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Sanskrit inherits from its parent, the Proto-Indo-European language, the capability of forming compound nouns, also widely seen in kindred languages, especially German, Greek, and also English.

However, Sanskrit, especially in the later stages of the language, significantly expands on this both in terms of the number of elements making up a single compound and the volume of compound-usage in the literature, a development which is unique within Indo-European to Sanskrit and closely related languages.

Further, this development in the later language is an entirely artificial, literary construct and does not reflect the spoken language.

Contents

In Sanskrit, as in Proto-Indo-European, a compound is formed by the following process:

  • Take the stem-form of the first element, i.e., remove its inflexion;
  • Combine the two elements with a single accented syllable.

In the later language, this process can be repeated recursively—in theory, ad infinitum, with the freshly made compound becoming the first element of a new one.

The process of 'resolving' the compound, i.e., expounding the meaning using the component words declined as in sentence form is termed vigraha·vākya.

Broadly, compounds can be divided into two classes: endocentric and exocentric.

Endocentric compounds

An endocentric compound, usually called determinative, is where the compound is essentially the sum of its parts, the meaning being an extension of one of the parts:

  • blackbird → a type of black bird
  • White House → the official residence of the US president
  • siṃha·purás → lion-city (Singapore)

Exocentric compounds

An exocentric compound refers to something outside the components:

  • redhead → someone with red hair
  • pickpocket → someone who picks someone else's pockets
  • 'bahu·vrīhi' → lit. 'much-rice', i.e., possessing much rice: an indication of wealth

Indeed, this term 'bahuvrihi' is used both in Sanskrit and standard Indo-European linguistics to denote this type of compound.

Sanskrit expands on these to provide several further distinctions as below:

Traditionally, Sanskrit compounds are divided into the following main classes:

  • Tatpuruṣa
    • Tatpuruṣa proper
    • Karmadhāraya
      • Dvigu
    • Nan tatpuruṣa
    • Prādi and gati
    • Upapada
  • Bahuvrīhi
    • Dvigu
  • Dvandva
  • Avyayībhava

The first two of these, tatpuruṣa and bahuvrīhi, are Indo-European inheritances, the latter two are Indic innovations. Alongside the term bahuvrīhi, tatpuruṣa has also been adopted in mainstream Indo-European linguistics as the technical term denoting this type of compounding.

The following sections give an outline of the main types of compounds with examples. The examples demonstrate the composition of the compound's elements, and the meanings in English generally correspond to them, in most cases being a similar compound as well. Where this is not the case or the meaning is not clear, a further resolution is provided.

Tatpuruṣa (determinative)

A tatpuruṣa is an endocentric compound composed of two elements, wherein the first one, named the attributive, determines the second one.

Based on the grammatical nature of the attributive member, six varieties of tatpuruṣa compounds are identified as seen in the classification above. A further distinction is also made based on whether the attributive is in the nominative or an oblique case.

Tatpuruṣa proper

The first member here is an attributive in an oblique relationship with the second, and are therefore termed dependent determinatives.

Word Meaning, resolution Relationship
jaya·prepsu victory-seeking Accusative
deva·dattá- god-given: given by the gods Instrumental
viṣṇu·bali Viṣṇu-offering: offering to Viṣṇu Dative
svarga·patitá- heaven-fallen: fallen from heaven Ablative
vyāghra·buddhi tiger-thought: the thought of it being a tiger Genitive
yajur·veda- sacrifice-knowledge: the knowledge of sacrifice Genitive
gṛha·jata- house-born: born in the house Locative

Karmadhāraya-tatpuruṣa (descriptive)

In a karmadhāraya-tatpuruṣa compound, the first element qualifies the second one adjectively when the latter is a noun. When the second member is an adjective, the qualification is adverbial. Other parts of speech besides adjectives and adverbs may be used to obtain the adjective or adverbial qualification.

Word Meaning, resolution
nīl'ôtpala blue lotus
sarva·guṇa all good quality
priya·sakha dear friend
mah'arṣí great-sage
rajata·pātrá silver cup
Dvigu-tatpuruṣa (numerative)

In essence dvigu can refer to several compound types where the first element is a numeral. Dvigu-tatpuruṣa compounds are a special subcategory of karmadhārayas.

Word Meaning, resolution
dvi·rājá- (the battle of) two kings
tri·bhuvana- three-world: the universe
tri·yugá- three ages
tri·divá the triple heaven
daś'âṅgulá- ten fingers' breadth
ṣaḍ·ahá- six day's time
sahasr'âhṇyá- thousand days' journey

dvigu compounds of bahuvrīhi type are noted below.

Nañ-tatpuruṣa (negative)

In a nañ-tatpuruṣa compound, the first element is a privative, a negator: a-, an- or na-, just like the English un-, Latin-derived in-, non- or Greek-derived a-, an-.

Word Meaning, resolution
á·brāhmaṇa non-Brahmin
án·aśva non-horse: not a horse
á·pati not a master
á·vidyā non-knowledge
á·kumāra unyoung: old
á·śraddhā unbelief, non-creed

Upapada-tatpuruṣa

These are composed of a second member that occurs only in a compound and cannot stand on its own. These are either roots or verbal derivatives from them.

Word Meaning, resolution
sa·yúj joining together
su·kṛ́t well-doing, a good deed
kumbha·kāra- pot-maker
sva·rā́j self-ruling: sovereign
manu·já Manu-born, born of Manu, man
svayam·bhū́ self-existent
eka·já only-born
jala·dá water-giving: a cloud
sarva·jñá all-knowing: an omniscient person

Aluk-tatpuruṣa

In an aluk-tatpuruṣa compound, in contrast to the standard pattern of being in stem form, the first element takes a case form as if in a sentence:

First Element → Word Meaning, resolution Case
ojas → ojasā·kṛtá- done with might Instrumental
ātman → ātmane·pada- 'word for self': the reflexive voice Dative
dyaus → divas·pati 'lord of the sky': a name of Indra Genitive
yudh → yudhi·ṣṭhira- firm in battle Locative

Dvandva (co-ordinative)

These consist of two or more noun stems connected with "and" (copulative or co-ordinative). There are mainly three kinds of dvandva pair constructions in Sanskrit:

Itaretara-dvandva

The result of itaretara-dvandva is an enumerative word, the meaning of which refers to all its constituent members. The resultant compound word is in the dual or plural number and takes the gender of the final member in the compound construction. Examples:

Word Meaning, resolution
mitrā́·váruṇau Mitra and Varuṇa
dyāvā·pṛthivī heaven and earth
vrīhi·yavaú rice and barley
candr'ādityau moon and sun
devā'surā́s the gods and the demons
hasty·aśvās elephants and horses
roga·śoka·parītāpa·bandhana·vyasanāni disease, pain, grief, bondage and adversity

Samāhāra-dvandva

Words may be organised in a compound to form a metonym, and sometimes the words may comprise all the constituent parts of the whole. The resultant bears a collective sense and is always singular and neutral.

Word Literal ⇒ Meaning
pāṇi·pādam hands and feet ⇒ limbs, appendages
āhāra·nidrā·bhayam food, sleep and fear ⇒ vicissitudes, features of life

Ekaśeṣa-dvandva

According to some grammarians, there is a third kind of dvandva, called ekaśeṣa-dvandva , where only one stem remains in the compound of multiple words.

Compound Resolution Meaning
pitarau mātā ca pitā ca mother and father ⇒ parents
mṛgās mṛgyaś ca mṛgāś ca does and bucks ⇒ deer
putrās putrāś ca duhitaraś ca sons and daughters ⇒ children

Āmreḍita (iterative)

While not strictly copulative, this is a compound consisting of the same word repeated with the first occurrence accented.

Āmreḍita compounds are used to express repetitiveness; for example, from dív- (day) we obtain divé-dive ('day after day', daily) and from devá- (god) we obtain deváṃ-devam or devó-devas ('deity after deity').

Bahuvrīhi (possessive)

See also: Bahuvrīhi

Bahuvrīhi is an exocentric compound consisting of a noun preceded by a grammatical modifier which, taken together, functions as a single nominalised adjective.

A bahuvrīhi compound can often be translated by "possessing..." or "-ed"; for example, "possessing much rice" or "much-riced". In English, examples of bahuvrīhi would be "lowlife" and "blockhead" (they respectively denote 'one whose life is low' and 'one whose head resembles a block'), or the English surname Longbottom ('one who lives in a long "botham" [valley]').

The second element could essentially have been a noun, which within such a compound, can take on adjective declensions with the compound used adjectivally. Endocentric compounds can thus be transformed into possessives, normally accompanied, and explicitly recognized in the older language, by a change in accentuation:

  • indra·śatrú-, 'Indra's killer' ⇒ índra·śatru-, 'having Indra as killer'
  • bṛhad·ratha-, 'a great chariot' ⇒ bṛhád·ratha-, 'having great chariots'
  • sūrya·tejás-, 'sun's brightness' ⇒ sū́rya·tejas-, 'possessing the brightness of the sun'

A few typical examples of such compounds:

Word Meaning, resolution
mayū́ra·roman- peacock-plumed
ugrá·bāhu- strong-shouldered
jīvitá·vatsa- alive-childed: having living children
mádhu·jihva- honeytongue, honey-tongued
pátra·hasta- vessel-handed: holding a vessel in the hand
khara-mukha- donkey-faced

Dvigu-bahuvrīhi

When the first element of a bahuvrīhi is a numeral, the compound is called dvigu. An English example would be a halfwit ('one who has half of their mind').

A few typical examples of such compounds:

Word Meaning, resolution
éka·cakra- one-wheeled
éka·pad one-footed
cátur·aṅga- four-limbed
saptá·jihva- seven-tongued
aṣṭá·putra- eight-sonned: having eight sons
náva·dvāra- nine-doored
śatá·dant hundred-toothed
sahásra·nāman thousandname: having a thousand names

Avyayībhāva (adverbial)

Avyayībhāvas ('indeclinable') are adverbial compounds composed of an indeclinable element (an adverb, etc.) and a noun, together expressing an adverb or another indeclinable (avyaya) element.

Word Meaning, resolution
adhy·ātmam concerning the self
anu·ratham behind the chariots
upa·rājam near the king
praty·agni towards the fire
prati·niśam every night
yathā·śakti per-strength: according to one's ability
sa·cakram simultaneously with the wheel
antar·jalam inter-water: within the water
  1. "In Vedic, noun compounds are hardly more frequent than in Homeric Greek, but their frequency increases throughout the history of the language.. in the later language the occurrence in a single short sentence of several compounds of four or five members is perfectly normal, and in certain styles compounds of twenty or more members are not thought excessive" - Coulson
  2. This process suggests the possibility of an early stage of Proto-Indo-European where words could appear in a sentence without case terminations.
  3. a particular species, not just any bird that is black
  4. the specific presidential residence, not just any house that is white
  5. that is, not a head
  6. that is, not a pocket
  7. samāsa·vṛtti
  8. accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, or locative
  9. The word tatpuruṣa (a 'that-man', in the sense of 'that person's man', i.e., 'someone's agent') is itself a tatpuruṣa compound.
  10. The word dvi·gu itself is an example of dvigu: lit. 'two-cow', used in the sense of 'worth two cows'.
  11. called a bound form
  12. enumerative dvandva
  13. one-(stem)-remains
  14. compare Spanish padres ⇒ 'parents'
  15. 'much-riced', i.e., a rich person
  16. To illustrate the importance of correct accentuation, the grammarian Patañjali (living around 150 BCE) is said to have cited the story of Vṛtra, who on account of the wrong accent used on this compound ends up instead of being Indra's killer, himself killed by Indra!
  17. Indeed in later Sanskrit, the tendency to use compounds instead of verb-based clauses is so strong, in a classical drama, to express gratitude for having children who are alive, one would say the equivalent of 'thank heaven, I'm alive-childed': diṣṭyā, jīvita·vats'âsmi
  18. An example will be the worddvigu itself, which as a bahuvrīhi means '[a] two-cow [person]'; i.e., one who has two cows (dvaugāvau).
  1. Coulson, p. xxii.
  2. Coulson, p. xxi.
  3. Burrow, p. 209.
  4. Whitney, §1246.
  5. Kale, §180
  6. Kale, §184.
  7. Adams, p. 35.
  8. Meyer, p. 179.
  9. Fortson, §6.82.
  10. Kale, §201.
  11. Coulson, pp. 87.
  12. Kale, §200.
  13. Kale, §203.
  14. Whitney, §1279.
  15. Tubb & Boose, §1.54.
  16. Tubb & Boose, §1.56.
  17. Whitney, §1312.
  18. Whitney, §1288.
  19. Tubb & Boose, §1.58.
  20. Tubb & Boose, §1.59.
  21. Whitney, §1286.
  22. Kale, §208, 215
  23. Kale, §206.
  24. Kale, §215.
  25. Whitney, §361.
  26. Kale, §217.
  27. Kale, §187.
  28. Burrow, p. 217.
  29. Whitney, §1253.
  30. Kale, §188-189.
  31. Tubb & Boose, §173-174.
  32. Whitney, §1260.
  33. Whitney, §1293.
  34. Kale, §246.
  35. Deshpande, p. 24.
  36. Burrow, p. 215.
  37. Coulson, p. 122.
  38. Whitney, §1300.
  39. Whitney, §1313.
  40. Tubb & Boose, §1.48.
  • Coulson, Michael (2003). Sanskrit (Teach yourself) (2003 ed.). Great Britain: Oxford. ISBN 0-340-32389-2.
  • Fortson, Benjamin W (2010). Indo-European Language and Culture (2010 ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8895-1.
  • Burrow, T (2001). The Sanskrit Language (2001 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1767-2.
  • Whitney, William Dwight (January 2008). Sanskrit Grammar (2000 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0620-7.
  • Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1997). A Sanskrit Grammar for Students. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-246-0094-5.
  • Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1993). A Vedic Sanskrit Grammar for Students (2000 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1053-8.
  • Goldman, Robert P (2019). Deva·vāṇī́·praveśikā. ISBN 978-0-944613-40-5.
  • Kale, M R (1969). A Higher Sanskrit Grammar (2002 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0177-6.
  • Adams, Valerie (1987). An Introduction to Modern English Word-Formation. Longman Group. ISBN 0-582-55042-4.
  • Meyer, Charles (2009). Introducing English Linguistics (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83350-9.
  • Carstairs-McCarthy, Andrew (2002). An Introduction to English Morphology. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1326-9.
  • Tubb, Gary; Boose, Emery (2007). Scholastic Sanskrit. NY: American Inst of Buddhist Studies. ISBN 978-0-9753734-7-7.
  • Deshpande, Madhav M (1993). Sanskrit and Prakrit (1993 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1136-4.

Sanskrit compound Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Tatpuruṣa Sanskrit inherits from its parent the Proto Indo European language the capability of forming compound nouns also widely seen in kindred languages especially German Greek and also English However Sanskrit especially in the later stages of the language significantly expands on this both in terms of the number of elements making up a single compound and the volume of compound usage in the literature a development which is unique within Indo European to Sanskrit and closely related languages Further this development in the later language a is an entirely artificial literary construct and does not reflect the spoken language 2 3 Contents 1 Background 1 1 Endocentric compounds 1 2 Exocentric compounds 2 Classification 2 1 Tatpuruṣa determinative 2 1 1 Tatpuruṣa proper 2 1 2 Karmadharaya tatpuruṣa descriptive 2 1 2 1 Dvigu tatpuruṣa numerative 2 1 3 Nan tatpuruṣa negative 2 1 4 Upapada tatpuruṣa 2 1 5 Aluk tatpuruṣa 2 2 Dvandva co ordinative 2 2 1 Itaretara dvandva 2 2 2 Samahara dvandva 2 2 3 Ekaseṣa dvandva 2 2 4 Amreḍita iterative 2 3 Bahuvrihi possessive 2 3 1 Dvigu bahuvrihi 2 4 Avyayibhava adverbial 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 BibliographyBackground EditIn Sanskrit as in Proto Indo European a compound is formed by the following process Take the stem form of the first element i e remove its inflexion b Combine the two elements with a single accented syllable In the later language this process can be repeated recursively in theory ad infinitum with the freshly made compound becoming the first element of a new one 3 4 5 The process of resolving the compound i e expounding the meaning using the component words declined as in sentence form is termed vigraha vakya 6 Broadly compounds can be divided into two classes endocentric and exocentric 7 Endocentric compounds Edit An endocentric compound usually called determinative is where the compound is essentially the sum of its parts the meaning being an extension of one of the parts blackbird a type of black bird c White House the official residence of the US president d 8 siṃha puras lion city Singapore Exocentric compounds Edit An exocentric compound refers to something outside the components redhead someone with red hair e pickpocket someone who picks someone else s pockets f 7 bahu vrihi lit much rice i e possessing much rice an indication of wealth Indeed this term bahuvrihi is used both in Sanskrit and standard Indo European linguistics to denote this type of compound 9 Sanskrit expands on these to provide several further distinctions as below Classification EditTraditionally Sanskrit compounds g are divided into the following main classes 10 Tatpuruṣa Tatpuruṣa proper Karmadharaya Dvigu Nan tatpuruṣa Pradi and gati Upapada Bahuvrihi Dvigu Dvandva Avyayibhava The first two of these tatpuruṣa and bahuvrihi are Indo European inheritances the latter two are Indic innovations Alongside the term bahuvrihi tatpuruṣa has also been adopted in mainstream Indo European linguistics as the technical term denoting this type of compounding 3 The following sections give an outline of the main types of compounds with examples The examples demonstrate the composition of the compound s elements and the meanings in English generally correspond to them in most cases being a similar compound as well Where this is not the case or the meaning is not clear a further resolution is provided Tatpuruṣa determinative Edit A tatpuruṣa is an endocentric compound composed of two elements wherein the first one named the attributive determines the second one 11 12 Based on the grammatical nature of the attributive member six varieties of tatpuruṣa compounds are identified as seen in the classification above A further distinction is also made based on whether the attributive is in the nominative or an oblique h case 10 11 i Tatpuruṣa proper Edit The first member here is an attributive in an oblique relationship with the second and are therefore termed dependent determinatives 11 13 Word Meaning resolution Relationshipjaya prepsu victory seeking Accusativedeva datta god given given by the gods Instrumentalviṣṇu bali Viṣṇu offering offering to Viṣṇu Dativesvarga patita heaven fallen fallen from heaven Ablativevyaghra buddhi tiger thought the thought of it being a tiger Genitiveyajur veda sacrifice knowledge the knowledge of sacrifice Genitivegṛha jata house born born in the house LocativeKarmadharaya tatpuruṣa descriptive Edit In a karmadharaya tatpuruṣa compound the first element qualifies the second one adjectively when the latter is a noun When the second member is an adjective the qualification is adverbial Other parts of speech besides adjectives and adverbs may be used to obtain the adjective or adverbial qualification 14 15 Word Meaning resolutionnil otpala blue lotussarva guṇa all good qualitypriya sakha dear friendmah arṣi great sagerajata patra silver cupDvigu tatpuruṣa numerative Edit In essence dvigu can refer to several compound types where the first element is a numeral j Dvigu tatpuruṣa compounds are a special subcategory of karmadharayas 16 17 Word Meaning resolutiondvi raja the battle of two kingstri bhuvana three world the universetri yuga three agestri diva the triple heavendas aṅgula ten fingers breadthṣaḍ aha six day s timesahasr ahṇya thousand days journey dvigu compounds of bahuvrihi type are noted below Nan tatpuruṣa negative Edit In a nan tatpuruṣa compound the first element is a privative a negator a an or na just like the English un Latin derived in non or Greek derived a an 18 19 Word Meaning resolutiona brahmaṇa non Brahminan asva non horse not a horsea pati not a mastera vidya non knowledgea kumara unyoung olda sraddha unbelief non creedUpapada tatpuruṣa Edit These are composed of a second member that occurs only in a compound and cannot stand on its own k These are either roots or verbal derivatives from them 20 21 Word Meaning resolutionsa yuj joining togethersu kṛ t well doing a good deedkumbha kara pot makersva ra j self ruling sovereignmanu ja Manu born born of Manu mansvayam bhu self existenteka ja only bornjala da water giving a cloudsarva jna all knowing an omniscient personAluk tatpuruṣa Edit In an aluk tatpuruṣa compound in contrast to the standard pattern of being in stem form the first element takes a case form as if in a sentence 22 First Element Word Meaning resolution Caseojas ojasa kṛta done with might 23 Instrumentalatman atmane pada word for self the reflexive voice Dativedyaus divas pati lord of the sky a name of Indra 24 25 Genitiveyudh yudhi ṣṭhira firm in battle 26 LocativeDvandva co ordinative Edit These consist of two or more noun stems connected with and copulative or co ordinative There are mainly three kinds of dvandva pair constructions in Sanskrit 27 Itaretara dvandva Edit The result of itaretara dvandva l is an enumerative word the meaning of which refers to all its constituent members The resultant compound word is in the dual or plural number and takes the gender of the final member in the compound construction Examples 28 29 Word Meaning resolutionmitra varuṇau Mitra and Varuṇadyava pṛthivi heaven and earthvrihi yavau rice and barleycandr adityau moon and sundeva sura s the gods and the demonshasty asvas elephants and horsesroga soka paritapa bandhana vyasanani disease pain grief bondage and adversitySamahara dvandva Edit Words may be organised in a compound to form a metonym and sometimes the words may comprise all the constituent parts of the whole The resultant bears a collective sense and is always singular and neutral 30 Word Literal Meaningpaṇi padam hands and feet limbs appendagesahara nidra bhayam food sleep and fear vicissitudes features of lifeEkaseṣa dvandva Edit According to some grammarians there is a third kind of dvandva called ekaseṣa dvandva m where only one stem remains in the compound of multiple words 31 Compound Resolution Meaningpitarau mata ca pita ca mother and father parents n mṛgas mṛgyas ca mṛgas ca does and bucks deerputras putras ca duhitaras ca sons and daughters childrenAmreḍita iterative Edit While not strictly copulative this is a compound consisting of the same word repeated with the first occurrence accented Amreḍita compounds are used to express repetitiveness for example from div day we obtain dive dive day after day daily and from deva god we obtain devaṃ devam or devo devas deity after deity 32 Bahuvrihi possessive Edit See also Bahuvrihi Bahuvrihi o is an exocentric compound consisting of a noun preceded by a grammatical modifier which taken together functions as a single nominalised adjective A bahuvrihi compound can often be translated by possessing or ed for example possessing much rice or much riced In English examples of bahuvrihi would be lowlife and blockhead they respectively denote one whose life is low and one whose head resembles a block or the English surname Longbottom one who lives in a long botham valley The second element could essentially have been a noun which within such a compound can take on adjective declensions with the compound used adjectivally Endocentric compounds can thus be transformed into possessives normally accompanied and explicitly recognized in the older language by a change in accentuation 33 34 indra satru Indra s killer indra satru having Indra as killer p bṛhad ratha a great chariot bṛhad ratha having great chariots surya tejas sun s brightness su rya tejas possessing the brightness of the sun A few typical examples of such compounds 36 Word Meaning resolutionmayu ra roman peacock plumedugra bahu strong shoulderedjivita vatsa alive childed having living children q madhu jihva honeytongue honey tonguedpatra hasta vessel handed holding a vessel in the handkhara mukha donkey facedDvigu bahuvrihi Edit When the first element of a bahuvrihi is a numeral the compound is called dvigu r An English example would be a halfwit one who has half of their mind A few typical examples of such compounds 38 Word Meaning resolutioneka cakra one wheeledeka pad one footedcatur aṅga four limbedsapta jihva seven tonguedaṣṭa putra eight sonned having eight sonsnava dvara nine dooredsata dant hundred toothedsahasra naman thousandname having a thousand namesAvyayibhava adverbial Edit Avyayibhavas indeclinable are adverbial compounds composed of an indeclinable element an adverb etc and a noun together expressing an adverb or another indeclinable avyaya element 39 40 Word Meaning resolutionadhy atmam concerning the selfanu ratham behind the chariotsupa rajam near the kingpraty agni towards the fireprati nisam every nightyatha sakti per strength according to one s abilitysa cakram simultaneously with the wheelantar jalam inter water within the waterSee also EditSanskrit nominals Sanskrit verbs Sanskrit grammar Vedic Sanskrit grammar Proto Indo European verbs Proto Indo Aryan Proto Indo Iranian Proto Indo European KenningNotes Edit In Vedic noun compounds are hardly more frequent than in Homeric Greek but their frequency increases throughout the history of the language in the later language the occurrence in a single short sentence of several compounds of four or five members is perfectly normal and in certain styles compounds of twenty or more members are not thought excessive Coulson 1 This process suggests the possibility of an early stage of Proto Indo European where words could appear in a sentence without case terminations a particular species not just any bird that is black the specific presidential residence not just any house that is white that is not a head that is not a pocket samasa vṛtti accusative instrumental dative ablative genitive or locative The word tatpuruṣa a that man in the sense of that person s man i e someone s agent is itself a tatpuruṣa compound The word dvi gu itself is an example of dvigu lit two cow used in the sense of worth two cows called a bound form enumerative dvandva one stem remains compare Spanish padres parents much riced i e a rich person To illustrate the importance of correct accentuation the grammarian Patanjali living around 150 BCE is said to have cited the story of Vṛtra who on account of the wrong accent used on this compound ends up instead of being Indra s killer himself killed by Indra 35 Indeed in later Sanskrit the tendency to use compounds instead of verb based clauses is so strong in a classical drama to express gratitude for having children who are alive one would say the equivalent of thank heaven I m alive childed diṣṭya jivita vats asmi 37 An example will be the word dvigu itself which as a bahuvrihi means a two cow person i e one who has two cows dvau gavau References Edit Coulson p xxii Coulson p xxi a b c Burrow p 209 Whitney 1246 Kale 180 Kale 184 a b Adams p 35 Meyer p 179 Fortson 6 82 a b Kale 201 a b c Coulson pp 87 Kale 200 Kale 203 Whitney 1279 Tubb amp Boose 1 54 Tubb amp Boose 1 56 Whitney 1312 Whitney 1288 Tubb amp Boose 1 58 Tubb amp Boose 1 59 Whitney 1286 Kale 208 215 Kale 206 Kale 215 Whitney 361 Kale 217 Kale 187 Burrow p 217 Whitney 1253 Kale 188 189 Tubb amp Boose 173 174 Whitney 1260 Whitney 1293 Kale 246 Deshpande p 24 Burrow p 215 Coulson p 122 Whitney 1300 Whitney 1313 Tubb amp Boose 1 48 Bibliography EditCoulson Michael 2003 Sanskrit Teach yourself 2003 ed Great Britain Oxford ISBN 0 340 32389 2 Fortson Benjamin W 2010 Indo European Language and Culture 2010 ed Wiley Blackwell ISBN 978 1 4051 8895 1 Burrow T 2001 The Sanskrit Language 2001 ed Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 81 208 1767 2 Whitney William Dwight January 2008 Sanskrit Grammar 2000 ed Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 81 208 0620 7 Macdonnel Arthur Anthony 1997 A Sanskrit Grammar for Students Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 81 246 0094 5 Macdonnel Arthur Anthony 1993 A Vedic Sanskrit Grammar for Students 2000 ed Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 81 208 1053 8 Goldman Robert P 2019 Deva vaṇi pravesika ISBN 978 0 944613 40 5 Kale M R 1969 A Higher Sanskrit Grammar 2002 ed Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 81 208 0177 6 Adams Valerie 1987 An Introduction to Modern English Word Formation Longman Group ISBN 0 582 55042 4 Meyer Charles 2009 Introducing English Linguistics 1st ed Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 83350 9 Carstairs McCarthy Andrew 2002 An Introduction to English Morphology Edinburgh University Press ISBN 0 7486 1326 9 Tubb Gary Boose Emery 2007 Scholastic Sanskrit NY American Inst of Buddhist Studies ISBN 978 0 9753734 7 7 Deshpande Madhav M 1993 Sanskrit and Prakrit 1993 ed Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 81 208 1136 4 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sanskrit compound amp oldid 1089218059 Tatpuruṣa determinative, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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