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Wikipedia

"TVA" redirects here. For other uses, see TVA (disambiguation).

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned electric utility corporation in the United States. TVA's service area covers all of Tennessee, portions of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky, and small areas of Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. While owned by the federal government, TVA receives no taxpayer funding and operates similarly to a private for-profit company. It is headquartered in Knoxville, Tennessee, and is the sixth largest power supplier and largest public utility in the country.

Tennessee Valley Authority

Logo of the TVA

Flag of the TVA
Images, from top down, left to right: TVA's twin tower administrative headquarters in Knoxville, TVA's power operations headquarters in Chattanooga, and the TVA's service area
TypeState-owned enterprise
IndustryElectric utility
FoundedSeptember 18, 1933 (1933-69-18)
Founders
HeadquartersKnoxville, Tennessee, U.S.
Key people
William Kilbride, Chair
Jeff Lyash, CEO
Revenue$11.2 billion USD (FY 2018 ending September 30, 2018)
$1.12 billion USD (FY 2018)
Websitewww.tva.com

The TVA was created by Congress in 1933 as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. Its initial purpose was to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, regional planning, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley, a region that had suffered from lack of infrastructure and poverty during the Great Depression, relative to the rest of the nation. TVA was envisioned both as a power supplier and a regional economic development agency that would work to help modernize the region's economy and society. Later it evolved primarily into an electric utility. It was the first large regional planning agency of the U.S. federal government and remains the largest.

Under the leadership of David E. Lilienthal, the TVA also became the global model for the United States' later efforts to help modernize agrarian societies in the developing world. Historically, the TVA has been documented as a success in its efforts to modernize the Tennessee Valley and helping to recruit new employment opportunities to the region. Despite its successes, historians have criticized its use of eminent domain; it resulted in the displacement of over 125,000 Tennessee Valley residents to build the agency's infrastructure projects.

Contents

The Tennessee Valley Authority was initially founded as an agency to provide general economic development to the region through power generation, flood control, navigation assistance, fertilizer manufacturing, and agricultural development. Since the Depression years, it has developed primarily into a power utility. Despite its shares being owned by the federal government, TVA operates like a private corporation, and receives no taxpayer funding. The TVA Act authorizes the company to use eminent domain.

TVA provides electricity to approximately ten million people through a diverse portfolio that includes nuclear, coal-fired, natural gas-fired, hydroelectric, and renewable generation. TVA sells its power to 154 local power utilities, 5 direct industrial and institutional customers, and 12 area utilities. In addition to power generation, TVA provides flood control with its 29 hydroelectric dams. Resulting lakes and other areas also allow for recreational activities. The TVA also provides navigation and land management along rivers within its region of operation. TVA also assists governments and private companies on economic development projects.

TVA's headquarters are located in downtown Knoxville, with large administrative offices in Chattanooga (training/development; supplier relations; power generation and transmission) and Nashville (economic development) in Tennessee and Muscle Shoals, Alabama. TVA was originally headquartered in Muscle Shoals, but gradually moved its headquarters to Knoxville. At one point, TVA's headquarters were housed in the Old Federal Customs House at the corner of Clinch Avenue and Market Street. The building is now operated as a museum and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The Tennessee Valley Authority Police are the primary law enforcement agency for the company. Initially part of the TVA, in 1994 the TVA Police was authorized as a federal law enforcement agency.

Board of Directors

The Tennessee Valley Authority is governed by a nine member part-time Board of Directors, nominated by the President of the United States, and confirmed by the Senate. A minimum of seven of the directors are required to be a resident of TVA's service area. The members select the Chairman from their number, and serve five-year terms. They receive an annual stipend of $45,000 and $50,000 for the chairman. The board members choose the TVA's chief executive officer (CEO).

Name State Position Appointed by Sworn in Term expires
William Kilbride Tennessee Chairman Donald Trump August 8, 2019 May 18, 2023
A.D. Frazier Georgia Board Member Donald Trump January 9, 2018 May 18, 2022
Beth Harwell Tennessee Board Member Donald Trump January 5, 2021 May 18, 2024
Brian Noland Tennessee Board Member Donald Trump December 31, 2020 May 18, 2024
Jeff W. Smith Tennessee Board Member Donald Trump January 15, 2019 May 18, 2022
Vacant Board Member
Vacant Board Member
Vacant Board member
Vacant Board member

Background

During the 1920s and the 1930s, Americans began to support the idea of public ownership of utilities, particularly hydroelectric power facilities. Many believed privately owned power companies were charging too much for power, did not employ fair operating practices, and were subject to abuse by their owners (utility holding companies), at the expense of consumers.[citation needed] The concept of government-owned generation facilities selling to publicly owned distribution utilities was controversial, however, and remains so today.[page needed]

During his 1932 presidential campaign, Franklin D. Roosevelt expressed his belief that private utilities had "selfish purposes" and said, "Never shall the federal government part with its sovereignty or with its control of its power resources while I'm president of the United States." Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska also distrusted private utility companies, and in 1920 blocked a proposal from industrialist Henry Ford to build a private dam and create a utility to modernize the Tennessee Valley. The private sector practice of forming utility holding companies had resulted in them controlling 94 percent of generation by 1921, and they were essentially unregulated. In an effort to change this, Congress and Roosevelt enacted the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA).[citation needed]

In 1930, Norris sponsored the Muscle Shoals Bill, which would have built a federal dam in the valley, but it was vetoed by President Herbert Hoover, who believed it to be socialistic. The idea behind the Muscle Shoals project became a core part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal program that created the Tennessee Valley Authority, however.

Even by Depression standards, the Tennessee Valley was in dire economic straits in 1933. Thirty percent of the population was affected by malaria. The average income in the rural areas was $639 per year (equivalent to $10,389 in 2022), with some families surviving on as little as $100 per year (equivalent to $1,626 in 2020). Much of the land had been exhausted by poor farming practices, and the soil was eroded and depleted. Crop yields had fallen, reducing farm incomes. The best timber had been cut, and 10% of forests were lost to fires each year.[page needed]

Early history

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the TVA Act

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Tennessee Valley Authority Act (ch. 32, Pub.L. 73–17, 48 Stat. 58, enactedMay 18, 1933, codified as amended at 16 U.S.C. § 831, et seq.), creating the TVA. The agency was initially tasked with modernizing the region, using experts and electricity to combat human and economic problems. TVA developed fertilizers, and taught farmers ways to improve crop yields. In addition, it helped replant forests, control forest fires, and improve habitat for fish and wildlife.

The Authority hired many of the area's unemployed for a variety of jobs: they conducted conservation, economic development, and social programs. For instance, a library service was instituted for this area. The professional staff at headquarters were generally composed of experts from outside the region. By 1934, TVA employed more than 9,000 people. The workers were classified by the usual racial and gender lines of the region, which limited opportunities for minorities and women. TVA hired a few African Americans, generally restricted for janitorial or other low-level positions. TVA recognized labor unions; its skilled and semi-skilled blue collar employees were unionized, a breakthrough in an area known for corporations hostile to miners' and textile workers' unions. Women were excluded from construction work.

TVA's first board (L to R): Harcourt Morgan, Arthur E. Morgan, and David E. Lilienthal

Many local landowners were suspicious of government agencies, but TVA successfully introduced new agricultural methods into traditional farming communities by blending in and finding local champions. Tennessee farmers often rejected advice from TVA officials, so the officials had to find leaders in the communities and convince them that crop rotation and the judicious application of fertilizers could restore soil fertility. Once they had convinced the leaders, the rest followed.[page needed]

Workers at the site of Norris Dam, the first hydroelectric dam built by the TVA, circa 1933

TVA immediately embarked on the construction of several hydroelectric dams, with the first, Norris Dam in upper East Tennessee, breaking ground on October 1, 1933. These facilities, designed with the intent of also controlling floods, greatly improved the lives of farmers and rural residents, making their lives easier and farms in the Tennessee Valley more productive. They also provided new employment opportunities to the poverty-stricken regions in the Valley. At the same time, however, they required the displacement of more than 125,000 valley residents or roughly 15,000 families, as well as some cemeteries and small towns, which caused some to oppose the projects, especially in rural areas. The projects also inundated several Native American archaeological sites, and graves were reinterred at new locations, along with new tombstones.

The available electricity attracted new industries to the region, including textile mills, providing desperately needed jobs, many of which were filled by women. A few regions of the Tennessee Valley did not receive electricity until the late 1940s and early 1950s, however. TVA was one of the first federal hydropower agencies, and was quickly hailed as a success. While most of the nation's major hydropower systems are federally managed today, other attempts to create similar regional corporate agencies have failed. The most notable was the proposed Columbia Valley Authority for the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest, which was modeled off of TVA, but did not gain approval.

A carpenter (wearing a contractor's employee badge) at work during the 1942 construction of the Douglas Dam in East Tennessee.

World War II

During World War II, the U.S. needed greater aluminum supplies to build airplanes. Aluminum plants required large amounts of electricity. To provide the power, TVA engaged in one of the largest hydropower construction programs ever undertaken in the U.S. By early 1942, when the effort reached its peak, 12 hydroelectric plants and one coal-fired steam plant were under construction at the same time, and design and construction employment reached a total of 28,000. In its first eleven years, TVA constructed a total of 16 hydroelectric dams.

The largest project of this period was the Fontana Dam. After negotiations led by then-Vice-President Harry Truman, TVA purchased the land from Nantahala Power and Light, a wholly owned subsidiary of Alcoa, and built Fontana Dam. Also in 1942, TVA's first coal-fired plant, the 267-megawatt Watts Bar Steam Plant, began operation. The government originally intended the electricity generated from Fontana to be used by Alcoa factories. However, the abundance of TVA power was one of the major factors in the decision by the U.S. Army to locate uranium enrichment facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the world's first atomic bombs. This was part of an effort codenamed the Manhattan Project.

Increasing power demand

By the end of World War II, TVA had completed a 650 miles (1,050 km) navigation channel the length of the Tennessee River and had become the nation's largest electricity supplier.[citation needed] Even so, the demand for electricity was outstripping TVA's capacity to produce power from hydroelectric dams, and so TVA began to construct additional coal-fired plants. Political interference kept TVA from securing additional federal appropriations to do so, so it sought the authority to issue bonds. Several of TVA's coal-fired plants, including Johnsonville, Widows Creek, Shawnee, Kingston, Gallatin, and John Sevier, began operations in the 1950s. In 1955 coal surpassed hydroelectricity as TVA's top generating source. On August 6, 1959, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law an amendment to the TVA act, making the agency self-financing. During the 1950s, TVA's generating capacity nearly quadrupled.

The 1960s were years of further unprecedented economic growth in the Tennessee Valley. Capacity growth during this time slowed, but ultimately increased 56% between 1960 and 1970. To handle a projected future increase in electrical consumption, TVA began constructing 500 kilovolt (kV) transmission lines, the first of which was placed into service on May 15, 1965. Electric rates were among the nation's lowest during this time and stayed low as TVA brought larger, more efficient generating units into service. Plants completed during this time included Paradise, Bull Run, and Nickajack Dam. Expecting the Valley's electric power needs to continue to grow, TVA began building nuclear power plants in 1966 as a new source of power. During the 1960s and 1970s, TVA was engaged in what was up to that time its most controversial project – the Tellico Dam Project. The project was initially conceived in the 1940s but not completed until 1979.

1970s and 1980s

Considered one of the TVA's most ambitious projects, Timberlake, a planned city along the Tellico Reservoir was proposed to support 30,000 residents. The project was cancelled following soon after the Tellico Project's controversy.

Significant changes occurred in the economy of the Tennessee Valley and the nation, prompted by energy crises in 1973 and 1979 and accelerating fuel costs throughout the decade. The average cost of electricity in the Tennessee Valley increased fivefold from the early 1970s to the early 1980s. TVA's first nuclear reactor, Browns Ferry Unit 1, began commercial operation on August 1, 1974. In the early 1970s, TVA set out to construct a total of 17 nuclear reactors, due to a projection of further rapid increase in power demand. However, in the 1980s, ten of these reactors were cancelled. On August 6, 1981, the Tennessee Valley Authority Board voted to defer the Phipps Bend plant, as well as to slow down construction on all other projects. The Hartsville and Yellow Creek plants were cancelled in 1984 and Bellefonte in 1988.

Construction of the Tellico Dam became controversial for political and environmental reasons, as laws had changed since early development in the valley. Scientists and other researchers had become more aware of the massive environmental effects of the dams and new lakes, and worried about preserving habitats and species. The Tellico Dam project was initially delayed because of concern over the snail darter, a threatened species. A lawsuit was filed under the Endangered Species Act and the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of protecting the snail darter in Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill in 1978. The project also received controversy regarding the intent of the dam, as the project's main motive was to support recreational and tourism development, unlike earlier dams constructed by TVA. Land acquired by eminent domain for the Tellico Dam and its reservoir, specifically land that encountered minimal inundation, was sold to private developers for the construction of present-day Tellico Village, a planned retirement community.

The cancellation of several of the planned nuclear plants put the agency in deep financial trouble. Marvin T. Runyon became chairman of the TVA in January 1988. During his four-year tenure he claimed to reduce management layers, cut overhead costs by more than 30%, and achieved cumulative savings and efficiency improvements of $1.8 billion. He also claimed to have revitalized the nuclear program and instituted a rate freeze that continued for ten years.

1990s to late 2010s

As the electric-utility industry moved toward restructuring and deregulation, TVA began preparing for competition. It cut operating costs by nearly $800 million a year, reduced its workforce by more than half, increased the generating capacity of its plants, and developed a plan to meet the energy needs of the Tennessee Valley through the year 2020.

In 1996, Watts Bar Unit 1 began operation. This was the last commercial nuclear reactor in the United States to begin operation in the 20th century.[citation needed] In 2002, TVA began work to restart a previously mothballed nuclear reactor at Browns Ferry Unit 1, which was completed in May 2007. In 2004, TVA implemented recommendations from the Reservoir Operations Study (ROS) on how it operates the Tennessee River system (the nation's fifth largest). In 2005, the TVA announced its intention to construct an Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor at its Bellefonte site in Alabama, filing the necessary applications in November 2007. In 2007 it announced plans to complete the unfinished Unit 2 at Watts Bar, which began commercial operation in October 2016. Watts Bar Unit 2 is the first, and so far only, new nuclear reactor to enter service in the United States in the 21st century.

On December 22, 2008, an earthen dike at TVA's Kingston Fossil Plant broke, spreading one billion gallons of wet coal ash across 300 acres (1.2 km2) of land and into the tributaries of the Tennessee River. This produced damage from high levels of metal in the river. The TVA Office of the Inspector General's report, Inspection 2008-12283-02, Review of the Kingston Fossil Plant Ash Spill Cause Study and Observations About Ash Management, concluded that TVA culture had contributed to the spill.

In 2009, to gain more access to sustainable, green energy, TVA signed 20-year power purchase agreements with Maryland-based CVP Renewable Energy Co. and Chicago-based Invenergy Wind LLC for electricity generated by wind farms. In April 2011, TVA reached an agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), four state governments, and three environmental groups to drastically reduce pollution and carbon emissions. Under the terms of the agreement, TVA was required to retire at least 18 of its 59 coal-fired units by the end of 2018, and install scrubbers in several others or convert them to make them cleaner, at a cost of $25 billion, by 2021. As a result, TVA closed several of its coal-fired power plants in the 2010s, converting some to natural gas. These include John Sevier in 2012, Shawnee Unit 10 in 2014, Widows Creek in 2015, Colbert in 2016, Johnsonville and Paradise Units 1 and 2 in 2017, Allen in 2018, and Paradise Unit 3 in 2020.

Recent history

Artistic rendering of the small modular reactor (SMR) facility at the Clinch River Nuclear Site, the first of several to be constructed as part of TVA's New Nuclear Program approved in early 2022.

In 2018, TVA opened a new cybersecurity center in its downtown Chattanooga Office Complex. More than 20 Information Technology specialists monitor emails, Twitter feeds and network activity for cybersecurity threats and threats to grid security. Across TVA's digital platform, 2 billion activities occur each day. The center is staffed 24 hours a day to spot any threats to TVA's 16,000 miles of transmission lines.

Given continued economic pressure on the coal industry, the TVA board defied President Donald Trump and voted in February 2019 to close two aging coal plants, Paradise 3 and Bull Run. TVA chief executive Bill Johnson said the decision was not about coal, per se, but rather "about keeping rates as low as feasible." The TVA stated that decommissioning the two plants would reduce its carbon output by about 4.4% annually. TVA announced in April 2021 plans to completely phase out coal power by 2035. The following month, the TVA board voted to consider replacing almost all of their operating coal facilities with combined-cycle gas plants. Such plants considered for gas plant redevelopment include the Cumberland, Gallatin, Shawanee, and Kingston facilities.

In early February 2020, TVA awarded an outside company, Framatome, several multi-million-dollar contracts for work across the company's reactor fleet. This includes fuel for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, fuel handling equipment upgrades across the fleet and steam generator replacements at the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant. Framatome will provide its state-of-the-art ATRIUM 11 fuel for the three boiling water reactors at Browns Ferry with the first use planned for 2023. This contract makes TVA the third U.S. utility to switch to the ATRIUM 11 fuel design. On August 3, 2020, president Donald Trump fired the TVA chairman and another board member, saying they were overpaid and had outsourced 200 high-tech jobs. The move came after U.S. Tech Workers, a nonprofit that works to limit visas given to foreign technology workers, criticized the TVA for laying off its own workers and replacing them with contractors using foreign workers with H-1B visas.

Citing its plan to reach net-zero carbon emissions in 2050, the TVA Board voted to approve an advanced approach of nuclear energy technology with an estimated $200 million investment, known as the New Nuclear Program (NNP) in February 2022. The NNP would promote the construction of new nuclear power facilities, particularly small modular reactors, with the first facility being constructed in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the Clinch River Nuclear Site in Oak Ridge.

The twin cooling towers and reactor containment buildings of TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Plant north of Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Power stations

With a generating capacity of approximately 35 gigawatts (GW), TVA has the sixth highest generation capacity of any utility company in the United States. TVA's power mix as of 2022 is five coal-fired power plants, 29 hydroelectric dams, three nuclear plants (with seven operating reactors), nine simple-cycle natural gas combustion turbine plants, nine combined cycle gas plants, 1 pumped storage hydroelectric plant, 1 wind energy site, and 15 small solar energy sites. In fiscal year 2020, nuclear generation made up about 41% of TVA's total energy sales, natural gas 26%, coal 14%, hydroelectric 13%, and wind and solar 3%. TVA purchases about 15% of the power it sells from other power producers, which includes power from combined cycle natural gas plants, coal plants, and wind installations, and other renewables. The cost of Purchased Power is part of the "Fuel Cost Adjustment" (FCA) charge that is separate from the TVA Rate. Watts Bar Nuclear Plant produces tritium as a byproduct for the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration, which requires tritium for nuclear weapons (for "boosted" fission primaries and for fusion secondaries).

Electric transmission

TVA owns and operates its own electric grid, which consists of approximately 16,200 miles (26,100 km) of lines, one of the largest grids in the United States. This grid is part of the Eastern Interconnection of the North American power transmission grid, and is under the jurisdiction of the SERC Reliability Corporation. Like most North American utilities, TVA uses a maximum transmission voltage of 500 kilovolts (kV), with lines carrying this voltage using bundled conductors with three conductors per phase. The vast majority of TVA's transmission lines carry 161 kV, with the company also operating a number of sub-transmission lines with a voltage of 69 kV.

Recreation

TVA has conveyed approximately 485,420 acres (1,964.4 km2) of property for recreation and preservation purposes including public parks, public access areas and roadside parks, wildlife refuges, national parks and forests, and other camps and recreation areas, comprising approximately 759 different sites.

To qualify for a TVA Megasite certificate the qualifications are at least 1,000 acres, with interstate access, the potential for rail service, environmental impact study, and utility service capable of serving a major manufacturing facility. Seven TVA Megasites have been developed so far with capital investments of over $5 billion.

Locations:

Allegations of federal government overreach

TVA was heralded by New Dealers and the New Deal Coalition not only as a successful economic development program for a depressed area but also as a democratic nation-building effort overseas because of its alleged grassroots inclusiveness as articulated by director David E. Lilienthal. However, the TVA was controversial early on, as some believed its creation was an overreach by the federal government.

Supporters of TVA note that the agency's management of the Tennessee River system without appropriated federal funding saves federal taxpayers millions of dollars annually. Opponents, such as Dean Russell in The TVA Idea, in addition to condemning the project as being socialistic, argued that TVA created a "hidden loss" by preventing the creation of "factories and jobs that would have come into existence if the government had allowed the taxpayers to spend their money as they wished." Defenders note that TVA is overwhelmingly popular in Tennessee among conservatives and liberals alike, as Barry Goldwater discovered in 1964, when he proposed selling the agency. Historian Thomas McCraw concludes that Roosevelt "rescued the [power] industry from its own abuses" but "he might have done this much with a great deal less agitation and ill will". New Dealers hoped to build numerous other federal utility corporations around the country but were defeated by lobbyist Wendell Willkie and the conservative coalition in Congress. The valley authority model did not replace the limited-purpose water programs of the Bureau of Reclamation and the Army Corps of Engineers.

However, it has been shown that in river policy, the strength of opposing interest groups also mattered. The TVA bill was passed in 1933 because reformers like Norris skillfully coordinated action at potential choke points and weakened the already disorganized opponents among the electric power industry lobbyists. In 1936, however, after regrouping, opposing river lobbyists and conservative coalition congressmen took advantage of the New Dealers' spending mood by expanding the Army Corps' flood control program. They also helped defeat further valley authorities, the most promising of the New Deal water policy reforms.[citation needed]

Ronald Reagan, fired by General Electric after criticizing TVA.

When Democrats after 1945 proclaimed the Tennessee Valley Authority as a model for countries in the developing world to follow, conservative critics charged it was a top-heavy, centralized, technocratic venture that displaced locals and did so in insensitive ways. Thus, when the program was used as the basis for modernization programs in various parts of the third world during the Cold War, such as in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, its failure brought a backlash of cynicism toward modernization programs that has persisted.

Then-movie star Ronald Reagan had moved to television as the host and a frequent performer for General Electric Theater during 1954. Reagan was later fired by General Electric in 1962 in response to his publicly referring to the TVA (TVA being a major customer for GE turbines) as one of the problems of "big government". Some claim that Reagan was instead fired due to a criminal antitrust investigation involving him and the Screen Actors Guild. However, Reagan was only interviewed; nobody was actually charged with anything in the investigation.

In 1963, U.S. Senator and Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater was quoted in a Saturday Evening Post article by Stewart Alsop as saying, "You know, I think we ought to sell TVA." He had called for the sale to private companies of particular parts of the Authority, including its fertilizer production and steam-generation facilities, because "it would be better operated and would be of more benefit for more people if it were part of private industry." Goldwater's quotation was used against him in a TV ad by Doyle Dane Bernbach for President Lyndon Johnson's 1964 campaign, which depicted an auction taking place atop a dam. It was voiced over as follows: "In a Saturday Evening Post article dated August 31, 1963, Barry Goldwater said, 'You know, I think we ought to sell TVA.' This is a promise: President Johnson will not sell TVA. Vote for him on November 3. The stakes are too high for you to stay home."

Legal challenges

TVA faced multiple constitutional challenges. The United States Supreme Court ruled TVA to be constitutional in Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority (297 U.S. 288) in 1936. The Court noted that regulating commerce among the states includes regulation of streams and that controlling floods is required for keeping streams navigable; it also upheld the constitutionality of the TVA under the War Powers Clause, seeing its activities as a means of assuring the electric supply for the manufacture of munitions in the event of war. The argument before the court was that electricity generation was a by-product of navigation and flood control and therefore could be considered constitutional. The CEO of the Tennessee Electric Power Company (TEPCO), Jo Conn Guild, was vehemently opposed to the creation of TVA, and with the help of attorney Wendell Willkie, challenged the constitutionality of the TVA Act in federal court. The U.S. Supreme Court again upheld the TVA Act, however, in its 1939 decision Tennessee Electric Power Company v. TVA. On August 16, 1939, TEPCO was forced to sell its assets, including Hales Bar Dam, Ocoee Dams 1 and 2, Blue Ridge Dam and Great Falls Dam to TVA for $78 million (equivalent to $1.16 billion in 2020).

Discrimination

In 1981 the TVA Board of Directors broke with previous tradition and took a hard line against white-collar unions during contract negotiations. As a result, a class action suit was filed in 1984 in U.S. court charging the agency with sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act based on the large number of women in one of the pay grades negatively impacted by the new contract. An out-of-court settlement of the lawsuit was reached in 1987, in which TVA agreed to contract modifications and paid the group $5 million but admitted no wrongdoing.[citation needed]

Eminent domain and family removal controversies

The historically significant town of Bean Station, Tennessee was among the largest of communities inundated by the TVA with nearly 90% of its population removed by eminent domain or federal lawsuits for the construction of Cherokee Dam.

TVA has received criticism its entire history for what some have perceived as excessive use of its authority of eminent domain and an unwillingness to compromise with landowners. All of TVA's hydroelectric projects were made possible through the use of eminent domain, and were controversial due to the more than 125,000 Tennessee Valley residents that were displaced by the agency. Residents who refused to sell their land were often forced to by court orders and lawsuits. Many of these projects also inundated historic Native American sites and early American Revolution-era settlements. Historians have criticized the TVA for forcing residents to sell their property at values less than the fair market value, and indirectly starting a unstable real estate market for farmland. In the most extreme circumstance, displaced residents committed suicide, unable to bear the events of their removal. On some occasions, land that TVA had acquired through eminent domain that was expected to be flooded by reservoirs was not flooded, and was given away to private developers.

The 1960 film Wild River, directed by Elia Kazan, tells the story about a family forced to relocate from their land, which has been owned by their ancestors for generations, after TVA plans to construct a dam which will flood it. While fictional, the film depicts the real-life experiences of many people forced to give up their land to TVA to make way for hydroelectric projects, and was mostly inspired by the removal of families for the Norris Project.

The 1970 James Dickey novel Deliverance, and its 1972 film adaptation focuses on four Atlanta businessmen taking a canoeing trip down a river that is being impounded by an electric utility, nodding to the TVA's early and controversial hydroelectric projects.

The 1984 Mark Rydell film The River, focuses on a East Tennessee family being confronted by the loss of their ancestral farm from the inundation of a nearby river by a electric utility. The film, shot on farmland near the Holston River in Hawkins County, utilized flooding practical effects provided by the TVA.

In the 2000 film O Brother, Where Art Thou? , the family home of the protagonist, played by George Clooney, is flooded by a reservoir constructed by the TVA. This plays a central role in the pacing of the film and the broader depression-era Mississippi context of the narrative.

"Song of the South" by country and Southern rock band Alabama features the lyrics "Papa got a job with the TVA" following the lyrics "Well momma got sick and daddy got down, The county got the farm and they moved to town" expressing the hardships and changes that southerners faced during the post recession era.

The TVA and its impact on the region are featured in the Drive-By Truckers' songs "TVA" and "Uncle Frank". In "TVA," the singer reflects on time spent with family members and a girlfriend at Wilson Dam. In "Uncle Frank", the lyrics tell the story of an unnamed hydroelectric dam being built, and the effects on the community that would become flooded upon its completion.

On November 19, 2012, Jason Isbell released a solo version of "TVA". The company still has a dominant presence in Northern Alabama, including Isbell's hometown of Muscle Shoals, as an employer and power distributor.

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Tennessee Valley Authority Article Talk Language Watch Edit TVA redirects here For other uses see TVA disambiguation The Tennessee Valley Authority TVA is a federally owned electric utility corporation in the United States TVA s service area covers all of Tennessee portions of Alabama Mississippi and Kentucky and small areas of Georgia North Carolina and Virginia While owned by the federal government TVA receives no taxpayer funding and operates similarly to a private for profit company It is headquartered in Knoxville Tennessee and is the sixth largest power supplier and largest public utility in the country 3 4 Tennessee Valley AuthorityLogo of the TVA Flag of the TVAImages from top down left to right TVA s twin tower administrative headquarters in Knoxville TVA s power operations headquarters in Chattanooga and the TVA s service areaTypeState owned enterpriseIndustryElectric utilityFoundedSeptember 18 1933 1933 69 18 FoundersHarcourt Morgan Arthur Morgan David Lilienthal Federal Government of the United StatesHeadquartersKnoxville Tennessee U S Key peopleWilliam Kilbride Chair 1 Jeff Lyash CEO 2 Revenue 11 2 billion USD FY 2018 ending September 30 2018 Net income 1 12 billion USD FY 2018 Websitewww wbr tva wbr com The TVA was created by Congress in 1933 as part of President Franklin D Roosevelt s New Deal Its initial purpose was to provide navigation flood control electricity generation fertilizer manufacturing regional planning and economic development to the Tennessee Valley a region that had suffered from lack of infrastructure and poverty during the Great Depression relative to the rest of the nation TVA was envisioned both as a power supplier and a regional economic development agency that would work to help modernize the region s economy and society Later it evolved primarily into an electric utility 5 It was the first large regional planning agency of the U S federal government and remains the largest Under the leadership of David E Lilienthal the TVA also became the global model for the United States later efforts to help modernize agrarian societies in the developing world 6 7 Historically the TVA has been documented as a success in its efforts to modernize the Tennessee Valley and helping to recruit new employment opportunities to the region Despite its successes historians have criticized its use of eminent domain it resulted in the displacement of over 125 000 Tennessee Valley residents to build the agency s infrastructure projects 8 9 10 Contents 1 Operation 1 1 Board of Directors 2 History 2 1 Background 2 2 Early history 2 3 World War II 2 4 Increasing power demand 2 5 1970s and 1980s 2 6 1990s to late 2010s 2 7 Recent history 3 Facilities 3 1 Power stations 3 2 Electric transmission 3 3 Recreation 4 Megasites 5 Criticism and controversies 5 1 Allegations of federal government overreach 5 1 1 Legal challenges 5 2 Discrimination 5 3 Eminent domain and family removal controversies 6 In popular culture 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External linksOperation Edit TVA poster at Franklin D Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum The Tennessee Valley Authority was initially founded as an agency to provide general economic development to the region through power generation flood control navigation assistance fertilizer manufacturing and agricultural development Since the Depression years it has developed primarily into a power utility Despite its shares being owned by the federal government TVA operates like a private corporation and receives no taxpayer funding 11 The TVA Act authorizes the company to use eminent domain 12 TVA provides electricity to approximately ten million people through a diverse portfolio that includes nuclear coal fired natural gas fired hydroelectric and renewable generation TVA sells its power to 154 local power utilities 5 direct industrial and institutional customers and 12 area utilities 13 In addition to power generation TVA provides flood control with its 29 hydroelectric dams Resulting lakes and other areas also allow for recreational activities The TVA also provides navigation and land management along rivers within its region of operation 11 TVA also assists governments and private companies on economic development projects 11 TVA s headquarters are located in downtown Knoxville with large administrative offices in Chattanooga training development supplier relations power generation and transmission and Nashville economic development in Tennessee and Muscle Shoals Alabama TVA was originally headquartered in Muscle Shoals but gradually moved its headquarters to Knoxville 14 At one point TVA s headquarters were housed in the Old Federal Customs House at the corner of Clinch Avenue and Market Street The building is now operated as a museum and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places 15 The Tennessee Valley Authority Police are the primary law enforcement agency for the company Initially part of the TVA in 1994 the TVA Police was authorized as a federal law enforcement agency Board of Directors Edit The Tennessee Valley Authority is governed by a nine member part time Board of Directors nominated by the President of the United States and confirmed by the Senate 1 A minimum of seven of the directors are required to be a resident of TVA s service area The members select the Chairman from their number and serve five year terms a They receive an annual stipend of 45 000 and 50 000 for the chairman The board members choose the TVA s chief executive officer CEO 16 Name State Position Appointed by Sworn in Term expiresWilliam Kilbride Tennessee Chairman Donald Trump August 8 2019 May 18 2023A D Frazier Georgia Board Member Donald Trump January 9 2018 May 18 2022Beth Harwell Tennessee Board Member Donald Trump January 5 2021 May 18 2024Brian Noland Tennessee Board Member Donald Trump December 31 2020 May 18 2024Jeff W Smith Tennessee Board Member Donald Trump January 15 2019 May 18 2022Vacant Board Member Vacant Board Member Vacant Board member Vacant Board member History EditBackground Edit During the 1920s and the 1930s Americans began to support the idea of public ownership of utilities particularly hydroelectric power facilities Many believed privately owned power companies were charging too much for power did not employ fair operating practices and were subject to abuse by their owners utility holding companies at the expense of consumers citation needed The concept of government owned generation facilities selling to publicly owned distribution utilities was controversial however and remains so today 17 page needed During his 1932 presidential campaign Franklin D Roosevelt expressed his belief that private utilities had selfish purposes and said Never shall the federal government part with its sovereignty or with its control of its power resources while I m president of the United States Senator George W Norris of Nebraska also distrusted private utility companies and in 1920 blocked a proposal from industrialist Henry Ford to build a private dam and create a utility to modernize the Tennessee Valley 18 The private sector practice of forming utility holding companies had resulted in them controlling 94 percent of generation by 1921 and they were essentially unregulated In an effort to change this Congress and Roosevelt enacted the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 PUHCA citation needed In 1930 Norris sponsored the Muscle Shoals Bill which would have built a federal dam in the valley but it was vetoed by President Herbert Hoover who believed it to be socialistic 19 The idea behind the Muscle Shoals project became a core part of President Franklin D Roosevelt s New Deal program that created the Tennessee Valley Authority however 20 Even by Depression standards the Tennessee Valley was in dire economic straits in 1933 Thirty percent of the population was affected by malaria The average income in the rural areas was 639 per year equivalent to 10 389 in 2022 21 with some families surviving on as little as 100 per year equivalent to 1 626 in 2020 21 Much of the land had been exhausted by poor farming practices and the soil was eroded and depleted Crop yields had fallen reducing farm incomes The best timber had been cut and 10 of forests were lost to fires each year 17 page needed Early history Edit President Franklin D Roosevelt signs the TVA Act President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Tennessee Valley Authority Act ch 32 Pub L 73 17 48 Stat 58 enacted May 18 1933 codified as amended at 16 U S C 831 et seq creating the TVA The agency was initially tasked with modernizing the region using experts and electricity to combat human and economic problems 22 TVA developed fertilizers and taught farmers ways to improve crop yields In addition it helped replant forests control forest fires and improve habitat for fish and wildlife The Authority hired many of the area s unemployed for a variety of jobs they conducted conservation economic development and social programs For instance a library service was instituted for this area The professional staff at headquarters were generally composed of experts from outside the region By 1934 TVA employed more than 9 000 people 23 The workers were classified by the usual racial and gender lines of the region which limited opportunities for minorities and women TVA hired a few African Americans generally restricted for janitorial or other low level positions TVA recognized labor unions its skilled and semi skilled blue collar employees were unionized a breakthrough in an area known for corporations hostile to miners and textile workers unions Women were excluded from construction work TVA s first board L to R Harcourt Morgan Arthur E Morgan and David E Lilienthal Many local landowners were suspicious of government agencies but TVA successfully introduced new agricultural methods into traditional farming communities by blending in and finding local champions Tennessee farmers often rejected advice from TVA officials so the officials had to find leaders in the communities and convince them that crop rotation and the judicious application of fertilizers could restore soil fertility Once they had convinced the leaders the rest followed 24 page needed Workers at the site of Norris Dam the first hydroelectric dam built by the TVA circa 1933 TVA immediately embarked on the construction of several hydroelectric dams with the first Norris Dam in upper East Tennessee breaking ground on October 1 1933 These facilities designed with the intent of also controlling floods greatly improved the lives of farmers and rural residents making their lives easier and farms in the Tennessee Valley more productive They also provided new employment opportunities to the poverty stricken regions in the Valley At the same time however they required the displacement of more than 125 000 valley residents or roughly 15 000 families 8 as well as some cemeteries and small towns which caused some to oppose the projects especially in rural areas 9 25 The projects also inundated several Native American archaeological sites and graves were reinterred at new locations along with new tombstones 26 The available electricity attracted new industries to the region including textile mills providing desperately needed jobs many of which were filled by women 5 27 A few regions of the Tennessee Valley did not receive electricity until the late 1940s and early 1950s however TVA was one of the first federal hydropower agencies and was quickly hailed as a success While most of the nation s major hydropower systems are federally managed today other attempts to create similar regional corporate agencies have failed The most notable was the proposed Columbia Valley Authority for the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest which was modeled off of TVA but did not gain approval 28 A carpenter wearing a contractor s employee badge at work during the 1942 construction of the Douglas Dam in East Tennessee World War II Edit During World War II the U S needed greater aluminum supplies to build airplanes Aluminum plants required large amounts of electricity To provide the power TVA engaged in one of the largest hydropower construction programs ever undertaken in the U S By early 1942 when the effort reached its peak 12 hydroelectric plants and one coal fired steam plant were under construction at the same time and design and construction employment reached a total of 28 000 In its first eleven years TVA constructed a total of 16 hydroelectric dams 23 The largest project of this period was the Fontana Dam After negotiations led by then Vice President Harry Truman TVA purchased the land from Nantahala Power and Light a wholly owned subsidiary of Alcoa and built Fontana Dam Also in 1942 TVA s first coal fired plant the 267 megawatt Watts Bar Steam Plant began operation 29 The government originally intended the electricity generated from Fontana to be used by Alcoa factories However the abundance of TVA power was one of the major factors in the decision by the U S Army to locate uranium enrichment facilities in Oak Ridge Tennessee for the world s first atomic bombs This was part of an effort codenamed the Manhattan Project 30 31 Increasing power demand Edit John Sevier Fossil Plant in Hawkins County circa 1956 By the end of World War II TVA had completed a 650 miles 1 050 km navigation channel the length of the Tennessee River and had become the nation s largest electricity supplier citation needed Even so the demand for electricity was outstripping TVA s capacity to produce power from hydroelectric dams and so TVA began to construct additional coal fired plants Political interference kept TVA from securing additional federal appropriations to do so so it sought the authority to issue bonds 32 Several of TVA s coal fired plants including Johnsonville Widows Creek Shawnee Kingston Gallatin and John Sevier began operations in the 1950s 33 In 1955 coal surpassed hydroelectricity as TVA s top generating source 34 On August 6 1959 President Dwight D Eisenhower signed into law an amendment to the TVA act making the agency self financing 35 During the 1950s TVA s generating capacity nearly quadrupled 36 The 1960s were years of further unprecedented economic growth in the Tennessee Valley Capacity growth during this time slowed but ultimately increased 56 between 1960 and 1970 36 To handle a projected future increase in electrical consumption TVA began constructing 500 kilovolt kV transmission lines the first of which was placed into service on May 15 1965 36 Electric rates were among the nation s lowest during this time and stayed low as TVA brought larger more efficient generating units into service Plants completed during this time included Paradise Bull Run and Nickajack Dam 36 Expecting the Valley s electric power needs to continue to grow TVA began building nuclear power plants in 1966 as a new source of power 37 During the 1960s and 1970s TVA was engaged in what was up to that time its most controversial project the Tellico Dam Project 38 The project was initially conceived in the 1940s but not completed until 1979 39 1970s and 1980s Edit Considered one of the TVA s most ambitious projects Timberlake a planned city along the Tellico Reservoir was proposed to support 30 000 residents 40 The project was cancelled following soon after the Tellico Project s controversy 41 Significant changes occurred in the economy of the Tennessee Valley and the nation prompted by energy crises in 1973 and 1979 and accelerating fuel costs throughout the decade The average cost of electricity in the Tennessee Valley increased fivefold from the early 1970s to the early 1980s TVA s first nuclear reactor Browns Ferry Unit 1 began commercial operation on August 1 1974 42 In the early 1970s TVA set out to construct a total of 17 nuclear reactors due to a projection of further rapid increase in power demand 43 However in the 1980s ten of these reactors were cancelled On August 6 1981 the Tennessee Valley Authority Board voted to defer the Phipps Bend plant as well as to slow down construction on all other projects 44 The Hartsville and Yellow Creek plants were cancelled in 1984 and Bellefonte in 1988 43 Construction of the Tellico Dam became controversial for political and environmental reasons as laws had changed since early development in the valley Scientists and other researchers had become more aware of the massive environmental effects of the dams and new lakes and worried about preserving habitats and species The Tellico Dam project was initially delayed because of concern over the snail darter a threatened species A lawsuit was filed under the Endangered Species Act and the U S Supreme Court ruled in favor of protecting the snail darter in Tennessee Valley Authority v Hill in 1978 45 The project also received controversy regarding the intent of the dam as the project s main motive was to support recreational and tourism development unlike earlier dams constructed by TVA Land acquired by eminent domain for the Tellico Dam and its reservoir specifically land that encountered minimal inundation was sold to private developers for the construction of present day Tellico Village a planned retirement community 46 The cancellation of several of the planned nuclear plants put the agency in deep financial trouble 47 Marvin T Runyon became chairman of the TVA in January 1988 During his four year tenure he claimed to reduce management layers cut overhead costs by more than 30 and achieved cumulative savings and efficiency improvements of 1 8 billion He also claimed to have revitalized the nuclear program and instituted a rate freeze that continued for ten years 48 1990s to late 2010s Edit As the electric utility industry moved toward restructuring and deregulation TVA began preparing for competition It cut operating costs by nearly 800 million a year reduced its workforce by more than half increased the generating capacity of its plants and developed a plan to meet the energy needs of the Tennessee Valley through the year 2020 49 In 1996 Watts Bar Unit 1 began operation This was the last commercial nuclear reactor in the United States to begin operation in the 20th century citation needed In 2002 TVA began work to restart a previously mothballed nuclear reactor at Browns Ferry Unit 1 which was completed in May 2007 In 2004 TVA implemented recommendations from the Reservoir Operations Study ROS on how it operates the Tennessee River system the nation s fifth largest In 2005 the TVA announced its intention to construct an Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor at its Bellefonte site in Alabama filing the necessary applications in November 2007 In 2007 it announced plans to complete the unfinished Unit 2 at Watts Bar which began commercial operation in October 2016 Watts Bar Unit 2 is the first and so far only new nuclear reactor to enter service in the United States in the 21st century 50 On December 22 2008 an earthen dike at TVA s Kingston Fossil Plant broke spreading one billion gallons of wet coal ash across 300 acres 1 2 km2 of land and into the tributaries of the Tennessee River This produced damage from high levels of metal in the river 51 The TVA Office of the Inspector General s report Inspection 2008 12283 02 Review of the Kingston Fossil Plant Ash Spill Cause Study and Observations About Ash Management concluded that TVA culture had contributed to the spill 52 In 2009 to gain more access to sustainable green energy TVA signed 20 year power purchase agreements with Maryland based CVP Renewable Energy Co and Chicago based Invenergy Wind LLC for electricity generated by wind farms 53 In April 2011 TVA reached an agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency EPA four state governments and three environmental groups to drastically reduce pollution and carbon emissions 54 Under the terms of the agreement TVA was required to retire at least 18 of its 59 coal fired units by the end of 2018 and install scrubbers in several others or convert them to make them cleaner at a cost of 25 billion by 2021 54 As a result TVA closed several of its coal fired power plants in the 2010s converting some to natural gas These include John Sevier in 2012 Shawnee Unit 10 in 2014 Widows Creek in 2015 Colbert in 2016 Johnsonville and Paradise Units 1 and 2 in 2017 Allen in 2018 and Paradise Unit 3 in 2020 55 Recent history Edit Artistic rendering of the small modular reactor SMR facility at the Clinch River Nuclear Site the first of several to be constructed as part of TVA s New Nuclear Program approved in early 2022 56 In 2018 TVA opened a new cybersecurity center in its downtown Chattanooga Office Complex More than 20 Information Technology specialists monitor emails Twitter feeds and network activity for cybersecurity threats and threats to grid security Across TVA s digital platform 2 billion activities occur each day The center is staffed 24 hours a day to spot any threats to TVA s 16 000 miles of transmission lines 57 Given continued economic pressure on the coal industry the TVA board defied President Donald Trump and voted in February 2019 to close two aging coal plants Paradise 3 and Bull Run TVA chief executive Bill Johnson said the decision was not about coal per se but rather about keeping rates as low as feasible The TVA stated that decommissioning the two plants would reduce its carbon output by about 4 4 annually 58 TVA announced in April 2021 plans to completely phase out coal power by 2035 59 The following month the TVA board voted to consider replacing almost all of their operating coal facilities with combined cycle gas plants Such plants considered for gas plant redevelopment include the Cumberland Gallatin Shawanee and Kingston facilities 60 In early February 2020 TVA awarded an outside company Framatome several multi million dollar contracts for work across the company s reactor fleet 61 This includes fuel for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant fuel handling equipment upgrades across the fleet and steam generator replacements at the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Framatome will provide its state of the art ATRIUM 11 fuel for the three boiling water reactors at Browns Ferry with the first use planned for 2023 This contract makes TVA the third U S utility to switch to the ATRIUM 11 fuel design 62 On August 3 2020 president Donald Trump fired the TVA chairman and another board member saying they were overpaid and had outsourced 200 high tech jobs The move came after U S Tech Workers a nonprofit that works to limit visas given to foreign technology workers criticized the TVA for laying off its own workers and replacing them with contractors using foreign workers with H 1B visas 63 Citing its plan to reach net zero carbon emissions in 2050 the TVA Board voted to approve an advanced approach of nuclear energy technology with an estimated 200 million investment known as the New Nuclear Program NNP in February 2022 The NNP would promote the construction of new nuclear power facilities particularly small modular reactors with the first facility being constructed in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the Clinch River Nuclear Site in Oak Ridge 56 64 Facilities Edit The twin cooling towers and reactor containment buildings of TVA s Sequoyah Nuclear Plant north of Chattanooga Tennessee Power stations Edit Main article List of power stations operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority With a generating capacity of approximately 35 gigawatts GW TVA has the sixth highest generation capacity of any utility company in the United States 3 TVA s power mix as of 2022 is five coal fired power plants 29 hydroelectric dams three nuclear plants with seven operating reactors nine simple cycle natural gas combustion turbine plants nine combined cycle gas plants 1 pumped storage hydroelectric plant 1 wind energy site and 15 small solar energy sites 65 In fiscal year 2020 nuclear generation made up about 41 of TVA s total energy sales natural gas 26 coal 14 hydroelectric 13 and wind and solar 3 65 TVA purchases about 15 of the power it sells from other power producers which includes power from combined cycle natural gas plants coal plants and wind installations and other renewables 66 The cost of Purchased Power is part of the Fuel Cost Adjustment FCA charge that is separate from the TVA Rate Watts Bar Nuclear Plant produces tritium as a byproduct for the U S National Nuclear Security Administration which requires tritium for nuclear weapons for boosted fission primaries and for fusion secondaries Electric transmission Edit TVA owns and operates its own electric grid which consists of approximately 16 200 miles 26 100 km of lines one of the largest grids in the United States This grid is part of the Eastern Interconnection of the North American power transmission grid and is under the jurisdiction of the SERC Reliability Corporation 67 Like most North American utilities TVA uses a maximum transmission voltage of 500 kilovolts kV with lines carrying this voltage using bundled conductors with three conductors per phase The vast majority of TVA s transmission lines carry 161 kV with the company also operating a number of sub transmission lines with a voltage of 69 kV 36 68 Recreation Edit TVA has conveyed approximately 485 420 acres 1 964 4 km2 of property for recreation and preservation purposes including public parks public access areas and roadside parks wildlife refuges national parks and forests and other camps and recreation areas comprising approximately 759 different sites 69 Megasites EditTo qualify for a TVA Megasite certificate the qualifications are at least 1 000 acres with interstate access the potential for rail service environmental impact study and utility service capable of serving a major manufacturing facility Seven TVA Megasites have been developed so far with capital investments of over 5 billion 70 Locations Huntsville 71 Chattanooga Golden Triangle Mississippi 2 sites 72 Hopkinsville Kentucky Memphis Regional Megasite West Kentucky MegasiteCriticism and controversies EditAllegations of federal government overreach Edit TVA was heralded by New Dealers and the New Deal Coalition not only as a successful economic development program for a depressed area but also as a democratic nation building effort overseas because of its alleged grassroots inclusiveness as articulated by director David E Lilienthal However the TVA was controversial early on as some believed its creation was an overreach by the federal government Supporters of TVA note that the agency s management of the Tennessee River system without appropriated federal funding saves federal taxpayers millions of dollars annually Opponents such as Dean Russell in The TVA Idea in addition to condemning the project as being socialistic argued that TVA created a hidden loss by preventing the creation of factories and jobs that would have come into existence if the government had allowed the taxpayers to spend their money as they wished Defenders note that TVA is overwhelmingly popular in Tennessee among conservatives and liberals alike as Barry Goldwater discovered in 1964 when he proposed selling the agency 73 Historian Thomas McCraw concludes that Roosevelt rescued the power industry from its own abuses but he might have done this much with a great deal less agitation and ill will 74 New Dealers hoped to build numerous other federal utility corporations around the country but were defeated by lobbyist Wendell Willkie and the conservative coalition in Congress The valley authority model did not replace the limited purpose water programs of the Bureau of Reclamation and the Army Corps of Engineers However it has been shown that in river policy the strength of opposing interest groups also mattered 75 The TVA bill was passed in 1933 because reformers like Norris skillfully coordinated action at potential choke points and weakened the already disorganized opponents among the electric power industry lobbyists 17 In 1936 however after regrouping opposing river lobbyists and conservative coalition congressmen took advantage of the New Dealers spending mood by expanding the Army Corps flood control program They also helped defeat further valley authorities the most promising of the New Deal water policy reforms citation needed Ronald Reagan fired by General Electric after criticizing TVA When Democrats after 1945 proclaimed the Tennessee Valley Authority as a model for countries in the developing world to follow conservative critics charged it was a top heavy centralized technocratic venture that displaced locals and did so in insensitive ways Thus when the program was used as the basis for modernization programs in various parts of the third world during the Cold War such as in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam its failure brought a backlash of cynicism toward modernization programs that has persisted 6 Then movie star Ronald Reagan had moved to television as the host and a frequent performer for General Electric Theater during 1954 Reagan was later fired by General Electric in 1962 in response to his publicly referring to the TVA TVA being a major customer for GE turbines as one of the problems of big government 76 Some claim that Reagan was instead fired due to a criminal antitrust investigation involving him and the Screen Actors Guild 77 However Reagan was only interviewed nobody was actually charged with anything in the investigation 78 79 In 1963 U S Senator and Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater was quoted in a Saturday Evening Post article by Stewart Alsop as saying You know I think we ought to sell TVA He had called for the sale to private companies of particular parts of the Authority including its fertilizer production and steam generation facilities because it would be better operated and would be of more benefit for more people if it were part of private industry 80 Goldwater s quotation was used against him in a TV ad by Doyle Dane Bernbach for President Lyndon Johnson s 1964 campaign which depicted an auction taking place atop a dam It was voiced over as follows In a Saturday Evening Post article dated August 31 1963 Barry Goldwater said You know I think we ought to sell TVA This is a promise President Johnson will not sell TVA Vote for him on November 3 The stakes are too high for you to stay home 81 Legal challenges Edit TVA faced multiple constitutional challenges The United States Supreme Court ruled TVA to be constitutional in Ashwander v Tennessee Valley Authority 297 U S 288 in 1936 82 The Court noted that regulating commerce among the states includes regulation of streams and that controlling floods is required for keeping streams navigable it also upheld the constitutionality of the TVA under the War Powers Clause seeing its activities as a means of assuring the electric supply for the manufacture of munitions in the event of war 83 The argument before the court was that electricity generation was a by product of navigation and flood control and therefore could be considered constitutional The CEO of the Tennessee Electric Power Company TEPCO Jo Conn Guild was vehemently opposed to the creation of TVA and with the help of attorney Wendell Willkie challenged the constitutionality of the TVA Act in federal court The U S Supreme Court again upheld the TVA Act however in its 1939 decision Tennessee Electric Power Company v TVA On August 16 1939 TEPCO was forced to sell its assets including Hales Bar Dam Ocoee Dams 1 and 2 Blue Ridge Dam and Great Falls Dam to TVA for 78 million equivalent to 1 16 billion in 2020 21 84 Discrimination Edit In 1981 the TVA Board of Directors broke with previous tradition and took a hard line against white collar unions during contract negotiations As a result a class action suit was filed in 1984 in U S court charging the agency with sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act based on the large number of women in one of the pay grades negatively impacted by the new contract An out of court settlement of the lawsuit was reached in 1987 in which TVA agreed to contract modifications and paid the group 5 million but admitted no wrongdoing citation needed Eminent domain and family removal controversies Edit The historically significant town of Bean Station Tennessee was among the largest of communities inundated by the TVA with nearly 90 of its population removed by eminent domain or federal lawsuits for the construction of Cherokee Dam 85 TVA has received criticism its entire history for what some have perceived as excessive use of its authority of eminent domain and an unwillingness to compromise with landowners All of TVA s hydroelectric projects were made possible through the use of eminent domain 86 87 and were controversial due to the more than 125 000 Tennessee Valley residents that were displaced by the agency 8 Residents who refused to sell their land were often forced to by court orders and lawsuits 86 Many of these projects also inundated historic Native American sites and early American Revolution era settlements 88 89 Historians have criticized the TVA for forcing residents to sell their property at values less than the fair market value and indirectly starting a unstable real estate market for farmland 25 In the most extreme circumstance displaced residents committed suicide unable to bear the events of their removal 9 On some occasions land that TVA had acquired through eminent domain that was expected to be flooded by reservoirs was not flooded and was given away to private developers 90 In popular culture EditThe 1960 film Wild River directed by Elia Kazan tells the story about a family forced to relocate from their land which has been owned by their ancestors for generations after TVA plans to construct a dam which will flood it While fictional the film depicts the real life experiences of many people forced to give up their land to TVA to make way for hydroelectric projects and was mostly inspired by the removal of families for the Norris Project 91 25 The 1970 James Dickey novel Deliverance and its 1972 film adaptation focuses on four Atlanta businessmen taking a canoeing trip down a river that is being impounded by an electric utility nodding to the TVA s early and controversial hydroelectric projects 92 The 1984 Mark Rydell film The River focuses on a East Tennessee family being confronted by the loss of their ancestral farm from the inundation of a nearby river by a electric utility The film shot on farmland near the Holston River in Hawkins County utilized flooding practical effects provided by the TVA 93 In the 2000 film O Brother Where Art Thou the family home of the protagonist played by George Clooney is flooded by a reservoir constructed by the TVA This plays a central role in the pacing of the film and the broader depression era Mississippi context of the narrative 94 Song of the South by country and Southern rock band Alabama features the lyrics Papa got a job with the TVA following the lyrics Well momma got sick and daddy got down The county got the farm and they moved to town expressing the hardships and changes that southerners faced during the post recession era The TVA and its impact on the region are featured in the Drive By Truckers songs TVA and Uncle Frank In TVA the singer reflects on time spent with family members and a girlfriend at Wilson Dam In Uncle Frank the lyrics tell the story of an unnamed hydroelectric dam being built and the effects on the community that would become flooded upon its completion On November 19 2012 Jason Isbell released a solo version of TVA The company still has a dominant presence in Northern Alabama including Isbell s hometown of Muscle Shoals as an employer and power distributor See also EditTitle 18 of the Code of Federal Regulations Appalachian Regional Commission Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority modelled on the TVA James Bay Energy Corporation a Crown corporation of the Quebec government for developing the James Bay Project for building various dams on rivers List of navigation authorities in the United States Muscle Shoals Bill Nashville Electric Service New Deal New Madrid Seismic Zone 1811 12 New Madrid earthquakes Norris Tennessee Tennessee Valley Authority Police Tennessee Valley Authority v HillNotes Edit When their terms expire directors may remain on the board until the end of the current congressional session typically in December or until their successors take office whichever comes first References Edit a b Board of Directors TVA Gaines Jim February 14 2019 TVA names president of Canadian utility as new CEO to replace outgoing Bill Johnson Knoxville News Sentinel Knoxville Tennessee Retrieved December 5 2019 a b Factbox Largest U S electric companies by megawatts customers Reuters April 29 2014 Retrieved January 7 2019 Sainz Adrian November 14 2019 Nation s largest utility in long term deals to sell power ABC News Associated Press Retrieved July 4 2021 a b Neuse amp McElvaine 2004 pp 972 979 a b Ekbladh David Summer 2002 Mr TVA Grass Roots Development David Lilienthal and the Rise and Fall of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a Symbol for U S Overseas Development 1933 1973 Diplomatic History 26 3 335 374 doi 10 1111 1467 7709 00315 ISSN 1467 7709 OCLC 772657716 Global Impact PDF Tennessee Valley Authority Retrieved May 17 2021 a b c John Gaventa 1982 Book Review TVA and the Dispossessed The Resettlement of Population in the Norris Dam Area Tennessee Law Review Symposium the Tennessee Valley Authority Knoxville Tennessee Tennessee Law Review Association 979 983 Over the past fifty years the agency has had many opportunities to learn from its mistakes Since 1933 over 125 000 residents have been displaced from their homesteads by TVA dam construction projects a b c Muldowny John McDonald Michael 1981 TVA and the Dispossessed The Resettlement of Population in the Norris Dam Area University of Tennessee Press ISBN 9781572331648 Retrieved July 4 2021 The Price of Power How the Tennessee Valley Authority Impacted Attitudes Towards Economic Development in East Tennessee Appalachian Free Press January 12 2022 Retrieved February 20 2022 a b c About TVA tva com Tennessee Valley Authority 2018 Retrieved January 7 2018 The TVA and the Relocation of Mattie Randolph Archives gov National Archives and Records Administration Retrieved March 4 2019 Public Power Partnerships tva com Tennessee Valley Authority 2018 Retrieved January 7 2019 T V A Fights Order to Move Headquarters From Tennessee to Alabama The New York Times February 6 1979 Retrieved May 8 2020 East Tennessee Historical Society East tennessee history org Archived from the original on June 30 2007 Retrieved February 28 2012 TVA Board Expanded To 9 Members The Chattanoogan Chattanooga Tennessee November 20 2004 Retrieved January 7 2019 a b c Hubbard Preston J 1961 Origins of the TVA The Muscle Shoals Controversy 1920 1932 Nashville Vanderbilt University Press OCLC 600647072 via HathiTrust Digital Library Tobey Ronald C 1996 Technology as Freedom The New Deal and the Electrical Modernization of the American Home University of California Press pp 46 48 ISBN 9780520204218 Retrieved July 4 2021 via Google Books MUSCLE SHOALS BILL PASSED BY SENATE Vote on Norris Measure for Operation by Federal Corporation Is 45 to 23 HOUSE COUNTED FAVORABLE But Hoover Veto is Expected in Event of Passage His Supporters Divided in Debate Hoover Supporters Divided The Vote on Roll Call The New York Times April 5 1930 ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved September 14 2021 Wengert Norman 1952 Antecedents of TVA The Legislative History of Muscle Shoals Agricultural History 26 4 141 147 ISSN 1533 8290 JSTOR 3740474 OCLC 971899953 a b c Johnston Louis Williamson Samuel H 2022 What Was the U S GDP Then MeasuringWorth Retrieved February 12 2022 United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series Schulman Bruce J 1991 From Cotton Belt to Sunbelt Federal policy economic development and the transformation of the South 1938 1980 New York Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 536344 9 OCLC 300412389 a b TVA History com The History Channel August 7 2017 Retrieved January 8 2019 Philip Selznick TVA and the Grass Roots A study in the sociology of formal organization 1949 a b c Stephens Joseph May 2018 Forced Relocations Presented More of an Ordeal than an Opportunity for Norris Reservoir Families Historic Union County Retrieved June 15 2021 Creese 1990 pp 95 105 Long Jennifer December 1999 Government Job Creation Programs Lessons from the 1930s and 1940s Journal of Economic Issues 33 4 903 918 doi 10 1080 00213624 1999 11506220 ISSN 0021 3624 OCLC 5996637494 Hargrove 1994 p 137 Plants of the Past tva com Tennessee Valley Authority Retrieved October 21 2018 Fine Lenore Remington Jesse A 1972 The Corps of Engineers Construction in the United States PDF Washington D C United States Army Center of Military History pp 134 135 OCLC 834187 Retrieved August 25 2013 Jones Vincent 1985 Manhattan The Army and the Atomic Bomb PDF Washington D C United States Army Center of Military History pp 46 47 OCLC 10913875 Retrieved August 25 2013 Hargrove amp Conkin 1983 pp 75 76 Gross Daniel October 2 2015 The Tennessee Valley Authority is closing coal plants and that s huge Slate Magazine Retrieved January 7 2019 The 1950s tva com Tennessee Valley Authority 2018 Retrieved January 7 2019 Snapshot of major events in TVA history Knoxville News Sentinel Knoxville Tennessee May 11 2008 Retrieved January 20 2019 a b c d e Clem Clayton L Nelson Jeffrey H October 2010 The TVA Transmission System Facts Figures and Trends Report Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application Retrieved April 18 2021 via Zenodo TVA timeline by year PDF Tennessee Valley Authority Archived from the original PDF on August 4 2010 Retrieved August 5 2009 Morrissey Connor December 11 2018 The Tennessee Valley Authority A Timeline of Controversy Medium Retrieved June 2 2020 Rawls Jr Wendell November 11 1979 Forgotten People of the Tellico Dam Fight The New York Times p 1 Retrieved April 18 2021 Tennessee Valley Authority January 1 1976 Timberlake New Community Final Environmental Statement PDF Chattanooga Boston College Law School Retrieved August 11 2021 Van West Carroll October 8 2017 Monroe County Tennessee Encyclopedia Tennessee Historical Society Retrieved August 11 2021 Browns Ferry No 2 N Unit Test Approved The Tennessean Nashville Tennessee Associated Press August 9 1974 p 6 Retrieved August 23 2020 via Newspapers com a b Wald Matthew August 19 2011 Alabama Nuclear Reactor Partly Built to Be Finished The New York Times p A12 Hayes Hank August 23 2008 Nuclear power option still alive at TVA despite Phipps Bend debacle Kingsport Times News Retrieved December 31 2017 Tennessee Valley Authority v Hill 437 U S 153 U S Supreme Court June 15 1978 Rawls Wendell November 11 1979 Forgotten People of the Tellico Dam Fight The New York Times Retrieved July 4 2021 Smothers Ronald June 30 1988 T V A Slashes Work Force And Holds Off on 2 Plants The New York Times p A 14 Retrieved January 2 2022 Mansfield Duncan July 6 1999 TVA Shaped Valley Over Course of Decades New Deal Agency Tamed a River Changed Many Lives in Impoverished Rural Areas Birmingham News The 1990s Tennessee Valley Authority Tennessee Valley Authority Retrieved May 30 2022 Blau Max October 20 2016 First new US nuclear reactor in 20 years goes live CNN Retrieved October 20 2016 Dewan Shaila January 1 2009 Metal Levels Found High in Tributary After Spill The New York Times p A12 Office of the Inspector General July 23 2009 Review of Kingston Fossil Plant Ash Spill Root Cause Study and Observations About Ash Management 2008 12283 02 PDF Report TVA Retrieved March 19 2018 Dakota wind sites help TVA go green Chattanooga Times Free Press October 23 2009 Retrieved March 19 2018 a b Blockbuster Agreement Takes 18 Dirty TVA Coal Fired Power Plant Units Offline National Parks Conservation Association April 14 2011 Retrieved January 7 2019 Flessner Dave January 8 2018 TVA cuts coal use Chattanooga Times Free Press Chattanooga Tennessee Retrieved January 7 2019 a b TVA Board Authorizes New Nuclear Program to Explore Innovative Technology Tennessee Valley Authority Retrieved February 20 2022 Protecting the power grid TVA beefs up security as cyber threats grow timesfreepress com August 12 2018 Retrieved December 29 2018 Mufson Steven February 14 2019 TVA defies Trump votes to shut down two aging coal fired power plants The Washington Post Retrieved March 15 2019 Flessner Dave April 28 2021 TVA plans to phase out coal power by 2035 as utility turns to more gas nuclear and renewable energy Chattanooga Times Free Press Retrieved May 3 2021 Flessner Dave TVA begins steps to shut down its biggest coal plant EnergyCentral Chattanooga Times Free Press Retrieved July 4 2021 Framatome signs multimillion dollar contracts with Tennessee Valley Authority www framatome com Retrieved April 15 2020 Framatome signs multimillion dollar contracts with Tennessee Valley Authority Framatone February 3 2020 Retrieved April 15 2020 Trump fires Tennessee Valley Authority chair over compensation outsourcing NBC News Retrieved August 4 2020 Derr Emma February 2022 TVA Establishes New Nuclear Program Nuclear Energy Institute Retrieved February 20 2022 a b Our Power System tva com Tennessee Valley Authority 2018 Retrieved January 7 2019 TVA Energy Purchases from Wind Farms TVA Archived from the original on July 31 2015 U S electric system is made up of interconnections and balancing authorities eia gov Energy Information Administration July 20 2016 Retrieved January 2 2022 NERC Transmission Planning Map PDF Map North American Electric Reliability Corporation 2011 Retrieved April 18 2021 via Open Access Same Time Information System Chapter 8 Recreation Management PDF Natural Resource Plan Tennessee Valley Authority July 2011 p 113 Archived from the original PDF on November 10 2011 Retrieved March 22 2012 Mattson Teig Beth Summer 2013 Mega Sites Lure Big Fish Area Development Retrieved March 19 2018 Underwood Jerry June 15 2016 TVA certification primes Huntsville Mega Site for development Made in Alabama Montgomery Alabama Department of Commerce Retrieved March 19 2018 Smith Slim November 18 2015 Higgins Lowndes shooting for third TVA megasite The Commercial Dispatch Columbus MS Retrieved March 19 2018 If it is certified the 1 200 acre site near the Golden Triangle Regional Airport will be the third megasite in the area Perlstein Rick 2001 Before the storm Barry Goldwater and the unmaking of the American consensus New York Hill and Wang p 226 ISBN 978 0 8090 2859 7 OCLC 801179619 McCraw Thomas K 1971 TVA and the power fight 1933 1939 Critical periods of history Philadelphia Lippincott p 157 OCLC 162313 O Neill Karen M June 2002 Why the TVA Remains Unique Interest Groups and the Defeat of New Deal River Planning Rural Sociology 67 2 163 182 doi 10 1111 j 1549 0831 2002 tb00099 x ISSN 0036 0112 Harper Liz Ronald Reagan In Memoriam Biography NewsHour with Jim Lehrer online PBS Archived from the original on February 27 2012 In 1962 GE concerned that Reagan s conservative politics made him a liability fired him for criticizing the Tennessee Valley Authority as an example of big government Weisberg Jacob January 8 2016 The Road to Reagandom How Reagan s eight year gig as the host of General Electric Theater sparked his conservative conversion and became the genesis of his political career Slate Archived from the original on July 18 2017 Retrieved March 19 2018 Moldea Dan E March 15 1987 Ronald Reagan and his 1962 grand jury testimony The Washington Post Retrieved March 19 2018 Inquiry Dealt With Suspected Payoffs by Conglomerate Book Says Reagan Was Cleared in 60s Probe of MCA Los Angeles Times Associated Press September 21 1986 Retrieved March 19 2018 Edwards Lee 1995 Goldwater The man who made a revolution Washington D C Regnery ISBN 978 0 89526 471 8 OCLC 624456231 Mark David 2007 Going dirty The art of negative campaigning Lanham MD Rowman amp Littlefield p 46 ISBN 978 0 7425 9982 6 OCLC 396994651 Ashwander v Tennessee Valley Authority 297 U S 288 1936 Rodgers Paul 2011 United States Constitutional Law An Introduction Jefferson NC McFarland amp Co p 48 ISBN 978 0 7864 6017 5 OCLC 707092889 Ezzell Timothy 2009 Jo Conn Guild Guild Jo Conn Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture Retrieved February 11 2013 Robinson Bonnie April 26 1942 Historic Bean Station Oldest House in This Section Fine Homes and Other Landmarks Will Disappear in Cherokee Dam Lake Knoxville News Sentinel p 26 Retrieved November 7 2020 via Newspapers com a b Onion Rebecca September 5 2013 The Tennessee Valley Authority vs the Family That Just Wouldn t Leave Slate Magazine Retrieved March 4 2019 TVA Tennessee Historical Society March 13 2017 Retrieved July 5 2021 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint url status link Jefferson Chapman Tellico Archaeology 12 000 Years of Native American History Tennessee Valley Authority 1985 Vicki Rozema Footsteps of the Cherokees A Guide to the Eastern Homelands of the Cherokee Nation Winston Salem John F Blair 135 Madden Tom July 2 1981 Private land TVA claimed for lake to be given away to developers UPI Boca Raton Florida Retrieved March 4 2019 Wild River 50th Anniversary Celebration Plans Chattanoogan com Chattanooga Tennessee April 29 2010 Retrieved February 3 2019 Nelson S Tremaine Deliverance Revisited Its relevance to modern American culture is enough to give alumnus James Dickey s acclaimed novel another look Vanderbilt Magazine Retrieved December 15 2021 Canby Vincent December 19 1984 FILM Farmers Plight in The River The New York Times Retrieved April 3 2022 Cavanaugh Tim March 2001 O Big Brother Where Art Thou Reason Los Angeles Reason Foundation Retrieved July 4 2021 Bibliography EditColignon Richard A 1997 Power Plays Critical Events in the Institutionalism of the Tennessee Valley Authority SUNY series in the sociology of work Albany NY State University of New York Press ISBN 978 0 585 07708 6 OCLC 42855981 Creese Walter L 1990 TVA s public planning The vision the reality Knoxville University of Tennessee Press ISBN 978 0 87049 638 7 OCLC 476873440 Culvahouse Tim ed 2007 The Tennessee Valley Authority Design and persuasion New York Princeton Architectural Press OCLC 929309559 Hargrove Erwin C Conkin Paul K eds 1983 TVA Fifty years of grass roots bureaucracy Urbana IL University of Illinois Press ISBN 978 0 252 01086 6 OCLC 474377514 Hargrove Erwin C 1994 Prisoners of myth the leadership of the Tennessee Valley Authority 1933 1990 Princeton Studies in American Politics Historical International and Comparative Perspectives Princeton NJ Princeton Univ Press ISBN 978 0 691 03467 6 JSTOR j ctt7rvbh Kull Donald C Winter 1949 Decentralized Budget Administration in the Tennessee Valley Authority Public Administration Review 9 1 30 35 doi 10 2307 972660 ISSN 0033 3352 JSTOR 972660 OCLC 5544417850 Lilienthal David E 1953 TVA Democracy on the march New York Harper amp Row McDonald Michael J Muldowny John 1982 TVA and the dispossessed the resettlement of population in the Norris Dam area Knoxville University of Tennessee Press ISBN 978 1 57233 164 8 OCLC 772665997 Morgan Arthur E 1974 The making of the TVA Buffalo N Y Prometheus Books ISBN 978 0 87975 034 3 OCLC 607606121 Neuse Steven M 1996 David E Lilienthal The Journey of an American Liberal Knoxville Tennessee The University of Tennessee Press ISBN 0 87049 940 8 Neuse Steven M 2004 McElvaine Robert S ed Tennessee Valley Authority TVA Encyclopedia of Great Depression Farmington Hills Michigan Macmillan Reference USA Neuse Steven M November December 1983 TVA at Age Fifty Reflections and Retrospect Public Administration Review 43 6 491 499 doi 10 2307 975916 ISSN 0033 3352 JSTOR 975916 OCLC 5550047671 Neuse Steven M 1996 David E Lilienthal the journey of an American liberal Knoxville University of Tennessee Press ISBN 978 0 87049 940 1 OCLC 243857932 Russell Dean 1949 The TVA idea Irvington on Hudson NY Foundation for Economic Education OCLC 564022 Selznick Philip 1949 TVA and the Grass Roots A Study in the Sociology of Formal Organization University of California Publications in Culture and Society Vol 3 Berkeley CA University of California Press ISBN 978 1 61027 843 0 OCLC 1026647961 Shapiro Edward Winter 1970 The Southern Agrarians and the Tennessee Valley Authority American Quarterly 22 4 791 806 doi 10 2307 2711870 ISSN 0003 0678 JSTOR 2711870 OCLC 5545493875 Talbert Roy Jr 1987 FDR s Utopian Arthur Morgan of the TVA Jackson Mississippi University Press of Mississippi ISBN 0 87805 301 8 Wilson Marshall A 1982 Tales From the Grass Roots of TVA 1933 1952 Knoxville Tennessee Wilson Publishing OCLC 1011650240 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Tennessee Valley Authority category Official website Tennessee Valley Authority in the Federal Register Tennessee Valley Authority March 1950 Procedure for Making Indexing and Filing Computations via Wikisource WPA Photographs of TVA Archaeological Projects The New Deal and TVA on YouTube Papers of Arnold R Jones Member of the Board of Directors Tennessee Valley Authority Dwight D Eisenhower Presidential Library TVA history The short film Valley of the Tennessee 1944 is available for free download at the Internet Archive Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tennessee Valley Authority amp oldid 1092647783, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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