasbourg skyline in 2014FlagCoat of armsLocation of StrasbourgStrasbourgShow map of FranceStrasbourgShow map of Grand EstCoordinates 48 35 00 N 07 44 45 E 48 58333 N 7 74583 E 48 58333 7 74583 Coordinates 48 35 00 N 07 44 45 E 48 58333 N 7 74583 E 48 58333 7 74583CountryFranceRegionGrand EstDepartmentBas RhinArrondissementStrasbourgCanton6 cantonsIntercommunalityEurometropole de StrasbourgGovernment Mayor 2020 2026 Jeanne Barseghian The Greens Area178 26 km2 30 22 sq mi Urban 2017 note 1 240 2 km2 92 7 sq mi Metro 2017 note 1 2 197 7 km2 848 5 sq mi Population Jan 2018 1 284 677 Rank8th in France Density3 600 km2 9 400 sq mi Urban 2017 2 note 1 467 438 Urban density1 900 km2 5 000 sq mi Metro 2017 3 note 1 790 087 Metro density360 km2 930 sq mi Time zoneUTC 01 00 CET Summer DST UTC 02 00 CEST INSEE Postal code67482 Dialling codes0388 0390 0368Elevation132 151 m 433 495 ft Websitewww wbr strasbourg wbr eu1 French Land Register data which excludes lakes ponds glaciers gt 1 km2 0 386 sq mi or 247 acres and river estuaries In 2018 the city proper had 284 677 inhabitants and both the Eurometropole de Strasbourg Greater Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 500 510 inhabitants 7 Strasbourg s metropolitan area had a population of 790 087 in 2017 not counting the section across the border in Germany making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13 of the Grand Est region s inhabitants The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg Ortenau had a population of 958 421 inhabitants 8 Strasbourg is one of the de facto four main capitals of the European Union alongside Brussels Luxembourg and Frankfurt as it is the seat of several European institutions such as the European Parliament the Eurocorps and the European Ombudsman of the European Union An organization separate from the European Union the Council of Europe with its European Court of Human Rights its European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines most commonly known in French as Pharmacopee Europeenne and its European Audiovisual Observatory is also located in the city Together with Basel Bank for International Settlements Geneva United Nations The Hague International Court of Justice and New York City United Nations world headquarters Strasbourg is among the few cities in the world that is not a state capital that hosts international organisations of the first order 9 The city is the seat of many non European international institutions such as the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights 10 It is the second city in France in terms of international congress and symposia after Paris Strasbourg s historic city centre the Grande Ile Grand Island was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988 with the newer Neustadt being added to the site in 2017 11 Strasbourg is immersed in Franco German culture and although violently disputed throughout history has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries especially through the University of Strasbourg currently the second largest in France and the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture It is also home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France the Strasbourg Grand Mosque 12 Economically Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering as well as a hub of road rail and river transportation The port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg in Germany and the second largest river port in France after Paris 13 14 Contents 1 Etymology and names 2 Geography 2 1 Location 2 2 Climate 3 History 4 Districts 5 Main sights 5 1 Architecture 5 2 Parks 5 3 Museums 5 3 1 Overview 5 3 2 Fine art museums 5 3 3 Other museums 5 3 4 University museums 5 3 5 Museums in the suburbs 6 Demographics 6 1 Population growth 6 2 Population composition 7 Culture 7 1 Events 8 Education 8 1 Universities and tertiary education 8 2 Primary and secondary education 9 Libraries 9 1 Incunabula 10 Transportation 10 1 Strasbourg Public Transportation Statistics 11 European role 11 1 Institutions 11 2 Eurodistrict 12 Sports 13 Honours 14 Notable people 15 Twin towns and sister cities 16 In popular culture 16 1 In film 16 2 In literature 16 3 In music 17 Notes 18 References 18 1 Citations 18 2 Sources 19 External linksEtymology and names EditBefore the 5th century BC the city was known as Argantorati in the nominative Argantorate in the locative a Celtic Gaulish name Latinised first as Argentorate with Gaulish locative ending as appearing on the first Roman milestones in the 1st century BC and then as Argentoratum with regular Latin nominative ending in later Latin texts That Gaulish name is a compound of rati the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures cognate to the Old Irish rath see ringfort and arganto n cognate to Latin argentum which gave modern French argent the Gaulish word for silver but also any precious metal particularly gold suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers 15 After the 5th century AD the city became known by a completely different name which was later Gallicized as Strasbourg Lower Alsatian Strossburi German Strassburg That name is of Germanic origin and means town at the crossing of roads The modern Stras is cognate to the German Strasse and English street all of which are derived from Latin strata paved road while bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough all of which are derived from Proto Germanic burgz hill fort fortress Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius Bishop of Reims accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590 found guilty and removed from the priesthood then taken ad Argentoratensem urbem quam nunc Strateburgum vocant to the city of Argentoratum which they now call Strateburgus where he was exiled 16 Geography EditLocation Edit Strasbourg seen from Spot Satellite Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany This border is formed by the Rhine which also forms the eastern border of the modern city facing across the river to the German town Kehl The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Ile in the river Ill which here flows parallel to and roughly 4 kilometres 2 5 mi from the Rhine The natural courses of the two rivers eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city The city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain at between 132 metres 433 ft and 151 metres 495 ft above sea level with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km 12 mi to the west and the Black Forest 25 km 16 mi to the east This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north south travel with river traffic on the Rhine itself and major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks The city is some 397 kilometres 247 mi east of Paris 17 The mouth of the Rhine lies approximately 450 kilometres 280 mi to the north or 650 kilometres 400 mi as the river flows whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres 62 mi to the south or 150 kilometres 93 mi by river Climate Edit In spite of its position far inland Strasbourg has an oceanic climate Koppen Cfb 18 19 though with less maritime influence than the milder climates of Western and Southern France 20 The city has warm relatively sunny summers and cool overcast winters Precipitation is elevated from mid spring to the end of summer but remains largely constant throughout the year totaling 631 4 mm 24 9 in annually On average snow falls 30 days per year citation needed The second highest temperature ever recorded was 38 5 C 101 3 F in August 2003 during the 2003 European heat wave This record was broken on June 30 2019 when it reached 38 8 C 101 8 F 21 The lowest temperature ever recorded was 23 4 C 10 1 F in December 1938 22 Strasbourg s location in the Rhine valley sheltered from strong winds by the Vosges and Black Forest mountains results in poor natural ventilation making Strasbourg one of the most atmospherically polluted cities of France 23 24 Nonetheless the progressive disappearance of heavy industry on both banks of the Rhine as well as effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have reduced air pollution in recent years 25 Climate data for Strasbourg Entzheim SXB elevation 150 m 492 ft 1981 2010 normals extremes 1924 presentMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 17 5 63 5 21 1 70 0 25 7 78 3 30 0 86 0 33 8 92 8 38 8 101 8 38 9 102 0 38 7 101 7 33 4 92 1 29 1 84 4 22 1 71 8 18 3 64 9 38 9 102 0 Average high C F 4 5 40 1 6 4 43 5 11 4 52 5 15 7 60 3 20 2 68 4 23 4 74 1 25 7 78 3 25 4 77 7 21 0 69 8 15 3 59 5 8 8 47 8 5 2 41 4 15 3 59 5 Daily mean C F 1 8 35 2 2 9 37 2 6 9 44 4 10 5 50 9 15 0 59 0 18 1 64 6 20 1 68 2 19 7 67 5 15 8 60 4 11 2 52 2 5 8 42 4 2 8 37 0 10 9 51 6 Average low C F 0 8 30 6 0 6 30 9 2 5 36 5 5 2 41 4 9 8 49 6 12 8 55 0 14 5 58 1 14 1 57 4 10 6 51 1 7 1 44 8 2 8 37 0 0 3 32 5 6 6 43 9 Record low C F 23 6 10 5 22 3 8 1 16 7 1 9 5 6 21 9 2 4 27 7 1 1 34 0 4 9 40 8 4 8 40 6 1 3 29 7 7 6 18 3 10 8 12 6 23 4 10 1 23 6 10 5 Average precipitation mm inches 32 2 1 27 34 5 1 36 42 8 1 69 45 9 1 81 81 9 3 22 71 6 2 82 72 7 2 86 61 4 2 42 63 5 2 50 61 5 2 42 47 0 1 85 50 0 1 97 665 0 26 18 Average precipitation days 1 0 mm 8 4 8 1 9 1 9 2 11 5 10 7 10 8 9 9 8 6 9 5 9 3 9 8 114 9Average snowy days 7 8 6 7 4 0 1 5 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 6 3 29 8Average relative humidity 86 82 76 72 73 74 72 76 80 85 86 86 79Mean monthly sunshine hours 58 1 83 8 134 8 180 0 202 5 223 8 228 6 219 6 164 5 98 7 55 3 43 1 1 692 7Source 1 Meteo France 26 27 Source 2 Infoclimat fr relative humidity 1961 1990 28 History EditMain article History of Strasbourg See also Timeline of Strasbourg Sigismund Holy Roman Emperor visiting Strasbourg in 1414 detail of a painting by Leo Schnug The Roman camp of Argentoratum was first mentioned in 12 BC the city of Strasbourg which grew from it celebrated its 2 000th anniversary in 1988 The fertile area in the Upper Rhine Plain between the rivers Ill and Rhine had already been populated since the Middle Paleolithic 29 30 Between 362 and 1262 Strasbourg was governed by the bishops of Strasbourg their rule was reinforced in 873 and then more in 982 31 In 1262 the citizens violently rebelled against the bishop s rule Battle of Hausbergen and Strasbourg became a free imperial city It became a French city in 1681 after the conquest of Alsace by the armies of Louis XIV In 1871 after the Franco Prussian War the city became German again until 1918 end of World War I when it reverted to France After the defeat of France in 1940 World War II Strasbourg came under German control again through formal annexation into the Gau Baden Elsass under the Nazi Gauleiter Robert Wagner since the end of 1944 it is again a French city In 2016 Strasbourg was promoted from capital of Alsace to capital of Grand Est Strasbourg played an important part in Protestant Reformation with personalities such as John Calvin Martin Bucer Wolfgang Capito Matthew and Katharina Zell but also in other aspects of Christianity such as German mysticism with Johannes Tauler Pietism with Philipp Spener and Reverence for Life with Albert Schweitzer Delegates from the city took part in the Protestation at Speyer It was also one of the first centres of the printing industry with pioneers such as Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Mentelin and Heinrich Eggestein Among the darkest periods in the city s long history were the years 1349 Strasbourg massacre 1518 Dancing plague 1793 Reign of Terror 1870 Siege of Strasbourg and the years 1940 1944 with the Nazi occupation atrocities such as the Jewish skeleton collection and the British and American bombing raids Some other notable dates were the years 357 Battle of Argentoratum 842 Oaths of Strasbourg 1538 establishment of the university 1605 world s first newspaper printed by Johann Carolus 1792 La Marseillaise and 1889 pancreatic origin of diabetes discovered by Minkowski and Von Mering Strasbourg has been the seat of European Institutions since 1949 first of the International Commission on Civil Status and of the Council of Europe later of the European Parliament of the European Science Foundation of Eurocorps and others as well Districts EditStrasbourg is divided into the following districts 32 Bourse Esplanade Krutenau Centre Republique Centre Gare Conseil des XV Rotterdam Cronenbourg Hautepierre Poteries Hohberg Koenigshoffen Montagne Verte Elsau Meinau Neudorf Schluthfeld Port du Rhin Musau Neuhof Stockfeld Ganzau Robertsau WackenMain sights Edit Panorama from the Barrage Vauban with the medieval bridge Ponts Couverts in the foreground the fourth tower is hidden by trees at the left and the cathedral in the distance on the right La Petite France during golden hour Architecture Edit Strasbourg Cathedral of Our Lady The city is chiefly known for its sandstone Gothic Cathedral with its famous astronomical clock and for its medieval cityscape of Rhineland black and white timber framed buildings particularly in the Petite France district or Gerberviertel tanners district alongside the Ill and in the streets and squares surrounding the cathedral where the renowned Maison Kammerzell stands out Notable medieval streets include Rue Merciere Rue des Dentelles Rue du Bain aux Plantes Rue des Juifs Rue des Freres Rue des Tonneliers Rue du Maroquin Rue des Charpentiers Rue des Serruriers Grand Rue Quai des Bateliers Quai Saint Nicolas and Quai Saint Thomas Notable medieval squares include Place de la Cathedrale Place du Marche Gayot Place Saint Etienne Place du Marche aux Cochons de Lait and Place Benjamin Zix Place du Marche aux Cochons de Lait Place Gutenberg with statue of Gutenberg and Carousel Maison des tanneurs View of the Ill with Eglise Saint Thomas In addition to the cathedral Strasbourg houses several other medieval churches that have survived the many wars and destructions that have plagued the city the Romanesque Eglise Saint Etienne partly destroyed in 1944 by Allied bombing raids the part Romanesque part Gothic very large Eglise Saint Thomas with its Silbermann organ on which Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Albert Schweitzer played 33 the Gothic Eglise protestante Saint Pierre le Jeune with its crypt dating back to the seventh century and its cloister partly from the eleventh century the Gothic Eglise Saint Guillaume with its fine early Renaissance stained glass and furniture the Gothic Eglise Saint Jean the part Gothic part Art Nouveau Eglise Sainte Madeleine etc The Neo Gothic church Saint Pierre le Vieux Catholique there is also an adjacent church Saint Pierre le Vieux Protestant serves as a shrine for several 15th century wood worked and painted altars coming from other now destroyed churches and installed there for public display especially the Passion of Christ Among the numerous secular medieval buildings the monumental Ancienne Douane old custom house stands out The German Renaissance has bequeathed the city some noteworthy buildings especially the current Chambre de commerce et d industrie former town hall on Place Gutenberg as did the French Baroque and Classicism with several hotels particuliers i e palaces among which the Palais Rohan 1742 now housing three museums is the most spectacular Other buildings of its kind are the Hotel de Hanau 1736 now the city hall the Hotel de Klinglin 1736 now residence of the prefet the Hotel des Deux Ponts 1755 now residence of the military governor the Hotel d Andlau Klinglin 1725 now seat of the administration of the Port autonome de Strasbourg etc The largest baroque building of Strasbourg though is the 150 metre long 490 ft 1720s main building of the Hopital civil As for French Neo classicism it is the Opera House on Place Broglie that most prestigiously represents this style Strasbourg also offers high class eclecticist buildings in its very extended German district the Neustadt being the main memory of Wilhelmian architecture since most of the major cities in Germany proper suffered intensive damage during World War II Streets boulevards and avenues are homogeneous surprisingly high up to seven stories and broad examples of German urban lay out and of this architectural style that summons and mixes up five centuries of European architecture as well as Neo Egyptian Neo Greek and Neo Babylonian styles The former imperial palace Palais du Rhin the most political and thus heavily criticized of all German Strasbourg buildings epitomizes the grand scale and stylistic sturdiness of this period But the two most handsome and ornate buildings of these times are the Ecole internationale des Pontonniers the former Hohere Madchenschule with its towers turrets and multiple round and square angles 34 and the Haute ecole des arts du Rhin with its lavishly ornate facade of painted bricks woodwork and majolica 35 The baroque organ of the Eglise Saint Thomas Notable streets of the German district include Avenue de la Foret Noire Avenue des Vosges Avenue d Alsace Avenue de la Marseillaise Avenue de la Liberte Boulevard de la Victoire Rue Sellenick Rue du General de Castelnau Rue du Marechal Foch and Rue du Marechal Joffre Notable squares of the German district include Place de la Republique Place de l Universite Place Brant and Place Arnold Impressive examples of Prussian military architecture of the 1880s can be found along the newly reopened Rue du Rempart displaying large scale fortifications among which the aptly named Kriegstor war gate As for modern and contemporary architecture Strasbourg possesses some fine Art Nouveau buildings such as the huge Palais des Fetes and houses and villas like Villa Schutzenberger and Hotel Brion good examples of post World War II functional architecture the Cite Rotterdam for which Le Corbusier did not succeed in the architectural contest and in the very extended Quartier Europeen some spectacular administrative buildings of sometimes utterly large size among which the European Court of Human Rights building by Richard Rogers is arguably the finest Other noticeable contemporary buildings are the new Music school Cite de la Musique et de la Danse the Musee d Art moderne et contemporain and the Hotel du Departement facing it as well as in the outskirts the tramway station Hoenheim Nord designed by Zaha Hadid Place Kleber The city has many bridges including the medieval and four towered Ponts Couverts that despite their name are no longer covered Next to the Ponts Couverts is the Barrage Vauban a part of Vauban s 17th century fortifications that does include a covered bridge Other bridges are the ornate 19th century Pont de la Fonderie 1893 stone and Pont d Auvergne 1892 iron as well as architect Marc Mimram s futuristic Passerelle over the Rhine opened in 2004 The largest square at the centre of the city of Strasbourg is the Place Kleber Located in the heart of the city s commercial area it was named after general Jean Baptiste Kleber born in Strasbourg in 1753 and assassinated in 1800 in Cairo In the square is a statue of Kleber under which is a vault containing his remains On the north side of the square is the Aubette Orderly Room built by Jacques Francois Blondel architect of the king in 1765 1772 Parks Edit The Pavillon Josephine rear side in the Parc de l Orangerie The Chateau de Pourtales front side in the park of the same name Strasbourg features a number of prominent parks of which several are of cultural and historical interest the Parc de l Orangerie laid out as a French garden by Andre le Notre and remodeled as an English garden on behalf of Josephine de Beauharnais now displaying noteworthy French gardens a neo classical castle and a small zoo the Parc de la Citadelle built around impressive remains of the 17th century fortress erected close to the Rhine by Vauban 36 the Parc de Pourtales laid out in English style around a baroque castle heavily restored in the 19th century that now houses a small three star hotel 37 and featuring an open air museum of international contemporary sculpture 38 The Jardin botanique de l Universite de Strasbourg botanical garden was created under the German administration next to the Observatory of Strasbourg built in 1881 and still owns some greenhouses of those times The Parc des Contades although the oldest park of the city was completely remodeled after World War II The futuristic Parc des Poteries is an example of European park conception in the late 1990s The Jardin des deux Rives spread over Strasbourg and Kehl on both sides of the Rhine opened in 2004 and is the most extended 60 hectare park of the agglomeration The most recent park is Parc du Heyritz 8 7 ha opened in 2014 along a canal facing the hopital civil Museums Edit As of 2020 the city of Strasbourg has eleven municipal museums including Aubette 1928 39 eleven university museums 40 and at least two privately owned museums Musee vodou and Musee du barreau de Strasbourg Five communes in the metropolitan area also have museums see below three of them dedicated to military history Overview Edit The collections in Strasbourg are distributed over a wide range of museums according to a system that takes into account not only the types and geographical provenances of the items but also the epochs This concerns in particular the following domains Old master paintings from the Germanic Rhenish territories and until 1681 are displayed in the Musee de l Œuvre Notre Dame MOND old master paintings from all the rest of Europe including the Dutch Rhenish territories and until 1871 as well as old master paintings from the Germanic Rhenish territories between 1681 and 1871 are displayed in the Musee des Beaux Arts paintings since 1871 are displayed in the Musee d art moderne et contemporain MAMCS Decorative arts until 1681 are on display in the MOND decorative arts from the years 1681 until 1871 are on display in the Musee des arts decoratifs decorative arts after 1871 are on display at the MAMCS with items from each epoch also shown in the Musee historique Prints and drawings until 1871 are displayed in the Cabinet des estampes et dessins save for the original plans of Strasbourg Cathedral displayed in the MOND Prints and drawings after 1871 are displayed in the MAMCS and in the Musee Tomi Ungerer Centre international de l illustration the combined number of prints and drawings amounts to well over 200 000 Artefacts from Ancient Egypt are on display in two entirely different collections one in the Musee archeologique and the other belonging to the Instituts d Egyptologie et de Papyrologie of the University of Strasbourg Fine art museums Edit A room in the Musee des Arts decoratifs The Musee des Beaux Arts owns paintings by Hans Memling Francisco de Goya Tintoretto Paolo Veronese Giotto di Bondone Sandro Botticelli Peter Paul Rubens Anthony van Dyck El Greco Correggio Cima da Conegliano and Piero di Cosimo among others The Musee de l Œuvre Notre Dame located in a part Gothic part Renaissance building next to the cathedral houses a large and renowned collection of medieval and Renaissance upper Rhenish art among which original sculptures plans and stained glass from the cathedral and paintings by Hans Baldung and Sebastian Stoskopff The Musee d Art moderne et contemporain is among the largest museums of its kind in France The Musee des Arts decoratifs located in the sumptuous former residence of the cardinals of Rohan the Palais Rohan displays a reputable collection of 18th century furniture and china The Cabinet des estampes et des dessins displays five centuries of engravings and drawings but also woodcuts and lithographies The Musee Tomi Ungerer Centre international de l illustration located in a large former villa next to the Theatre displays original works by Ungerer and other artists Saul Steinberg Ronald Searle as well as Ungerer s large collection of ancient toys Other museums Edit The Musee archeologique presents a large display of regional findings from the first ages of man to the sixth century focussing especially on the Roman and Celtic period It also includes a collection of works from Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece assembled and bequeathed by Gustave Schlumberger 41 The Musee alsacien is dedicated to traditional Alsatian daily life Le Vaisseau The vessel is a science and technology centre especially designed for children The Musee historique historical museum is dedicated to the tumultuous history of the city and displays many artifacts of the times among which the Gruselhorn the horn that was blown every evening at 10 00 during medieval times to order the Jews out of the city The Musee vodou Voodoo museum opened its doors on 28 November 2013 Displaying a private collection of artefacts from Haiti it is located in a former water tower chateau d eau built in 1883 and classified as a Monument historique The Musee du barreau de Strasbourg The Strasbourg bar association museum is a museum dedicated to the work and the history of lawyers in the city 42 43 University museums Edit The Universite de Strasbourg is in charge of a number of permanent public displays of its collections of scientific artefacts and products of all kinds of exploration and research 44 The Musee zoologique is one of the oldest in France and is especially famous for its collection of birds The museum is co administrated by the municipality The Gypsotheque also known as Musee des moulages or Musee Adolf Michaelis is France s second largest cast collection and the largest university cast collection in France The Musee de Sismologie et Magnetisme terrestre displays antique instruments of measure The Musee Pasteur is a collection of medical curiosities The Musee de mineralogie is dedicated to minerals The Musee d Egyptologie houses a collections of archaeological findings made in and brought from Egypt and Sudan This collection is entirely separate from the Schlumberger collection of the Musee archeologique see above 45 The Crypte aux etoiles star crypt is situated in the vaulted basement below the Observatory of Strasbourg and displays old telescopes and other antique astronomical devices such as clocks and theodolites Museums in the suburbs Edit Musee Les Secrets du Chocolat Chocolate museum in Geispolsheim 46 Fort Frere in Oberhausbergen 47 Fort Rapp in Reichstett Pixel Museum a video game museum in Schiltigheim 48 MM Park France a military museum in La Wantzenau 49 Demographics EditThis section needs expansion You can help by adding to it June 2017 The commune of Strasbourg proper had a population of 284 677 on 1 January 2018 50 the result of a constant moderate annual growth which is also reflected in the constant growth of the number of students at its university e g from 42 000 students in 2010 to 52 000 students in 2019 51 The metropolitan area of Strasbourg had a population of 785 839 inhabitants in 2016 French side of the border only 52 while the transnational Eurodistrict had a population of 958 421 inhabitants 8 In the Middle Ages Strasbourg a Free imperial city since 1262 was an important town According to a 1444 census the population was circa 20 000 only one third less than Cologne then a major European city 53 Population growth Edit Historical populationYearPop p a 179347 254 180049 056 0 54 180651 465 0 80 182149 680 0 24 183149 712 0 01 183657 885 3 09 184170 298 3 96 184671 992 0 48 185175 565 0 97 185677 656 0 55 186182 014 1 10 186684 167 0 52 187185 654 0 35 187594 306 2 43 1880104 471 2 07 1885111 987 1 40 1890123 500 1 98 1895135 608 1 89 YearPop p a 1900151 041 2 18 1905167 678 2 11 1910178 891 1 30 1921166 767 0 64 1926174 492 0 91 1931181 465 0 79 1936193 119 1 25 1946175 515 0 95 1954200 921 1 70 1962228 971 1 65 1968249 396 1 43 1975253 384 0 23 1982248 712 0 27 1990252 338 0 18 1999264 115 0 51 2007272 123 0 37 2012274 394 0 17 2017280 966 0 47 Source EHESS 54 and INSEE 1968 2017 55 The Ill seen from the terrace of the Palais Rohan Population composition Edit 2012 2007 Total population 274 394 100 272 123 1000 14 years 47 473 17 3 46 263 17 015 29 years 77 719 28 3 78 291 28 830 44 years 54 514 19 9 54 850 20 245 59 years 45 436 16 6 47 236 17 460 74 years 30 321 11 1 27 060 9 975 years 18 931 6 9 18 424 6 8Culture EditStrasbourg is the seat of internationally renowned institutions of music and drama The Orchestre philharmonique de Strasbourg founded in 1855 one of the oldest symphonic orchestras in western Europe Based since 1975 in the Palais de la musique et des congres The Opera national du Rhin The Theatre national de Strasbourg The Percussions de Strasbourg The Theatre du Maillon The Laiterie Joshy s house a venue for performance poetry and freestyle urban music Au Zenith Other theatres are the Theatre jeune public the TAPS Scala the Kafteur Events Edit Musica international festival of contemporary classical music autumn Festival international de Strasbourg founded in 1932 festival of classical music and jazz summer Festival des Artefacts festival of contemporary non classical music Les Nuits electroniques de l Ososphere Strasbourg European Fantastic Film Festival is an annual film festival devoted to science fiction horror and fantasy It was known as the Spectre Film Festival before 2008 The Strasbourg International Film Festival is an annual film festival focusing on new and emerging independent filmmakers from around the world Education EditUniversities and tertiary education Edit Strasbourg well known as centre of humanism has a long history of excellence in higher education at the crossroads of French and German intellectual traditions Although Strasbourg had been annexed by the Kingdom of France in 1683 it still remained connected to the German speaking intellectual world throughout the 18th century and the university attracted numerous students from the Holy Roman Empire with Goethe Metternich and Montgelas who studied law in Strasbourg among the most prominent With 19 Nobel prizes in total Strasbourg is the most eminent French university outside of Paris Up until January 2009 there were three universities in Strasbourg with an approximate total of 48 500 students as of 2007 update another 4 500 students are being taught at one of the diverse post graduate schools 56 Strasbourg I Louis Pasteur University Strasbourg II Marc Bloch University Strasbourg III Robert Schuman University As of 1 January 2009 those three universities have merged and now constitute the Universite de Strasbourg Schools part of the Universite de Strasbourg include Sciences Po Strasbourg Institut d etudes politiques de Strasbourg the University of Strasbourg s political science amp international studies center The EMS EM Strasbourg Business School the University of Strasbourg s business school The INSA Institut national des sciences appliquees the University of Strasbourg s engineering school The ENA Ecole nationale d administration ENA trains most of the nation s high ranking civil servants The relocation to Strasbourg was meant to give a European vocation to the school and to implement the French government s decentralisation plan The ESAD Ecole superieure des arts decoratifs is an art school of European reputation The ISEG Group Institut superieur europeen de gestion group The ISU International Space University is located in the south of Strasbourg Illkirch Graffenstaden The ECPM Ecole europeenne de chimie polymeres et materiaux The EPITA Ecole pour l informatique et les techniques avancees The EPITECH Ecole pour l informatique et les nouvelles technologies The INET Institut national des etudes territoriales The IIEF Institut international d etudes francaises The ENGEES Ecole nationale du genie de l eau et de l environnement de Strasbourg The CUEJ Centre universitaire d enseignement du journalisme TELECOM Physique Strasbourg Ecole nationale superieure de physique de Strasbourg Institute of Technology located in the South of Strasbourg Illkirch Graffenstaden Primary and secondary education Edit This section needs expansion You can help by adding to it March 2016 International schools include Multiple levels European School of Strasbourg priority given to children whose parents are employed at the European institutions For elementary education 57 Ecole Internationale Robert Schuman Strasbourg International School International School at Lucie Berger Russian Mission School in Strasbourg 58 For middle school junior high school education 57 College International de l Esplanade For senior high school sixth form college 57 Lycee international des Pontonniers FR Libraries Edit Lateral view of the National Library The Bibliotheque nationale et universitaire BNU is with its collection of more than 3 000 000 titles 59 the second largest library in France after the Bibliotheque nationale de France It was founded by the German administration after the complete destruction of the previous municipal library in 1871 and holds the unique status of being simultaneously a students and a national library The Strasbourg municipal library had been marked erroneously as City Hall in a French commercial map which had been captured and used by the German artillery to lay their guns A librarian from Munich later pointed out that the destruction of the precious collection was not the fault of a German artillery officer who used the French map but of the slovenly and inaccurate scholarship of a Frenchman 60 The municipal library Bibliotheque municipale de Strasbourg BMS administrates a network of ten medium sized librairies in different areas of the town A six stories high Grande bibliotheque the Mediatheque Andre Malraux was inaugurated on 19 September 2008 and is considered the largest in Eastern France 61 Incunabula Edit As one of the earliest centers of book printing in Europe see above History Strasbourg for a long time held a large number of incunabula books printed before 1500 in its library as one of its most precious heritages no less than 7 000 62 After the total destruction of this institution in 1870 however a new collection had to be reassembled from scratch Today Strasbourg s different public and institutional libraries again display a sizable total number of incunabula distributed as follows Bibliotheque nationale et universitaire ca 2 120 62 Mediatheque de la ville et de la communaute urbaine de Strasbourg 349 63 Bibliotheque du Grand Seminaire 238 64 Mediatheque protestante 66 65 and Bibliotheque alsatique du Credit Mutuel 5 66 Transportation Edit One of Strasbourg s trams passes over one of its canals whilst a tourist trip boat passes underneath Train services operate from the Gare de Strasbourg the city s main station in the city centre eastward to Offenburg and Karlsruhe in Germany westward to Metz and Paris and southward to Basel Strasbourg s links with the rest of France have improved due to its recent connection to the TGV network with the first phase of the TGV Est Paris Strasbourg in 2007 the TGV Rhin Rhone Strasbourg Lyon in 2012 and the second phase of the TGV Est in July 2016 Strasbourg also has its own airport serving major domestic destinations as well as international destinations in Europe and northern Africa The airport is linked to the Gare de Strasbourg by a frequent train service 67 68 City transportation in Strasbourg includes the futurist looking Strasbourg tramway that opened in 1994 and is operated by the regional transit company Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois CTS consisting of 6 lines with a total length of 55 8 km 34 7 mi The CTS also operates a comprehensive bus network throughout the city that is integrated with the trams With more than 500 km 311 mi of bicycle paths biking in the city is convenient and the CTS operates a cheap bike sharing scheme named Velhop The CTS and its predecessors also operated a previous generation of tram system between 1878 and 1960 complemented by trolleybus routes between 1939 and 1962 Being a city on the Ill and close to the Rhine Strasbourg has always been an important centre of fluvial navigation as is attested by archeological findings In 1682 the Canal de la Bruche was added to the river navigations initially to provide transport for sandstone from quarries in the Vosges for use in the fortification of the city That canal has since closed but the subsequent Canal du Rhone au Rhin Canal de la Marne au Rhin and Grand Canal d Alsace are still in use as is the important activity of the Port autonome de Strasbourg Water tourism inside the city proper attracts hundreds of thousands of tourists yearly The tram system that now criss crosses the historic city centre complements walking and biking in it The centre has been transformed into a pedestrian priority zone that enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable safe and enjoyable These attributes are accomplished by applying the principle of filtered permeability to the existing irregular network of streets It means that the network adaptations favour active transportation and selectively filter out the car by reducing the number of streets that run through the centre While certain streets are discontinuous for cars they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths which permeate the entire centre In addition these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip This logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts the Fused Grid At present the A35 autoroute which parallels the Rhine between Karlsruhe and Basel and the A4 autoroute which links Paris with Strasbourg penetrate close to the centre of the city The Grand contournement ouest GCO project programmed since 1999 plans to construct a 24 kilometre long 15 mi highway connection between the junctions of the A4 and the A35 autoroutes in the north and of the A35 and A352 autoroutes in the south This routes well to the west of the city and is meant to divest a significant portion of motorized traffic from the unite urbaine 69 The GCO project is opposed by environmentalists who created a ZAD or Zone to Defend 70 Strasbourg Public Transportation Statistics Edit The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Strasbourg for example to and from work on a weekday is 52 min 7 of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 9 min while 11 of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 3 9 km 2 4 mi while 0 travel for over 12 km 7 5 mi in a single direction 71 European role Edit The Palace of Europe of the Council of Europe Institutions Edit Main article European Institutions in Strasbourg Strasbourg is the seat of over twenty international institutions 72 most famously of the Council of Europe and of the European Parliament of which it is the official seat Strasbourg is considered the legislative and democratic capital of the European Union while Brussels is considered the executive and administrative capital and Luxembourg the judiciary and financial capital 73 Strasbourg is the seat of the following organisations among others Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine since 1920 Council of Europe with all the bodies and organisations affiliated to this institution since 1949 European Parliament since 1952 European Ombudsman Eurocorps headquarters Franco German television channel Arte European Science Foundation International Institute of Human Rights Human Frontier Science Program International Commission on Civil Status Assembly of European Regions Centre for European Studies French Centre d etudes europeennes de Strasbourg Sakharov PrizeEurodistrict Edit Main article Strasbourg Ortenau Eurodistrict France and Germany have created a Eurodistrict straddling the Rhine combining the Greater Strasbourg and the Ortenau district of Baden Wurttemberg with some common administration It was established in 2005 and has been fully functional since 2010 Sports Edit Stade de la Meinau home of RC Strasbourg Sporting teams from Strasbourg are the Racing Club de Strasbourg Alsace football SIG Strasbourg basketball and the Etoile Noire ice hockey 74 The women s tennis Internationaux de Strasbourg is one of the most important French tournaments of its kind outside Roland Garros In 1922 Strasbourg was the venue for the XVI Grand Prix de l A C F which saw Fiat battle Bugatti Ballot Rolland Pilain and Britain s Aston Martin and Sunbeam Honours EditHonours associated with the city of Strasbourg The Medal of Honor Strasbourg Sakharov Prize seated in Strasbourg City of Strasbourg Silver gilt Medal a former medal with City Coat of Arms and Ten Arms of the Cities of the Dekapolis 75 Notable people EditFor a more comprehensive list see List of people from Strasbourg Further information University of Strasbourg Notable academics and alumni Observatory of Strasbourg Notable astronomers and List of bishops prince bishops and archbishops of Strasbourg In chronological order notable people born in Strasbourg include Eric of Friuli Johannes Tauler Sebastian Brant Jean Baptiste Kleber Louis Ramond de Carbonnieres Francois Christophe Kellermann Marie Tussaud Ludwig I of Bavaria Charles Frederic Gerhardt Louis Frederic Schutzenberger Gustave Dore Emile Waldteufel Rene Beeh Jean Hans Arp Charles Munch Hans Bethe Maurice Kriegel Valrimont Marcel Marceau Tomi Ungerer Elizabeth Sombart Arsene Wenger Petit and Matt Pokora In chronological order notable residents of Strasbourg include Johannes Gutenberg Hans Baldung Martin Bucer John Calvin Joachim Meyer Johann Carolus Johann Wolfgang Goethe Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Georg Buchner Louis Pasteur Ferdinand Braun Albrecht Kossel Georg Simmel Albert Schweitzer Otto Klemperer Marc Bloch Alberto Fujimori Marjane Satrapi Paul Ricoeur and Jean Marie Lehn Twin towns and sister cities EditSee also List of twin towns and sister cities in France Strasbourg is twinned with 76 Boston United States since 1960 76 77 Leicester United Kingdom since 1960 76 78 79 Stuttgart Germany since 1962 76 80 Dresden Germany since 1990 76 81 Ramat Gan Israel since 1991 76 82 Oran Algeria since 2013 Strasbourg has cooperative agreements with Jacmel Haiti since 1996 Cooperation decentralisee Veliky Novgorod Russia since 1997 Cooperation decentralisee Fes Morocco Cooperation decentralisee Douala Cameroon Cooperation decentralisee Bamako Mali Cooperation decentralisee In popular culture EditIn film Edit The opening scenes of the 1977 Ridley Scott film The Duellists take place in Strasbourg in 1800 The 2007 film In the City of Sylvia is set in Strasbourg Early February 2011 principal photography for Sherlock Holmes A Game of Shadows 2011 moved for two days to Strasbourg Shooting took place on around and inside the Strasbourg Cathedral The opening scene of the movie covers an assassination bombing in the city In literature Edit One of the longest chapters of Laurence Sterne s novel Tristram Shandy 1759 1767 Slawkenbergius tale takes place in Strasbourg 83 An episode of Matthew Gregory Lewis novel The Monk 1796 takes place in the forests then surrounding Strasbourg In music Edit Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called his Third violin concerto 1775 Strassburger Konzert because of one of its most prominent motives based on a local minuet like dance that had already appeared as a tune in a symphony by Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf 84 It is not related to Mozart s ulterior stay in Strasbourg 1778 where he gave three concert performances on the piano Havergal Brian s Symphony No 7 was inspired by passages in Goethe s memoirs recalling his time spent at Strasbourg University The work ends with an orchestral bell sounding the note E the strike note of the bell of Strasbourg Cathedral British art punk band The Rakes had a minor hit in 2005 with their song Strasbourg This song features witty lyrics with themes of espionage and vodka and includes a count of eins zwei drei vier even though Strasbourg s spoken language is French On their 1974 album Hamburger Concerto Dutch progressive band Focus included a track called La Cathedrale de Strasbourg which included chimes from a cathedral like bell Strasbourg pie a dish containing foie gras is mentioned in the finale of the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical Cats Several works have specifically been dedicated to Strasbourg Cathedral notably ad hoc compositions masses motets etc by Kapellmeisters Franz Xaver Richter and Ignaz Pleyel and more recently It is Finished by John Tavener Notes Edit a b c d Only the part of the urban area on French territory References EditCitations Edit Populations legales 2018 The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies 28 December 2020 Unite urbaine de Strasbourg partie francaise 67701 insee fr Retrieved 24 September 2020 Aire urbaine de Strasbourg partie francaise 009 insee fr Retrieved 24 September 2020 Strasbourg Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary Oxford University Press Retrieved 30 April 2019 Strasbourg Merriam Webster Dictionary Retrieved 30 April 2019 Office pour la Langue et la Culture d Alsace Strasbourg oclalsace org in French Retrieved 11 June 2019 Populations legales en vigueur a compter du 1er janvier 2021 PDF Institut national de la statistique et des etudes economiques Retrieved 1 January 2021 a b Territoire Eurodistrict Strasbourg Ortenau Retrieved 2 January 2020 Archived copy Archived from the original on 11 June 2007 Retrieved 10 December 2019 CS1 maint archived copy as title link The international institute of Human Rights Archived from the original on 3 June 2013 Retrieved 31 August 2013 Strasbourg Grande Ile and Neustadt UNESCO World Heritage Centre United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Retrieved 17 October 2021 France Vows to Kick out Islamic Troublemakers Naharnet 27 September 2012 Le Port Autonome de Strasbourg upper rhine ports eu Retrieved 4 January 2020 Port de Strasbourg le trafic chute de 26 en 2018 plus bas historique Le Figaro 15 January 2019 Retrieved 4 January 2020 Jean Marie Pailler 2006 Quand l argent etait d or Paroles de Gaulois PDF Gallia in French CNRS 63 211 241 doi 10 3406 galia 2006 3296 Gregory of Tours 1849 Historia Francorum 10th book chapter XIX p 553 Retrieved 7 March 2017 Distance entre Paris et Strasbourg en voiture frdistance com in French Retrieved 18 December 2018 Strasbourg Climate Strasbourg Temperatures Strasbourg Weather Averages Archived from the original on 24 June 2017 Retrieved 29 September 2017 Temperature Climate graph Climate table for Strasbourg Climate Data Retrieved 29 September 2017 Les climats en France Ressources pour les enseignants Ressources elementaire www assistancescolaire com in French Retrieved 30 March 2019 Canicule de juin 2019 retour sur un episode exceptionnel www meteofrance fr Meteo France Archived from the original on 3 July 2019 Retrieved 3 July 2019 Record de froid 18 degres a Strasbourg cette nuit Les Dernieres Nouvelles d Alsace 25 December 2010 Retrieved 13 January 2021 Daily measurements for Strasbourg and Alsace Atmo alsace net Retrieved 15 April 2010 Measurements Archived 9 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine made on 18 and 19 October 2005 Outlines of the urban transportation policy led by the urban community of Strasbourg Epe be 29 March 2010 Archived from the original on 11 December 2008 Retrieved 15 April 2010 Climatological Information for Strasbourg France Meteo France 7 August 2019 STRASBOURG ENTZHEIM 67 PDF Fiche Climatologique Statistiques 1981 2010 et records in French Meteo France Retrieved 7 August 2019 Normes et records 1961 1990 Strasbourg Entzheim 67 altitude 150m in French Infoclimat Archived from the original on 15 March 2016 Retrieved 7 August 2019 Musee Archeologique Strasbourg De la Prehistoire au Moyen Age en Alsace Hominides com Retrieved 17 July 2017 Du Paleolithique au Neolithique Musees de la ville de Strasbourg Retrieved 29 January 2019 Les temps de l histoire de Strasbourg Archives de la ville et de l Eurometropole de Strasbourg Retrieved 17 July 2017 Les quartiers History and description of the instrument Perso wanadoo fr Archived from the original on 30 November 2004 Retrieved 15 April 2010 Pictures Archi strasbourg org Archived from the original on 5 January 2009 Retrieved 15 April 2010 Views Archived from the original on 10 May 2015 Retrieved 20 August 2021 Parc de la Citadelle with remains of the Vauban fortress Archi strasbourg org 26 August 2007 Archived from the original on 5 January 2009 Retrieved 15 April 2010 Overview chateau pourtales eu Retrieved 12 December 2010 Overview Ceaac org Archived from the original on 4 December 2010 Retrieved 15 April 2010 Museums Musees de la ville de Strasbourg Retrieved 3 January 2020 Jardin des Sciences Et aussi University of Strasbourg Retrieved 3 January 2020 Antiquites egyptiennes Musee Archeologique Musees de la vile de Strasbourg Retrieved 3 January 2020 Le Musee du Barreau de Strasbourg Ordre des avocats de Strasbourg Archived from the original on 1 December 2017 Retrieved 1 December 2017 Le Musee du Barreau de Strasbourg Alsace 20 Archived from the original on 1 December 2017 Retrieved 1 December 2017 Overview of the collections Collections u strasbg fr Archived from the original on 9 November 2013 Retrieved 9 December 2013 Histoire de la collection University of Strasbourg Retrieved 3 January 2020 The Museum The Secrets of Chocolate musee du chocolat com Retrieved 3 March 2017 Fort Grossherzog von Baden Fort Frere Fort Frere Retrieved 16 May 2017 Pixel Museum pixel museum fr Retrieved 3 March 2017 MM Park France mmpark fr Retrieved 3 March 2017 Populations legales 2018 Commune de Strasbourg 67482 INSEE 28 December 2020 Effectifs etudiants University of Strasbourg Retrieved 3 January 2020 Aire urbaine de Strasbourg partie francaise 009 INSEE Retrieved 2 January 2020 Klipfel Monique L importance demographique de la ville Academie de Strasbourg Retrieved 4 January 2020 Des villages de Cassini aux communes d aujourd hui Commune data sheet Strasbourg EHESS in French Population en historique depuis 1968 INSEE 12 October 2007 https web archive org web 20071012164855 http www universites formations alsace fr index php langue 1 Archived from the original on 12 October 2007 Retrieved 3 June 2011 Missing or empty title help a b c International schooling in Strasbourg Archive City of Strasbourg Retrieved on 28 March 2016 p 1 Kontakty Russian Mission School in Strasbourg Retrieved on March 28 2016 6 alle e de la Robertsau 67000 Strasbourg Figures Bnu fr Archived from the original on 4 December 2010 Retrieved 15 April 2010 Butler Pierce 1945 Books and libraries in wartime Chicago IL University of Chicago Press p 15 Strasbourg ouvre une grande mediatheque sur le port in L Express in French a b Les incunables in French Bibliotheque nationale et universitaire de Strasbourg Retrieved 9 January 2020 Presentation des Fonds patrimoniaux in French Portail des mediatheques de la ville et de l Eurometropole de Strasbourg Retrieved 9 January 2020 La bibliotheque ancienne du Grand Seminaire in French Seminaire Sainte Marie Majeure Diocese de Strasbourg 27 October 2014 Retrieved 12 December 2014 La Mediatheque Protestante Chapitre de Saint Thomas Retrieved 9 January 2020 General Bacm creditmutuel fr Archived from the original on 9 September 2010 Retrieved 16 June 2009 Destination map Aeroport Strasbourg Archived from the original on 18 September 2015 Retrieved 18 September 2015 Shuttle train Aeroport Strasbourg Archived from the original on 18 September 2015 Retrieved 18 September 2015 Grand Contournement Ouest de Strasbourg in French dead link Caravagna Leo 7 February 2017 Strasbourg une ebauche de ZAD contre le projet de grand contournement ouest Le Figaro Retrieved 5 May 2019 Strasbourg Public Transportation Statistics Global Public Transit Index by Moovit Retrieved 19 June 2017 Material was copied from this source which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4 0 International License List of international institutions in Strasbourg Investir strasbourg com 15 January 2003 Archived from the original on 10 March 2010 Retrieved 15 April 2010 Comparative Law Academy the ECHR and the FCC The Brief 24 May 2011 Retrieved 13 October 2016 Etoile Noire de Strasbourg Etoile noire fr 31 May 2009 Archived from the original on 8 March 2019 Retrieved 16 June 2009 Cache Numismatics All Things Numismatic a b c d e f Strasbourg Twin City Strasbourg eu amp Communaute Urbaine Archived from the original on 28 July 2013 Retrieved 21 August 2013 Boston Sister Cities The City of Boston Archived from the original on 8 February 2009 Retrieved 5 April 2009 British towns twinned with French towns Archant Community Media Ltd Retrieved 11 July 2013 Twinning Leicester City council Archived from the original on 2 October 2010 Retrieved 5 February 2010 Stuttgart Stadtepartnerschaften Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart Abteilung Aussenbeziehungen in German Retrieved 27 July 2013 Dresden Partner Cities 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden Archived from the original on 16 October 2008 Retrieved 29 December 2008 Ramat Gan Sister Cities Archived from the original on 7 March 2008 Retrieved 6 April 2008 Full text Tristramshandyweb it Archived from the original on 19 July 2011 Retrieved 15 April 2010 Lempfrid Wolfgang Wolfgng Amadeus Mozart Konzert fur Violine und Orchester in D Dur KV 218 koelnklavier de Retrieved 5 April 2016 Sources Edit Connaitre Strasbourg by Roland Recht Georges Foessel and Jean Pierre Klein 1988 ISBN 2 7032 0185 0 Histoire de Strasbourg des origines a nos jours four volumes ca 2000 pages by a collective of historians under the guidance of Georges Livet and Francis Rapp 1982 ISBN 2 7165 0041 X External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Strasbourg Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Strasbourg Strasbourg municipality website Tourist office of Strasbourg CTS Compagnie des transports strasbourgeois The museums of Strasbourg The city archives of Strasbourg in French Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Strasbourg amp oldid 1051458211, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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