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Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g. cats, dogs, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g. fish, lobsters, octopuses), and amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g. frogs and newts). Some groups of insects are terrestrial, such as ants, butterflies, earwigs, cockroaches, grasshoppers and many others, while other groups are partially aquatic, such as mosquitoes and dragonflies, which pass their larval stages in water. Terrestrial animals tend to be more developed and intelligent than aquatic animals.

Okapis are terrestrial vertebrates.

Contents

The term "terrestrial" is typically applied to species that live primarily on the ground, in contrast to arboreal species, which live primarily in trees.

There are other less common terms that apply to specific groups of terrestrial animals:

  • Saxicolous creatures are rock dwelling. "Saxicolous" is derived from the Latin word saxum, meaning a rock.
  • Arenicolous creatures live in the sand.
  • Troglofauna predominantly live in caves.

Terrestrial invasion is one of the most important events in the history of life. Terrestrial lineages evolved in several animal phyla, among which arthropods, vertebrates and mollusks are representatives of more successful groups of terrestrial animals.

Terrestrial animals do not form a unified clade; rather, they share only the fact that they live on land. The transition from an aquatic to terrestrial life by various groups of animals has occurred independently and successfully many times. Most terrestrial lineages originated under a mild or tropical climate during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, whereas few animals became fully terrestrial during the Cenozoic.

If internal parasites are excluded, free living species in terrestrial environments are represented by the following eleven phyla:

Roundworms, gastrotrichs, tardigrades, rotifers and some smaller species of arthropods and annelids are microscopic animals that require a film of water to live in, and are therefore considered semi-terrestrial. Flatworms, ribbon worms, velvet worms and annelids all depend on more or less moist habitats. The three remaining phyla, arthropods, mollusks, and chordates, all contain species that have adapted totally to dry terrestrial environments, and which have no aquatic phase in their life cycles.

Difficulties

Animals do not fall neatly into terrestrial or aquatic classification but lie along a continuum: e.g., penguins spend much of their time under water.

Labeling an animal species "terrestrial" or "aquatic" is often obscure and becomes a matter of judgment. Many animals considered terrestrial have a life-cycle that is partly dependent on being in water. Penguins, seals, and walruses sleep on land and feed in the ocean, yet they are all considered terrestrial. Many insects, e.g. mosquitos, and all terrestrial crabs, as well as other clades, have an aquatic life cycle stage: their eggs need to be laid in and to hatch in water; after hatching, there is an early aquatic form, either a nymph or larva.

There are crab species that are completely aquatic, crab species that are amphibious, and crab species that are terrestrial. Fiddler crabs are called "semi-terrestrial" since they make burrows in the muddy substrate, to which they retreat during high tides. When the tide is out, fiddler crabs search the beach for food. The same is true in the mollusca. Many hundreds of gastropod genera and species live in intermediate situations, such as for example, Truncatella. Some gastropods with gills live on land, and others with a lung live in the water.

As well as the purely terrestrial and the purely aquatic animals, there are many borderline species. There are no universally accepted criteria for deciding how to label these species, thus some assignments are disputed.

Fossil evidence has shown that sea creatures, likely arthropods, first began to make forays onto land around 530 million years ago, in the Early Cambrian. There is little reason to believe, however, that animals first began living reliably[clarification needed] on land around that time. A more likely hypothesis is that these early arthropods' motivation for venturing onto dry land was to mate (as modern horseshoe crabs do) or to lay eggs out of the reach of predators. Three groups of arthropods had independently adapted to land by the end of the Cambrian: myriapods, hexapods and arachnids. By the late Ordovician, they may have fully terrestrialized. There are other groups of arthropods, all from malacostracan crustaceans, which independently became terrestrial at a later date: woodlice, sandhoppers, and terrestrial crabs. Additionally, the sister panarthropodan groups Onychophora (velvet worms) are also terrestrial, while the Eutardigrada are also adapted for land to some degree; both groups probably becoming so during the Early Devonian. Among arthropods, many microscopic crustacean groups like copepods and amphipods and Seed Shrimp are known to go dormant when dry and live in transient bodies of water. (Note sandhoppers are amphipods and hexapods emerged from crustaceans as well.)

By approximately 375 million years ago the bony fish best adapted to life in shallow coastal/swampy waters (such as Tiktaalik roseae). Thanks to relatively strong, muscular limbs (which were likely weight-bearing, thus making them a preferable alternative to traditional fins in extremely shallow water), and lungs which existed in conjunction with gills, Tiktaalik and animals like it were able to establish a strong foothold on land by the end of the Devonian period. In the Carboniferous, tetrapods (losing their gills) became fully terrestrialized, allowing their expansion into most terrestrial niches, though later on some will return back to being aquatic and conquer the air also.

Main articles: land snail, semi-slug, and slug

Gastropod mollusks are one of the most successful animals that have diversified in the fully terrestrial habitat. They have evolved terrestrial taxa in more than nine lineages. They are commonly referred to as land snails and slugs.

Terrestrial invasion of gastropod mollusks has occurred in Neritopsina, Cyclophoroidea, Littorinoidea, Rissooidea, Ellobioidea, Onchidioidea, Veronicelloidea, Succineoidea, and Stylommatophora, and in particular, each of Neritopsina, Rissooidea and Ellobioidea has likely achieved land invasion more than once.

Most terrestrialization events have occurred during the Paleozoic or Mesozoic. Gastropods are especially unique due to several fully terrestrial and epifaunal lineages that evolved during the Cenozoic. Some members of rissooidean families Truncatellidae, Assimineidae, and Pomatiopsidae are considered to have colonized to land during the Cenozoic. Most truncatellid and assimineid snails amphibiously live in intertidal and supratidal zones from brackish water to pelagic areas. Terrestrial lineages likely evolved from such ancestors. The rissooidean gastropod family Pomatiopsidae is one of the few groups that have evolved fully terrestrial taxa during the late Cenozoic in the Japanese Archipelago only. Shifts from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred at least twice within two Japanese endemic lineages in Japanese Pomatiopsidae and it started in the Late Miocene.

About one-third of gastropod species are terrestrial. In terrestrial habitats they are subjected to daily and seasonal variation in temperature and water availability. Their success in colonizing different habitats is due to physiological, behavioral, and morphological adaptations to water availability, as well as ionic and thermal balance. They are adapted to most of the habitats on Earth. The shell of a snail is constructed of calcium carbonate, but even in acidic soils one can find various species of shell-less slugs. Land-snails, such as Xerocrassa seetzeni and Sphincterochila boissieri, also live in deserts, where they must contend with heat and aridity. Terrestrial gastropods are primarily herbivores and only a few groups are carnivorous. Carnivorous gastropods usually feed on other gastropod species or on weak individuals of the same species; some feed on insect larvae or earthworms.

Semi-terrestrial animals are macroscopic animals that rely on very moist environments to thrive, they may be considered a transitional point between true terrestrial animals and aquatic animals. Among vertebrates, amphibians have this characteristic relying on a moist environment and breathing through their moist skin while reproducing in water.

Many other animal groups solely have terrestrial animals that live like this: land planarians, land ribbon worms, roundworms (nematodes), and land annelids (clitellates) who are very primitive and breathe through skin.

Clitellates or terrestrial annelids demonstrate many unique terrestrial adaptations especially in their methods of reproduction, they tend towards being simpler than their marine relatives, the bristleworms, lacking many of the complex appendages the latter have.

Velvet worms are prone to desiccation not due to breathing through their skin but due to their spiracles being inefficient at protecting from desiccation, like clitellates they demonstrate extensive terrestrial adaptations and differences from their marine relatives including live birth.

Many animals live in terrestrial environments by thriving in transient often microscopic bodies of water and moisture, these include rotifers and gastrotrichs which lay resilient eggs capable of surviving years in dry environments, and some of which can go dormant themselves. Nematodes are usually microscopic with this lifestyle. Although eutardigrades only have lifespans of a few months, they famously can enter suspended animation during dry or hostile conditions and survive for decades, which allows them to be ubiquitous in terrestrial environments despite needing water to grow and reproduce. Many microscopic crustacean groups like copepods and amphipods and seed shrimps are known to go dormant when dry and live in transient bodies of water too.

This article incorporates CC-BY-2.0 text from the reference and CC-BY-2.5 text from the reference and CC-BY-3.0 text from the reference

  1. Shear WA: The early development of terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 1991, 351:283-289.
  2. Vermeij GJ, Dudley R, Why are there so few evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems? Biol J Linn Soc, 2000, 70:541-554.
  3. Garwood, Russell J.; Edgecombe, Gregory D. (September 2011). "Early Terrestrial Animals, Evolution, and Uncertainty". Evolution: Education and Outreach. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. 4 (3): 489–501. doi:10.1007/s12052-011-0357-y.
  4. The Terrestrial Plankton | NZETC
  5. MacNaughton, R. B et al. First steps on land: Arthropod trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician eolian sandstone, southeastern Ontario, Canada. Geology, 30, 391 - 394, (2002).
  6. Lozano-Fernandez, J., Carton, R., Tanner, A. R., Puttick, M. N., Blaxter, M., Vinther, J., Olesen, J., Giribet, G., Edgecombe, G. D., & Pisani, D. (2016). A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 371(1699), 20150133. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0133
  7. Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Daley, Allison C.; Pisani, Davide. "Molecular Timetrees Reveal a Cambrian Colonization of Land and a New Scenario for Ecdysozoan Evolution" Current Biology, Volume 23, Issue 5 (31 January, 2013)| https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.01.026
  8. Hohn-Schulte, Bianca, Holger Preuschoft, Ulrich Witzel, and Claudia Distler-Hoffman. "Biomechanics and Functional Preconditions for Terrestrial Lifestyle in Basal Tetrapods, with Special Consideration of Tiktaalik Roseae." Historical Biology 25.2 (2013): 167-81. Web.
  9. Kameda Y. & Kato M. (2011). "Terrestrial invasion of pomatiopsid gastropods in the heavy-snow region of the Japanese Archipelago". BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 118. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-118.
  10. Raz S., Schwartz N. P., Mienis H. K., Nevo E. & Graham J. H. (2012). "Fluctuating Helical Asymmetry and Morphology of Snails (Gastropoda) in Divergent Microhabitats at ‘Evolution Canyons I and II,’ Israel". PLoS ONE 7(7): e41840. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041840.
  11. Siriboon, T.; Sutcharit, C.; Naggs, F.; Panha, S. (2013). "Three new species of the carnivorous snail genus Perrottetia Kobelt, 1905 from Thailand (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae)". ZooKeys (287): 41–57. doi:10.3897/zookeys.287.4572. PMC3677355. PMID 23794847.

Terrestrial animal Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Terrestrial animal news newspapers books scholar JSTOR February 2014 Learn how and when to remove this template message Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land e g cats dogs ants spiders as compared with aquatic animals which live predominantly or entirely in the water e g fish lobsters octopuses and amphibians which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats e g frogs and newts Some groups of insects are terrestrial such as ants butterflies earwigs cockroaches grasshoppers and many others while other groups are partially aquatic such as mosquitoes and dragonflies which pass their larval stages in water Terrestrial animals tend to be more developed and intelligent than aquatic animals Okapis are terrestrial vertebrates Contents 1 Terrestrial classes 2 Taxonomy 2 1 Difficulties 3 Terrestrial panarthropods 4 Vertebrate terrestrialization 5 Terrestrial gastropods 6 Semi terrestrial animals 7 Geoplankton 8 See also 9 Further reading 10 ReferencesTerrestrial classes EditThe term terrestrial is typically applied to species that live primarily on the ground in contrast to arboreal species which live primarily in trees There are other less common terms that apply to specific groups of terrestrial animals Saxicolous creatures are rock dwelling Saxicolous is derived from the Latin word saxum meaning a rock Arenicolous creatures live in the sand Troglofauna predominantly live in caves Taxonomy EditTerrestrial invasion is one of the most important events in the history of life 1 2 3 Terrestrial lineages evolved in several animal phyla among which arthropods vertebrates and mollusks are representatives of more successful groups of terrestrial animals Terrestrial animals do not form a unified clade rather they share only the fact that they live on land The transition from an aquatic to terrestrial life by various groups of animals has occurred independently and successfully many times 3 Most terrestrial lineages originated under a mild or tropical climate during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic whereas few animals became fully terrestrial during the Cenozoic If internal parasites are excluded free living species in terrestrial environments are represented by the following eleven phyla Gastrotrichs hairy backs live in transient terrestrial water and go dormant during desiccation Rotifers wheel animals live in transient terrestrial water and go dormant during desiccation Nematodes roundworms by going dormant during desiccation Eutardigrades water bears live in transient terrestrial water and go dormant during desiccation Flatworms land planarians require moist habitats and have restricted range Nemerteans ribbon worms in Monostilifera require moist habitats and have restricted range Onychophora velvet worms require moist habitats and have restricted range the only solely terrestrial phylum Annelids Clitellates require moist habitats highly diverse and derived from their marine relatives Arthropods fully terrestrial members hexapods arachnids myriapods woodlice sandhoppers and terrestrial crabs semi terrestrial members include Water Fleas Copepods and Seed Shrimp Mollusks Gastropods land snails and slugs Chordates Tetrapods semiterrestrial members Amphibious fish Roundworms gastrotrichs tardigrades rotifers and some smaller species of arthropods and annelids are microscopic animals that require a film of water to live in and are therefore considered semi terrestrial 4 Flatworms ribbon worms velvet worms and annelids all depend on more or less moist habitats The three remaining phyla arthropods mollusks and chordates all contain species that have adapted totally to dry terrestrial environments and which have no aquatic phase in their life cycles Difficulties Edit Animals do not fall neatly into terrestrial or aquatic classification but lie along a continuum e g penguins spend much of their time under water Labeling an animal species terrestrial or aquatic is often obscure and becomes a matter of judgment Many animals considered terrestrial have a life cycle that is partly dependent on being in water Penguins seals and walruses sleep on land and feed in the ocean yet they are all considered terrestrial Many insects e g mosquitos and all terrestrial crabs as well as other clades have an aquatic life cycle stage their eggs need to be laid in and to hatch in water after hatching there is an early aquatic form either a nymph or larva There are crab species that are completely aquatic crab species that are amphibious and crab species that are terrestrial Fiddler crabs are called semi terrestrial since they make burrows in the muddy substrate to which they retreat during high tides When the tide is out fiddler crabs search the beach for food The same is true in the mollusca Many hundreds of gastropod genera and species live in intermediate situations such as for example Truncatella Some gastropods with gills live on land and others with a lung live in the water As well as the purely terrestrial and the purely aquatic animals there are many borderline species There are no universally accepted criteria for deciding how to label these species thus some assignments are disputed Terrestrial panarthropods EditFossil evidence has shown that sea creatures likely arthropods first began to make forays onto land around 530 million years ago in the Early Cambrian There is little reason to believe however that animals first began living reliably clarification needed on land around that time A more likely hypothesis is that these early arthropods motivation for venturing onto dry land was to mate as modern horseshoe crabs do or to lay eggs out of the reach of predators 5 Three groups of arthropods had independently adapted to land by the end of the Cambrian myriapods hexapods and arachnids 6 By the late Ordovician they may have fully terrestrialized There are other groups of arthropods all from malacostracan crustaceans which independently became terrestrial at a later date woodlice sandhoppers and terrestrial crabs Additionally the sister panarthropodan groups Onychophora velvet worms are also terrestrial while the Eutardigrada are also adapted for land to some degree both groups probably becoming so during the Early Devonian 7 Among arthropods many microscopic crustacean groups like copepods and amphipods and Seed Shrimp are known to go dormant when dry and live in transient bodies of water Note sandhoppers are amphipods and hexapods emerged from crustaceans as well Vertebrate terrestrialization EditMain article Vertebrate land invasion By approximately 375 million years ago 3 the bony fish best adapted to life in shallow coastal swampy waters such as Tiktaalik roseae Thanks to relatively strong muscular limbs which were likely weight bearing thus making them a preferable alternative to traditional fins in extremely shallow water 8 and lungs which existed in conjunction with gills Tiktaalik and animals like it were able to establish a strong foothold on land by the end of the Devonian period In the Carboniferous tetrapods losing their gills became fully terrestrialized allowing their expansion into most terrestrial niches though later on some will return back to being aquatic and conquer the air also Terrestrial gastropods EditMain articles land snail semi slug and slug Gastropod mollusks are one of the most successful animals that have diversified in the fully terrestrial habitat 9 They have evolved terrestrial taxa in more than nine lineages 9 They are commonly referred to as land snails and slugs Terrestrial invasion of gastropod mollusks has occurred in Neritopsina Cyclophoroidea Littorinoidea Rissooidea Ellobioidea Onchidioidea Veronicelloidea Succineoidea and Stylommatophora and in particular each of Neritopsina Rissooidea and Ellobioidea has likely achieved land invasion more than once 9 Most terrestrialization events have occurred during the Paleozoic or Mesozoic 9 Gastropods are especially unique due to several fully terrestrial and epifaunal lineages that evolved during the Cenozoic 9 Some members of rissooidean families Truncatellidae Assimineidae and Pomatiopsidae are considered to have colonized to land during the Cenozoic 9 Most truncatellid and assimineid snails amphibiously live in intertidal and supratidal zones from brackish water to pelagic areas 9 Terrestrial lineages likely evolved from such ancestors 9 The rissooidean gastropod family Pomatiopsidae is one of the few groups that have evolved fully terrestrial taxa during the late Cenozoic in the Japanese Archipelago only 9 Shifts from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred at least twice within two Japanese endemic lineages in Japanese Pomatiopsidae and it started in the Late Miocene 9 About one third of gastropod species are terrestrial 10 In terrestrial habitats they are subjected to daily and seasonal variation in temperature and water availability 10 Their success in colonizing different habitats is due to physiological behavioral and morphological adaptations to water availability as well as ionic and thermal balance 10 They are adapted to most of the habitats on Earth 10 The shell of a snail is constructed of calcium carbonate but even in acidic soils one can find various species of shell less slugs 10 Land snails such as Xerocrassa seetzeni and Sphincterochila boissieri also live in deserts where they must contend with heat and aridity 10 Terrestrial gastropods are primarily herbivores and only a few groups are carnivorous 11 Carnivorous gastropods usually feed on other gastropod species or on weak individuals of the same species some feed on insect larvae or earthworms 11 Semi terrestrial animals EditSemi terrestrial animals are macroscopic animals that rely on very moist environments to thrive they may be considered a transitional point between true terrestrial animals and aquatic animals Among vertebrates amphibians have this characteristic relying on a moist environment and breathing through their moist skin while reproducing in water Many other animal groups solely have terrestrial animals that live like this land planarians land ribbon worms roundworms nematodes and land annelids clitellates who are very primitive and breathe through skin Clitellates or terrestrial annelids demonstrate many unique terrestrial adaptations especially in their methods of reproduction they tend towards being simpler than their marine relatives the bristleworms lacking many of the complex appendages the latter have Velvet worms are prone to desiccation not due to breathing through their skin but due to their spiracles being inefficient at protecting from desiccation like clitellates they demonstrate extensive terrestrial adaptations and differences from their marine relatives including live birth Geoplankton EditMany animals live in terrestrial environments by thriving in transient often microscopic bodies of water and moisture these include rotifers and gastrotrichs which lay resilient eggs capable of surviving years in dry environments and some of which can go dormant themselves Nematodes are usually microscopic with this lifestyle Although eutardigrades only have lifespans of a few months they famously can enter suspended animation during dry or hostile conditions and survive for decades which allows them to be ubiquitous in terrestrial environments despite needing water to grow and reproduce Many microscopic crustacean groups like copepods and amphipods and seed shrimps are known to go dormant when dry and live in transient bodies of water too 4 See also Edit Wetlands portal Aquatic animal Aquatic ecosystem Aquatic locomotion Aquatic mammal Aquatic plant List of semiaquatic tetrapods Marine invertebrates Marine mammal Terrestrial Terrestrial ecosystem Terrestrial locomotion Terrestrial plant Wetland Land area that is permanently or seasonally saturated with water Wetland indicator status ZoologyFurther reading EditClack J A 2002 Gaining ground the origin and evolution of tetrapods Indiana University Press 369 pp ISBN 978 0 253 34054 2 Cloudsley Thompson J L 1988 Evolution and adaptation of terrestrial arthropods Springer 141 pp ISBN 978 3 540 18188 0 Dejours P et al 1987 Comparative physiology life in water and on land Liviana Editrice Italy 556 pp ISBN 978 0 387 96515 4 Gordon M S amp Olson E C 1995 Invasions of the land the transitions of organisms from aquatic to terrestrial life Columbia University Press 312 pp ISBN 978 0 231 06876 5 Little C 1983 The colonisation of land Origins and adaptations of terrestrial animals Cambridge University Press Cambridge 290 pp ISBN 978 0 521 25218 8 Little C 1990 The terrestrial invasion An ecophysiological approach to the origin of land animals Cambridge University Press Cambridge 304 pp ISBN 978 0 521 33669 7 Zimmer Carl 1999 At the Water s Edge Fish with Fingers Whales with Legs and How Life Came Ashore but Then Went Back to Sea New York Touchstone ISBN 0684856239 References EditThis article incorporates CC BY 2 0 text from the reference 9 and CC BY 2 5 text from the reference 10 and CC BY 3 0 text from the reference 11 Shear WA The early development of terrestrial ecosystems Nature 1991 351 283 289 Vermeij GJ Dudley R Why are there so few evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Biol J Linn Soc 2000 70 541 554 a b c Garwood Russell J Edgecombe Gregory D September 2011 Early Terrestrial Animals Evolution and Uncertainty Evolution Education and Outreach New York Springer Science Business Media 4 3 489 501 doi 10 1007 s12052 011 0357 y a b The Terrestrial Plankton NZETC MacNaughton R B et al First steps on land Arthropod trackways in Cambrian Ordovician eolian sandstone southeastern Ontario Canada Geology 30 391 394 2002 Lozano Fernandez J Carton R Tanner A R Puttick M N Blaxter M Vinther J Olesen J Giribet G Edgecombe G D amp Pisani D 2016 A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological sciences 371 1699 20150133 https doi org 10 1098 rstb 2015 0133 Rota Stabelli Omar Daley Allison C Pisani Davide Molecular Timetrees Reveal a Cambrian Colonization of Land and a New Scenario for Ecdysozoan Evolution Current Biology Volume 23 Issue 5 31 January 2013 https doi org 10 1016 j cub 2013 01 026 Hohn Schulte Bianca Holger Preuschoft Ulrich Witzel and Claudia Distler Hoffman Biomechanics and Functional Preconditions for Terrestrial Lifestyle in Basal Tetrapods with Special Consideration of Tiktaalik Roseae Historical Biology 25 2 2013 167 81 Web a b c d e f g h i j k Kameda Y amp Kato M 2011 Terrestrial invasion of pomatiopsid gastropods in the heavy snow region of the Japanese Archipelago BMC Evolutionary Biology 11 118 doi 10 1186 1471 2148 11 118 a b c d e f g Raz S Schwartz N P Mienis H K Nevo E amp Graham J H 2012 Fluctuating Helical Asymmetry and Morphology of Snails Gastropoda in Divergent Microhabitats at Evolution Canyons I and II Israel PLoS ONE 7 7 e41840 doi 10 1371 journal pone 0041840 a b c Siriboon T Sutcharit C Naggs F Panha S 2013 Three new species of the carnivorous snail genus Perrottetia Kobelt 1905 from Thailand Pulmonata Streptaxidae ZooKeys 287 41 57 doi 10 3897 zookeys 287 4572 PMC 3677355 PMID 23794847 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Terrestrial animal amp oldid 1090036843, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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