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Telangana ((); Telugu: , Urdu: ) is a state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the eleventh-largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed state with Hyderabad as its capital. Its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam, Karimnagar and Ramagundam. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the northeast, Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south. The terrain of Telangana region consists mostly is part of Deccan Plateau and dense forests covering an area of 27,292 km2 (10,538 sq mi). As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts.

Telangana
Location of Telangana in India
Coordinates (Telangana):17°21′58″N78°28′30″E /17.366°N 78.475°E /17.366; 78.475Coordinates: 17°21′58″N78°28′30″E /17.366°N 78.475°E /17.366; 78.475
CountryIndia
Formation2 June 2014^(Telangana Day)
Capital and
largest city
Hyderabad[1]
Districts33
Government
• BodyGovernment of Telangana
GovernorTamilisai Soundararajan
Chief MinisterK. Chandrashekar Rao (TRS)
LegislatureBicameral
Parliamentary constituencies
High CourtTelangana High Court
Area
• Total112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi)
• Rank11th
Population
(2011)
• Total35,003,674
• Rank12th
• Density307/km2 (800/sq mi)
Demonym(s)
GDP(2020–21)
Total9.78 trillion (US$130 billion)
Per capita237,632 (US$3,100)
Languages
• OfficialTelugu
• Additional officialUrdu
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-TG
Vehicle registrationTS-
HDI (2018) 0.669 medium · 22nd
Literacy (2017-18)72.80%
Symbols of Telangana
EmblemEmblem of Telangana, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Charminar
Mammal
Spotted deer
Bird
Indian Roller
Flower
Senna auriculata
Tree
Prosopis cineraria
^† Temporary Joint Capital with Andhra Pradesh not more than 10 years

Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages, the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Indian powers such as the Mauryans, Satavahanas, Vishnukundinas, Chalukyas, Cholas, Rashtrakutas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals of India. The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb culture. During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars (Coastal Andhra) and Ceded Districts (Rayalseema), which were handed over to the East India Company. The annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State, the Nizam's dominion, of the considerable coastline it formerly had, to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in the central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India. Thereafter, the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India's Madras state.

The Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State (part of the Madras Presidency during the British Raj) to form Andhra Pradesh. A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, and continued until Telangana was granted statehood on 2 June 2014 under the leadership of K. Chandrashekar Rao.

The economy of Telangana is the seventh-largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of9.78 trillion (US$130 billion) and has the country's 6th-highest GSDP per capita of237,632 (US$3,100). Telangana ranks 22nd among Indian states in human development index. The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software, industry and services sector. The state is also the main administrative centre of many Indian defence aerospace and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory.

Hyderabadi cuisine and Kakatiya architecture both from Telangana, are on the list of UNESCO creative city of gastronomy and UNESCO World Heritage Site. The cultural centers of Telangana, Hyderabad and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Ramappa Temple (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district. The historic city Golconda in Hyderabad established itself as a diamond trading centre and, until the end of the 19th century, the Golconda market was the primary source of the finest and largest diamonds in the world. Thus, the legendary name Golconda Diamonds became synonymous with Golconda itself. Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, the ancient Bhadrakali Temple and Govinda Rajula Gutta in Warangal, Alampur Jogulamba Temple in Jogulamba Gadwal district and Medak Cathedral, Lord Shiva temple in Vemulawada of Rajanna-Sircilla district are several of its most famous places of worship.

Contents

A popular etymology derives the word "Telangana" from Trilinga desa ("land of three lingas"), a region so-called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram (in present day Telangana), Srisailam and Draksharama (in present day Andhra Pradesh). According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre, the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from "Telangadh", which according to him, means "south" in Gondi and has been referred to in "Gond script dating back to about 2000 years".

One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul (14th century CE), who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Telangana. He was the commander of the Warangal Fort (Kataka Pāludu).

A 16th-century travel writer, Firishta, recorded in his book:

During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, Tulingana, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world. Merchants from Toorkistan, Arabia, and Persia resorted to it; and they met with such encouragement that they found in it inducements to return frequently. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king's hospitable board.

The word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telangana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded.

Main article: History of Telangana

Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the:

Early history

The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE–220 CE) became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers and was based at Amaravathi and Dharanikota. After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.

Kakatiya Dynasty

Main article: Kakatiya dynasty
Ramagiri Fort ruins at Kalvacherla in Peddapalli district is an ancient fort initially built by the Sathavahanas and modified many times by other dynasties till the 16th century.
Kota Gullu, temple ruins built in the 12th century by Kakatiyas at Ghanpur, Mulug in Warangal district.

The Telangana area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty, which ruled most parts of the present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.

Qutab Shahi and Asaf Jahi's

The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golconda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golconda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golconda fort.

During the early seventeenth century a strong cotton-weaving industry existed in Telangana. Large quantities of cotton were produced for domestic and exports consumption. High quality plain and patterned cloth made of muslin and calico was produced.

In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). He was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba, establishing it as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire. He took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi Nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telangana were part of their realm.

Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties. The Chowmahalla Palace was home to the Nizams of Hyderabad.

When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. The Nizam Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV signed the subsidiary alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India.

In 1787, heavy flooding killed over 20,000 causing a plague which killed about 10,656,000 Telugus again in Telangana.

Post-independence

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo. It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of English-educated bureaucrats from the Madras and Bombay states, who were familiar with British systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad State who used a completely different administrative system. The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.

In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives (mulkis) of Hyderabad (Syed Alam Sharjil) was elected chief minister of Hyderabad after (Dr. Burgula Ramakrishana Rao) for one year after he resigned from the post.

Telangana Rebellion

Main article: Telangana Rebellion

The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad State between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).

The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the Nizam Osman Ali Khan. The violent phase of the movement ended after the government of India's Operation Polo. Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.

States Reorganisation Commission

In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis. An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests. After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

Following this Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956. G.O 553 of 1959 from the united Andhra Pradesh state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam from East Godavari and Aswaraopeta from West Godavari to Khammam for administrative convenience.

Telangana movement

Main article: Telangana movement

There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum in the 21st century by an initiative of Kalvakuntla Chandrashekhar Rao from Telangana Rasthra Samithi later joined by Telangana Political Joint Action Committee, TJAC including political leadership representing the Telangana area. On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.

The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana. There have been hundreds of claimed suicides, strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.

Formation of Telangana state in 2014

On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament of India in February 2014. In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh. The bill received the assent of the president and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014.

The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Telangana Rashtra Samithi party secured majority. Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period, not more than ten years after that period Hyderabad shall be the capital of the state of Telangana and there shall be a new capital for the state of Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh picked Amaravati as its capital and moved its secretariat in 2016 and legislature in March 2017 to its new capital.

Telangana and its neighbours

Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 112,077 square kilometres (43,273 sq mi). The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid. Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Maner, the Manjira,d the Musi, and the Tungabhadra

The annual rainfall is between 900 and 1500 mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Telangana contains various soil types, some of which are red sandy loams (Chalaka), Red loamy sands (Dubba), lateritic soils, salt-affected soils, alluvial soils, shallow to medium black soils and very deep black cotton soils. These soil types allow the planting of a variety of fruits and vegetable crops such as mangoes, oranges, coconut, sugarcane, paddy, banana and flower crops.

Climate

Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 46 °C (115 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.

Ecology

The Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion covers much of the state, including Hyderabad. The characteristic vegetation is woodlands of Hardwickia binata and Albizia amara. Over 80% of the original forest cover has been cleared for agriculture, timber harvesting, or cattle grazing, but large blocks of forest can be found in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve and elsewhere. The more humid Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests cover the Eastern Ghats in the eastern part of the state.

National parks and sanctuaries

Telangana has three National Parks: Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district, and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district.

Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) near Hyderabad

Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District, Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts, Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts, Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district.

Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people. Sacred groves provide sanctuary to the local flora and fauna. Some are included within other protected areas, like Kadalivanam in Nagarjunsagar–Srisailam Tiger Reserve, but most stand alone. There are 65 sacred groves in Telangana—two in Adilabad district, thirteen in Hyderabad district, four in Karimnagar district, four in Khammam district, nine in Mahbubnagar district, four in Medak district, nine in Nalgonda district, ten in Ranga Reddy district, and three in Warangal district.

Language

Languages of Telangana (2011)

Telugu (75.44%)
Urdu (12.16%)
Lambadi (5.76%)
Marathi (1.77%)
Hindi (1.62%)
Others (3.25%)

Telugu one of the classical languages of India is the official language of Telangana and Urdu is the second official language of the state. About 75% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu and 12% speak Urdu. Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non Hyderabadi Muslims decreased. Both Telugu and Urdu are used in services across the state, such as the Telangana Legislature website, with Telugu and Urdu versions of the website available, as well as the Hyderabad metro, wherein both languages are used on station names and signs along with English and Hindi. The Urdu spoken in Telangana is called Hyderabadi Urdu, which in itself is a dialect of the larger Dakhini Urdu dialects of South India. Although the language is orally spoken by most Hyderabadi Muslims, the language in a literary context has long been lost, and standard Urdu is used. Hindi is spoken mainly in Hyderabad, as well as some other urban areas like Warangal. Lambadi, a language related to Rajasthani dialects, is spoken throughout the state. Marathi is predominant in regions bordering Maharashtra, especially in the old Adilabad district, while Kannada is spoken by significant minorities along some parts of the Karnataka border. The old Adilabad district has a large number of speakers of tribal languages such as Gondi and Kolami, while Koya is a language spoken by significant numbers in Bhadradi Kothagudem district and along the Chhattisgarh border.

Religion

Religion in Telangana (2011)

Hinduism (85.1%)
Islam (12.7%)
Christianity (1.3%)
Others (0.9%)

According to the 2011 census, Hindus form 85.1% of the State's population. Muslims form 12.7% and Christians form 1.3% and 0.9% others.

Literacy

According to the 2011 census, Telangana's literacy rate is 66.46%. Male literacy and female literacy are 74.95% and 57.92%, respectively. Hyderabad district leads with 80.96% and Mahabubnagar district at the bottom with 56.06%.

In a 2019 report, the Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India, by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Telangana has a literacy rate of 72.8% which is the fourth lowest of large states. It also has the second lowest literacy rate among rural women at 53.7%. 37.1% of the population aged 3–35 years received free education at pre-primary and higher levels in Telangana.

Telangana at the time of formation on 2 June 2014.
Telangana new districts created in 2016

The state is divided into 33 districts. The latest two new districts, Mulugu and Narayanpet, were formed on 17 February 2019. The districts are divided into 70 revenue divisions which are further divided into 584 mandals.

The districts in the state are:

S.No. District Headquarters Earlier part of
1 Adilabad Adilabad Adilabad
2 Bhadradri Kothagudem Kothagudem Khammam
3 Hanumakonda Hanumakonda Warangal, Karimnagar
4 Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad
5 Jagitial Jagitial Karimnagar
6 Jangaon Jangaon Warangal, Nalgonda
7 Jayashankar Bhupalpally Bhupalpally Warangal, Karimnagar
8 Jogulamba Gadwal Gadwal Mahabubnagar
9 Kamareddy Kamareddy Nizamabad
10 Karimnagar Karimnagar Karimnagar
11 Khammam Khammam Khammam
12 Kumuram Bheem Asifabad Adilabad
13 Mahabubabad Mahabubabad Warangal, Khammam
14 Mahbubnagar Mahbubnagar Mahbubnagar
15 Mancherial Mancherial Adilabad
16 Medak Medak Medak
17 Medchal–Malkajgiri Shamirpet Ranga Reddy
18 Mulugu Mulugu Warangal
19 Nagarkurnool Nagarkurnool Mahabubnagar
20 Nalgonda Nalgonda Nalgonda
21 Narayanpet Narayanpet Mahabubnagar
22 Nirmal Nirmal Adilabad
23 Nizamabad Nizamabad Nizamabad
24 Peddapalli Peddapalli Karimnagar
25 Rajanna Sircilla Sircilla Karimnagar
26 Ranga Reddy Shamshabad Ranga Reddy
27 Sangareddy Sangareddy Medak
28 Siddipet Siddipet Medak, Karimnagar, Warangal
29 Suryapet Suryapet Nalgonda
30 Vikarabad Vikarabad Ranga Reddy
31 Wanaparthy Wanaparthy Mahabubnagar
32 Warangal Warangal Warangal
33 Yadadri Bhuvanagiri Bhongir Nalgonda

There are a total of 12 cities in the state. Hyderabad is the biggest city in the state and 4th largest city in India. There are 13 municipal corporations and 132 municipalities in the state.

Telangana is governed by a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are three branches of government.

  1. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the chief minister by the governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.
  2. The legislature, the Telangana Legislative Assembly and the Telangana Legislative Council, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the speaker or the deputy speaker in the speaker's absence. The Assembly is bicameral with 119 Members of the Legislative Assembly and 40 Member of the Legislative Council. Terms of office run for five years unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. The Legislative Council is a permanent body with one-third of members retiring every two years.
  3. The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad and a system of lower courts.

Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes seats to Lok Sabha.

The main players in the regional politics are the Telangana Rashtra Samithi, All India Forward Bloc, All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress. Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly Election in 2014, the Telangana Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected to power.

Main article: Economy of Telangana
Coal Handling Ropeway near Manuguru, Bhadradri Kothagudem district.

The economy of Telangana is mainly driven by agriculture. Two important rivers of India, the Godavari and Krishna, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Farmers in Telangana mainly depend on rain-fed water sources for irrigation. Rice is the major food crop. Other important crops are cotton, sugar cane, mango, and tobacco. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.

The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. Telangana is one of top IT-exporting states of India. There are 68 Special Economic Zones in the state.

Telangana is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at Singareni Collieries Company. The Golconda region has produced some of the world's most famous diamonds, including the colourless Koh-i-Noor (United Kingdom), the blue Hope (United States), the pink Daria-i-Noor (Iran), the white Regent (France), the Dresden Green (Germany), and the colourless Orlov (Russia), Nizam and Jacob (India), as well as the now-lost diamonds Florentine Yellow, Akbar Shah and Great Mogul.

Agriculture

Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are maize, tobacco, mango, cotton and sugar cane. Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. The Godavari and Krishna rivers flow through the state, providing irrigation. Apart from major rivers, there are small rivers like Tunga Bhadra, Bima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Pranahitha, peddavagu and Taliperu. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.

Agri Export Zones for the following produce have been proposed for the following locations:[citation needed]

Neoliberal influences in cotton farming

Andrew Flachs, an environmental anthropologist from Purdue University, wrote an article on his fieldwork in India. The article, In Planting and performing: Anxiety, aspiration, and “scripts” in Telangana cotton farming, was a way to help better understand the aspects of cotton farming, which remains a big market in India. Fachs's research demonstrates how the facets of cotton farming in India are a big example of “a growing neoliberal instability in rural India’s agrarian political economy.” For starters, Flachs recognizes that so much societal and financial pressure is put onto small cotton farmers. Because of this, cotton farmers in Telangana are at risk for “suicide and indebtedness”. According to Flachs, what drives most, if not all cotton farmers is what he refers to as “manci digubadi,” which translates to “I’m hoping for a good yield.” This saying is what the farmers refer to as a “script”. A “script” can be defined as a means for farmers to justify their decisions when it comes to seed planting and farming. Flachs claims that “scripts reveal how farmers are conditioned to follow rules and norms”. One major issue in Indian cotton farming is the lack of seed knowledge the farmers retain. Flachs affirms that each season is driven by the GM seed market. The privatization of this market has caused an influx of seeds and an immoral market. Each year the cotton farmers are purchasing the newest seeds with no previous knowledge or reference to empirical data. Because the cotton farms are considered in determining the validity of the farmer, farmers tend to just purchase seeds that their neighbors have had previous success with, despite existing confounding variables such as irrigation, weather, and pesticide use. While many of the cotton farmers have adapted to the constantly changing seed market in hopes to achieve a “good yield”, others have in turn abandoned agriculture altogether, or have even committed suicide to protest against the “Indian agribusiness”. Overall, Flachs asserts that “Manci digubadi” goes much deeper than achieving good yields, saying that this “script” is the result of cotton farmers seeking “social recognition, personal satisfaction, relief, and affirmation”.

Industries

The HITEC City is a major IT hub of Hyderabad

Several major manufacturing and services industries are in operation mainly around Hyderabad. Automobiles and auto components, spices, mines and minerals, textiles and apparels, pharmaceutical, horticulture, and poultry farming are the main industries in Telangana.

In terms of services, Hyderabad is nicknamed "Cyberabad" due to the location of major software industries in the city. Prior to secession, it contributed 10% to India's and 98% to Andhra Pradesh's exports in the IT and ITES sectors in 2013 With Hyderabad in the front line of Telangana's goal to promote information technology in India, the city boasts the HITEC City as its premier hub. IT companies have also been set up in Warangal and Khammam.

The state government is in the process of developing industrial parks at different places, for specific groups of industries. The existing parks are Software Park at Hyderabad, HITEC City for software units, Apparel Park at Gundlapochampalli, Export Promotion Park at Pashamylaram, Biotechnology park at Turkapally.[citation needed]

Hyderabad is also a major site for healthcare-related industries including hospitals and pharmaceutical organisations such as Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Yashoda Hospitals, LV Prasad Eye Care, Akruti Institute of cosmetic and plastic surgery, Fever Hospital, Durgabai Deshmukh, Continental Hospitals and Apollo Hospitals. Many pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical-related companies like Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Shantha Biotechnics and Aragen (Formerly GVK BIO) are based out of Hyderabad.

In addition, Hyderabad-based healthcare non-profits include the Indian Heart Association, a cardiovascular disease NGO.

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Telangana

Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation (TSTDC) is a state government agency which promotes tourism in Telangana. Telangana has a variety of tourist attractions including historical places, monuments, forts, waterfalls, forests and temples.

Waterfalls

Awards

Telangana state has won CNBC-TV18's Promising State of the Year Award for the year of 2015. The Jury for the India Business Leader Awards (IBLA) has collectively chosen Telangana for the award.

Media

The print media mainly consists of Telugu and English newspapers. Nava Telangana, Sakshi, Andhra Jyothi, Eenadu and Namaste Telangana are all Telugu newspapers. Mainly in English newspapers are Deccan Chronicle, The Times Of India, The Hindu, and The Hans India. Notable Urdu newspapers include Etemaad Daily, The Munsif Daily, and The Siasat Daily.

Power

Hydel and thermal power projects in the state meet the power requirements of the state. A number of new power projects are coming up in the State which is expected to generate additional power capacity in the state.

Irrigation projects

The state is well connected with other states by means of road, rail and airways. The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages. Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia. Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services.

Roadways

The state has a total of 16 national highways and accounts for a total length of 2,690.23 km (1,671.63 mi).

Railways

The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad in 1874. The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway, which had its beginnings in a line built privately by the HEH the Nizam. Much to the dismay of the British authorities, The Nizam bore all the expenses for the construction of the line.

It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad and Hyderabad are the main divisions of the South Central Railway that fall in the state.

Airports

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports in the country. The government has plans to upgrade Warangal Airport, Nizamabad Airport and Ramagundam Airport. It also plans to construct airports in Ramagundam and Kothagudem.

Warangal has a domestic airport in Mamunooru which was established in the year 1930 during the Nizam period. All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills, Warangal were done through the Warangal Airport.[citation needed]

Main article: Culture of Telangana
Sammakka Saralamma Jatara is a famous Hindu festival in Telangana

Telangana culture combines cultural customs from Persian traditions, embedded during the rule of the region by the Mughals, Qutub Shahis and Nizams, with prominent and predominantly south Indian traditions and customs. The State has a rich tradition in classical music, painting and folk arts such as Burra Katha, shadow puppet show, and Perini Shivatandavam, Gusadi Dance, Kolatam and Battukamma.

Architecture

Medieval forts such as the Bhongir Fort, Khammam Fort, and Rachakonda Fort are spread across the state. Among the notable ones is the Warangal Fort, which served as the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty. The Kakatiya Kala Thoranam within the fort has become a symbol of Telangana, and features on the state emblem. The fort complex, along with the Ramappa Temple and Thousand Pillar Temple are on the tentative list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The Qutb Shahi dynasty established the city of Hyderabad as their capital. The Charminar, Golconda Fort, and Qutb Shahi tombs in Hyderabad were built by the Qutb Shahi dynasty.

The Nizam era saw the construction of palaces such as the Chowmahalla Palace and Falaknuma Palace, as well as elaborate public buildings such as the Osmania General Hospital, all in Hyderabad.

Religious destinations

There are religious worship centres of different religions in the state.

Hindu worship destinations include Bhadrachalam Temple, Gnana Saraswati Temple, Yadagirigutta Temple, Ramappa Temple, Vemulawada Raja Rajeswara temple, the Thousand Pillar Temple, Statue of Equality (Ramanuja).

The Muslim worship destinations such as Makkah Masjid near Charminar, Khairtabad Mosque, Koh-e-qaim, Mian Mishk Masjid, Toli Masjid and Spanish Mosque.

Christian worship centres include the Diocese of Dornakal of the Church of South India, Bahe Church of South India, and Medak Cathedral. There are also some Buddhist destinations, such as Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.

Cinema

Main article: Telugu cinema

Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet as Tollywood, is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu language, and is centred in the Hyderabad, Telangana neighbourhood of Film Nagar. In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film industry is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood. In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood. The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.

Cuisine

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Visual arts

Indigenous art forms of Telangana include the Cheriyal scroll painting, Nirmal paintings, and Karimnagar Silver Filigree. A distinctive Persianate style of painting, called Deccan painting developed in the region during the medieval period.

Notable museums in the state include the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which is one of the largest in India. Other museums include the Telangana State Archeology Museum, City Museum, and Nizam Museum in Hyderabad, Warangal Museum in Warangal, and Alampur Museum in Alampur.

Telangana has multiple institutes of higher education universities along with numerous primary and secondary schools. The Department of Higher Education deals with matters relating to education at various levels in the state of Telangana.

Main gate of NIT Warangal

According to a 2019 report, the state has a literacy rate of 72.8%, which is one of the lowest in India. Schools in Telangana are run by the state government or private organisations, which include religious institutions. Some specialized schools such as the Kendriya Vidyalayas and Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas are run by agencies of the central government. As of 2017[update], there are 41,337 schools in the state, with about 70% of them being government schools.

Telangana is home to 27 universities, which include 3 central universities, 17 state universities, 2 deemed universities, and 5 private universities. The Osmania University in Hyderabad, established in 1918, is the oldest modern university in the state, and one of the largest university systems in the world. The University of Hyderabad consistently ranks among the top universities in the country. Apart from these, specialised institutes of national importance in the state include AIIMS Bibinagar, IIT Hyderabad, and NIT Warangal.

Other notable institutions include Indian School of Business, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Kakatiya University, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, NALSAR University of Law, Kaloji Narayana Rao University of Health Sciences, National Institute of Fashion Technology Hyderabad, Footwear Design and Development Institute, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad, and Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, Basar, among others.

The Hyderabad FC is a professional football club based in Hyderabad and plays in top-tier league of India, the Indian Super League. The home ground of the club is G.M.C Balayogi Athletic Stadium, in Gachibowli.

The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and has won twice. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad and has won the trophy once. Deccan Chargers, a currently defunct franchise from Hyderabad, also won the Indian Premier League once. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of both Hyderabad cricket team and Sunrisers Hyderabad. It hosts international as well as domestic matches. The Hyderabad Hunters, a Premier Badminton League franchise; the Telugu Titans, a Pro Kabaddi League franchise; the Hyderabad Sky, a UBA Pro Basketball League franchise and the Telugu Tigers, a Premier Futsal franchise are also based in Hyderabad. Hyderabad Hunters are previous winners of the Premier Badminton League title.

Notable sports persons from the state are Mohammad Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Mithali Raj, Pragyan Ojha, Ambati Rayudu, Saina Nehwal, P.V. Sindhu, Jwala Gutta, Parupalli Kashyap, Gagan Narang, Mukesh Kumar and Pullela Gopichand (Andhra Pradesh), as well as Sania Mirza who has been appointed as the "brand ambassador" of Telangana.

Other stadiums include G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium, Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and Gachibowli Indoor Stadium.

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Telangana Article Talk Language Watch Edit Telangana ˌ t ɛ l e n ˈ ɡ ɑː n e listen Telugu ˈtelaŋɡaːɳa Urdu ˈtɪleŋɡɑːna is a state in India situated on the south central stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau 11 It is the eleventh largest state and the twelfth most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112 077 km2 43 273 sq mi and 35 193 978 residents as per 2011 census 12 On 2 June 2014 the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed state with Hyderabad as its capital Its other major cities include Warangal Nizamabad Khammam Karimnagar and Ramagundam Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north Chhattisgarh to the northeast Karnataka to the west and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south 13 The terrain of Telangana region consists mostly is part of Deccan Plateau and dense forests covering an area of 27 292 km2 10 538 sq mi As of 2019 the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts TelanganaStateCollage of Telangana sidewise from left Charminar Warangal Fort Hyderabad city Nizamabad Railway Station Kuntala Waterfalls Falaknuma PalaceEmblemLocation of Telangana in IndiaCoordinates Telangana 17 21 58 N 78 28 30 E 17 366 N 78 475 E 17 366 78 475 Coordinates 17 21 58 N 78 28 30 E 17 366 N 78 475 E 17 366 78 475Country IndiaFormation2 June 2014 Telangana Day Capital and largest cityHyderabad 1 Districts33Government BodyGovernment of Telangana GovernorTamilisai Soundararajan 1 Chief MinisterK Chandrashekar Rao TRS LegislatureBicameral Assembly 119 seats Council 40 seats Parliamentary constituenciesRajya Sabha 7 seats Lok Sabha 17 seats High CourtTelangana High CourtArea 2 Total112 077 km2 43 273 sq mi Rank11thPopulation 2011 2 Total35 003 674 Rank12th Density307 km2 800 sq mi Demonym s TeluguTelanganiteGDP 2020 21 3 4 Total 9 78 trillion US 130 billion Per capita 237 632 US 3 100 Languages OfficialTelugu 5 Additional officialUrdu 5 6 Time zoneUTC 05 30 IST ISO 3166 codeIN TGVehicle registrationTS HDI 2018 0 669 7 medium 22ndLiteracy 2017 18 72 80 8 Symbols of TelanganaEmblemEmblem of Telangana Kakatiya Kala Thoranam Charminar 9 MammalSpotted deer 10 BirdIndian Roller 10 FlowerSenna auriculata 10 TreeProsopis cineraria 10 Temporary Joint Capital with Andhra Pradesh not more than 10 years Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Indian powers such as the Mauryans Satavahanas Vishnukundinas Chalukyas Cholas Rashtrakutas Kakatiyas Delhi Sultanate Bahmani Sultanate Golconda Sultanate During the 16th and 17th centuries the region was ruled by the Mughals of India 14 The region is known for its Ganga Jamuni tehzeeb culture 15 During the 18th century and the British Raj Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad 16 In 1823 the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars Coastal Andhra and Ceded Districts Rayalseema which were handed over to the East India Company The annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State the Nizam s dominion of the considerable coastline it formerly had to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in the central Deccan bounded on all sides by British India Thereafter the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India s independence in 1947 after which the presidency became India s Madras state 17 The Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion In 1956 the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu speaking Andhra State part of the Madras Presidency during the British Raj to form Andhra Pradesh A peasant driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s and continued until Telangana was granted statehood on 2 June 2014 under the leadership of K Chandrashekar Rao 18 The economy of Telangana is the seventh largest in India with a gross state domestic product GSDP of 9 78 trillion US 130 billion and has the country s 6th highest GSDP per capita of 237 632 US 3 100 3 4 Telangana ranks 22nd among Indian states in human development index 7 The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software industry and services sector The state is also the main administrative centre of many Indian defence aerospace and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory 19 Hyderabadi cuisine and Kakatiya architecture both from Telangana are on the list of UNESCO creative city of gastronomy and UNESCO World Heritage Site The cultural centers of Telangana Hyderabad and Warangal are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures Ramappa Temple UNESCO World Heritage Site Charminar Qutb Shahi Tombs Falaknuma Palace Chowmahalla Palace Warangal Fort Kakatiya Kala Thoranam Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district The historic city Golconda in Hyderabad established itself as a diamond trading centre and until the end of the 19th century the Golconda market was the primary source of the finest and largest diamonds in the world Thus the legendary name Golconda Diamonds became synonymous with Golconda itself Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad the ancient Bhadrakali Temple and Govinda Rajula Gutta in Warangal Alampur Jogulamba Temple in Jogulamba Gadwal district and Medak Cathedral Lord Shiva temple in Vemulawada of Rajanna Sircilla district are several of its most famous places of worship Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2 1 Early history 2 2 Kakatiya Dynasty 2 3 Qutab Shahi and Asaf Jahi s 2 4 Post independence 2 5 Telangana Rebellion 2 6 States Reorganisation Commission 2 7 Telangana movement 2 8 Formation of Telangana state in 2014 3 Geography 3 1 Climate 3 1 1 Ecology 3 1 2 National parks and sanctuaries 4 Demographics 4 1 Language 4 2 Religion 4 3 Literacy 5 Administrative divisions 6 Government and politics 7 Economy 7 1 Agriculture 7 1 1 Neoliberal influences in cotton farming 7 2 Industries 7 3 Tourism 7 3 1 Waterfalls 7 4 Awards 7 5 Media 8 Infrastructure 8 1 Power 8 2 Irrigation projects 9 Major cities 10 Major towns 11 Transport 11 1 Roadways 11 2 Railways 11 3 Airports 12 Culture 12 1 Architecture 12 1 1 Religious destinations 12 2 Cinema 12 3 Cuisine 12 4 Visual arts 13 Education 14 Sports 15 See also 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External linksEtymology EditA popular etymology derives the word Telangana from Trilinga desa land of three lingas a region so called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here Kaleshwaram in present day Telangana Srisailam and Draksharama in present day Andhra Pradesh 20 According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre the name Telangana is of Gondi origin Rao asserts that it is derived from Telangadh which according to him means south in Gondi and has been referred to in Gond script dating back to about 2000 years 21 One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul 14th century CE who was called the Tilangani which implies that he was from Telangana He was the commander of the Warangal Fort Kataka Paludu 22 A 16th century travel writer Firishta recorded in his book During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah Tulingana like Egypt became the mart of the whole world Merchants from Toorkistan Arabia and Persia resorted to it and they met with such encouragement that they found in it inducements to return frequently The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king s hospitable board 23 The word Telinga changed over time to Telangana and the name Telangana was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi speaking one Marathwada After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telangana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency s Circars and Ceded 24 History EditMain article History of Telangana Telangana was governed by many rulers including the Maurya Empire 320 BCE 180 BCE Satavahana dynasty 180 BCE 220 CE Vakataka dynasty 250 CE 500 CE Vishnukundina dynasty 420 CE 624 CE Chalukya dynasty 543 CE 753 CE Rashtrakuta dynasty 753 CE 982 CE Kakatiya dynasty 1083 CE 1323 CE Delhi Sultanate 1323 CE 1326 CE Musunuri Nayaks 1326 CE 1356 CE Recherla Nayaks 1356 CE 1424 CE Bahmani Sultanate 1347 CE 1512 CE Vijayanagara Empire 1336 CE 1646 CE Qutb Shahi dynasty 1512 CE 1687 CE Mughal Empire 1687 CE 1724 CE Asaf Jahi Dynasty 1724 CE 1948 CE Early history Edit Main articles Maurya Empire and Satavahana dynasty The Satavahana dynasty 230 BCE 220 CE became the dominant power in this region It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers and was based at Amaravathi and Dharanikota 25 After the decline of the Satavahanas various dynasties such as the Vakataka Vishnukundina Chalukya Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya ruled the area 26 Kakatiya Dynasty Edit Main article Kakatiya dynasty Ramagiri Fort ruins at Kalvacherla in Peddapalli district is an ancient fort initially built by the Sathavahanas and modified many times by other dynasties till the 16th century Kota Gullu temple ruins built in the 12th century by Kakatiyas at Ghanpur Mulug in Warangal district The Telangana area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty which ruled most parts of the present day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE 26 Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323 27 28 Qutab Shahi and Asaf Jahi s Edit Golconda Fort The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century followed by the Bahmani Sultanate Quli Qutb Mulk a governor of Golconda revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518 On 21 September 1687 the Golconda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year long siege of the Golconda fort 29 During the early seventeenth century a strong cotton weaving industry existed in Telangana Large quantities of cotton were produced for domestic and exports consumption High quality plain and patterned cloth made of muslin and calico was produced 30 In 1712 Qamar ud din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam ul Mulk meaning Administrator of the Realm He was later recalled to Delhi with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy In 1724 Qamar ud din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba establishing it as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire He took the name Asif Jah starting what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty 26 He named the area Hyderabad Deccan Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul Mulk and were called Asif Jahi Nizams or nizams of Hyderabad The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telangana were part of their realm 31 Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties The Chowmahalla Palace was home to the Nizams of Hyderabad Hyderabad State in 1909 When Asif Jah I died in 1748 there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces In 1769 Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams The Nizam Nasir ud dawlah Asaf Jah IV signed the subsidiary alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state s defence and foreign affairs Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India 31 In 1787 heavy flooding killed over 20 000 causing a plague which killed about 10 656 000 Telugus again in Telangana 32 Post independence Edit When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947 the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo 26 It appointed a civil servant M K Vellodi as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950 33 He administered the state with the help of English educated bureaucrats from the Madras and Bombay states who were familiar with British systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad State who used a completely different administrative system The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English In 1952 Dr Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election During this time there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives mulkis of Hyderabad Syed Alam Sharjil was elected chief minister of Hyderabad after Dr Burgula Ramakrishana Rao for one year after he resigned from the post 34 Telangana Rebellion Edit Main article Telangana Rebellion The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad State between 1946 and 1951 led by the Communist Party of India CPI 35 The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords jagirdars and deshmukhs and later against the Nizam Osman Ali Khan The violent phase of the movement ended after the government of India s Operation Polo 36 Starting in 1951 the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy 37 States Reorganisation Commission Edit In December 1953 the States Reorganisation Commission SRC was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis 38 An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana s interests 39 After reorganisation in 1956 the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh Following this Gentlemen s agreement the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956 40 41 42 G O 553 of 1959 from the united Andhra Pradesh state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam from East Godavari and Aswaraopeta from West Godavari to Khammam for administrative convenience Telangana movement Edit Main article Telangana movement There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra major ones occurring in 1969 1972 and 2009 The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum in the 21st century by an initiative of Kalvakuntla Chandrashekhar Rao from Telangana Rasthra Samithi later joined by Telangana Political Joint Action Committee TJAC including political leadership representing the Telangana area 43 On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009 The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana 44 There have been hundreds of claimed suicides 45 strikes protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood Formation of Telangana state in 2014 Edit See also Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2014 On 30 July 2013 the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament of India in February 2014 46 In February 2014 Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north western Andhra Pradesh 47 The bill received the assent of the president and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014 48 The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014 Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana following elections in which the Telangana Rashtra Samithi party secured majority 49 Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period not more than ten years after that period Hyderabad shall be the capital of the state of Telangana and there shall be a new capital for the state of Andhra Pradesh 50 Andhra Pradesh picked Amaravati as its capital and moved its secretariat in 2016 and legislature in March 2017 to its new capital 51 52 Geography EditSee also List of cities in Telangana Telangana and its neighbours Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula It covers 112 077 square kilometres 43 273 sq mi 2 The region is drained by two major rivers with about 79 of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69 of the Krishna River catchment area but most of the land is arid 13 Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima the Maner the Manjira d the Musi and the Tungabhadra The annual rainfall is between 900 and 1500 mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana from the southwest monsoons Telangana contains various soil types some of which are red sandy loams Chalaka Red loamy sands Dubba lateritic soils salt affected soils alluvial soils shallow to medium black soils and very deep black cotton soils These soil types allow the planting of a variety of fruits and vegetable crops such as mangoes oranges coconut sugarcane paddy banana and flower crops 53 54 55 Climate Edit Telangana is a semi arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate Summers start in March and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 46 C 115 F range The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm 29 7 inches of precipitation A dry mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures 56 in the 22 23 C 72 73 F range Ecology Edit The Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion covers much of the state including Hyderabad The characteristic vegetation is woodlands of Hardwickia binata and Albizia amara Over 80 of the original forest cover has been cleared for agriculture timber harvesting or cattle grazing but large blocks of forest can be found in Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve and elsewhere 57 The more humid Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests cover the Eastern Ghats in the eastern part of the state National parks and sanctuaries Edit Telangana has three National Parks Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus near Hyderabad Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people Sacred groves provide sanctuary to the local flora and fauna Some are included within other protected areas like Kadalivanam in Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve but most stand alone There are 65 sacred groves in Telangana two in Adilabad district thirteen in Hyderabad district four in Karimnagar district four in Khammam district nine in Mahbubnagar district four in Medak district nine in Nalgonda district ten in Ranga Reddy district and three in Warangal district 58 Demographics EditSee also List of cities and towns in Telangana Demographics of Telangana and List of districts of Telangana Language Edit See also Telangana Telugu Languages of Telangana 2011 59 Telugu 75 44 Urdu 12 16 Lambadi 5 76 Marathi 1 77 Hindi 1 62 Others 3 25 Telugu one of the classical languages of India is the official language of Telangana and Urdu is the second official language of the state 60 About 75 of the population of Telangana speak Telugu and 12 speak Urdu 61 62 Before 1948 Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State and due to a lack of Telugu language educational institutions Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana 63 After 1948 once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India Telugu became the language of government and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges the use of Urdu among non Hyderabadi Muslims decreased 64 Both Telugu and Urdu are used in services across the state such as the Telangana Legislature website with Telugu and Urdu versions of the website available 65 as well as the Hyderabad metro wherein both languages are used on station names and signs along with English and Hindi 66 The Urdu spoken in Telangana is called Hyderabadi Urdu which in itself is a dialect of the larger Dakhini Urdu dialects of South India Although the language is orally spoken by most Hyderabadi Muslims the language in a literary context has long been lost and standard Urdu is used 67 Hindi is spoken mainly in Hyderabad as well as some other urban areas like Warangal Lambadi a language related to Rajasthani dialects is spoken throughout the state Marathi is predominant in regions bordering Maharashtra especially in the old Adilabad district while Kannada is spoken by significant minorities along some parts of the Karnataka border The old Adilabad district has a large number of speakers of tribal languages such as Gondi and Kolami while Koya is a language spoken by significant numbers in Bhadradi Kothagudem district and along the Chhattisgarh border 68 Religion Edit Religion in Telangana 2011 69 Hinduism 85 1 Islam 12 7 Christianity 1 3 Others 0 9 Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple in Yadadri According to the 2011 census Hindus form 85 1 of the State s population Muslims form 12 7 and Christians form 1 3 and 0 9 others 70 71 Literacy Edit According to the 2011 census Telangana s literacy rate is 66 46 Male literacy and female literacy are 74 95 and 57 92 respectively 2 Hyderabad district leads with 80 96 and Mahabubnagar district at the bottom with 56 06 72 In a 2019 report the Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation Telangana has a literacy rate of 72 8 which is the fourth lowest of large states It also has the second lowest literacy rate among rural women at 53 7 37 1 of the population aged 3 35 years received free education at pre primary and higher levels in Telangana 8 Administrative divisions EditMain articles List of districts in Telangana List of revenue divisions in Telangana and List of mandals of Telangana Telangana at the time of formation on 2 June 2014 Telangana new districts created in 2016 The state is divided into 33 districts The latest two new districts Mulugu and Narayanpet were formed on 17 February 2019 73 The districts are divided into 70 revenue divisions which are further divided into 584 mandals 74 75 The districts in the state are S No District Headquarters Earlier part of1 Adilabad Adilabad Adilabad2 Bhadradri Kothagudem Kothagudem Khammam3 Hanumakonda Hanumakonda Warangal Karimnagar4 Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad5 Jagitial Jagitial Karimnagar6 Jangaon Jangaon Warangal Nalgonda7 Jayashankar Bhupalpally Bhupalpally Warangal Karimnagar8 Jogulamba Gadwal Gadwal Mahabubnagar9 Kamareddy Kamareddy Nizamabad10 Karimnagar Karimnagar Karimnagar11 Khammam Khammam Khammam12 Kumuram Bheem Asifabad Adilabad13 Mahabubabad Mahabubabad Warangal Khammam14 Mahbubnagar Mahbubnagar Mahbubnagar15 Mancherial Mancherial Adilabad16 Medak Medak Medak17 Medchal Malkajgiri Shamirpet Ranga Reddy18 Mulugu Mulugu Warangal19 Nagarkurnool Nagarkurnool Mahabubnagar20 Nalgonda Nalgonda Nalgonda21 Narayanpet Narayanpet Mahabubnagar22 Nirmal Nirmal Adilabad23 Nizamabad Nizamabad Nizamabad24 Peddapalli Peddapalli Karimnagar25 Rajanna Sircilla Sircilla Karimnagar26 Ranga Reddy Shamshabad Ranga Reddy27 Sangareddy Sangareddy Medak28 Siddipet Siddipet Medak Karimnagar Warangal29 Suryapet Suryapet Nalgonda30 Vikarabad Vikarabad Ranga Reddy31 Wanaparthy Wanaparthy Mahabubnagar32 Warangal Warangal Warangal33 Yadadri Bhuvanagiri Bhongir Nalgonda There are a total of 12 cities in the state Hyderabad is the biggest city in the state and 4th largest city in India There are 13 municipal corporations and 132 municipalities in the state Government and politics EditMain articles Government of Telangana and Politics of Telangana See also List of chief ministers of Telangana Telangana Legislative Assembly building Telangana is governed by a parliamentary system of representative democracy a feature the state shares with other Indian states Universal suffrage is granted to residents There are three branches of government Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister although the titular head of government is the Governor The governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the chief minister by the governor and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly The legislature the Telangana Legislative Assembly and the Telangana Legislative Council consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker that are elected by the members Assembly meetings are presided over by the speaker or the deputy speaker in the speaker s absence The Assembly is bicameral with 119 Members of the Legislative Assembly and 40 Member of the Legislative Council Terms of office run for five years unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term The Legislative Council is a permanent body with one third of members retiring every two years The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad and a system of lower courts Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats for which local body elections are regularly held govern local affairs The state contributes seats to Lok Sabha The main players in the regional politics are the Telangana Rashtra Samithi All India Forward Bloc All India Majlis e Ittehadul Muslimeen Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly Election in 2014 the Telangana Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected to power Economy EditMain article Economy of Telangana See also List of districts in Telangana by GDP Coal Handling Ropeway near Manuguru Bhadradri Kothagudem district The economy of Telangana is mainly driven by agriculture Two important rivers of India the Godavari and Krishna flow through the state providing irrigation Farmers in Telangana mainly depend on rain fed water sources for irrigation Rice is the major food crop Other important crops are cotton sugar cane mango and tobacco Recently crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour There are many multi state irrigation projects in development including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam the world s highest masonry dam 76 77 The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology Telangana is one of top IT exporting states of India There are 68 Special Economic Zones in the state 78 Telangana is a mineral rich state with coal reserves at Singareni Collieries Company 79 The Golconda region has produced some of the world s most famous diamonds including the colourless Koh i Noor United Kingdom the blue Hope United States the pink Daria i Noor Iran the white Regent France the Dresden Green Germany and the colourless Orlov Russia Nizam and Jacob India as well as the now lost diamonds Florentine Yellow Akbar Shah and Great Mogul Agriculture Edit Paddy fields in Warangal district Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state Other important crops are maize tobacco mango cotton and sugar cane 80 Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state s economy The Godavari and Krishna rivers flow through the state providing irrigation Apart from major rivers there are small rivers like Tunga Bhadra Bima Dindi Kinnerasani Manjeera Manair Penganga Pranahitha peddavagu and Taliperu There are many multi state irrigation projects in development including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam the world s highest masonry dam 81 Agri Export Zones for the following produce have been proposed for the following locations 82 citation needed Gherkins Mahabubnagar Rangareddy Medak Karimnagar Warangal Mangoes and grapes Hyderabad Rangareddy Medak MahabubnagarNeoliberal influences in cotton farming Edit Andrew Flachs an environmental anthropologist from Purdue University wrote an article on his fieldwork in India The article In Planting and performing Anxiety aspiration and scripts in Telangana cotton farming was a way to help better understand the aspects of cotton farming which remains a big market in India Fachs s research demonstrates how the facets of cotton farming in India are a big example of a growing neoliberal instability in rural India s agrarian political economy For starters Flachs recognizes that so much societal and financial pressure is put onto small cotton farmers Because of this cotton farmers in Telangana are at risk for suicide and indebtedness According to Flachs what drives most if not all cotton farmers is what he refers to as manci digubadi which translates to I m hoping for a good yield This saying is what the farmers refer to as a script A script can be defined as a means for farmers to justify their decisions when it comes to seed planting and farming Flachs claims that scripts reveal how farmers are conditioned to follow rules and norms One major issue in Indian cotton farming is the lack of seed knowledge the farmers retain Flachs affirms that each season is driven by the GM seed market The privatization of this market has caused an influx of seeds and an immoral market Each year the cotton farmers are purchasing the newest seeds with no previous knowledge or reference to empirical data Because the cotton farms are considered in determining the validity of the farmer farmers tend to just purchase seeds that their neighbors have had previous success with despite existing confounding variables such as irrigation weather and pesticide use While many of the cotton farmers have adapted to the constantly changing seed market in hopes to achieve a good yield others have in turn abandoned agriculture altogether or have even committed suicide to protest against the Indian agribusiness Overall Flachs asserts that Manci digubadi goes much deeper than achieving good yields saying that this script is the result of cotton farmers seeking social recognition personal satisfaction relief and affirmation 83 Industries Edit See also Software industry in Telangana The HITEC City is a major IT hub of Hyderabad Several major manufacturing and services industries are in operation mainly around Hyderabad Automobiles and auto components spices mines and minerals textiles and apparels pharmaceutical horticulture and poultry farming are the main industries in Telangana 84 In terms of services Hyderabad is nicknamed Cyberabad due to the location of major software industries in the city 85 86 Prior to secession it contributed 10 to India s and 98 to Andhra Pradesh s exports in the IT and ITES sectors in 2013 87 With Hyderabad in the front line of Telangana s goal to promote information technology in India the city boasts the HITEC City as its premier hub IT companies have also been set up in Warangal 88 and Khammam 89 The state government is in the process of developing industrial parks at different places for specific groups of industries The existing parks are Software Park at Hyderabad HITEC City for software units Apparel Park at Gundlapochampalli Export Promotion Park at Pashamylaram Biotechnology park at Turkapally citation needed Hyderabad is also a major site for healthcare related industries including hospitals and pharmaceutical organisations such as Nizam s Institute of Medical Sciences Yashoda Hospitals LV Prasad Eye Care Akruti Institute of cosmetic and plastic surgery Fever Hospital Durgabai Deshmukh Continental Hospitals and Apollo Hospitals Many pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical related companies like Dr Reddy s Laboratories Shantha Biotechnics and Aragen Formerly GVK BIO are based out of Hyderabad In addition Hyderabad based healthcare non profits include the Indian Heart Association a cardiovascular disease NGO 90 Tourism Edit Main article Tourism in Telangana Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation TSTDC is a state government agency which promotes tourism in Telangana 91 Telangana has a variety of tourist attractions including historical places monuments forts waterfalls forests and temples Waterfalls Edit Kuntala Waterfall in Adilabad district Kuntala Waterfall 45 metres 148 ft located in Kuntala Adilabad district Bogatha Waterfall is waterfall located in Koyaveerapuram G Wazeedu Mandal Jayashankar Bhupalpally district Telangana 92 93 Savatula Gundam Waterfalls in Adilabad districtAwards Edit Telangana state has won CNBC TV18 s Promising State of the Year Award for the year of 2015 The Jury for the India Business Leader Awards IBLA has collectively chosen Telangana for the award 94 95 Media Edit The print media mainly consists of Telugu and English newspapers Nava Telangana Sakshi Andhra Jyothi Eenadu and Namaste Telangana are all Telugu newspapers Mainly in English newspapers are Deccan Chronicle The Times Of India The Hindu and The Hans India 96 Notable Urdu newspapers include Etemaad Daily The Munsif Daily and The Siasat Daily Infrastructure Edit Ramagundam Thermal Power station Hyderabad Outer Ring Road Secunderabad railway station Power Edit Main article List of power stations in Telangana Hydel and thermal power projects in the state meet the power requirements of the state A number of new power projects are coming up in the State which is expected to generate additional power capacity in the state Irrigation projects Edit Project River DistrictKaleswaram Godavari Jayashankar BhupalpallySriram Sagar Godavari NizamabadNagarjuna Sagar Krishna Nalgonda GunturSrisailam Krishna Mahabubnagar KurnoolNizam Sagar Manjira NizamabadSingur Dam Manjira MedakLower Manair Dam Maner KarimnagarMid Manair Dam Maner Rajanna SircillaUpper Manair Dam Maner Rajanna SircillaSripada Yellampalli Godavari Peddapalli MancherialJurala Krishna Jogulamba GadwalKoil Sagar Krishna MahabubnagarOsman Sagar Musi Ranga Reddy districtHimayat Sagar Musi Ranga Reddy districtMajor cities EditHyderabad Warangal Hanumakonda Nizamabad Khammam Karimnagar Ramagundam Mahbubnagar Nalgonda Adilabad Suryapet Jagtial MiryalagudaMajor towns EditArmoor Asifabad Bellampalle Bhadrachalam Bhainsa Bhongir Bodhan Gadwal Huzurnagar Huzurabad Jammikunta Jangaon Kamalapur Kamareddy Kodad Koratla Kothagudem Madhira Mahabubabad Mancherial Medak Metpally Nagarkurnool Nakrekal Narayankhed Naspur Nirmal Palwancha Peddapalli Siddipet Sangareddy Sathupalli Sircilla Tandur Vikarabad Wanaparthy ZaheerabadTransport Edit The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation TSRTC Bus The state is well connected with other states by means of road rail and airways The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation TSRTC is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages 97 Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station M G B S in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia 98 99 Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services Roadways Edit The Kacheguda AC Double Decker Express of South Central Railway zone The state has a total of 16 national highways and accounts for a total length of 2 690 23 km 1 671 63 mi 100 Railways Edit See also South Central Railway zone and Nizam s Guaranteed State Railway The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad in 1874 The Nizam s Guaranteed State Railway which had its beginnings in a line built privately by the HEH the Nizam Much to the dismay of the British authorities The Nizam bore all the expenses for the construction of the line 101 It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966 The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway Secunderabad and Hyderabad are the main divisions of the South Central Railway that fall in the state 102 Airports Edit See also List of airports in Telangana Rajiv Gandhi International Airport Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports in the country The government has plans to upgrade Warangal Airport Nizamabad Airport 103 and Ramagundam Airport It also plans to construct airports in Ramagundam and Kothagudem 104 Warangal has a domestic airport in Mamunooru which was established in the year 1930 during the Nizam period All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills Warangal were done through the Warangal Airport citation needed Culture EditMain article Culture of Telangana Sammakka Saralamma Jatara is a famous Hindu festival in Telangana Telangana culture combines cultural customs from Persian traditions embedded during the rule of the region by the Mughals Qutub Shahis and Nizams with prominent and predominantly south Indian traditions and customs The State has a rich tradition in classical music painting and folk arts such as Burra Katha shadow puppet show and Perini Shivatandavam Gusadi Dance Kolatam and Battukamma Architecture Edit Main article Architecture of Telangana Kakatiya Kala Thoranam within the Warangal Fort Medieval forts such as the Bhongir Fort Khammam Fort and Rachakonda Fort are spread across the state Among the notable ones is the Warangal Fort which served as the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty 105 The Kakatiya Kala Thoranam within the fort has become a symbol of Telangana and features on the state emblem 106 The fort complex along with the Ramappa Temple and Thousand Pillar Temple are on the tentative list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites 105 The Qutb Shahi dynasty established the city of Hyderabad as their capital The Charminar Golconda Fort and Qutb Shahi tombs in Hyderabad were built by the Qutb Shahi dynasty 107 The Nizam era saw the construction of palaces such as the Chowmahalla Palace and Falaknuma Palace as well as elaborate public buildings such as the Osmania General Hospital all in Hyderabad Religious destinations Edit Sita Ramachandraswamy temple Bhadrachalam There are religious worship centres of different religions in the state Hindu worship destinations include Bhadrachalam Temple Gnana Saraswati Temple Yadagirigutta Temple Ramappa Temple Vemulawada Raja Rajeswara temple the Thousand Pillar Temple Statue of Equality Ramanuja The Muslim worship destinations such as Makkah Masjid near Charminar Khairtabad Mosque Koh e qaim Mian Mishk Masjid Toli Masjid and Spanish Mosque Christian worship centres include the Diocese of Dornakal of the Church of South India Bahe Church of South India and Medak Cathedral There are also some Buddhist destinations such as Nelakondapalli Dhulikatta Phanigiri and Kolanpaka 108 Cinema Edit Main article Telugu cinema Telugu cinema also known by its sobriquet as Tollywood is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu language and is centred in the Hyderabad Telangana neighbourhood of Film Nagar 109 In the early 1990s the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad The Telugu film industry is the second largest film industry in India next to Bollywood 110 In the years 2005 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood 111 112 The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world 113 Cuisine Edit Main articles Telugu cuisine and Hyderabadi cuisineThis section is empty You can help by adding to it June 2021 Visual arts Edit Indigenous art forms of Telangana include the Cheriyal scroll painting 114 Nirmal paintings and Karimnagar Silver Filigree 115 A distinctive Persianate style of painting called Deccan painting developed in the region during the medieval period 116 Notable museums in the state include the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad which is one of the largest in India 117 Other museums include the Telangana State Archeology Museum City Museum and Nizam Museum in Hyderabad Warangal Museum in Warangal and Alampur Museum in Alampur Education EditMain article Education in Telangana Telangana has multiple institutes of higher education universities along with numerous primary and secondary schools The Department of Higher Education deals with matters relating to education at various levels in the state of Telangana Main gate of NIT Warangal According to a 2019 report the state has a literacy rate of 72 8 which is one of the lowest in India 8 Schools in Telangana are run by the state government or private organisations which include religious institutions Some specialized schools such as the Kendriya Vidyalayas and Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas are run by agencies of the central government 118 As of 2017 update there are 41 337 schools in the state with about 70 of them being government schools 119 Telangana is home to 27 universities which include 3 central universities 17 state universities 2 deemed universities and 5 private universities The Osmania University in Hyderabad established in 1918 is the oldest modern university in the state and one of the largest university systems in the world The University of Hyderabad consistently ranks among the top universities in the country 120 Apart from these specialised institutes of national importance in the state include AIIMS Bibinagar IIT Hyderabad and NIT Warangal 121 Other notable institutions include Indian School of Business Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad Kakatiya University International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad NALSAR University of Law Kaloji Narayana Rao University of Health Sciences National Institute of Fashion Technology Hyderabad Footwear Design and Development Institute National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Hyderabad and Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies Basar among others 122 Sports EditSee also Sports in Hyderabad Sports and Stadiums Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium The Hyderabad FC is a professional football club based in Hyderabad and plays in top tier league of India the Indian Super League The home ground of the club is G M C Balayogi Athletic Stadium in Gachibowli 123 The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and has won twice The Sunrisers Hyderabad an Indian Premier League franchise is based in Hyderabad and has won the trophy once Deccan Chargers a currently defunct franchise from Hyderabad also won the Indian Premier League once The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of both Hyderabad cricket team and Sunrisers Hyderabad It hosts international as well as domestic matches The Hyderabad Hunters a Premier Badminton League franchise the Telugu Titans a Pro Kabaddi League franchise the Hyderabad Sky a UBA Pro Basketball League franchise and the Telugu Tigers a Premier Futsal franchise are also based in Hyderabad Hyderabad Hunters are previous winners of the Premier Badminton League title Notable sports persons from the state are Mohammad Azharuddin V V S Laxman Mithali Raj Pragyan Ojha Ambati Rayudu Saina Nehwal P V Sindhu Jwala Gutta Parupalli Kashyap Gagan Narang Mukesh Kumar and Pullela Gopichand Andhra Pradesh as well as Sania Mirza who has been appointed as the brand ambassador of Telangana 124 Other stadiums include G M C Balayogi Athletic Stadium Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and Gachibowli Indoor Stadium See also EditGanga Jamuni tehzeeb Hyderabad State 1948 1956 List of state highways in Telangana List of people from Telangana Telangana Language Day Temples of TelanganaReferences Edit New Governors Appointed in 5 States Tamil Nadu BJP Chief Gets Telangana NDTV com 1 September 2019 Archived from the original on 10 October 2020 Retrieved 1 September 2019 a b c d Telangana Statistics Telangana state portal Retrieved 6 December 2021 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint url status link a b Telangana Socio Economic Outlook 2021 PDF Government of Telangana 1 February 2022 pp 10 25 Retrieved 1 February 2022 a b Per Capita Net State Domestic Product State wise At Current Prices Reserve Bank of India Retrieved 21 January 2022 a b Urdu is Telangana s second official language The Indian Express 16 November 2017 Archived from the original on 27 February 2018 Retrieved 27 February 2018 Urdu is second official language in Telangana as state passes Bill The News Minute 17 November 2017 Archived from the original on 3 June 2018 Retrieved 27 February 2018 a b Sub national HDI Area Database Global Data Lab Institute for Management Research Radboud University Archived from the original on 23 September 2018 Retrieved 25 September 2018 a b c Telangana literacy rate fourth lowest among big states The New Indian Express 25 November 2019 Archived from the original on 18 February 2021 Retrieved 6 September 2020 Kakatiya arch Charminar in Telangana state logo The Deccan Chronicle 30 May 2014 Retrieved 17 April 2021 a b c d Telangana State Symbols Telangana State Portal Archived from the original on 19 May 2017 Retrieved 15 May 2017 Telangana History Map Population Capital amp Government Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 11 April 2021 Population Government of Telangana Archived from the original on 9 December 2015 Retrieved 12 December 2015 a b Administrative and Geographical Profile PDF Telangana State Portal Archived from the 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Publishing House p 175 ISBN 978 8170221975 Retrieved 11 December 2013 Sarojini Regani 1986 Nizam British Relations 1724 1857 New Delhi Concept Publishing Company ISBN 978 8170221951 Retrieved 11 December 2013 Duncan B Forrester Spring 1970 Subregionalism in India The Case of Telangana Pacific Affairs University of British Columbia 43 1 5 21 doi 10 2307 2753831 JSTOR 2753831 Karen Leonard May 1971 The Hyderabad Political System and its Participants The Journal of Asian Studies Association for Asian Studies 30 3 569 582 doi 10 1017 s0021911800154841 JSTOR 2052461 ReInventing Telangana First Steps Socio Economic Outlook 2105 Planning Department Govt of Telangana Retrieved 24 September 2015 Narayan B K 1960 Agricultural Development in Hyderabad State 1900 1956 A Study in Economic History Keshav Prakashan Retrieved 5 July 2019 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Telangana Telanganaat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Government Official Site of Telangana Government General information Telangana at Curlie Geographic data related to Telangana at OpenStreetMap Portals Geography Asia India Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Telangana amp oldid 1093986348, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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