fbpx
Wikipedia

For the integer sequence, see Telephone number (mathematics).
"Phone number" redirects here. For the Bobby V song, see Fly on the Wall (Bobby V album). For the Dominic Fike song, see Dominic Fike.

A telephone number is a sequence of digits assigned to a fixed-line telephone subscriber station connected to a telephone line or to a wireless electronic telephony device, such as a radio telephone or a mobile telephone, or to other devices for data transmission via the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or other public and private networks.

A Swiss rotary telephone dial from the 1970s, showing the telephone's number (94 29 68) along with those of various local emergency services
Telephone numbers for sale in Hong Kong.

A telephone number serves as an address for switching telephone calls using a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbers are entered or dialed by a calling party on the originating telephone set, which transmits the sequence of digits in the process of signaling to a telephone exchange. The exchange completes the call either to another locally connected subscriber or via the PSTN to the called party. Telephone numbers are assigned within the framework of a national or regional telephone numbering plan to subscribers by telephone service operators, which may be commercial entities, state-controlled administrations, or other telecommunication industry associations.

Telephone numbers were first used in 1879 in Lowell, Massachusetts, when they replaced the request for subscriber names by callers connecting to the switchboard operator. Over the course of telephone history, telephone numbers had various lengths and formats and even included most letters of the alphabet in leading positions when telephone exchange names were in common use until the 1960s.

Telephone numbers are often dialed in conjunction with other signaling code sequences, such as vertical service codes, to invoke special telephone service features.

Contents

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(November 2015) ()

When telephone numbers were first used they were very short, from one to three digits, and were communicated orally to a switchboard operator when initiating a call. As telephone systems have grown and interconnected to encompass worldwide communication, telephone numbers have become longer. In addition to telephones, they have been used to access other devices, such as computer modems, pagers, and fax machines. With landlines, modems and pagers falling out of use in favor of all-digital always-connected broadband Internet and mobile phones, telephone numbers are now often used by data-only cellular devices, such as some tablet computers, digital televisions, video game controllers, and mobile hotspots, on which it is not even possible to make or accept a call.

The number contains the information necessary to identify the intended endpoint for a telephone call. Many countries use fixed-length numbers in a so-called closed numbering plan. A prominent system of this type is the North American Numbering Plan. In Europe, the development of open numbering plans was more prevalent, in which a telephone number comprised a varying count of digits. Irrespective of the type of numbering plan, "shorthand" or "speed calling" numbers are automatically translated to unique telephone numbers before the call can be connected. Some special services have special short codes (e.g., 1-1-9, 9-1-1,1-0-0, 1-0-1, 1-0-2, 0-0-0, 9-9-9, 1-1-1, and 1-1-2 being the Emergency Services numbers in many countries). The dialing procedures (dialing plan) in some areas permit dialing numbers in the local calling area without using an area code or city code prefix. For example, a telephone number in North America consists of a three-digit area code, a three-digit central office code, and four digits for the line number. If the numbering plan area does not use an overlay plan with multiple area codes, or if the provider allows it for other technical reasons, seven-digit dialing may be permissible for calls within the area.

Special telephone numbers are used for high-capacity numbers with several telephone circuits, typically a request line to a radio station where dozens or even hundreds of callers may be trying to call in at once, such as for a contest. For each large metro area, all of these lines will share the same prefix (such as 404-741-xxxx in Atlanta and 305-550-xxxx in Miami), the last digits typically corresponding to the station's frequency, callsign, or moniker.

In the international telephone network, the format of telephone numbers is standardized by ITU-T recommendation E.164. This code specifies that the entire number should be 15 digits or shorter, and begin with a country prefix. For most countries, this is followed by an area code or city code and the subscriber number, which might consist of the code for a particular telephone exchange. ITU-T recommendation E.123 describes how to represent an international telephone number in writing or print, starting with a plus sign ("+") and the country code. When calling an international number from a landline phone, the + must be replaced with the international call prefix chosen by the country the call is being made from. Many mobile phones allow the + to be entered directly, by pressing and holding the "0" for GSM phones, or sometimes "*" for CDMA phones.

The 3GPP standards for mobile networks provide a BCD-encoded field of ten bytes for the phone number ("Dialling Number/SCC String"). The international call prefix or "+" is not counted as it encodes a value in a separate byte (TON/NPI - type of number / numbering plan identification). If the MSISDN is longer than 20 digits then additional digits are encoded into extension blocks (EFEXT1) each having a BCD-encoded field of 11 bytes. This scheme allows to extend the subscriber number with a maximum of 20 digits by additional function values to control network services. In the context of ISDN the function values were transparently transported in a BCD-encoded field with a maximum of 20 bytes named "ISDN Subaddress".

The format and allocation of local phone numbers are controlled by each nation's respective government, either directly or by sponsored organizations (such as NANPA in the US or CNAC in Canada). In the United States, each state's public service commission regulates, as does the Federal Communications Commission. In Canada, which shares the same country code with the U.S. (due to Bell Canada's previous ownership by the U.S.-based Bell System), regulation is mainly through the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission.

Local number portability (LNP) allows a subscriber to request moving an existing telephone number to another telephone service provider. Number portability usually has geographic limitations, such as an existing local phone company only being able to port to a competitor within the same rate centre. Mobile carriers may have much larger market areas, and can assign or accept numbers from any area within the region. In many telephone administrations, cell phone telephone numbers are in organized in prefix ranges distinct from land line service, which simplifies mobile number portability, even between carriers.

Within most North American rate centres, local wireline calls are free, while calls to all but a few nearby rate centres are considered long distance and incur toll fees. In a few large US cities, as well as many points outside North America, local calls are not flat-rated or "free" by default.

United States

A business card from Richard Nixon's first Congressional campaign in 1946; his phone number can be seen as "Whittier 42635"

In the late 1870s, the Bell interests started utilizing their patent with a rental scheme, in which they would rent their instruments to individual users who would contract with other suppliers to connect them; for example from home to office to factory. Western Union and the Bell company both soon realized that a subscription service would be more profitable, with the invention of the telephone switchboard or central office. Such an office was staffed by an operator who connected the calls by personal names. Some have argued that use of the telephone altered the physical layout of American cities.

The latter part of 1879 and the early part of 1880 saw the first use of telephone numbers at Lowell, Massachusetts. During an epidemic of measles, the physician, Dr. Moses Greeley Parker, feared that Lowell's four telephone operators might all succumb to sickness and bring about paralysis of telephone service. He recommended the use of numbers for calling Lowell's more than 200 subscribers so that substitute operators might be more easily trained in such an emergency. Parker was convinced of the telephone's potential, began buying stock, and by 1883 he was one of the largest individual stockholders in both the American Telephone Company and the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company.

Even after the assignment of numbers, operators still connected most calls into the early 20th century: "Hello, Central. Get me Underwood-342." Connecting through operators or "Central" was the norm until mechanical direct-dialing of numbers became more common in the 1920s.

In rural areas with magneto crank telephones connected to party lines, the local phone number consisted of the line number plus the ringing pattern of the subscriber. To dial a number such as "3R122" meant making a request to the operator the third party line (if making a call off your own local one), followed by turning the telephone's crank once, a short pause, then twice and twice again. Also common was a code of long and short rings, so one party's call might be signaled by two longs and another's by two longs followed by a short. It was not uncommon to have over a dozen ring cadences (and subscribers) on one line.

In most areas of North America, telephone numbers in metropolitan communities consisted of a combination of digits and letters, starting in the 1920s until the 1960s. Letters were translated to dialed digits, a mapping that was displayed directly on the telephone dial. Each of the digits 2 to 9, and sometimes 0, corresponded to a group of typically three letters. The leading two or three letters of a telephone number indicated the exchange name, for example, EDgewood and IVanhoe, and were followed by 5 or 4 digits. The limitations that these systems presented in terms of usable names that were easy to distinguish and spell, and the need for a comprehensive numbering plan that enabled direct-distance dialing, led to the introduction of all-number dialing in the 1960s.

The use of numbers starting in 555- (KLondike-5) to represent fictional numbers in U.S. movies, television, and literature originated in this period. The "555" prefix was reserved for telephone company use and was only consistently used for directory assistance (information), being "555–1212" for the local area. An attempt to dial a 555 number from a movie in the United States results in an error message. This reduces the likelihood of nuisance calls. QUincy(5–5555) was also used, because there was no Q available. Phone numbers were traditionally tied down to a single location; because exchanges were "hard-wired", the first three digits of any number were tied to the geographic location of the exchange.

Alphanumeric telephone numbers

Face of a 1939 rotary dial showing a 2L-4N style alphanumeric telephone number LA-2697.
2008 photo shows a hairdressing shop in Toronto with an exterior sign showing the shop's telephone number in the old two-letters plus five-digits format.

The North American Numbering Plan of 1947 prescribed a format of telephone numbers that included two leading letters of the name of the central office to which each telephone was connected. This continued the practice already in place by many telephone companies for decades. Traditionally, these names were often the names of towns, villages, or were other locally significant names. Communities that required more than one central office may have used other names for each central office, such as "Main", "East", " Central" or the names of local districts. Names were convenient to use and reduced errors when telephone numbers were exchanged verbally between subscribers and operators. When subscribers could dial themselves, the initial letters of the names were converted to digits as displayed on the rotary dial. Thus, telephone numbers contained one, two, or even three letters followed by up to five numerals. Such numbering plans are called 2L-4N, or simply 2–4, for example, as shown in the photo of a telephone dial of 1939 (right). In this example, LAkewood 2697 indicates that a subscriber dialed the letters L and A, then the digits 2, 6, 9, and 7 to reach this telephone in Lakewood, NJ (USA). The leading letters were typically bolded in print.

In December 1930, New York City became the first city in the United States to adopt the two-letter and five-number format (2L-5N), which became the standard after World War II, when the Bell System administration designed the North American Numbering Plan to prepare the United States and Canada for Direct Distance Dialing (DDD), and began to convert all central offices to this format. This process was complete by the early 1960s, when a new numbering plan, often called all number calling (ANC) became the standard in North America.

United Kingdom

This article appears to contradict the article Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom. Please see discussion on the linked talk page.(May 2012) ()

In the UK, letters were assigned to numbers in a similar fashion to North America, except that the letter O was allocated to the digit 0 (zero); digit 6 had only M and N. The letter Q was later added to the zero position on British dials, in anticipation of direct international dialing to Paris, which commenced in 1963. This was necessary because French dials already had Q on the zero position, and there were exchange names in the Paris region which contained the letter Q.

Most of the United Kingdom had no lettered telephone dials until the introduction of Subscriber Trunk Dialing (STD) in 1958. Until then, only the director areas (Birmingham, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liverpool, London and Manchester) and the adjacent non-director areas had the lettered dials; the director exchanges used the three-letter, four-number format. With the introduction of trunk dialing, the need for all callers to be able to dial numbers with letters in them led to the much more widespread use of lettered dials. The need for dials with letters ceased with the conversion to all-digit numbering in 1968.

In the middle 20th century in North America when a call could not be completed, for example because the phone number was not assigned, had been disconnected, or was experiencing technical difficulties, the call was routed to an intercept operator who informed the caller. In the 1970s this service was converted to Automatic Intercept Systems which automatically choose and present an appropriate intercept message. Disconnected numbers are reassigned to new users after the rate of calls to them declines.

Outside of North America operator intercept was rare, and in most cases calls to unassigned or disconnected numbers would result in a recorded message or number-unobtainable tone being returned to the caller.

Modern telephone keypad contains "*" and "#"

Telephone numbers are sometimes prefixed with special services, such as vertical service codes, that contain signaling events other than numbers, most notably the star (*) and the number sign (#). Vertical service codes enable or disable special telephony services either on a per-call basis, or for the station or telephone line until changed. The use of the number sign is most frequently used as a marker signal to indicate the end of digit sequences or the end of other procedures; as a terminator it avoids operational delays when waiting for expiration of automatic time-out periods.

Fictitious telephone numbers are often used in films and on television to avoid disturbances by calls from viewers. For example, The United States 555 (KLondike-5) exchange code was never assigned (with limited exceptions such as 555–1212 for directory assistance). Therefore, American films and TV shows have used 555-xxxx numbers, in order to prevent a number used in such a work from being called.

The film Bruce Almighty (2003) originally featured a number that did not have the 555 prefix. In the cinematic release, God (Morgan Freeman) leaves 776–2323 on a pager for Bruce Nolan (Jim Carrey) to call if he needed God's help. The DVD changes this to a 555 number. According to Universal Studios, which produced the movie, the number it used was picked because it did not exist in Buffalo, New York, where the movie was set. It did exist in other cities, resulting in customers' having that number receiving random calls from people asking for God. While some played along with the gag, others found the calls aggravating.

The number in the Glenn Miller Orchestra's hit song "Pennsylvania 6-5000" (1940) is the number of the Hotel Pennsylvania in New York City. The number is now written as 1-212-736-5000. According to the hotel's website, PEnnsylvania 6-5000 is New York's oldest continually assigned telephone number and possibly the oldest continuously-assigned number in the world.

Australian films and television shows do not employ any recurring format for fictional telephone numbers; any number quoted in such media may be used by a real subscriber. The 555 code is used in the Balmain area of Sydney and the suburbs of Melbourne. Although in many areas being a prefix of 55 plus the thousand digit of 5 (e.g. 55 5XXX), would be valid, the numbering system was changed so that 555 became 9555 in Sydney and Melbourne, and in the country, there are two new digits ahead of the 55.

Tommy Tutone's hit song "867-5309/Jenny" (1981) led to many unwanted calls by the public to telephone subscribers who actually were assigned that number.

  1. AT&T, Notes on Distance Dialing (1968), Section II, p.1
  2. Brooks, John.Telephone: The First Hundred Years. Harper & Row, 1967, ISBN 0-06-010540-2: p. 74 , citing "Events in Telephone History".
  3. Bellcore SR-2275 Bellcore Notes on the Network, Issue 3, Section 3 page 15. (December 1997)
  4. NANPA definition of vertical service codes
  5. O. Myers, C. A. Dahlbom, Overseas Dialing: A Step Toward Worldwide Communication, Telephone Engineer & Managment Vol 65(22), 46 (1961-11-15) p.49
  6. "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Characteristics of the Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) application (3GPP TS 31.102 version 9.18.1 Release 9)"(PDF). ETSI. April 2017.
  7. "RFC 4715: The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): Subaddress Encoding Type for tel URI". IETF. November 2006.
  8. Fischer, Claude S. America Calling: A Social History of the Telephone to 1940. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. Web.
  9. PhoneNumberGuy.
  10. International Correspondence Schools (1916). Subscribers' Station Equipment. International Library of Technology. Internal Textbook Company. p. 20. Retrieved27 May 2008.
  11. Cuccia, Mark. "CODE 555 AND THE MOVIES". Telecom Heritage. No. 27. Australian Telephone Collectors Society Inc. Archived from the original on 13 June 2004.
  12. Vries, Lloyd (27 May 2003). "'Almighty' Phone Mess". CBS News.
  13. 'Bruce Almighty' delivers wrong number. People Online. Retrieved on 4 May 2009.
  14. Carlson Jen (2 July 2014). "The Oldest Phone Number In NYC" Archived 6 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Gothamist.
  15. "Old New York: Historical Attractions". Hotel Pennsylvania. 23 January 2014. New York.
  16. Mikkelson, Barbara (9 July 2014). "867-5309 / Jenny". Snopes.com.

Telephone number Article Talk Language Watch Edit For the integer sequence see Telephone number mathematics Phone number redirects here For the Bobby V song see Fly on the Wall Bobby V album For the Dominic Fike song see Dominic Fike A telephone number is a sequence of digits assigned to a fixed line telephone subscriber station connected to a telephone line or to a wireless electronic telephony device such as a radio telephone or a mobile telephone or to other devices for data transmission via the public switched telephone network PSTN or other public and private networks A Swiss rotary telephone dial from the 1970s showing the telephone s number 94 29 68 along with those of various local emergency services Telephone numbers for sale in Hong Kong A telephone number serves as an address for switching telephone calls using a system of destination code routing 1 Telephone numbers are entered or dialed by a calling party on the originating telephone set which transmits the sequence of digits in the process of signaling to a telephone exchange The exchange completes the call either to another locally connected subscriber or via the PSTN to the called party Telephone numbers are assigned within the framework of a national or regional telephone numbering plan to subscribers by telephone service operators which may be commercial entities state controlled administrations or other telecommunication industry associations Telephone numbers were first used in 1879 in Lowell Massachusetts when they replaced the request for subscriber names by callers connecting to the switchboard operator 2 Over the course of telephone history telephone numbers had various lengths and formats and even included most letters of the alphabet in leading positions when telephone exchange names were in common use until the 1960s Telephone numbers are often dialed in conjunction with other signaling code sequences such as vertical service codes to invoke special telephone service features 3 4 Contents 1 Concept and methodology 2 History 2 1 United States 2 1 1 Alphanumeric telephone numbers 2 2 United Kingdom 3 Intercepted number 4 Special feature codes 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksConcept and methodologyThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed November 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message When telephone numbers were first used they were very short from one to three digits and were communicated orally to a switchboard operator when initiating a call As telephone systems have grown and interconnected to encompass worldwide communication telephone numbers have become longer In addition to telephones they have been used to access other devices such as computer modems pagers and fax machines With landlines modems and pagers falling out of use in favor of all digital always connected broadband Internet and mobile phones telephone numbers are now often used by data only cellular devices such as some tablet computers digital televisions video game controllers and mobile hotspots on which it is not even possible to make or accept a call The number contains the information necessary to identify the intended endpoint for a telephone call Many countries use fixed length numbers in a so called closed numbering plan 5 A prominent system of this type is the North American Numbering Plan In Europe the development of open numbering plans was more prevalent in which a telephone number comprised a varying count of digits Irrespective of the type of numbering plan shorthand or speed calling numbers are automatically translated to unique telephone numbers before the call can be connected Some special services have special short codes e g 1 1 9 9 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 9 9 9 1 1 1 and 1 1 2 being the Emergency Services numbers in many countries The dialing procedures dialing plan in some areas permit dialing numbers in the local calling area without using an area code or city code prefix For example a telephone number in North America consists of a three digit area code a three digit central office code and four digits for the line number If the numbering plan area does not use an overlay plan with multiple area codes or if the provider allows it for other technical reasons seven digit dialing may be permissible for calls within the area Special telephone numbers are used for high capacity numbers with several telephone circuits typically a request line to a radio station where dozens or even hundreds of callers may be trying to call in at once such as for a contest For each large metro area all of these lines will share the same prefix such as 404 741 xxxx in Atlanta and 305 550 xxxx in Miami the last digits typically corresponding to the station s frequency callsign or moniker In the international telephone network the format of telephone numbers is standardized by ITU T recommendation E 164 This code specifies that the entire number should be 15 digits or shorter and begin with a country prefix For most countries this is followed by an area code or city code and the subscriber number which might consist of the code for a particular telephone exchange ITU T recommendation E 123 describes how to represent an international telephone number in writing or print starting with a plus sign and the country code When calling an international number from a landline phone the must be replaced with the international call prefix chosen by the country the call is being made from Many mobile phones allow the to be entered directly by pressing and holding the 0 for GSM phones or sometimes for CDMA phones The 3GPP standards for mobile networks provide a BCD encoded field of ten bytes for the phone number Dialling Number SCC String The international call prefix or is not counted as it encodes a value in a separate byte TON NPI type of number numbering plan identification If the MSISDN is longer than 20 digits then additional digits are encoded into extension blocks EFEXT1 each having a BCD encoded field of 11 bytes 6 This scheme allows to extend the subscriber number with a maximum of 20 digits by additional function values to control network services In the context of ISDN the function values were transparently transported in a BCD encoded field with a maximum of 20 bytes named ISDN Subaddress 7 The format and allocation of local phone numbers are controlled by each nation s respective government either directly or by sponsored organizations such as NANPA in the US or CNAC in Canada In the United States each state s public service commission regulates as does the Federal Communications Commission In Canada which shares the same country code with the U S due to Bell Canada s previous ownership by the U S based Bell System regulation is mainly through the Canadian Radio television and Telecommunications Commission Local number portability LNP allows a subscriber to request moving an existing telephone number to another telephone service provider Number portability usually has geographic limitations such as an existing local phone company only being able to port to a competitor within the same rate centre Mobile carriers may have much larger market areas and can assign or accept numbers from any area within the region In many telephone administrations cell phone telephone numbers are in organized in prefix ranges distinct from land line service which simplifies mobile number portability even between carriers Within most North American rate centres local wireline calls are free while calls to all but a few nearby rate centres are considered long distance and incur toll fees In a few large US cities as well as many points outside North America local calls are not flat rated or free by default HistoryUnited States See also North American Numbering Plan A business card from Richard Nixon s first Congressional campaign in 1946 his phone number can be seen as Whittier 42635 In the late 1870s the Bell interests started utilizing their patent with a rental scheme in which they would rent their instruments to individual users who would contract with other suppliers to connect them for example from home to office to factory Western Union and the Bell company both soon realized that a subscription service would be more profitable with the invention of the telephone switchboard or central office Such an office was staffed by an operator who connected the calls by personal names Some have argued that use of the telephone altered the physical layout of American cities 8 The latter part of 1879 and the early part of 1880 saw the first use of telephone numbers at Lowell Massachusetts During an epidemic of measles the physician Dr Moses Greeley Parker feared that Lowell s four telephone operators might all succumb to sickness and bring about paralysis of telephone service He recommended the use of numbers for calling Lowell s more than 200 subscribers so that substitute operators might be more easily trained in such an emergency 2 Parker was convinced of the telephone s potential began buying stock and by 1883 he was one of the largest individual stockholders in both the American Telephone Company and the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company Even after the assignment of numbers operators still connected most calls into the early 20th century Hello Central Get me Underwood 342 Connecting through operators or Central was the norm until mechanical direct dialing of numbers became more common in the 1920s In rural areas with magneto crank telephones connected to party lines the local phone number consisted of the line number plus the ringing pattern of the subscriber To dial a number such as 3R122 meant making a request to the operator the third party line if making a call off your own local one followed by turning the telephone s crank once a short pause then twice and twice again 9 Also common was a code of long and short rings so one party s call might be signaled by two longs and another s by two longs followed by a short 10 It was not uncommon to have over a dozen ring cadences and subscribers on one line In most areas of North America telephone numbers in metropolitan communities consisted of a combination of digits and letters starting in the 1920s until the 1960s Letters were translated to dialed digits a mapping that was displayed directly on the telephone dial Each of the digits 2 to 9 and sometimes 0 corresponded to a group of typically three letters The leading two or three letters of a telephone number indicated the exchange name for example EDgewood and IVanhoe and were followed by 5 or 4 digits The limitations that these systems presented in terms of usable names that were easy to distinguish and spell and the need for a comprehensive numbering plan that enabled direct distance dialing led to the introduction of all number dialing in the 1960s The use of numbers starting in 555 KLondike 5 to represent fictional numbers in U S movies television and literature originated in this period The 555 prefix was reserved for telephone company use and was only consistently used for directory assistance information being 555 1212 for the local area An attempt to dial a 555 number from a movie in the United States results in an error message This reduces the likelihood of nuisance calls QUincy 5 5555 was also used because there was no Q available Phone numbers were traditionally tied down to a single location because exchanges were hard wired the first three digits of any number were tied to the geographic location of the exchange Alphanumeric telephone numbers Main article Telephone exchange names Face of a 1939 rotary dial showing a 2L 4N style alphanumeric telephone number LA 2697 2008 photo shows a hairdressing shop in Toronto with an exterior sign showing the shop s telephone number in the old two letters plus five digits format The North American Numbering Plan of 1947 prescribed a format of telephone numbers that included two leading letters of the name of the central office to which each telephone was connected This continued the practice already in place by many telephone companies for decades Traditionally these names were often the names of towns villages or were other locally significant names Communities that required more than one central office may have used other names for each central office such as Main East Central or the names of local districts Names were convenient to use and reduced errors when telephone numbers were exchanged verbally between subscribers and operators When subscribers could dial themselves the initial letters of the names were converted to digits as displayed on the rotary dial Thus telephone numbers contained one two or even three letters followed by up to five numerals Such numbering plans are called 2L 4N or simply 2 4 for example as shown in the photo of a telephone dial of 1939 right In this example LAkewood 2697 indicates that a subscriber dialed the letters L and A then the digits 2 6 9 and 7 to reach this telephone in Lakewood NJ USA The leading letters were typically bolded in print In December 1930 New York City became the first city in the United States to adopt the two letter and five number format 2L 5N which became the standard after World War II when the Bell System administration designed the North American Numbering Plan to prepare the United States and Canada for Direct Distance Dialing DDD and began to convert all central offices to this format This process was complete by the early 1960s when a new numbering plan often called all number calling ANC became the standard in North America United Kingdom This article appears to contradict the article Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom Please see discussion on the linked talk page May 2012 Learn how and when to remove this template message Main article History of telephone numbers in the United Kingdom In the UK letters were assigned to numbers in a similar fashion to North America except that the letter O was allocated to the digit 0 zero digit 6 had only M and N The letter Q was later added to the zero position on British dials in anticipation of direct international dialing to Paris which commenced in 1963 This was necessary because French dials already had Q on the zero position and there were exchange names in the Paris region which contained the letter Q Most of the United Kingdom had no lettered telephone dials until the introduction of Subscriber Trunk Dialing STD in 1958 Until then only the director areas Birmingham Edinburgh Glasgow Liverpool London and Manchester and the adjacent non director areas had the lettered dials the director exchanges used the three letter four number format With the introduction of trunk dialing the need for all callers to be able to dial numbers with letters in them led to the much more widespread use of lettered dials The need for dials with letters ceased with the conversion to all digit numbering in 1968 Intercepted numberIn the middle 20th century in North America when a call could not be completed for example because the phone number was not assigned had been disconnected or was experiencing technical difficulties the call was routed to an intercept operator who informed the caller In the 1970s this service was converted to Automatic Intercept Systems which automatically choose and present an appropriate intercept message Disconnected numbers are reassigned to new users after the rate of calls to them declines Outside of North America operator intercept was rare and in most cases calls to unassigned or disconnected numbers would result in a recorded message or number unobtainable tone being returned to the caller Special feature codes Modern telephone keypad contains and Telephone numbers are sometimes prefixed with special services such as vertical service codes that contain signaling events other than numbers most notably the star and the number sign 3 Vertical service codes enable or disable special telephony services either on a per call basis or for the station or telephone line until changed 4 The use of the number sign is most frequently used as a marker signal to indicate the end of digit sequences or the end of other procedures as a terminator it avoids operational delays when waiting for expiration of automatic time out periods In popular cultureFictitious telephone numbers are often used in films and on television to avoid disturbances by calls from viewers For example The United States 555 KLondike 5 exchange code was never assigned with limited exceptions such as 555 1212 for directory assistance Therefore American films and TV shows have used 555 xxxx numbers in order to prevent a number used in such a work from being called 11 The film Bruce Almighty 2003 originally featured a number that did not have the 555 prefix In the cinematic release God Morgan Freeman leaves 776 2323 on a pager for Bruce Nolan Jim Carrey to call if he needed God s help The DVD changes this to a 555 number According to Universal Studios which produced the movie the number it used was picked because it did not exist in Buffalo New York where the movie was set It did exist in other cities resulting in customers having that number receiving random calls from people asking for God While some played along with the gag others found the calls aggravating 12 13 The number in the Glenn Miller Orchestra s hit song Pennsylvania 6 5000 1940 is the number of the Hotel Pennsylvania in New York City The number is now written as 1 212 736 5000 According to the hotel s website PEnnsylvania 6 5000 is New York s oldest continually assigned telephone number and possibly the oldest continuously assigned number in the world 14 15 Australian films and television shows do not employ any recurring format for fictional telephone numbers any number quoted in such media may be used by a real subscriber The 555 code is used in the Balmain area of Sydney and the suburbs of Melbourne Although in many areas being a prefix of 55 plus the thousand digit of 5 e g 55 5XXX would be valid the numbering system was changed so that 555 became 9555 in Sydney and Melbourne and in the country there are two new digits ahead of the 55 11 Tommy Tutone s hit song 867 5309 Jenny 1981 led to many unwanted calls by the public to telephone subscribers who actually were assigned that number 16 See also Telephones portal Category Telephone numbers by country Geographic number List of country calling codes National conventions for writing telephone numbers Number translation service Phoneword vanity number Short code Zenith number Caller ID Automatic number identification ANI Automatic number announcement circuit ANAC Dialed Number Identification Service DNIS Carrier access code CAC Carrier identification code CIC IP addressReferences AT amp T Notes on Distance Dialing 1968 Section II p 1 a b Brooks John Telephone The First Hundred Years Harper amp Row 1967 ISBN 0 06 010540 2 p 74 citing Events in Telephone History a b Bellcore SR 2275 Bellcore Notes on the Network Issue 3 Section 3 page 15 December 1997 a b NANPA definition of vertical service codes O Myers C A Dahlbom Overseas Dialing A Step Toward Worldwide Communication Telephone Engineer amp Managment Vol 65 22 46 1961 11 15 p 49 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS LTE Characteristics of the Universal Subscriber Identity Module USIM application 3GPP TS 31 102 version 9 18 1 Release 9 PDF ETSI April 2017 RFC 4715 The Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN Subaddress Encoding Type for tel URI IETF November 2006 Fischer Claude S America Calling A Social History of the Telephone to 1940 Berkeley University of California Press 1992 Web PhoneNumberGuy International Correspondence Schools 1916 Subscribers Station Equipment International Library of Technology Internal Textbook Company p 20 Retrieved 27 May 2008 a b Cuccia Mark CODE 555 AND THE MOVIES Telecom Heritage No 27 Australian Telephone Collectors Society Inc Archived from the original on 13 June 2004 Vries Lloyd 27 May 2003 Almighty Phone Mess CBS News Bruce Almighty delivers wrong number People Online Retrieved on 4 May 2009 Carlson Jen 2 July 2014 The Oldest Phone Number In NYC Archived 6 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine Gothamist Old New York Historical Attractions Hotel Pennsylvania 23 January 2014 New York Mikkelson Barbara 9 July 2014 867 5309 Jenny Snopes com External linksITU T Recommendation E 123 Notation for national and international telephone numbers e mail addresses and Web addresses RFC 3966 The tel URI for telephone numbers History of UK dialing codes with lists of codes and more links World Telephone Numbering Guide which can be used to look up telephone numbering information ITU National Numbering Plans which links to the numbering plans of individual countries Cybertelecom VoIP Numbers Detailing FCC policy regarding legacy NANP telephone numbers and interconnected VoIP services ATIS Industry Numbering Committee Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Telephone number amp oldid 1090358831, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.