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"Telefilm" redirects here. For the Canadian government's film and television funding agency, see Telefilm Canada.
"Movie of the week" redirects here. For the American weekly television movie series, see ABC Movie of the Week.
For films called Television, see Television (disambiguation).
This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article.(May 2022)

A television film (normally referred to as a television movie, made-for-TV movie, or TV movie) is a feature-length motion picture that is produced and originally distributed by or to a television network, in contrast to theatrical films made explicitly for initial showing in movie theaters. Television films can also be referred to and can also be shown as a miniseries, television film shown in a miniseries format in a limited number of episodes too.

Contents

Precursors of "television movies" include Talk Faster, Mister, which aired on WABD (now WNYW) in New York City on December 18, 1944, and was produced by RKO Pictures,[citation needed] and the 1957 The Pied Piper of Hamelin, based on the poem by Robert Browning, and starring Van Johnson, one of the first filmed "family musicals" made directly for television. That film was made in Technicolor, a first for television, which ordinarily used color processes originated by specific networks. Most "family musicals" of the time, such as Peter Pan, were not filmed but broadcast live and preserved on kinescope, a recording of a television program made by filming the picture from a video monitor – and the only (relatively inexpensive) method of recording a television program until the invention of videotape.

Many television networks were hostile toward film programming, fearing that it would loosen the network's arrangements with sponsors and affiliates by encouraging station managers to make independent deals with advertisers and film producers.

Conversely, beginning in the 1950s episodes of American television series would be placed together and released as feature films in overseas cinemas.[citation needed]

Television networks were in control of the most valuable prime time slots available for programming, so syndicators of independent television films had to settle for fewer television markets and less desirable time periods. This meant much smaller advertising revenues and license fees compared with network-supplied programming.

The term "made-for-TV movie" was coined in the United States in the early 1960s as an incentive for movie audiences to stay home and watch what was promoted as the equivalent of a first-run theatrical film. Beginning in 1961 with NBC Saturday Night at the Movies, a prime time network showing of a television premiere of a major theatrical film release, the other networks soon copied the format, with each of the networks having several [Day of the Week] Night At The Movies showcases which led to a shortage of movie studio product. The first of these made-for-TV movies is generally acknowledged to be See How They Run, which debuted on NBC on October 7, 1964. A previous film, The Killers, starring Lee Marvin and Ronald Reagan, was filmed as a TV-movie, although NBC decided it was too violent for television and it was released theatrically instead.

The second film to be considered a television movie, Don Siegel's The Hanged Man, was broadcast by NBC on November 18, 1964.

These features originally filled a 90-minute programming time slot (including commercials), later expanded to two hours, and were usually broadcast as a weekly anthology television series (for example, the ABC Movie of the Week). Many early television movies featured major stars, and some were accorded higher budgets than standard television series of the same length, including the major dramatic anthology programs which they came to replace.

In 1996, 264 made-for-TV movies were made by five of the six largest American television networks at the time (CBS, NBC, Fox, ABC, and UPN), averaging a 7.5 rating.[clarification needed] By 2000, only 146 TV movies were made by those five networks, averaging a 5.4 rating, while the number of made-for-cable movies made annually in the U.S. doubled between 1990 and 2000.

In several respects, television films resemble B movies, the low-budget films issued by major studios from the 1930s through the 1950s for short-term showings in movie theaters, usually as a double bill alongside a major studio release. Like made-for-TV movies, B movies were designed as a disposable product, had low production costs and featured second-tier actors.

ABC's Battlestar Galactica: Saga of a Star World premiered to an audience of over 60 million people on September 17, 1978.

Possibly the most-watched television movie of all time was ABC's The Day After, which premiered on November 20, 1983, to an estimated audience of 100 million people. The film depicted America after a nuclear war with the Soviet Union, and was the subject of much controversy and discussion at the time of its release due to its graphic nature and subject matter. The BBC’s 1984 television film Threads earned a similar reputation in the United Kingdom as it followed two families and workers of Sheffield City Council in the run up and aftermath of a nuclear war. The two are often compared on aspects such as realism.

Another popular and critically acclaimed television movie was 1971's Duel, written by Richard Matheson, directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Dennis Weaver. Such was the quality and popularity of Duel that it was released to cinemas in Europe and Australia, and had a limited theatrical release to some venues in the United States and Canada. The 1971 made-for-TV movie Brian's Song was also briefly released to theatres after its success on television, and was even remade in 2001. In some instances, television movies of the period had more explicit content included in the versions prepared to be exhibited theatrically in Europe. Examples of this include The Legend of Lizzie Borden, Helter Skelter, Prince of Bel Air and Spectre.

Many television movies released in the 1970s were a source of controversy, such as Linda Blair's 1974 film Born Innocent and 1975's Sarah T. - Portrait of a Teenage Alcoholic, as well as 1976's Dawn: Portrait of a Teenage Runaway and its 1977 sequel, Alexander: The Other Side of Dawn, which were vehicles for former Brady Bunch actress Eve Plumb. Another significant film was Elizabeth Montgomery's portrayal of a rape victim in the drama A Case of Rape (1974).

My Sweet Charlie (1970) with Patty Duke and Al Freeman Jr. dealt with racial prejudice, and That Certain Summer (1972), starring Hal Holbrook and Martin Sheen, although controversial, was considered the first television movie to approach the subject of homosexuality in a non-threatening manner. If These Walls Could Talk, a film which deals with abortion in three different decades (the 1950s, the 1970s and the 1990s) became a huge success, and was HBO's highest rated film on record.

If a network orders a two-hour television pilot for a proposed show, it will usually broadcast it as a television movie to recoup some of the costs even if the network chooses to not order the show to series. Often a successful series may spawn a television movie sequel after ending its run. For example, Babylon 5: The Gathering launched the science fiction series Babylon 5 and is considered to be distinct from the show's regular run of one-hour episodes. Babylon 5 also has several made-for-TV movie sequels set within the same fictional continuity. The 2003 remake of Battlestar Galactica began as a two-part miniseries that later continued as a weekly television program. Another example is the Showtime movie Sabrina, the Teenage Witch, which launched the sitcom of the same name that originally aired on ABC, and used the same actress (Melissa Joan Hart) for the lead role in both. The term "TV movie" is also frequently used as vehicles for "reunions" of long-departed series, as in Return to Mayberry and A Very Brady Christmas. They can also be a spin-off from a TV series including The Incredible Hulk Returns, The Trial of the Incredible Hulk and The Death of the Incredible Hulk.

Occasionally, television movies are used as sequels to successful theatrical films. For example, only the first film in The Parent Trap series was released theatrically. The Parent Trap II, III and Hawaiian Honeymoon were produced for television, and similarly, the Midnight Run sequels have all been released as made-for-TV movies despite the first having a strong run in theaters. These types of films may be, and more commonly are, released direct-to-video; there have been some films, such as The Dukes of Hazzard: The Beginning (a prequel to the film version of The Dukes of Hazzard) and James A. Michener's Texas, which have been released near simultaneously on DVD and on television, but have never been released in theatres.

Made-for-TV movie musicals have also become popular. One prime example is the High School Musical series, which aired its first two films on the Disney Channel. The first television movie was so successful that a sequel was produced, High School Musical 2, that debuted in August 2007 to 17.2 million viewers (this made it the highest-rated non-sports program in the history of basic cable and the highest-rated made-for-cable movie premiere on record). Due to the popularity of the first two films, the second HSM sequel, High School Musical 3: Senior Year, was released as a theatrical film in 2008 instead of airing on Disney Channel; High School Musical 3 became one of the highest-grossing movie musicals.

Television movies traditionally were often broadcast by the major networks during sweeps season. Such offerings now are very rare; as Ken Tucker noted while reviewing the Jesse Stone CBS television movies, "broadcast networks aren’t investing in made-for-TV movies anymore". The slack has been taken up by cable networks such as Hallmark Channel, Syfy, Lifetime and HBO, with productions such as Temple Grandin and Recount, often utilizing top creative talent.

High-calibre limited programming which would have been formerly scheduled solely as a two-hour film or miniseries also has been re-adapted to the newer "limited series" format over a period of weeks (rather than the consecutive days usually defined by a miniseries) where a conclusion is assured; an example of such would be The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story, and these are most often seen on cable networks and streaming services such as Netflix.

In a 1991 New York Times article, television critic John J. O'Connor wrote that "few artifacts of popular culture invite more condescension than the made-for-television movie". Network-made television movies in the United States have tended to be inexpensively-produced and perceived to be of low quality.[citation needed] Stylistically, these films often resemble single episodes of dramatic television series. Often, television films are made to "cash in" on the interest centering on stories currently prominent in the news, as the films based on the "Long Island Lolita" scandal involving Joey Buttafuoco and Amy Fisher were in 1993.

The stories are written to reach periodic semi-cliffhangers coinciding with the network-scheduled times for the insertion of commercials, and are further managed to fill, but not exceed, the fixed running times allotted by the network to each movie "series". In the case of films made for cable channels, they may rely on common, repetitive tropes (Hallmark Channel, for example, is notorious for its formulaic holiday romances, while Lifetime movies are well known for their common use of damsel in distress storylines). The movies tend to rely on smaller casts, one such exception being those produced for premium cable, such as Behind the Candelabra (which featured established film actors Michael Douglas and Matt Damon in the lead roles) and a limited range of scene settings and camera setups. Even Spielberg's Duel, while having decent production values, features a very small cast (apart from Dennis Weaver, all other actors appearing in the film play smaller roles) and mostly outdoor shooting locations in the desert.

The movies typically employ smaller crews, and rarely feature expensive special effects. Although a film's expenses would be lessened by filming using video, as the movies were contracted by television studios, these films were required to be shot on 35 mm film. Various techniques are often employed to "pad" television movies with low budgets and underdeveloped scripts, such as music video-style montages, flashbacks, or repeated footage, and extended periods of dramatic slow motion footage. However, the less expensive digital 24p video format has made some quality improvements on the television movie market.

Part of the reason for the lower budgets comes from the lack of revenue streams from them; whereas a theatrical film can make money from ticket sales, re-releases and syndication to television stations, most television films lacked those revenue streams, and the films are seldom rerun. Raconteur Jean Shepherd produced several television films in the 1970s and 1980s before realizing that the proceeds from his first theatrical film, A Christmas Story, far exceeded anything he had ever done in television.

Nonetheless, notable exceptions exist of high production quality and well-known casts and crews that even earned awards, such as The Diamond Fleece, a 1992 Canadian TV film directed by Al Waxman and starring Ben Cross, Kate Nelligan and Brian Dennehy. It earned Nelligan the 1993 Gemini Award for "Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role in a Dramatic Program or Mini-Series".

Occasionally, a long-running television series is used as the basis for television movies that air during the show's run (as opposed to the above-mentioned "reunion specials"). Typically, such movies employ a filmed single-camera setup even if the television series is videotaped using a multiple-camera setup, but are written to be easily broken up into individual 30- or 60-minute episodes for syndication. Many such movies relocate the cast of the show to an exotic overseas setting. However, although they may be advertised as movies, they are really simply extended episodes of television shows, such as the pilots and the finales of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Voyager. Most of these are made and shown during sweeps period in order to attract a large television audience and boost viewership for a show.

Crossover episodes containing a number of episodes of the characters of individual series interacting with characters across different shows (as has been done with the CSI, NCIS and Chicago franchises, along with between Murder, She Wrote and Magnum, P.I., Scandal and How to Get Away With Murder, and Ally McBeal and The Practice) also play as films, encouraging tune-in among all the series crossed over to effectively create a multiple-hour plot that plays as a film when watched as a whole.

  1. Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics, William Boddy, University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 978-0-252-06299-5
  2. Michael McKenna. (August 22, 2013). Page xviii. The ABC Movie of the Week: Big Movies for the Small Screen. Scarecrow Press. Accessed on December 31, 2013.
  3. Combustible Celluloid.com, "Hemingway-esque", review by Jeffrey M. Anderson, paragraph 3
  4. Deggans, Eric. "Has death knell sounded for made-for-TV movies?." Daily Breeze (Torrance, CA) 30 May 2001, ENTERTAINMENT: C7. NewsBank. Web. 8 Jul. 2015.
  5. Film Genres, Dartmouth University
  6. "War of the Worlds Revisited: The Effect of Watching "The Day After" on Mood State". http://jdc.jefferson.edu.{{cite journal}}:External link in |journal= ()
  7. Kim, Albert (July 8, 1994). "Pulp Nonfiction". Entertainment Weekly. RetrievedDecember 6, 2008.
  8. Kissell, Rick; Schneider, Michael (August 18, 2007). "'High School Musical 2' huge hit". Variety. Retrieved2007-08-18.
  9. Why do we like Tom Selleck so much?
  10. O'Connor, John J. "A TV Movie With a Familiar Ring". The New York Times. 1 January 1991.
  11. Sharbutt, Jay (August 6, 1988). "Jean Shepherd's Midwest in 'Haven of Bliss'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved2010-08-21.
  12. Human Cargo, CBC.ca. Accessed April 29, 2008.
  • Marill, Alvin H. Movies Made for Television, 1964–2004. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8108-5174-1. (Vol. 1: 1964–1979; Vol. 2: 1980–1989; Vol. 3: 1990–1999; Vol. 4: 2000–2004; Vol. 5: Indexes.)
  • Marill, Alvin H. Movies Made for Television, 2005–2009. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2010. ISBN 0-8108-7658-2.
  • Marill, Alvin H. Main Title: Big Pictures on the Small Screen: Made-for-TV Movies and Anthology Dramas. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 2007. ISBN 0-275-99283-7

Television film Article Talk Language Watch Edit Telefilm redirects here For the Canadian government s film and television funding agency see Telefilm Canada Movie of the week redirects here For the American weekly television movie series see ABC Movie of the Week For films called Television see Television disambiguation This article s lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article May 2022 A television film normally referred to as a television movie made for TV movie or TV movie is a feature length motion picture that is produced and originally distributed by or to a television network in contrast to theatrical films made explicitly for initial showing in movie theaters Television films can also be referred to and can also be shown as a miniseries television film shown in a miniseries format in a limited number of episodes too Contents 1 Origins and history 2 Examples 3 Production and quality 4 Movie length episodes of television shows 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 BibliographyOrigins and history EditPrecursors of television movies include Talk Faster Mister which aired on WABD now WNYW in New York City on December 18 1944 and was produced by RKO Pictures citation needed and the 1957 The Pied Piper of Hamelin based on the poem by Robert Browning and starring Van Johnson one of the first filmed family musicals made directly for television That film was made in Technicolor a first for television which ordinarily used color processes originated by specific networks Most family musicals of the time such as Peter Pan were not filmed but broadcast live and preserved on kinescope a recording of a television program made by filming the picture from a video monitor and the only relatively inexpensive method of recording a television program until the invention of videotape Many television networks were hostile toward film programming fearing that it would loosen the network s arrangements with sponsors and affiliates by encouraging station managers to make independent deals with advertisers and film producers 1 Conversely beginning in the 1950s episodes of American television series would be placed together and released as feature films in overseas cinemas citation needed Television networks were in control of the most valuable prime time slots available for programming so syndicators of independent television films had to settle for fewer television markets and less desirable time periods This meant much smaller advertising revenues and license fees compared with network supplied programming 1 The term made for TV movie was coined in the United States in the early 1960s as an incentive for movie audiences to stay home and watch what was promoted as the equivalent of a first run theatrical film Beginning in 1961 with NBC Saturday Night at the Movies a prime time network showing of a television premiere of a major theatrical film release the other networks soon copied the format with each of the networks having several Day of the Week Night At The Movies showcases which led to a shortage of movie studio product The first of these made for TV movies is generally acknowledged to be See How They Run which debuted on NBC on October 7 1964 2 A previous film The Killers starring Lee Marvin and Ronald Reagan was filmed as a TV movie although NBC decided it was too violent for television and it was released theatrically instead 3 The second film to be considered a television movie Don Siegel s The Hanged Man was broadcast by NBC on November 18 1964 2 These features originally filled a 90 minute programming time slot including commercials later expanded to two hours and were usually broadcast as a weekly anthology television series for example the ABC Movie of the Week Many early television movies featured major stars and some were accorded higher budgets than standard television series of the same length including the major dramatic anthology programs which they came to replace In 1996 264 made for TV movies were made by five of the six largest American television networks at the time CBS NBC Fox ABC and UPN averaging a 7 5 rating clarification needed 4 By 2000 only 146 TV movies were made by those five networks averaging a 5 4 rating 4 while the number of made for cable movies made annually in the U S doubled between 1990 and 2000 4 In several respects television films resemble B movies the low budget films issued by major studios from the 1930s through the 1950s for short term showings in movie theaters usually as a double bill alongside a major studio release Like made for TV movies B movies were designed as a disposable product had low production costs and featured second tier actors 5 Examples EditABC s Battlestar Galactica Saga of a Star World premiered to an audience of over 60 million people on September 17 1978 Possibly the most watched television movie of all time was ABC s The Day After which premiered on November 20 1983 to an estimated audience of 100 million people 6 The film depicted America after a nuclear war with the Soviet Union and was the subject of much controversy and discussion at the time of its release due to its graphic nature and subject matter The BBC s 1984 television film Threads earned a similar reputation in the United Kingdom as it followed two families and workers of Sheffield City Council in the run up and aftermath of a nuclear war The two are often compared on aspects such as realism Another popular and critically acclaimed television movie was 1971 s Duel written by Richard Matheson directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Dennis Weaver Such was the quality and popularity of Duel that it was released to cinemas in Europe and Australia and had a limited theatrical release to some venues in the United States and Canada The 1971 made for TV movie Brian s Song was also briefly released to theatres after its success on television and was even remade in 2001 In some instances television movies of the period had more explicit content included in the versions prepared to be exhibited theatrically in Europe Examples of this include The Legend of Lizzie Borden Helter Skelter Prince of Bel Air and Spectre Many television movies released in the 1970s were a source of controversy such as Linda Blair s 1974 film Born Innocent and 1975 s Sarah T Portrait of a Teenage Alcoholic as well as 1976 s Dawn Portrait of a Teenage Runaway and its 1977 sequel Alexander The Other Side of Dawn which were vehicles for former Brady Bunch actress Eve Plumb Another significant film was Elizabeth Montgomery s portrayal of a rape victim in the drama A Case of Rape 1974 My Sweet Charlie 1970 with Patty Duke and Al Freeman Jr dealt with racial prejudice and That Certain Summer 1972 starring Hal Holbrook and Martin Sheen although controversial was considered the first television movie to approach the subject of homosexuality in a non threatening manner If These Walls Could Talk a film which deals with abortion in three different decades the 1950s the 1970s and the 1990s became a huge success and was HBO s highest rated film on record If a network orders a two hour television pilot for a proposed show it will usually broadcast it as a television movie to recoup some of the costs even if the network chooses to not order the show to series 7 Often a successful series may spawn a television movie sequel after ending its run For example Babylon 5 The Gathering launched the science fiction series Babylon 5 and is considered to be distinct from the show s regular run of one hour episodes Babylon 5 also has several made for TV movie sequels set within the same fictional continuity The 2003 remake of Battlestar Galactica began as a two part miniseries that later continued as a weekly television program Another example is the Showtime movie Sabrina the Teenage Witch which launched the sitcom of the same name that originally aired on ABC and used the same actress Melissa Joan Hart for the lead role in both The term TV movie is also frequently used as vehicles for reunions of long departed series as in Return to Mayberry and A Very Brady Christmas They can also be a spin off from a TV series including The Incredible Hulk Returns The Trial of the Incredible Hulk and The Death of the Incredible Hulk Occasionally television movies are used as sequels to successful theatrical films For example only the first film in The Parent Trap series was released theatrically The Parent Trap II III and Hawaiian Honeymoon were produced for television and similarly the Midnight Run sequels have all been released as made for TV movies despite the first having a strong run in theaters These types of films may be and more commonly are released direct to video there have been some films such as The Dukes of Hazzard The Beginning a prequel to the film version of The Dukes of Hazzard and James A Michener s Texas which have been released near simultaneously on DVD and on television but have never been released in theatres Made for TV movie musicals have also become popular One prime example is the High School Musical series which aired its first two films on the Disney Channel The first television movie was so successful that a sequel was produced High School Musical 2 that debuted in August 2007 to 17 2 million viewers this made it the highest rated non sports program in the history of basic cable and the highest rated made for cable movie premiere on record 8 Due to the popularity of the first two films the second HSM sequel High School Musical 3 Senior Year was released as a theatrical film in 2008 instead of airing on Disney Channel High School Musical 3 became one of the highest grossing movie musicals Television movies traditionally were often broadcast by the major networks during sweeps season Such offerings now are very rare as Ken Tucker noted while reviewing the Jesse Stone CBS television movies broadcast networks aren t investing in made for TV movies anymore 9 The slack has been taken up by cable networks such as Hallmark Channel Syfy Lifetime and HBO with productions such as Temple Grandin and Recount often utilizing top creative talent High calibre limited programming which would have been formerly scheduled solely as a two hour film or miniseries also has been re adapted to the newer limited series format over a period of weeks rather than the consecutive days usually defined by a miniseries where a conclusion is assured an example of such would be The People v O J Simpson American Crime Story and these are most often seen on cable networks and streaming services such as Netflix Production and quality EditIn a 1991 New York Times article television critic John J O Connor wrote that few artifacts of popular culture invite more condescension than the made for television movie 10 Network made television movies in the United States have tended to be inexpensively produced and perceived to be of low quality citation needed Stylistically these films often resemble single episodes of dramatic television series Often television films are made to cash in on the interest centering on stories currently prominent in the news as the films based on the Long Island Lolita scandal involving Joey Buttafuoco and Amy Fisher were in 1993 The stories are written to reach periodic semi cliffhangers coinciding with the network scheduled times for the insertion of commercials and are further managed to fill but not exceed the fixed running times allotted by the network to each movie series In the case of films made for cable channels they may rely on common repetitive tropes Hallmark Channel for example is notorious for its formulaic holiday romances while Lifetime movies are well known for their common use of damsel in distress storylines The movies tend to rely on smaller casts one such exception being those produced for premium cable such as Behind the Candelabra which featured established film actors Michael Douglas and Matt Damon in the lead roles and a limited range of scene settings and camera setups Even Spielberg s Duel while having decent production values features a very small cast apart from Dennis Weaver all other actors appearing in the film play smaller roles and mostly outdoor shooting locations in the desert The movies typically employ smaller crews and rarely feature expensive special effects Although a film s expenses would be lessened by filming using video as the movies were contracted by television studios these films were required to be shot on 35 mm film Various techniques are often employed to pad television movies with low budgets and underdeveloped scripts such as music video style montages flashbacks or repeated footage and extended periods of dramatic slow motion footage However the less expensive digital 24p video format has made some quality improvements on the television movie market Part of the reason for the lower budgets comes from the lack of revenue streams from them whereas a theatrical film can make money from ticket sales re releases and syndication to television stations most television films lacked those revenue streams and the films are seldom rerun Raconteur Jean Shepherd produced several television films in the 1970s and 1980s before realizing that the proceeds from his first theatrical film A Christmas Story far exceeded anything he had ever done in television 11 Nonetheless notable exceptions exist of high production quality and well known casts and crews that even earned awards such as The Diamond Fleece a 1992 Canadian TV film directed by Al Waxman and starring Ben Cross Kate Nelligan and Brian Dennehy It earned Nelligan the 1993 Gemini Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role in a Dramatic Program or Mini Series 12 Movie length episodes of television shows EditOccasionally a long running television series is used as the basis for television movies that air during the show s run as opposed to the above mentioned reunion specials Typically such movies employ a filmed single camera setup even if the television series is videotaped using a multiple camera setup but are written to be easily broken up into individual 30 or 60 minute episodes for syndication Many such movies relocate the cast of the show to an exotic overseas setting However although they may be advertised as movies they are really simply extended episodes of television shows such as the pilots and the finales of Star Trek The Next Generation Star Trek Deep Space Nine and Star Trek Voyager Most of these are made and shown during sweeps period in order to attract a large television audience and boost viewership for a show Crossover episodes containing a number of episodes of the characters of individual series interacting with characters across different shows as has been done with the CSI NCIS and Chicago franchises along with between Murder She Wrote and Magnum P I Scandal and How to Get Away With Murder and Ally McBeal and The Practice also play as films encouraging tune in among all the series crossed over to effectively create a multiple hour plot that plays as a film when watched as a whole See also EditDirect to video List of television films produced for American Broadcasting Company Miniseries Soap opera Telenovela Teleroman Television play Television pilot Television special Limited run seriesNotes EditReferences Edit a b Fifties Television The Industry and Its Critics William Boddy University of Illinois Press 1992 ISBN 978 0 252 06299 5 a b Michael McKenna August 22 2013 Page xviii The ABC Movie of the Week Big Movies for the Small Screen Scarecrow Press Accessed on December 31 2013 Combustible Celluloid com Hemingway esque review by Jeffrey M Anderson paragraph 3 a b c Deggans Eric Has death knell sounded for made for TV movies Daily Breeze Torrance CA 30 May 2001 ENTERTAINMENT C7 NewsBank Web 8 Jul 2015 Film Genres Dartmouth University War of the Worlds Revisited The Effect of Watching The Day After on Mood State http jdc jefferson edu a href wiki Template Cite journal title Template Cite journal cite journal a External link in code class cs1 code journal code help Kim Albert July 8 1994 Pulp Nonfiction Entertainment Weekly Retrieved December 6 2008 Kissell Rick Schneider Michael August 18 2007 High School Musical 2 huge hit Variety Retrieved 2007 08 18 Why do we like Tom Selleck so much O Connor John J A TV Movie With a Familiar Ring The New York Times 1 January 1991 Sharbutt Jay August 6 1988 Jean Shepherd s Midwest in Haven of Bliss Los Angeles Times Retrieved 2010 08 21 Human Cargo CBC ca Accessed April 29 2008 Bibliography EditMarill Alvin H Movies Made for Television 1964 2004 Lanham Md Scarecrow Press 2005 ISBN 0 8108 5174 1 Vol 1 1964 1979 Vol 2 1980 1989 Vol 3 1990 1999 Vol 4 2000 2004 Vol 5 Indexes Marill Alvin H Movies Made for Television 2005 2009 Lanham Md Scarecrow Press 2010 ISBN 0 8108 7658 2 Marill Alvin H Main Title Big Pictures on the Small Screen Made for TV Movies and Anthology Dramas Westport Conn Praeger Publishers 2007 ISBN 0 275 99283 7 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Television film amp oldid 1090143304, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.