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Taṇhā (Pāli; Sanskrit: tṛ́ṣṇā तृष्णा IPA:[trʂɳa]) is an important concept in Buddhism, referring to "thirst, desire, longing, greed", either physical or mental. It is typically translated as craving, and is of three types: kāma-taṇhā (craving for sensual pleasures), bhava-taṇhā (craving for existence), and vibhava-taṇhā (craving for non-existence).

Translations of
taṇhā
Englishthirst, craving, desire, etc.
Sanskrittṛ́ṣṇā (Dev: तृष्णा)
Palitaṇhā
Bengaliটান (Tan)
Burmeseတဏှာ
(MLCTS:tən̥à)
Chinese貪愛 / 贪爱
(Pinyin:tānài)
Japanese渇愛
(Rōmaji:katsu ai)
Khmerតណ្ហា
(UNGEGN:tânha)
Korean갈애
(RR:gal-ae)
Sinhalaතණ්හාව,තෘෂ්ණාව
Tibetanསྲེད་པ་
(Wylie: sred pa;
THL: sepa
)
Thaiตัณหา
(IPA: tan-hăː)
Vietnameseái
Glossary of Buddhism
See also: Five hindrances and Asava

Taṇhā appears in the Four Noble Truths, whereintaṇhā is the cause of dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness) and the cycle of repeated birth, becoming and death (Saṃsāra).

Contents

Taṇhā is a Pali word, derived from the Vedic Sanskrit word tṛ́ṣṇā (तृष्णा), which originates from the Proto-Indo-Iranian *tŕ̥šnas, which is related to the root tarś- (thirst, desire, wish), ultimately descending from Proto-Indo-European *ters- (dry).

The word has the following Indo-European cognates: Avestan taršna (thirst), Ancient Greek térsomai (to dry), Lithuanian troškimas (thirst, desire), Gothic þaursus (dry), Old High German durst (dry), English thirst. The word appears numerous times in the Samhita layer of the Rigveda, dated to the 2nd millennium BCE, such as in hymns 1.7.11, 1.16.5, 3.9.3, 6.15.5, 7.3.4 and 10.91.7. It also appears in other Vedas of Hinduism, wherein the meaning of the word is "thirst, thirsting for, longing for, craving for, desiring, eager greediness, and suffering from thirst".

In the second of the Four Noble Truths, the Buddha identifiedtaṇhā as the principal factor in the arising of dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness).

Taṇhā, states Walpola Rahula, or "thirst, desire, greed, craving" is what manifests as suffering and rebirths. However, adds Rahula, it is not the first cause nor the only cause of dukkha or samsara, because the origination of everything is relative and dependent on something else. The Pali canons of Buddhism assert other defilements and impurities (kilesā, sāsavā dhammā), in addition to taṇhā, as the cause of Dukkha. Taṇhā nevertheless, is always listed first, and considered the principal, all-pervading and "the most palpable and immediate cause" of dukkha, states Rahula.

Taṇhā, states Peter Harvey, is the key origin of dukkha in Buddhism. It reflects a mental state of craving. Greater the craving, more is the frustration because the world is always changing and innately unsatisfactory; craving also brings about pain through conflict and quarrels between individuals, which are all a state of Dukkha. It is such taṇhā that leads to rebirth and endless Samsara, stated Buddha as the second reality, and it is marked by three types of craving: sensory, being or non-existence. In Buddhist philosophy, there are right view and wrong view. The wrong views, it ultimately traces to Taṇhā, but it also asserts that "ordinary right view" such as giving and donations to monks, is also a form of clinging. The end of Taṇhā occurs when the person has accepted the "transcendent right view" through the insight into impermanence and non-self.

Both appropriate and inappropriate tendencies, states Stephen Laumakis, are linked to the fires of Taṇhā, and these produce fruits of kamma thereby rebirths. Quenching and blowing out these fires completely, is the path to final release from dukkha and samsara, in Buddhism. The Pali texts, states David Webster, repeatedly recommend that one must destroy Taṇhā completely, and this destruction is necessary for nirvana.

Taṇhā is also identified as the eighth link in the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination. In the context of the twelve links, the emphasis is on the types of craving "that nourish the karmic potency that will produce the next lifetime."

The Buddha identified three types of taṇhā:

  • Kāma-taṇhā (sensual pleasures craving): craving for sense objects which provide pleasant feeling, or craving for sensory pleasures. Walpola Rahula states that taṇhā includes not only desire for sense-pleasures, wealth and power, but also "desire for, and attachment to, ideas and ideals, views, opinions, theories, conceptions and beliefs (dhamma-taṇhā)."
  • Bhava-taṇhā (craving for being): craving to be something, to unite with an experience. This is ego-related, states Harvey, the seeking of certain identity and desire for certain type of rebirth eternally. Other scholars explain that this type of craving is driven by the wrong view of eternalism (eternal life) and about permanence.
  • Vibhava-taṇhā (craving for non-existence): craving to not experience unpleasant things in the current or future life, such as unpleasant people or situations. This sort of craving may include attempts at suicide and self-annihilation, and this only results in further rebirth in a worse realm of existence. This type of craving, states Phra Thepyanmongkol, is driven by the wrong view of annihilationism, that there is no rebirth.

The third noble truth teaches that the cessation of taṇhā is possible. The Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta states:

Bhikkhus, there is a noble truth about the cessation of suffering. It is the complete fading away and cessation of this craving [taṇhā]; its abandonment and relinquishment; getting free from and being independent of it.

Cessation oftaṇhā can be obtained by following the Noble Eightfold Path. In Theravada Buddhism, the cessation results from the gaining of true insight into impermanence and non-self. The 'insight meditation' practice of Buddhism, states Kevin Trainor, focuses on gaining "right mindfulness" which entails understanding three marks of existence - dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence) and anatta (non-self). The understanding of the reality of non-self, adds Trainor, promotes non-attachment because "if there is no soul, then there is no locus for clinging". Once one comprehends and accepts the non-self doctrine, there are no more desires, i.e. taṇhā ceases.

Buddhism categorizes desires as either Tanha or Chanda. Chanda literally means "impulse, excitement, will, desire for".

Bahm states that Chanda is "desiring what, and no more than, will be attained", while Tanha is "desiring more than will be attained". However, in early Buddhist texts, adds Bahm, the term Chanda includes anxieties and is ambiguous, wherein five kinds of Chanda are described, namely "to seek, to gain, to hoard, to spend and to enjoy". In these early texts, the sense of the word Chanda is the same as Tanha.

Some writers such as Ajahn Sucitto explain Chanda as positive and non-pathological, asserting it to be distinct from negative and pathological Tanha. Sucitto explains it with examples such as the desire to apply oneself to a positive action such as meditation. In contrast, Rhys Davids and Stede state that Chanda, in Buddhist texts, has both positive and negative connotations; as a vice, for example, the Pali text associate Chanda with "lust, delight in the body" stating it to be a source of misery.

Chanda, states Peter Harvey, can be either wholesome or unwholesome.

Taṇhā and avidya (ignorance) can be related to the three poisons:[citation needed]

  • Avidya or Moha (ignorance), the root of the three poisons, is also the basis for taṇhā.
  • Raga (attachment) is equivalent to bhava-taṇhā (craving to be) and kāma-taṇhā (sense-craving).
  • Dosha (Dvesha) (aversion) is equivalent to vibhava-taṇhā (craving not to be).

According to Rupert Gethin, taṇhā is related to aversion and ignorance. Craving leads to aversion, anger, cruelty and violence, states Gethin, which are unpleasant states and cause suffering to one who craves. Craving is based on misjudgement, states Gethin, that the world is permanent, unchanging, stable, and reliable.

For example, in the first discourse of the Buddha, the Buddha identified taṇhā as the principal cause of suffering. However, his third discourse, the Fire Sermon, and other suttas, the Buddha identifies the causes of suffering as the "fires" of raga, dosa (dvesha), and moha; in the Fire Sermon, the Buddha states that nirvana is obtained by extinguishing these fires.

  1. Pali discourses that use this three-fold typology include DN 15, DN 22, MN 44, SN 22.22, SN 22.103, SN 22.104, SN 22.105, SN 38.10, SN 39.10, SN 45.170, SN 56.11, SN 56.13 and SN 56.14.
  1. Thomas William Rhys Davids; William Stede (1921). Pali-English Dictionary. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 294. ISBN 978-81-208-1144-7.
  2. Peter Harvey (1990).An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-521-31333-9.
  3. Richard Gombrich; Gananath Obeyesekere (1988). Buddhism Transformed: Religious Change in Sri Lanka. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 246. ISBN 978-81-208-0702-0.
  4. Paul Williams; Anthony Tribe; Alexander Wynne (2002). Buddhist Thought: A Complete Introduction to the Indian Tradition. Routledge. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-134-62324-2.
  5. Harvey 2013, p. 63.
  6. Monier Williams, 1964, p. 454, entry for तृष्, "Tṛishṇā", "University of Cologne, Germany
  7. Harvey 1990, p. 53.
  8. Walpola Sri Rahula (2007). Kindel Locations 791-809.
  9. Harvey 2013, p. 63-64.
  10. Harvey 2013, p. 64-68.
  11. Stephen J. Laumakis (2008). An Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46, 56–58. ISBN 978-1-139-46966-1.
  12. David Webster (2005). The Philosophy of Desire in the Buddhist Pali Canon. Routledge. pp. 129–130. ISBN 978-0-415-34652-8.
  13. Dalai Lama (1992), p. 21. (from the introduction by Jeffry Hopkins)
  14. Leifer (1997), p. 98.
  15. Ajahn Sucitto (2010), Kindle Location 943-946
  16. Phra Thepyanmongkol (2012). A Study Guide for Right Practice of the Three Trainings. Wat Luang Phor Sodh. p. 314. ISBN 978-974-401-378-1.
  17. Ajahn Sucitto (2010), Kindle Locations 1341-1343
  18. Buswell & Gimello 1992, p. 7–8, 83–84.
  19. Choong 1999, p. 28–29, Quote: "Seeing (passati) the nature of things as impermanent leads to the removal of the view of self, and so to the realisation of nirvana.".
  20. Rahula 2014, p. 51-58.
  21. Kevin Trainor (2004). Buddhism: The Illustrated Guide. Oxford University Press. pp. 74–78. ISBN 978-0-19-517398-7.
  22. Smith & Novak 2009, p. 35.
  23. Thomas William Rhys Davids; William Stede (1921). Pali-English Dictionary. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 203, 274. ISBN 978-81-208-1144-7.
  24. Bahm 1959, pp. 24, 61.
  25. Bahm 1959, p. 60.
  26. Ajahn Sucitto (2010), Kindle Locations 933-944, quote= Sometimes taṇhā is translated as “desire,” but that gives rise to some crucial misinterpretations with reference to the way of Liberation. As we shall see, some form of desire is essential in order to aspire to, and persist in, cultivating the path out of dukkha. Desire as an eagerness to offer, to commit, to apply oneself to meditation, is called chanda. It’s a psychological “yes,” a choice, not a pathology. In fact, you could summarize Dhamma training as the transformation of taṇhā into chanda.
  27. Rhys Davids and Stede (1921), pp. 275-6, entry for "Chanda"
  28. Gethin 1998, pp. 73–74.
  29. Harvey 2013, p. 73.

Sources

  • Philosophy of the Buddha by Archie J. Bahm. Asian Humanities Press. Berkeley, CA: 1993. ISBN 0-87573-025-6.
    • Chapter 5 is about craving, and discusses the difference between taṇhā and chanda.
  • Nietzsche and Buddhism: A Study in Nihilism and Ironic Affinities by Robert Morrison. Oxford University Press, 1998.
    • Chapter 10 is a comparison between Nietzsche's Will to Power and Tanha, which gives a very nuanced and positive explanation of the central role taṇhā plays in the Buddhist path.
Preceded by Twelve Nidānas
Tṛṣṇā
Succeeded by

Taṇha Article Talk Language Watch Edit Taṇha Pali Sanskrit tṛ ṣṇa त ष ण IPA trʂɳa is an important concept in Buddhism referring to thirst desire longing greed either physical or mental 1 2 It is typically translated as craving 3 and is of three types kama taṇha craving for sensual pleasures bhava taṇha craving for existence and vibhava taṇha craving for non existence 4 5 Translations of taṇhaEnglishthirst craving desire etc Sanskrittṛ ṣṇa Dev त ष ण PalitaṇhaBengaliট ন Tan Burmeseတဏ MLCTS ten a Chinese貪愛 贪爱 Pinyin tanai Japanese渇愛 Rōmaji katsu ai Khmerតណ ហ UNGEGN tanha Korean갈애 RR gal ae Sinhalaතණ හ ව ත ෂ ණ වTibetanས ད པ Wylie sred pa THL sepa Thaitnha IPA tan hăː VietnameseaiGlossary of Buddhism The 12 Nidanas Ignorance Formations Consciousness Name amp Form Six Sense Bases Contact Feeling Craving Clinging Becoming Birth Old Age amp Death See also Five hindrances and Asava Taṇha appears in the Four Noble Truths wherein taṇha is the cause of dukkha suffering pain unsatisfactoriness and the cycle of repeated birth becoming and death Saṃsara 1 2 4 Contents 1 Etymology and meaning 2 Relation to Dukkha 3 Types 4 Cessation of Taṇha 5 Tanha versus Chanda 6 Relation to the three poisons 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 9 1 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External linksEtymology and meaning EditTaṇha is a Pali word derived from the Vedic Sanskrit word tṛ ṣṇa त ष ण which originates from the Proto Indo Iranian tŕ snas which is related to the root tars thirst desire wish ultimately descending from Proto Indo European ters dry The word has the following Indo European cognates Avestan tarsna thirst Ancient Greek tersomai to dry Lithuanian troskimas thirst desire Gothic thaursus dry Old High German durst dry English thirst 1 The word appears numerous times in the Samhita layer of the Rigveda dated to the 2nd millennium BCE such as in hymns 1 7 11 1 16 5 3 9 3 6 15 5 7 3 4 and 10 91 7 6 It also appears in other Vedas of Hinduism wherein the meaning of the word is thirst thirsting for longing for craving for desiring eager greediness and suffering from thirst 6 Relation to Dukkha EditIn the second of the Four Noble Truths the Buddha identified taṇha as the principal factor in the arising of dukkha suffering pain unsatisfactoriness 7 Taṇha states Walpola Rahula or thirst desire greed craving is what manifests as suffering and rebirths 8 However adds Rahula it is not the first cause nor the only cause of dukkha or samsara because the origination of everything is relative and dependent on something else 8 The Pali canons of Buddhism assert other defilements and impurities kilesa sasava dhamma in addition to taṇha as the cause of Dukkha Taṇha nevertheless is always listed first and considered the principal all pervading and the most palpable and immediate cause of dukkha states Rahula 8 Taṇha states Peter Harvey is the key origin of dukkha in Buddhism 5 It reflects a mental state of craving Greater the craving more is the frustration because the world is always changing and innately unsatisfactory craving also brings about pain through conflict and quarrels between individuals which are all a state of Dukkha 5 It is such taṇha that leads to rebirth and endless Samsara stated Buddha as the second reality and it is marked by three types of craving sensory being or non existence 9 In Buddhist philosophy there are right view and wrong view The wrong views it ultimately traces to Taṇha but it also asserts that ordinary right view such as giving and donations to monks is also a form of clinging 10 The end of Taṇha occurs when the person has accepted the transcendent right view through the insight into impermanence and non self 10 Both appropriate and inappropriate tendencies states Stephen Laumakis are linked to the fires of Taṇha and these produce fruits of kamma thereby rebirths 11 Quenching and blowing out these fires completely is the path to final release from dukkha and samsara in Buddhism 11 The Pali texts states David Webster repeatedly recommend that one must destroy Taṇha completely and this destruction is necessary for nirvana 12 Taṇha is also identified as the eighth link in the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination In the context of the twelve links the emphasis is on the types of craving that nourish the karmic potency that will produce the next lifetime 13 Types EditThe Buddha identified three types of taṇha 8 14 15 a Kama taṇha sensual pleasures craving 5 craving for sense objects which provide pleasant feeling or craving for sensory pleasures 15 Walpola Rahula states that taṇha includes not only desire for sense pleasures wealth and power but also desire for and attachment to ideas and ideals views opinions theories conceptions and beliefs dhamma taṇha 8 Bhava taṇha craving for being 5 craving to be something to unite with an experience 15 This is ego related states Harvey the seeking of certain identity and desire for certain type of rebirth eternally 5 Other scholars explain that this type of craving is driven by the wrong view of eternalism eternal life and about permanence 4 16 Vibhava taṇha craving for non existence 4 craving to not experience unpleasant things in the current or future life such as unpleasant people or situations 5 This sort of craving may include attempts at suicide and self annihilation and this only results in further rebirth in a worse realm of existence 5 This type of craving states Phra Thepyanmongkol is driven by the wrong view of annihilationism that there is no rebirth 16 Cessation of Taṇha EditThe third noble truth teaches that the cessation of taṇha is possible The Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta states 17 Bhikkhus there is a noble truth about the cessation of suffering It is the complete fading away and cessation of this craving taṇha its abandonment and relinquishment getting free from and being independent of it Cessation of taṇha can be obtained by following the Noble Eightfold Path In Theravada Buddhism the cessation results from the gaining of true insight into impermanence and non self 18 19 20 The insight meditation practice of Buddhism states Kevin Trainor focuses on gaining right mindfulness which entails understanding three marks of existence dukkha suffering anicca impermanence and anatta non self 21 The understanding of the reality of non self adds Trainor promotes non attachment because if there is no soul then there is no locus for clinging 21 Once one comprehends and accepts the non self doctrine there are no more desires i e taṇha ceases 21 Tanha versus Chanda EditBuddhism categorizes desires as either Tanha or Chanda 22 Chanda literally means impulse excitement will desire for 23 Bahm states that Chanda is desiring what and no more than will be attained while Tanha is desiring more than will be attained 24 However in early Buddhist texts adds Bahm the term Chanda includes anxieties and is ambiguous wherein five kinds of Chanda are described namely to seek to gain to hoard to spend and to enjoy 25 In these early texts the sense of the word Chanda is the same as Tanha 25 Some writers such as Ajahn Sucitto explain Chanda as positive and non pathological asserting it to be distinct from negative and pathological Tanha 26 Sucitto explains it with examples such as the desire to apply oneself to a positive action such as meditation 26 In contrast Rhys Davids and Stede state that Chanda in Buddhist texts has both positive and negative connotations as a vice for example the Pali text associate Chanda with lust delight in the body stating it to be a source of misery 27 Chanda states Peter Harvey can be either wholesome or unwholesome 5 Relation to the three poisons EditTaṇha and avidya ignorance can be related to the three poisons citation needed Avidya or Moha ignorance the root of the three poisons is also the basis for taṇha Raga attachment is equivalent to bhava taṇha craving to be and kama taṇha sense craving Dosha Dvesha aversion is equivalent to vibhava taṇha craving not to be According to Rupert Gethin taṇha is related to aversion and ignorance Craving leads to aversion anger cruelty and violence states Gethin which are unpleasant states and cause suffering to one who craves Craving is based on misjudgement states Gethin that the world is permanent unchanging stable and reliable 28 For example in the first discourse of the Buddha the Buddha identified taṇha as the principal cause of suffering However his third discourse the Fire Sermon and other suttas the Buddha identifies the causes of suffering as the fires of raga dosa dvesha and moha in the Fire Sermon the Buddha states that nirvana is obtained by extinguishing these fires 29 See also EditAvidya Buddhism Buddhism and psychology Chanda Buddhism Kleshas Buddhism Three poisons Buddhism Twelve Nidanas UpadanaNotes Edit Pali discourses that use this three fold typology include DN 15 DN 22 MN 44 SN 22 22 SN 22 103 SN 22 104 SN 22 105 SN 38 10 SN 39 10 SN 45 170 SN 56 11 SN 56 13 and SN 56 14 References Edit a b c Thomas William Rhys Davids William Stede 1921 Pali English Dictionary Motilal Banarsidass p 294 ISBN 978 81 208 1144 7 a b Peter Harvey 1990 An Introduction to Buddhism Teachings History and Practices Cambridge University Press p 53 ISBN 978 0 521 31333 9 Richard Gombrich Gananath Obeyesekere 1988 Buddhism Transformed Religious Change in Sri Lanka Motilal Banarsidass p 246 ISBN 978 81 208 0702 0 a b c d Paul Williams Anthony Tribe Alexander Wynne 2002 Buddhist Thought A Complete Introduction to the Indian Tradition Routledge pp 43 44 ISBN 978 1 134 62324 2 a b c d e f g h i Harvey 2013 p 63 a b Monier Williams 1964 p 454 entry for त ष Tṛishṇa University of Cologne Germany Harvey 1990 p 53 a b c d e Walpola Sri Rahula 2007 Kindel Locations 791 809 Harvey 2013 p 63 64 a b Harvey 2013 p 64 68 a b Stephen J Laumakis 2008 An Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy Cambridge University Press pp 45 46 56 58 ISBN 978 1 139 46966 1 David Webster 2005 The Philosophy of Desire in the Buddhist Pali Canon Routledge pp 129 130 ISBN 978 0 415 34652 8 Dalai Lama 1992 p 21 from the introduction by Jeffry Hopkins Leifer 1997 p 98 a b c Ajahn Sucitto 2010 Kindle Location 943 946 a b Phra Thepyanmongkol 2012 A Study Guide for Right Practice of the Three Trainings Wat Luang Phor Sodh p 314 ISBN 978 974 401 378 1 Ajahn Sucitto 2010 Kindle Locations 1341 1343 Buswell amp Gimello 1992 p 7 8 83 84 Choong 1999 p 28 29 Quote Seeing passati the nature of things as impermanent leads to the removal of the view of self and so to the realisation of nirvana Rahula 2014 p 51 58 a b c Kevin Trainor 2004 Buddhism The Illustrated Guide Oxford University Press pp 74 78 ISBN 978 0 19 517398 7 Smith amp Novak 2009 p 35 Thomas William Rhys Davids William Stede 1921 Pali English Dictionary Motilal Banarsidass pp 203 274 ISBN 978 81 208 1144 7 Bahm 1959 pp 24 61 a b Bahm 1959 p 60 a b Ajahn Sucitto 2010 Kindle Locations 933 944 quote Sometimes taṇha is translated as desire but that gives rise to some crucial misinterpretations with reference to the way of Liberation As we shall see some form of desire is essential in order to aspire to and persist in cultivating the path out of dukkha Desire as an eagerness to offer to commit to apply oneself to meditation is called chanda It s a psychological yes a choice not a pathology In fact you could summarize Dhamma training as the transformation of taṇha into chanda Rhys Davids and Stede 1921 pp 275 6 entry for Chanda Gethin 1998 pp 73 74 Harvey 2013 p 73 Sources Edit Ajahn Sucitto 2010 Turning the Wheel of Truth Commentary on the Buddha s First Teaching Shambhala Bahm Archie J 1959 Philosophy of the Buddha Jain Publishing Reprint 1993 ISBN 978 0 87573 025 7 Bodhi Bhikkhu trans 2000 The Connected Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya Boston Wisdom Pubs ISBN 0 86171 331 1 Buswell Robert E Gimello Robert M 1992 Paths to Liberation The Marga and Its Transformations in Buddhist Thought University of Hawaii Press ISBN 978 0 8248 1253 9 Chogyam Trungpa 1972 Karma and Rebirth The Twelve Nidanas by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche Karma and the Twelve Nidanas A Sourcebook for the Shambhala School of Buddhist Studies Vajradhatu Publications Choong Mun Keat 1999 The Notion of Emptiness in Early Buddhism Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 81 208 1649 7 Dalai Lama 1998 The Four Noble Truths Thorsons Gethin Rupert 1998 Foundations of Buddhism Oxford University Press Harvey Peter 1990 An Introduction to Buddhism Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521313333 Harvey Peter 2013 An Introduction to Buddhism Teachings History and Practices Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 85942 4 Leifer Ron 1997 The Happiness Project Snow Lion Monier Williams Monier 1899 1964 A Sanskrit English Dictionary London Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 864308 X Retrieved 2008 06 12 from Cologne University at http www sanskrit lexicon uni koeln de scans MWScan index php sfx pdf P A Payutto Buddhist Economics A Middle Way for the Market Place Chapter 2 Ranjung Yeshe Wiki Dharma Dictionary http rywiki tsadra org index php sred pa sred pa is the Tibetan term for taṇha Rhys Davids T W amp William Stede eds 1921 5 The Pali Text Society s Pali English Dictionary Chipstead Pali Text Society Retrieved 2008 06 12 from U Chicago at http dsal uchicago edu dictionaries pali Rahula Walpola 2014 What the Buddha Taught Oneworld Classics ISBN 978 1 78074 000 3 Saddhatissa H trans 1998 The Sutta Nipata London RoutledgeCurzon Press ISBN 0 7007 0181 8 Smith Huston Novak Philip 2009 Buddhism A Concise Introduction HarperOne Kindle Edition Thanissaro Bhikkhu trans 1997 Maha nidana Sutta The Great Causes Discourse DN 15 Retrieved 2008 01 04 from Access to Insight at http www accesstoinsight org tipitaka dn dn 15 0 than html Walpola Sri Rahula 2007 What the Buddha Taught Grove Press Kindel Edition Walshe Maurice trans 1995 The Long Discourses of the Buddha A Translation of the Digha Nikaya Boston Wisdom Pubs ISBN 0 86171 103 3 Further reading EditPhilosophy of the Buddha by Archie J Bahm Asian Humanities Press Berkeley CA 1993 ISBN 0 87573 025 6 Chapter 5 is about craving and discusses the difference between taṇha and chanda Nietzsche and Buddhism A Study in Nihilism and Ironic Affinities by Robert Morrison Oxford University Press 1998 Chapter 10 is a comparison between Nietzsche s Will to Power and Tanha which gives a very nuanced and positive explanation of the central role taṇha plays in the Buddhist path External links EditThe concept of craving in early Buddhism V Bruce Matthews 1975 PhD Thesis McMaster University Practicing for the extinction of kilesa tanha palikanon com Ranjung Yeshe wiki entry for sred paPreceded byVedana Twelve Nidanas Tṛṣṇa Succeeded byUpadana Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Taṇha amp oldid 1070503140, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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