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For the Chinese submarine, see Type 096 submarine.

The Tang-class submarines were the first submarines designed (under project SCB 2) and built by the United States Navy after WWII. They incorporated the best features of the high-speed German Type XXI U-boat and the venerable U.S. Navy fleet submarine. The Tang-class and the fleet submarines converted under the Greater Underwater Propulsion Power (GUPPY) program had much higher submerged performance than their predecessors, but were quickly surpassed by the nuclear-propelled submarines that entered service beginning in 1954.

USS Gudgeon (the three distinctive shark-fin domes are the PUFFS sonar, one is just aft of the sail, below the flag).
Class overview
NameTang class
Builders
OperatorsUnited States Navy
Preceded byBarracuda class
Succeeded by
Built1949–1952
In commission1951–1983
Completed6
Retired6
Preserved2
General characteristics
TypeSubmarine
Displacement
  • 1,560–2,050 long tons (1,585–2,083 t) surfaced
  • 2,260–2,700 long tons (2,296–2,743 t) submerged
Length268 ft (82 m), extended to 277 ft (84 m), then to 292 ft (89 m)
Beam27 ft (8.2 m)
Draft17 ft (5.2 m)
Propulsion
Speed
  • 15.5 kn (28.7 km/h; 17.8 mph) surfaced
  • 18.3 kn (33.9 km/h; 21.1 mph) submerged
Range11,500 nmi (21,300 km) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
Endurance1 hour at 17.5 kn (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph) on battery
Test depth700 ft (210 m)
Complement8 officers, 75 enlisted
Armament8 × 21 inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes (6 forward, 2 aft), 26 torpedoes

Contents

Probably the most important innovation of the Tangs, and their primary advantage over contemporary GUPPY conversions, was an increase in test depth from 400 ft (120 m) to 700 ft (210 m), achieved with HY-42 (42,000 psi (290 MPa) yield strength) steel. The improved HY-75 steel would not appear until mid 1950s. This allowed the class to take advantage of deeper ocean conditions to evade sonar, as well as maneuver more safely at moderate depths.

An unsuccessful innovation of the Tang design was the General Motors EMD 16-338 lightweight, compact, high-speed "pancake" engine, rated at 1,000 bhp. Very different from the classic diesel engines that nearly all preceding submarines used, which were laid out with a horizontal crankshaft, this new engine had a vertical crankshaft, and the cylinders were arranged radially like an aircraft engine. Four of these13+12-foot-tall (4.1 m), 4-foot-wide (1.2 m), eight-ton engines could be installed in a single engine room, thus deleting an entire compartment from the submarine's design. The goal was to reduce overall length, as testing had shown that shorter submarines were more maneuverable, especially in depth, and had less submerged drag. Four compact Guppy-type 126-cell lead–acid batteries were installed to provide a high sustained submerged speed. The overall design allowed for a 25 kn (46 km/h) top speed and possible future propulsion replacement with a Type XVII U-boat-derived hydrogen peroxide turbine, closed-cycle diesel system, or even a nuclear power plant. However, attempts to develop the first two systems were unsuccessful, and nuclear power plants proved too large to be accommodated in the Tang-class hull.

When the boats went to sea in the early 1950s, the new engines did not work well. Their compact, high-speed design made them difficult to maintain, and they tended to leak oil into their generators. In 1956, the Navy decided to replace the pancake engines with three ten-cylinder Fairbanks-Morse opposed-piston 38D 8-1/8 diesels. These were similar to those of late-war World War II boats, but uprated from 1,350 shp (1,010 kW) to 1,600 shp (1,200 kW) each. To accommodate the larger engines, the boats had to be lengthened some nine feet in the engine room (three additional frames between frames 69 and 70). Accordingly, in 1957 and 1958, the first four Tangs were lengthened, while Gudgeon and Harder, still on the ways, were built to the new length with the new engines. This propulsion plant was used for almost all subsequent US conventional submarines.

The torpedo tubes were also redesigned. The six forward tubes now used air-powered piston ejection pumps, which forced a slug of water through a slide valve behind the torpedo to push it out, rather than the pulse of air used in previous designs. Because this design is somewhat quieter and does not release an air bubble every time a torpedo is fired, it has been used in all subsequent submarine designs throughout the world. The four stern tubes of previous classes were reduced to two shorter, simpler tubes that could not accommodate the longer anti-ship torpedoes and had no capability to actively eject torpedoes. Rather, they were designed for the Mark 27 and planned Mark 37 swim-out torpedoes.

In October 1946, the first two boats were ordered. Tang was built at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard; Trigger at the Electric Boat yard in Groton, Connecticut. In 1947, contracts were awarded to Portsmouth for Wahoo and to Electric Boat for Trout. Then in 1948, a similar pair of contracts were awarded to Portsmouth for Gudgeon and to Electric Boat for Harder. They are named for six US submarines lost during World War II, of which most of their commanding officers were killed in action while combating Japanese surface vessels.

Name Hull number Builder Laid Down Launched Commissioned Fate
Tang SS-563 Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 18 April 1949 19 June 1951 25 October 1951 Transferred to Turkey 6 August 1987, decommissioned 2004, preserved as a museum
Trigger SS-564 Electric Boat 24 February 1949 14 June 1951 31 March 1952 Transferred to Italy 10 July 1973, decommissioned 28 February 1986 and fate unknown.
Wahoo SS-565 Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 24 October 1949 16 October 1951 30 May 1952 Decommissioned 27 June 1980, scrapped 1984
Trout SS-566 Electric Boat 1 December 1949 21 August 1951 27 June 1952 Transferred to Iran 19 December 1978, transfer rescinded March 1979, in limbo 1979-92, USN sonar testbed 1994-2007, scrapped 2008
Gudgeon SS-567 Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 20 May 1950 11 June 1952 21 November 1952 Transferred to Turkey 1983, decommissioned 2004, preserved as a museum
Harder SS-568 Electric Boat 30 June 1950 3 December 1951 19 August 1952 Decommissioned in January 1973. Transferred to Italy 18 August 1974, decommissioned and scrapped 1988.

In 1967, Tang, Wahoo, Gudgeon, and Harder received an additional 15-foot (4.6 m) section (five additional frames between frames 42 and 43) to accommodate the BQG-4 Passive Underwater Fire Control Feasibility System (PUFFS) passive ranging sonar installation, with three tall domes added topside, and additional fire control equipment that enabled the use of the Mark 45 nuclear torpedo. This left the boats similar in size and capability to the GUPPY III conversions.

Two boats of this class, TCG Pirireis (ex-Tang) and TCG Hizirreis (ex-Gudgeon), are preserved as museum ships in Turkey. Ex-Tang is at the İnciraltı Sea Museum, in İzmir, and ex-Gudgeon is at the Kocaeli Museum Ships Command in Izmit.

Wikimedia Commons has media related toTang class submarines.

Citations

  1. Friedman, Norman (1994). U.S. Submarines Since 1945: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. pp. 16–28, 242. ISBN 1-55750-260-9.
  2. Friedman, Norman (1984). Submarine Design and Development. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. p. 61. ISBN 0-87021-954-5.
  3. Friedman since 1945, pp. 46-48
  4. Gardiner and Chumbley, p. 603
  5. Blackman 1971, p. 425.
  6. Friedman since 1945, pp. 28, 43
  7. Kocaeli Museum Ships Command Archived 2014-12-22 at the Wayback Machine

Sources

Tang class submarine Article Talk Language Watch Edit For the Chinese submarine see Type 096 submarine The Tang class submarines were the first submarines designed under project SCB 2 and built by the United States Navy after WWII They incorporated the best features of the high speed German Type XXI U boat and the venerable U S Navy fleet submarine The Tang class and the fleet submarines converted under the Greater Underwater Propulsion Power GUPPY program had much higher submerged performance than their predecessors but were quickly surpassed by the nuclear propelled submarines that entered service beginning in 1954 USS Gudgeon the three distinctive shark fin domes are the PUFFS sonar one is just aft of the sail below the flag Class overviewNameTang classBuildersPortsmouth Naval Shipyard Electric Boat CompanyOperators United States NavyPreceded byBarracuda classSucceeded byGrayback class USS DarterBuilt1949 1952In commission1951 1983Completed6Retired6Preserved2General characteristicsTypeSubmarineDisplacement1 560 2 050 long tons 1 585 2 083 t surfaced 2 260 2 700 long tons 2 296 2 743 t submergedLength268 ft 82 m extended to 277 ft 84 m then to 292 ft 89 m Beam27 ft 8 2 m Draft17 ft 5 2 m Propulsionfour GM 16 338 pancake diesel engines 4 000 shp 3 000 kW total replaced by three Fairbanks Morse 38D8 1 8 opposed piston engines 4 800 shp 3 600 kW total two electric motors 4 700 shp 3 500 kW total four 126 cell batteries two shafts 1 Speed15 5 kn 28 7 km h 17 8 mph surfaced 18 3 kn 33 9 km h 21 1 mph submerged 1 Range11 500 nmi 21 300 km at 10 kn 19 km h 12 mph surfaced 1 Endurance1 hour at 17 5 kn 32 4 km h 20 1 mph on batteryTest depth700 ft 210 m Complement8 officers 75 enlistedArmament8 21 inch 533 mm torpedo tubes 6 forward 2 aft 26 torpedoes 1 Contents 1 Design 2 Ships in class 3 Museum ships 4 References 4 1 Citations 4 2 SourcesDesign EditProbably the most important innovation of the Tangs and their primary advantage over contemporary GUPPY conversions was an increase in test depth from 400 ft 120 m to 700 ft 210 m achieved with HY 42 42 000 psi 290 MPa yield strength steel The improved HY 75 steel would not appear until mid 1950s This allowed the class to take advantage of deeper ocean conditions to evade sonar as well as maneuver more safely at moderate depths 2 An unsuccessful innovation of the Tang design was the General Motors EMD 16 338 lightweight compact high speed pancake engine rated at 1 000 bhp Very different from the classic diesel engines that nearly all preceding submarines used which were laid out with a horizontal crankshaft this new engine had a vertical crankshaft and the cylinders were arranged radially like an aircraft engine Four of these 13 1 2 foot tall 4 1 m 4 foot wide 1 2 m eight ton engines could be installed in a single engine room thus deleting an entire compartment from the submarine s design The goal was to reduce overall length as testing had shown that shorter submarines were more maneuverable especially in depth and had less submerged drag Four compact Guppy type 126 cell lead acid batteries were installed to provide a high sustained submerged speed 1 The overall design allowed for a 25 kn 46 km h top speed and possible future propulsion replacement with a Type XVII U boat derived hydrogen peroxide turbine closed cycle diesel system or even a nuclear power plant However attempts to develop the first two systems were unsuccessful and nuclear power plants proved too large to be accommodated in the Tang class hull 3 4 When the boats went to sea in the early 1950s the new engines did not work well Their compact high speed design made them difficult to maintain and they tended to leak oil into their generators In 1956 the Navy decided to replace the pancake engines with three ten cylinder Fairbanks Morse opposed piston 38D 8 1 8 diesels These were similar to those of late war World War II boats but uprated from 1 350 shp 1 010 kW to 1 600 shp 1 200 kW each To accommodate the larger engines the boats had to be lengthened some nine feet in the engine room three additional frames between frames 69 and 70 Accordingly in 1957 and 1958 the first four Tangs were lengthened while Gudgeon and Harder still on the ways were built to the new length with the new engines This propulsion plant was used for almost all subsequent US conventional submarines 1 The torpedo tubes were also redesigned The six forward tubes now used air powered piston ejection pumps which forced a slug of water through a slide valve behind the torpedo to push it out rather than the pulse of air used in previous designs Because this design is somewhat quieter and does not release an air bubble every time a torpedo is fired it has been used in all subsequent submarine designs throughout the world The four stern tubes of previous classes were reduced to two shorter simpler tubes that could not accommodate the longer anti ship torpedoes and had no capability to actively eject torpedoes Rather they were designed for the Mark 27 and planned Mark 37 swim out torpedoes Ships in class EditIn October 1946 the first two boats were ordered Tang was built at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Trigger at the Electric Boat yard in Groton Connecticut In 1947 contracts were awarded to Portsmouth for Wahoo and to Electric Boat for Trout Then in 1948 a similar pair of contracts were awarded to Portsmouth for Gudgeon and to Electric Boat for Harder They are named for six US submarines lost during World War II of which most of their commanding officers were killed in action while combating Japanese surface vessels Name Hull number Builder 5 Laid Down 5 Launched 5 Commissioned 5 FateTang SS 563 Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 18 April 1949 19 June 1951 25 October 1951 Transferred to Turkey 6 August 1987 decommissioned 2004 preserved as a museumTrigger SS 564 Electric Boat 24 February 1949 14 June 1951 31 March 1952 Transferred to Italy 10 July 1973 decommissioned 28 February 1986 and fate unknown Wahoo SS 565 Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 24 October 1949 16 October 1951 30 May 1952 Decommissioned 27 June 1980 scrapped 1984Trout SS 566 Electric Boat 1 December 1949 21 August 1951 27 June 1952 Transferred to Iran 19 December 1978 transfer rescinded March 1979 in limbo 1979 92 USN sonar testbed 1994 2007 scrapped 2008Gudgeon SS 567 Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 20 May 1950 11 June 1952 21 November 1952 Transferred to Turkey 1983 decommissioned 2004 preserved as a museumHarder SS 568 Electric Boat 30 June 1950 3 December 1951 19 August 1952 Decommissioned in January 1973 Transferred to Italy 18 August 1974 decommissioned and scrapped 1988 In 1967 Tang Wahoo Gudgeon and Harder received an additional 15 foot 4 6 m section five additional frames between frames 42 and 43 to accommodate the BQG 4 Passive Underwater Fire Control Feasibility System PUFFS passive ranging sonar installation with three tall domes added topside and additional fire control equipment that enabled the use of the Mark 45 nuclear torpedo This left the boats similar in size and capability to the GUPPY III conversions 1 6 Museum ships EditTwo boats of this class TCG Pirireis ex Tang and TCG Hizirreis ex Gudgeon are preserved as museum ships in Turkey Ex Tang is at the Inciralti Sea Museum in Izmir and ex Gudgeon is at the Kocaeli Museum Ships Command in Izmit 7 References EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Tang class submarines Citations Edit a b c d e f g Friedman Norman 1994 U S Submarines Since 1945 An Illustrated Design History Annapolis Maryland United States Naval Institute pp 16 28 242 ISBN 1 55750 260 9 Friedman Norman 1984 Submarine Design and Development Annapolis Maryland United States Naval Institute p 61 ISBN 0 87021 954 5 Friedman since 1945 pp 46 48 Gardiner and Chumbley p 603 a b c d Blackman 1971 p 425 Friedman since 1945 pp 28 43 Kocaeli Museum Ships Command Archived 2014 12 22 at the Wayback Machine Sources Edit Blackman Raymond V B Jane s Fighting Ships 1971 72 London Sampson Low Marston amp Co 1971 ISBN 0 354 00096 9 Gardiner Robert and Chumbley Stephen Conway s All the World s Fighting Ships 1947 1995 London Conway Maritime Press 1995 ISBN 1 55750 132 7 NavSource org Postwar Diesel Submarines photo gallery index This article incorporates text from the public domainDictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tang class submarine amp oldid 1083373272, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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