fbpx
Wikipedia

Seven sovereign states–Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom–have made eight territorial claims in Antarctica. These countries have tended to place their Antarctic scientific observation and study facilities within their respective claimed territories; however, a number of such facilities are located outside of the area claimed by their respective countries of operation, and countries without claims such as India, Italy, Pakistan, Russia, South Africa, Ukraine, and the United States have constructed research facilities within the areas claimed by other countries.

Historical claims to Antarctica

France 1840–present

Adélie Land 1840–present

United Kingdom 1908–present

Falkland Islands Dependencies 1908–1962
British Antarctic Territory 1962–present

New Zealand 1923–present

Ross Dependency 1923–present

Norway 1931–present

Peter I Island 1931–present
Queen Maud Land 1939–present

Australia 1933–present

Australian Antarctic Territory 1933–present

Nazi Germany 1939–1945

New Swabia 1939–1945

Chile 1940–present

Chilean Antarctic Territory 1940–present

Argentina 1943–present

Argentine Antarctica 1943–present

Spanish claims

According to Argentina and Chile, the Spanish Empire had claims on Antarctica. The capitulación (governorship) granted to the conquistador Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz explicitly included all lands south of the Straits of Magellan (Terra Australis, and Tierra del Fuego and by extension potentially the entire continent of Antarctica). This grant established, according to Argentina and Chile, that an animus occupandi existed on the part of Spain in Antarctica. Spain's sovereignty claim over parts of Antarctica was, according to Chile and Argentina, internationally recognized with the Inter caetera bull of 1493 and the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. Argentina and Chile treat these treaties as legal international treaties mediated by the Catholic Church that was at that time a recognized arbiter in such matters. Each country currently has claimed a sector of the Antarctic continent that is more or less directly south of its national antarctic-facing lands.

Modern Spain has not claimed any Antarctic territory. It operates two summer research stations (Gabriel de Castilla Base and Juan Carlos I Base) in the South Shetland Islands.

British claims

The United Kingdom reasserted sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in the far South Atlantic in 1833 and maintained a continuous presence there. In 1908, the British government extended its territorial claim by declaring sovereignty over "South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands, and the (South) Sandwich Islands, and Graham's Land, situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and on the Antarctic continent to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude, and lying between the 20th and the 80th degrees of west longitude". All these territories were administered as Falkland Islands Dependencies from Stanley by the Governor of the Falkland Islands. The motivation for this declaration lay in the need to regulate and tax the whaling industry effectively.[citation needed] Commercial operators would hunt whales in areas outside the official boundaries of the Falkland Islands and its dependencies, and there was a need to close this loophole.[citation needed]

In 1917, the wording of the claim was modified, so as unambiguously to include all the territory in the sector stretching to the South Pole (thus encompassing all the present British Antarctic Territory). The new claim covered "all islands and territories whatsoever between the 20th degree of west longitude and the 50th degree of west longitude which are situated south of the 50th parallel of south latitude; and all islands and territories whatsoever between the 50th degree of west longitude and the 80th degree of west longitude which are situated south of the 58th parallel of south latitude".

It was the ambition of Leopold Amery, then Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, that Britain incorporate the entire continent into the Empire. In a memorandum to the governors-general for Australia and New Zealand, he wrote that 'with the exception of Chile and Argentina and some barren islands belonging to France... it is desirable that the whole of the Antarctic should ultimately be included in the British Empire.' The first step was taken on 30 July 1923, when the British government passed an Order in Council under the British Settlements Act 1887, defining the new borders for the Ross Dependency – "that part of His Majesty's Dominions in the Antarctic Seas, which comprises all the islands and territories between the 160th degree of East Longitude and the 150th degree of West Longitude which are situated south of the 60th degree of South Latitude shall be named the Ross Dependency." The Order in Council then went on to appoint the Governor-General and Commander-in Chief of New Zealand as the Governor of the territory.

In 1930, the United Kingdom claimed Enderby Land. In 1933, a British imperial order transferred territory south of 60° S and between meridians 160° E and 45° E to Australia as the Australian Antarctic Territory.

Following the passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, the government of the United Kingdom relinquished all control over the government of New Zealand and Australia. This however had no bearing on the obligations of the governors-general of both countries in their capacity as Governors of the Antarctic territories.

Other European claims

Discovery and claim of French sovereignty on Adélie Land by Jules Dumont d'Urville, in 1840.

The basis for the claim to Adélie Land by France depended on the discovery of the coastline in 1840 by the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville, who named it after his wife, Adèle. He erected the French flag and took possession of the land for France, on January 21, 1840 at 5:30 pm.

The British eventually decided to recognize this claim, and the border between Adélie Land and the Australian Antarctic Territory was fixed definitively in 1938.

These developments also concerned Norwegian whaling interests which wished to avoid British taxation of whaling stations in the Antarctic and felt concern that they would be commercially excluded from the continent. The whale-ship owner Lars Christensen financed several expeditions to the Antarctic with the view to claiming land for Norway and to establishing stations on Norwegian territory to gain better privileges. The first expedition, led by Nils Larsen and Ola Olstad, landed on Peter I Island in 1929 and claimed the island for Norway. On 6 March 1931 a Norwegian royal proclamation declared the island under Norwegian sovereignty and on 23 March 1933 the island was declared a dependency.

The 1929 expedition led by Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen and Finn Lützow-Holm named the continental landmass near the island as Queen Maud Land after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales. The territory was explored further during the Norvegia expedition of 1930–31. Negotiations with the British government in 1938 resulted in setting the western border of Queen Maud Land at 20°W.

Norwegian expedition landing on Peter I Island in 1929.

The United States, Chile, the Soviet Union and Germany disputed Norway's claim. In 1938 Germany dispatched the German Antarctic Expedition, led by Alfred Ritscher, to fly over as much of it as possible. The ship Schwabenland reached the pack ice off Antarctica on 19 January 1939. During the expedition, Ritscher photographed an area of about 350,000 square kilometres (140,000 sq mi) from the air and dropped darts inscribed with swastikas every 26 kilometres (16 mi). However, despite intensively surveying the land, Germany never made any formal claim or constructed any lasting bases. Hence, the German Antarctic claim, known as New Swabia, was disputed at the time, and currently is not considered.

On 14 January 1939, five days before the German arrival, Norway annexed Queen Maud Land after a royal decree announced that the land bordering the Falkland Islands Dependencies in the west and the Australian Antarctic Dependency in the east was to be brought under Norwegian sovereignty. The primary aim of the annexation was to secure the Norwegian whaling industry's access to the region. In 1948 Norway and the United Kingdom agreed to limit Norway's longitudinal claims of Queen Maud Land to 20°W to 45°E, and to incorporate the Bruce Coast and Coats Land into Norwegian territory.

South American involvement

Omond House was built in 1904 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition as the first permanent base in Antarctica. It was later sold to Argentina.
President of Chile Gabriel Gonzalez Videla during his visit in the 1940s. With this he became the first head of government and state to visit Antarctica.

Upon independence in the early 19th century South American nations based their boundaries upon the uti possidetis iuris principle. This meant there was no land without a sovereign. Chile and Argentina applied this to Antarctica citing the Inter caetera bull of 1493 and the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. Argentina and Chile treat these treaties as legal international treaties mediated by the Catholic Church that was in that time a recognized arbiter in these matters.

This encroachment of foreign powers was a matter of immense disquiet to the nearby South American countries, Argentina and Chile. Taking advantage of a European continent plunged into turmoil with the onset of the Second World War, Chile's president, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, declared the establishment of a Chilean Antarctic Territory in areas already claimed by Britain.

Argentina has a long history in the area. In 1904 the Argentine government began a permanent occupation of one of the Antarctic islands with the purchase of a meteorological station on Laurie Island established in 1903 by Dr William S. Bruce's Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. Bruce offered to transfer the station and instruments for the sum of 5.000 pesos, on the condition that the government committed itself to the continuation of the scientific mission. The Envoy at the British Legation in Argentina, William Haggard, also sent a note to the Argentine Foreign Minister, José A. Terry, ratifying the terms of Bruce's proposition.

In 1906, Argentina communicated to the international community the establishment of a permanent base in the South Orkney Islands, the Orcadas Base. However, Haggard responded by reminding Argentina that the South Orkneys were British. The British position was that Argentine personnel were granted permission only for the period of one year. The Argentine government entered into negotiations with the British in 1913 over the possible transfer of the island. Although these talks were unsuccessful, Argentina attempted to unilaterally establish its sovereignty with the erection of markers, national flags and other symbols.

In response to this and earlier German explorations, the British Admiralty and Colonial Office launched Operation Tabarin in 1943 to reassert British territorial claims against Argentinian and Chilean incursion and establish a permanent British presence in the Antarctic. The move was also motivated by concerns within the Foreign Office about the direction of United States post-war activity in the region.

A suitable cover story was the need to deny use of the area to the enemy. The Kriegsmarine was known to use remote islands as rendezvous points and as shelters for commerce raiders, U-boats and supply ships. Also, in 1941, there existed a fear that Japan might attempt to seize the Falkland Islands, either as a base or to hand them over to Argentina, thus gaining political advantage for the Axis and denying their use to Britain.

In 1943, British personnel from HMS Carnarvon Castle removed Argentine flags from Deception Island. The expedition was led by Lieutenant James Marr and left the Falkland Islands in two ships, HMS William Scoresby (a minesweeping trawler) and Fitzroy, on Saturday January 29, 1944.

Bases were established during February near the abandoned Norwegian whaling station on Deception Island, where the Union Flag was hoisted in place of Argentine flags, and at Port Lockroy (on February 11) on the coast of Graham Land. A further base was founded at Hope Bay on February 13, 1945, after a failed attempt to unload stores on February 7, 1944. Symbols of British sovereignty, including post offices, signposts and plaques were also constructed and postage stamps were issued.

Operation Tabarin provoked Chile to organise its First Chilean Antarctic Expedition in 1947–48, where the Chilean president Gabriel González Videla personally inaugurated one of its bases.

Following the end of the war in 1945, the British bases were handed over to civilian members of the newly created Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (subsequently the British Antarctic Survey), the first such national scientific body to be established in Antarctica.

Postwar developments

Hut built at Hope Bay in 1903. It was there that the only instance of shots fired in anger on the Continent occurred in 1952.

Friction between Britain and Argentina continued into the postwar period. Royal Navy warships were dispatched in 1948 to prevent naval incursions. The only instance of shots fired in anger on Antarctica occurred in 1952 at Hope Bay, when staff at British Base "D" (established 1945) came up against the Argentine team at Esperanza Base (est. 1952), who fired a machine gun over the heads of a British Antarctic Survey team unloading supplies from the John Biscoe. The Argentines later extended a diplomatic apology, saying that there had been a misunderstanding and that the Argentine military commander on the ground had exceeded his authority.

The United States became politically interested in the Antarctic continent before and during WWII. The United States Antarctic Service Expedition, from 1939 to 1941, was sponsored by the government with additional support from donations and gifts by private citizens, corporations and institutions. The objective of the Expedition, outlined by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was to establish two bases: East Base, in the vicinity of Charcot Island, and West Base, in the vicinity of King Edward VII Land. After operating successfully for two years but with international tensions on the rise, it was considered wise to evacuate the two bases. However, immediately after the war, American interest was rekindled with an explicitly geopolitical motive. Operation Highjump, from 1946 to 1947 was organised by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd Jr. and included 4,700 men, 13 ships, and multiple aircraft. The primary mission of Operation Highjump was to establish the Antarctic research base Little America IV, for the purpose of training personnel and testing equipment in frigid conditions and amplifying existing stores of knowledge of hydrographic, geographic, geological, meteorological and electromagnetic propagation conditions in the area. The mission was also aimed at consolidating and extending United States sovereignty over the largest practicable area of the Antarctic continent, although this was publicly denied as a goal even before the expedition ended.

Towards an international treaty

The International Geophysical Year was pivotal in establishing a cooperative international framework in Antarctica, and led on to the Antarctic Treaty System in 1959.

Meanwhile, in an attempt at ending the impasse, Britain submitted an application to the International Court of Justice in 1955 to adjudicate between the territorial claims of Britain, Argentina, and Chile. This proposal failed, as both Latin American countries rejected submitting to an international arbitration procedure.

Negotiations towards the establishment of an international condominium over the continent first began in 1948, involving the 8 claimant countries: Britain, Australia, New Zealand, US, France, Norway, Chile and Argentina. This attempt was aimed at excluding the Soviet Union from the affairs of the continent and rapidly fell apart when the USSR declared an interest in the region, refused to recognize any claims of sovereignty and reserved the right to make its own claims in 1950.

An important impetus toward the formation of the Antarctic Treaty System in 1959 was the International Geophysical Year (IGY), 1957–1958. This year of international scientific cooperation triggered an 18-month period of intense Antarctic science. More than 70 existing national scientific organisations then formed IGY committees, and participated in the cooperative effort. The British established Halley Research Station in 1956 by an expedition from the Royal Society. Sir Vivian Fuchs headed the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, which completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica in 1958. In Japan, the Japan Maritime Safety Agency offered ice breaker Sōya as the South Pole observation ship and Showa Station was built as the first Japanese observation base on Antarctica.

France contributed with Dumont d'Urville Station and Charcot Station in Adélie Land. The ship Commandant Charcot of the French Navy spent nine months of 1949/50 at the coast of Adélie Land, performing ionospheric soundings. The US erected the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station as the first permanent structure directly over the South Pole in January 1957.

Finally, to prevent the possibility of military conflict in the region, the United States, United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and 9 other countries with significant interests negotiated and signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. The treaty entered into force in 1961 and sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation, and banned military activity on that continent. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.

Territorial claims in Antarctica

Seven sovereign states had made eight territorial claims to land in Antarctica south of the 60° S parallel before 1961. None of these claims have an indigenous population.

All claim areas are sectors with the exception of Peter I Island. The South Orkney Islands fall within the territory claimed by Argentina and the United Kingdom, and the South Shetland Islands fall within the areas claimed by Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom.

These claims have been recognized only between (some of) the seven claiming states. The United Kingdom, France, Australia, New Zealand and Norway all recognize each other's claims (none of their claims overlap with each other).

Prior to 1962, the British Antarctic Territory was a dependency of the Falkland Islands and also included South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The Antarctic areas became a separate overseas territory following the ratification of the Antarctic Treaty. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands remained a dependency of the Falkland Islands until 1985 when they too became a separate overseas territory.

Official claims south of 60° S

Flag Territory Claimant Date Claim limits/Coordinates Area (km2)
Adélie Land
(District of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands)
France 1840 142°2′E136°11′E 432,000
Argentine Antarctica
(Department of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands Province)
Argentina 1932 25°W74°W 1,461,597
Australian Antarctic Territory
(External Territory of Australia)
Australia 1933 160°E142°2′E
136°11′E44°38′E
5,896,500
British Antarctic Territory
(British Overseas Territory)
United Kingdom 1908 20°W80°W 1,709,400
Chilean Antarctic Territory
(Commune of Antártica, in Antártica Chilena Province)
Chile 1940 53°W90°W 1,250,257.6
Peter I Island
(Dependency of Norway)
Norway 1931 68°51′S90°35′W /68.850°S 90.583°W /-68.850; -90.583 154
Queen Maud Land
(Dependency of Norway)
Norway 1939 44°38′E20°W 2,700,000
Ross Dependency
(Dependency of New Zealand)
New Zealand 1923 150°W160°E 450,000
Total 13,899,908.6

Overlapping claims


Unclaimed

Region Unclaimed limits Area (km2)
Marie Byrd Land 90°W150°W 1,610,000

Official claims of Antarctic islands north of 60° S

Four island territories on the Antarctic Plate located north of the 60° South circle of latitude are associated with the continent of Antarctica. They are not subject to the Antarctic Treaty System. None of these territories has an indigenous population.

Another island territory, partly located on the South Sandwich Plate and partly on the Scotia Plate, is sometimes associated with the continent of Antarctica (since both of those are minor tectonic plates that border the major Antarctic Plate).

Possible future claims

There has been speculation about possible future claims.[citation needed][by whom?] The United States and Russia (as a successor state of the Soviet Union) maintain they have reserved the right to make claims. There has also been speculation on Brazil making a claim bounded by 53° W and 28° W, thus overlapping with the Argentine and British claims but not with the Chilean claim. Peru made a reservation of its territory rights under the principle of Antarctic defrontation(in Spanish) and due to influence on its climate, ecology and marine biology, adducing, in addition, geological continuity and historical links.

Uruguayan adhesion to the Antarctic Treaty System includes a declaration that it reserves its rights in Antarctica in accordance with international law.

In 1967, Ecuador declared its right over an area bounded by 84°30' W and 95°30' W, thus overlapping with the Chilean claim and Norway's claim of Peter I Island. The claim was ratified in 1987.

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. The Treaty has now been signed by 54 countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, and the now-defunct Soviet Union. The Treaty set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent. This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.

The Antarctic Treaty states that contracting to the treaty:

  • is not a renunciation of any previous territorial claim
  • does not affect the basis of claims made as a result of activities of the signatory nation within Antarctica
  • does not affect the rights of a State under customary international law to recognise (or refuse to recognise) any other territorial claim

What the treaty does affect is new claims:

  • No activities occurring after 1961 can be the basis of a territorial claim.
  • No new claim can be made.
  • No claim can be enlarged.

The Soviet Union and the United States both filed reservations against the restriction on new claims, and the United States and Russia assert their right to make claims in the future if they so choose. Brazil maintains the Comandante Ferraz (the Brazilian Antarctic Base) and has proposed a theory to delimit territories using meridians, which would give it and other countries a claim.

In general, territorial claims below the 60° S parallel have only been recognised among those countries making claims in the area. However, although claims are often indicated on maps of Antarctica, this does not signify de jure recognition. All claim areas except Peter I Island are sectors, the borders of which are defined by degrees of longitude. In terms of latitude, the northern border of all sectors is the 60° S parallel (which does not cut through any piece of land, continent or island) and is also the northern limit of the Antarctic Treaty. The southern borders of all sectors are one single point, the South Pole. Previously, the Norwegian sector was an exception: the original claim of 1930 did not specify a northern or a southern limit, so that its territory was only defined by eastern and western limits. However, in 2015 Norway formally annexed the areas south to the pole.

    • The claims of Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom partially overlap (as can be seen from the mixed colours above).
    • Norway claims two territories: Peter I Island (small purple circle near the Chilean claim) and Queen Maud Land.
  1. At the time of the claim, Norway did not validate the sector method of demarcating polar territory. This was in line with Norwegian claims in the Arctic and hence to avoid compromising Norway's position with regard to the former Soviet Union (present-day Russia). In the 2015 Meld. St. No. 32 (2014–2015) 'Norske interesser og politikk i Antarktis' (White Paper No. 32 on Norwegian Interests and Policy in the Antarctica), the Foreign Ministry confirmed that while Norway rejected the sector method of delimiting claims it was not intended create a difference in interpretation of the Norwegian claim in Antarctica. White Paper No. 19 (1939) had stated that the purpose of the annexation was to annex 'land which is currently terra nullius and that only Norwegians have researched and mapped'.
  2. Excluding the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, which is associated with Africa, and Adélie Land.
  3. However, experts in plate tectonics have been unable to determine whether the South Georgian Island Group is (still) a part of the Scotia Plate or have recently been accreted to the South American Plate.[citation needed]
  4. However, the Norwegian government had stated in 2003 that the northern extent of the Norwegian territory conforms to general practice by extending 12 nautical miles (22 km) from the shore.
  1. Prieto Larrain, M. Cristina (2004). "El Tratado Antártico, vehículo de paz en un campo minado". Revista Universum (in Spanish). University of Talca. 19 (1): 138–147. Retrieved31 December 2015.
  2. International law for Antarctica, p. 652, Francesco Francioni and Tullio Scovazzi, 1996.
  3. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/regulation/imperial/1923/0974/latest/DLM1195.html Order in Council Under the British Settlements Act, 1887 (50 & 51 Vict c 54), Providing for the Government of the Ross Dependency.
  4. Antarctica and international law: a collection of inter-state and national documents, Volume 2. pp. 143. Author: W. M. Bush. Editor: Oceana Publications, 1982. ISBN 978-0-379-20321-9
  5. C2004C00416 / Australian Antarctic Territory Acceptance Act 1933 ( Cth )
  6. Dunmore, John (2007). From Venus to Antarctica: The Life of Dumont D'Urville. Auckland, NZ: Exisle Publ. p. 209. ISBN 9780908988716.
  7. LCI – Mission en Terre Adélie – Les derniers préparatifs avant notre grand départ pour l'AntarctiqueLe 21 janvier 1840 il y plante le drapeau français et donne à ce lieu le nom de Terre Adélie en pensant à sa femme Adèle qu’il n’avait pas vue depuis son départ de Toulon deux ans et demi plus tôt.
  8. "A Brief History of Mawson". Australian Government – Australian Arctic Division. Archived from the original on 27 July 2008. Retrieved2008-07-16.
  9. Kyvik, Helga, ed. (2008). Norge i Antarktis. Oslo, Norway: Schibsted Forlag. p. 52. ISBN 978-82-516-2589-0.
  10. "Lov om Bouvet-øya, Peter I's øy og Dronning Maud Land m.m. (bilandsloven)" (in Norwegian). Lovdata. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved29 August 2011.
  11. "Dronning Maud Land" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved10 May 2011.
  12. Gjeldsvik, Tore. "Dronning Maud Land". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved9 May 2011.
  13. Utenriksdepartementet (12 June 2015). "Meld. St. 32 (2014–2015)". Regjeringa.no.
  14. Widerøe, Turi (2008). "Annekteringen av Dronning Maud Land". Norsk Polarhistorie (in Norwegian). Retrieved15 July 2011.
  15. Murphy, 2002, p. 192.
  16. Murphy, 2002, p. 204.
  17. Heinz Schön, Mythos Neu-Schwabenland. Für Hitler am Südpol, Bonus, Selent 2004, p. 106, ISBN 3-935962-05-3
  18. "Forutsetninger for Antarktistraktaten". Norsk Polarhistorie (in Norwegian). Retrieved15 May 2011.
  19. Oscar Pinochet de la Barra (1976). La Antártica Chilena (in Spanish). Andrés Bello. p. 173.
  20. Escude, Carlos; Cisneros, Andres. "Historia General de las Relaciones Exteriores de la Republica Argentina" (in Spanish). RetrievedJuly 6, 2012.
  21. Who's Who. "Haggard, Sir William Henry (Doveton)". Who's Who. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U197383. Retrieved7 July 2020.
  22. Kieran Mulvaney (2001). At the Ends of the Earth: A History of the Polar Regions. Island Press. pp. 124–130. ISBN 9781559639088.
  23. "About – British Antarctic Survey". www.antarctica.ac.uk.
  24. HMS Carnarvon Castle 1943
  25. Antarctica and the Arctic: the complete encyclopedia, Volume 1, by David McGonigal, Lynn Woodworth, page 98
  26. Bertrand, Kenneth J. (1971).Americans in Antarctica 1775–1948. New York: American Geographical Society.
  27. Kearns, David A. (2005). "Operation Highjump: Task Force 68". Where Hell Freezes Over: A Story of Amazing Bravery and Survival. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. p. 304. ISBN 0-312-34205-5. Retrieved2011-05-31.
  28. Klaus Dodds (2012). The Antarctic: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191633515.
  29. M. Barré, K. Rawer: "Quelques résultats d’observations ionosphériques effectuées près de la Terre Adélie". Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics volume 1, issue 5–6 (1951), pp. 311–314.
  30. "South Pole's first building blown up after 53 years". OurAmazingPlanet.com. 2011-03-31.
  31. "ATS – Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty". www.ats.aq.
  32. Rogan-Finnemore, Michelle (2005), "What Bioprospecting Means for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean", in Von Tigerstrom, Barbara (ed.), International Law Issues in the South Pacific, Ashgate Publishing, p. 204, ISBN 0-7546-4419-7
  33. The international politics of Antarctica. Page 119 and 124.
  34. La Antártida. Autor: Diego Ribadeneira. p. 26, Archivado el 4 de marzo de 2016 en la Wayback Machine.
  35. "Final Report of the Thirty-first Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting – PART III: OPENING AND CLOSING ADDRESSES AND REPORTS FROM ATCM XXXI"(PDF). Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty. p. 483. RetrievedMarch 30, 2015.
  36. "Historia". 21 April 2017.
  37. "The Antarctic Treaty". US Arms control and disarmament agency. Retrieved1 September 2012.
  38. Rapp, Ole Magnus (21 September 2015). "Norge utvider Dronning Maud Land helt frem til Sydpolen". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Oslo, Norway. Retrieved22 September 2015. …formålet med anneksjonen var å legge under seg det landet som til nå ligger herreløst og som ingen andre enn nordmenn har kartlagt og gransket. Norske myndigheter har derfor ikke motsatt seg at noen tolker det norske kravet slik at det går helt opp til og inkluderer polpunktet.

Territorial claims in Antarctica Article Talk Language Watch Edit Seven sovereign states Argentina Australia Chile France New Zealand Norway and the United Kingdom have made eight territorial claims in Antarctica These countries have tended to place their Antarctic scientific observation and study facilities within their respective claimed territories however a number of such facilities are located outside of the area claimed by their respective countries of operation and countries without claims such as India Italy Pakistan Russia South Africa Ukraine and the United States have constructed research facilities within the areas claimed by other countries Map of territorial claims in Antarctica including Marie Byrd Land most of which is unclaimed note 1 Argentina Australia Chile France New Zealand Norway United Kingdom Contents 1 History 1 1 Spanish claims 1 2 British claims 1 3 Other European claims 1 4 South American involvement 1 5 Postwar developments 1 6 Towards an international treaty 2 Antarctic territorial claims 2 1 Official claims south of 60 S 2 1 1 Overlapping claims 2 1 2 Unclaimed 2 2 Official claims of Antarctic islands north of 60 S 2 3 Possible future claims 3 Antarctic Treaty 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesHistory EditHistorical claims to Antarctica France 1840 present Adelie Land 1840 present United Kingdom 1908 present Falkland Islands Dependencies 1908 1962 British Antarctic Territory 1962 present New Zealand 1923 present Ross Dependency 1923 present Norway 1931 present Peter I Island 1931 present Queen Maud Land 1939 present Australia 1933 present Australian Antarctic Territory 1933 present Nazi Germany 1939 1945 New Swabia 1939 1945 Chile 1940 present Chilean Antarctic Territory 1940 present Argentina 1943 present Argentine Antarctica 1943 present Spanish claims Edit According to Argentina and Chile the Spanish Empire had claims on Antarctica The capitulacion governorship granted to the conquistador Pedro Sanchez de la Hoz explicitly included all lands south of the Straits of Magellan Terra Australis and Tierra del Fuego and by extension potentially the entire continent of Antarctica This grant established according to Argentina and Chile that an animus occupandi existed on the part of Spain in Antarctica Spain s sovereignty claim over parts of Antarctica was according to Chile and Argentina internationally recognized with the Inter caetera bull of 1493 and the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 Argentina and Chile treat these treaties as legal international treaties mediated by the Catholic Church that was at that time a recognized arbiter in such matters 1 Each country currently has claimed a sector of the Antarctic continent that is more or less directly south of its national antarctic facing lands Modern Spain has not claimed any Antarctic territory It operates two summer research stations Gabriel de Castilla Base and Juan Carlos I Base in the South Shetland Islands British claims Edit The United Kingdom reasserted sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in the far South Atlantic in 1833 and maintained a continuous presence there In 1908 the British government extended its territorial claim by declaring sovereignty over South Georgia the South Orkneys the South Shetlands and the South Sandwich Islands and Graham s Land situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and on the Antarctic continent to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude and lying between the 20th and the 80th degrees of west longitude 2 All these territories were administered as Falkland Islands Dependencies from Stanley by the Governor of the Falkland Islands The motivation for this declaration lay in the need to regulate and tax the whaling industry effectively citation needed Commercial operators would hunt whales in areas outside the official boundaries of the Falkland Islands and its dependencies and there was a need to close this loophole citation needed In 1917 the wording of the claim was modified so as unambiguously to include all the territory in the sector stretching to the South Pole thus encompassing all the present British Antarctic Territory The new claim covered all islands and territories whatsoever between the 20th degree of west longitude and the 50th degree of west longitude which are situated south of the 50th parallel of south latitude and all islands and territories whatsoever between the 50th degree of west longitude and the 80th degree of west longitude which are situated south of the 58th parallel of south latitude 2 It was the ambition of Leopold Amery then Under Secretary of State for the Colonies that Britain incorporate the entire continent into the Empire In a memorandum to the governors general for Australia and New Zealand he wrote that with the exception of Chile and Argentina and some barren islands belonging to France it is desirable that the whole of the Antarctic should ultimately be included in the British Empire The first step was taken on 30 July 1923 when the British government passed an Order in Council under the British Settlements Act 1887 defining the new borders for the Ross Dependency that part of His Majesty s Dominions in the Antarctic Seas which comprises all the islands and territories between the 160th degree of East Longitude and the 150th degree of West Longitude which are situated south of the 60th degree of South Latitude shall be named the Ross Dependency The Order in Council then went on to appoint the Governor General and Commander in Chief of New Zealand as the Governor of the territory 3 In 1930 the United Kingdom claimed Enderby Land In 1933 a British imperial order transferred territory south of 60 S and between meridians 160 E and 45 E to Australia as the Australian Antarctic Territory 4 5 Following the passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 the government of the United Kingdom relinquished all control over the government of New Zealand and Australia This however had no bearing on the obligations of the governors general of both countries in their capacity as Governors of the Antarctic territories Other European claims Edit Discovery and claim of French sovereignty on Adelie Land by Jules Dumont d Urville in 1840 The basis for the claim to Adelie Land by France depended on the discovery of the coastline in 1840 by the French explorer Jules Dumont d Urville who named it after his wife Adele 6 He erected the French flag and took possession of the land for France on January 21 1840 at 5 30 pm 7 The British eventually decided to recognize this claim and the border between Adelie Land and the Australian Antarctic Territory was fixed definitively in 1938 8 These developments also concerned Norwegian whaling interests which wished to avoid British taxation of whaling stations in the Antarctic and felt concern that they would be commercially excluded from the continent The whale ship owner Lars Christensen financed several expeditions to the Antarctic with the view to claiming land for Norway and to establishing stations on Norwegian territory to gain better privileges 9 The first expedition led by Nils Larsen and Ola Olstad landed on Peter I Island in 1929 and claimed the island for Norway On 6 March 1931 a Norwegian royal proclamation declared the island under Norwegian sovereignty 9 and on 23 March 1933 the island was declared a dependency 10 note 2 The 1929 expedition led by Hjalmar Riiser Larsen and Finn Lutzow Holm named the continental landmass near the island as Queen Maud Land after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales 11 The territory was explored further during the Norvegia expedition of 1930 31 12 Negotiations with the British government in 1938 resulted in setting the western border of Queen Maud Land at 20 W 12 Norwegian expedition landing on Peter I Island in 1929 The United States Chile the Soviet Union and Germany disputed Norway s claim 13 14 In 1938 Germany dispatched the German Antarctic Expedition led by Alfred Ritscher to fly over as much of it as possible 12 The ship Schwabenland reached the pack ice off Antarctica on 19 January 1939 15 During the expedition Ritscher photographed an area of about 350 000 square kilometres 140 000 sq mi from the air 16 and dropped darts inscribed with swastikas every 26 kilometres 16 mi However despite intensively surveying the land Germany never made any formal claim or constructed any lasting bases 17 Hence the German Antarctic claim known as New Swabia was disputed at the time and currently is not considered On 14 January 1939 five days before the German arrival Norway annexed Queen Maud Land 11 after a royal decree announced that the land bordering the Falkland Islands Dependencies in the west and the Australian Antarctic Dependency in the east was to be brought under Norwegian sovereignty 12 The primary aim of the annexation was to secure the Norwegian whaling industry s access to the region 11 18 In 1948 Norway and the United Kingdom agreed to limit Norway s longitudinal claims of Queen Maud Land to 20 W to 45 E and to incorporate the Bruce Coast and Coats Land into Norwegian territory 12 South American involvement Edit Omond House was built in 1904 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition as the first permanent base in Antarctica It was later sold to Argentina President of Chile Gabriel Gonzalez Videla during his visit in the 1940s With this he became the first head of government and state to visit Antarctica Upon independence in the early 19th century South American nations based their boundaries upon the uti possidetis iuris principle This meant there was no land without a sovereign Chile and Argentina applied this to Antarctica citing the Inter caetera bull of 1493 and the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 Argentina and Chile treat these treaties as legal international treaties mediated by the Catholic Church that was in that time a recognized arbiter in these matters 1 This encroachment of foreign powers was a matter of immense disquiet to the nearby South American countries Argentina and Chile Taking advantage of a European continent plunged into turmoil with the onset of the Second World War Chile s president Pedro Aguirre Cerda declared the establishment of a Chilean Antarctic Territory in areas already claimed by Britain Argentina has a long history in the area 19 In 1904 the Argentine government began a permanent occupation of one of the Antarctic islands with the purchase of a meteorological station on Laurie Island established in 1903 by Dr William S Bruce s Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Bruce offered to transfer the station and instruments for the sum of 5 000 pesos on the condition that the government committed itself to the continuation of the scientific mission 20 The Envoy at the British Legation in Argentina William Haggard 21 also sent a note to the Argentine Foreign Minister Jose A Terry ratifying the terms of Bruce s proposition 20 In 1906 Argentina communicated to the international community the establishment of a permanent base in the South Orkney Islands the Orcadas Base However Haggard responded by reminding Argentina that the South Orkneys were British The British position was that Argentine personnel were granted permission only for the period of one year The Argentine government entered into negotiations with the British in 1913 over the possible transfer of the island Although these talks were unsuccessful Argentina attempted to unilaterally establish its sovereignty with the erection of markers national flags and other symbols 22 In response to this and earlier German explorations the British Admiralty and Colonial Office launched Operation Tabarin in 1943 to reassert British territorial claims against Argentinian and Chilean incursion and establish a permanent British presence in the Antarctic 23 The move was also motivated by concerns within the Foreign Office about the direction of United States post war activity in the region A suitable cover story was the need to deny use of the area to the enemy The Kriegsmarine was known to use remote islands as rendezvous points and as shelters for commerce raiders U boats and supply ships Also in 1941 there existed a fear that Japan might attempt to seize the Falkland Islands either as a base or to hand them over to Argentina thus gaining political advantage for the Axis and denying their use to Britain In 1943 British personnel from HMS Carnarvon Castle 24 removed Argentine flags from Deception Island The expedition was led by Lieutenant James Marr and left the Falkland Islands in two ships HMS William Scoresby a minesweeping trawler and Fitzroy on Saturday January 29 1944 Bases were established during February near the abandoned Norwegian whaling station on Deception Island where the Union Flag was hoisted in place of Argentine flags and at Port Lockroy on February 11 on the coast of Graham Land A further base was founded at Hope Bay on February 13 1945 after a failed attempt to unload stores on February 7 1944 Symbols of British sovereignty including post offices signposts and plaques were also constructed and postage stamps were issued Operation Tabarin provoked Chile to organise its First Chilean Antarctic Expedition in 1947 48 where the Chilean president Gabriel Gonzalez Videla personally inaugurated one of its bases 25 Following the end of the war in 1945 the British bases were handed over to civilian members of the newly created Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey subsequently the British Antarctic Survey the first such national scientific body to be established in Antarctica Postwar developments Edit Hut built at Hope Bay in 1903 It was there that the only instance of shots fired in anger on the Continent occurred in 1952 Friction between Britain and Argentina continued into the postwar period Royal Navy warships were dispatched in 1948 to prevent naval incursions The only instance of shots fired in anger on Antarctica occurred in 1952 at Hope Bay when staff at British Base D established 1945 came up against the Argentine team at Esperanza Base est 1952 who fired a machine gun over the heads of a British Antarctic Survey team unloading supplies from the John Biscoe The Argentines later extended a diplomatic apology saying that there had been a misunderstanding and that the Argentine military commander on the ground had exceeded his authority The United States became politically interested in the Antarctic continent before and during WWII The United States Antarctic Service Expedition from 1939 to 1941 was sponsored by the government with additional support from donations and gifts by private citizens corporations and institutions The objective of the Expedition outlined by President Franklin D Roosevelt was to establish two bases East Base in the vicinity of Charcot Island and West Base in the vicinity of King Edward VII Land After operating successfully for two years but with international tensions on the rise it was considered wise to evacuate the two bases 26 However immediately after the war American interest was rekindled with an explicitly geopolitical motive Operation Highjump from 1946 to 1947 was organised by Rear Admiral Richard E Byrd Jr and included 4 700 men 13 ships and multiple aircraft The primary mission of Operation Highjump was to establish the Antarctic research base Little America IV 27 for the purpose of training personnel and testing equipment in frigid conditions and amplifying existing stores of knowledge of hydrographic geographic geological meteorological and electromagnetic propagation conditions in the area The mission was also aimed at consolidating and extending United States sovereignty over the largest practicable area of the Antarctic continent although this was publicly denied as a goal even before the expedition ended Towards an international treaty Edit The International Geophysical Year was pivotal in establishing a cooperative international framework in Antarctica and led on to the Antarctic Treaty System in 1959 Meanwhile in an attempt at ending the impasse Britain submitted an application to the International Court of Justice in 1955 to adjudicate between the territorial claims of Britain Argentina and Chile This proposal failed as both Latin American countries rejected submitting to an international arbitration procedure 28 Negotiations towards the establishment of an international condominium over the continent first began in 1948 involving the 8 claimant countries Britain Australia New Zealand US France Norway Chile and Argentina This attempt was aimed at excluding the Soviet Union from the affairs of the continent and rapidly fell apart when the USSR declared an interest in the region refused to recognize any claims of sovereignty and reserved the right to make its own claims in 1950 28 An important impetus toward the formation of the Antarctic Treaty System in 1959 was the International Geophysical Year IGY 1957 1958 This year of international scientific cooperation triggered an 18 month period of intense Antarctic science More than 70 existing national scientific organisations then formed IGY committees and participated in the cooperative effort The British established Halley Research Station in 1956 by an expedition from the Royal Society Sir Vivian Fuchs headed the Commonwealth Trans Antarctic Expedition which completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica in 1958 In Japan the Japan Maritime Safety Agency offered ice breaker Sōya as the South Pole observation ship and Showa Station was built as the first Japanese observation base on Antarctica France contributed with Dumont d Urville Station and Charcot Station in Adelie Land The ship Commandant Charcot of the French Navy spent nine months of 1949 50 at the coast of Adelie Land performing ionospheric soundings 29 The US erected the Amundsen Scott South Pole Station as the first permanent structure directly over the South Pole in January 1957 30 Finally to prevent the possibility of military conflict in the region the United States United Kingdom the Soviet Union and 9 other countries with significant interests negotiated and signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959 The treaty entered into force in 1961 and sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War 31 Antarctic territorial claims Edit Territorial claims in Antarctica Seven sovereign states had made eight territorial claims to land in Antarctica south of the 60 S parallel before 1961 None of these claims have an indigenous population All claim areas are sectors with the exception of Peter I Island The South Orkney Islands fall within the territory claimed by Argentina and the United Kingdom and the South Shetland Islands fall within the areas claimed by Argentina Chile and the United Kingdom These claims have been recognized only between some of the seven claiming states The United Kingdom France Australia New Zealand and Norway all recognize each other s claims 32 none of their claims overlap with each other Prior to 1962 the British Antarctic Territory was a dependency of the Falkland Islands and also included South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands The Antarctic areas became a separate overseas territory following the ratification of the Antarctic Treaty South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands remained a dependency of the Falkland Islands until 1985 when they too became a separate overseas territory Official claims south of 60 S Edit Flag Territory Claimant Date Claim limits Coordinates Area km2 Adelie Land District of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands France 1840 142 2 E 136 11 E 432 000 Argentine Antarctica Department of Tierra del Fuego Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands Province Argentina 1932 25 W 74 W 1 461 597 Australian Antarctic Territory External Territory of Australia Australia 1933 160 E 142 2 E 136 11 E 44 38 E 5 896 500 British Antarctic Territory British Overseas Territory United Kingdom 1908 20 W 80 W 1 709 400 Chilean Antarctic Territory Commune of Antartica in Antartica Chilena Province Chile 1940 53 W 90 W 1 250 257 6 Peter I Island Dependency of Norway Norway 1931 68 51 S 90 35 W 68 850 S 90 583 W 68 850 90 583 154 Queen Maud Land Dependency of Norway Norway 1939 44 38 E 20 W 2 700 000 Ross Dependency Dependency of New Zealand New Zealand 1923 150 W 160 E 450 000Total 13 899 908 6Overlapping claims Edit Claimants Extent of overlap Argentina United Kingdom 25 W 53 W Argentina Chile United Kingdom 53 W 74 W Chile United Kingdom 74 W 80 W Unclaimed Edit Region Unclaimed limits Area km2 Marie Byrd Land 90 W 150 W 1 610 000 Official claims of Antarctic islands north of 60 S Edit For a more comprehensive list see List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands South Sandwich Plate and Scotia Plate South Georgia microcontinent Four island territories on the Antarctic Plate located north of the 60 South circle of latitude are associated with the continent of Antarctica They are not subject to the Antarctic Treaty System None of these territories has an indigenous population Bouvet Island Dependency of Norway French Southern Territories note 3 Overseas territory of France Heard Island and McDonald Islands External territory of Australia Prince Edward Islands Overseas possession of South Africa Another island territory partly located on the South Sandwich Plate and partly on the Scotia Plate note 4 is sometimes associated with the continent of Antarctica since both of those are minor tectonic plates that border the major Antarctic Plate South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands British Overseas Territory Possible future claims Edit There has been speculation about possible future claims citation needed by whom The United States and Russia as a successor state of the Soviet Union maintain they have reserved the right to make claims There has also been speculation on Brazil making a claim bounded by 53 W and 28 W 33 thus overlapping with the Argentine and British claims but not with the Chilean claim Peru made a reservation of its territory rights under the principle of Antarctic defrontation in Spanish and due to influence on its climate ecology and marine biology adducing in addition geological continuity and historical links 34 Uruguayan adhesion to the Antarctic Treaty System includes a declaration that it reserves its rights in Antarctica in accordance with international law 35 In 1967 Ecuador declared its right over an area bounded by 84 30 W and 95 30 W thus overlapping with the Chilean claim and Norway s claim of Peter I Island The claim was ratified in 1987 36 Antarctic Treaty EditMain article Antarctic Treaty System The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica Earth s only continent without a native human population The Treaty has now been signed by 54 countries including the United Kingdom the United States and the now defunct Soviet Union The Treaty set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War The Antarctic Treaty states that contracting to the treaty is not a renunciation of any previous territorial claim does not affect the basis of claims made as a result of activities of the signatory nation within Antarctica does not affect the rights of a State under customary international law to recognise or refuse to recognise any other territorial claim What the treaty does affect is new claims No activities occurring after 1961 can be the basis of a territorial claim No new claim can be made No claim can be enlarged The Soviet Union and the United States both filed reservations against the restriction on new claims 37 and the United States and Russia assert their right to make claims in the future if they so choose Brazil maintains the Comandante Ferraz the Brazilian Antarctic Base and has proposed a theory to delimit territories using meridians which would give it and other countries a claim In general territorial claims below the 60 S parallel have only been recognised among those countries making claims in the area However although claims are often indicated on maps of Antarctica this does not signify de jure recognition All claim areas except Peter I Island are sectors the borders of which are defined by degrees of longitude In terms of latitude the northern border of all sectors is the 60 S parallel which does not cut through any piece of land continent or island and is also the northern limit of the Antarctic Treaty The southern borders of all sectors are one single point the South Pole Previously the Norwegian sector was an exception the original claim of 1930 did not specify a northern or a southern limit so that its territory was only defined by eastern and western limits note 5 However in 2015 Norway formally annexed the areas south to the pole 38 See also EditColonization of Antarctica Demographics of Antarctica Human outpost Research stations in Antarctica Territorial claims in the ArcticNotes Edit The claims of Argentina Chile and the United Kingdom partially overlap as can be seen from the mixed colours above Norway claims two territories Peter I Island small purple circle near the Chilean claim and Queen Maud Land At the time of the claim Norway did not validate the sector method of demarcating polar territory This was in line with Norwegian claims in the Arctic and hence to avoid compromising Norway s position with regard to the former Soviet Union present day Russia In the 2015 Meld St No 32 2014 2015 Norske interesser og politikk i Antarktis White Paper No 32 on Norwegian Interests and Policy in the Antarctica the Foreign Ministry confirmed that while Norway rejected the sector method of delimiting claims it was not intended create a difference in interpretation of the Norwegian claim in Antarctica White Paper No 19 1939 had stated that the purpose of the annexation was to annex land which is currently terra nullius and that only Norwegians have researched and mapped Excluding the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean which is associated with Africa and Adelie Land However experts in plate tectonics have been unable to determine whether the South Georgian Island Group is still a part of the Scotia Plate or have recently been accreted to the South American Plate citation needed However the Norwegian government had stated in 2003 that the northern extent of the Norwegian territory conforms to general practice by extending 12 nautical miles 22 km from the shore References Edit a b Prieto Larrain M Cristina 2004 El Tratado Antartico vehiculo de paz en un campo minado Revista Universum in Spanish University of Talca 19 1 138 147 Retrieved 31 December 2015 a b International law for Antarctica p 652 Francesco Francioni and Tullio Scovazzi 1996 http www legislation govt nz regulation imperial 1923 0974 latest DLM1195 html Order in Council Under the British Settlements Act 1887 50 amp 51 Vict c 54 Providing for the Government of the Ross Dependency Antarctica and international law a collection of inter state and national documents Volume 2 pp 143 Author W M Bush Editor Oceana Publications 1982 ISBN 978 0 379 20321 9 C2004C00416 Australian Antarctic Territory Acceptance Act 1933 Cth Dunmore John 2007 From Venus to Antarctica The Life of Dumont D Urville Auckland NZ Exisle Publ p 209 ISBN 9780908988716 LCI Mission en Terre Adelie Les derniers preparatifs avant notre grand depart pour l Antarctique Le 21 janvier 1840 il y plante le drapeau francais et donne a ce lieu le nom de Terre Adelie en pensant a sa femme Adele qu il n avait pas vue depuis son depart de Toulon deux ans et demi plus tot A Brief History of Mawson Australian Government Australian Arctic Division Archived from the original on 27 July 2008 Retrieved 2008 07 16 a b Kyvik Helga ed 2008 Norge i Antarktis Oslo Norway Schibsted Forlag p 52 ISBN 978 82 516 2589 0 Lov om Bouvet oya Peter I s oy og Dronning Maud Land m m bilandsloven in Norwegian Lovdata Archived from the original on 2 December 2013 Retrieved 29 August 2011 a b c Dronning Maud Land in Norwegian Norwegian Polar Institute Retrieved 10 May 2011 a b c d e Gjeldsvik Tore Dronning Maud Land Store norske leksikon in Norwegian Retrieved 9 May 2011 Utenriksdepartementet 12 June 2015 Meld St 32 2014 2015 Regjeringa no Wideroe Turi 2008 Annekteringen av Dronning Maud Land Norsk Polarhistorie in Norwegian Retrieved 15 July 2011 Murphy 2002 p 192 Murphy 2002 p 204 Heinz Schon Mythos Neu Schwabenland Fur Hitler am Sudpol Bonus Selent 2004 p 106 ISBN 3 935962 05 3 Forutsetninger for Antarktistraktaten Norsk Polarhistorie in Norwegian Retrieved 15 May 2011 Oscar Pinochet de la Barra 1976 La Antartica Chilena in Spanish Andres Bello p 173 a b Escude Carlos Cisneros Andres Historia General de las Relaciones Exteriores de la Republica Argentina in Spanish Retrieved July 6 2012 Who s Who Haggard Sir William Henry Doveton Who s Who Oxford University Press doi 10 1093 ww 9780199540884 013 U197383 Retrieved 7 July 2020 Kieran Mulvaney 2001 At the Ends of the Earth A History of the Polar Regions Island Press pp 124 130 ISBN 9781559639088 About British Antarctic Survey www antarctica ac uk HMS Carnarvon Castle 1943 Antarctica and the Arctic the complete encyclopedia Volume 1 by David McGonigal Lynn Woodworth page 98 Bertrand Kenneth J 1971 Americans in Antarctica 1775 1948 New York American Geographical Society Kearns David A 2005 Operation Highjump Task Force 68 Where Hell Freezes Over A Story of Amazing Bravery and Survival New York Thomas Dunne Books p 304 ISBN 0 312 34205 5 Retrieved 2011 05 31 a b Klaus Dodds 2012 The Antarctic A Very Short Introduction Oxford University Press ISBN 9780191633515 M Barre K Rawer Quelques resultats d observations ionospheriques effectuees pres de la Terre Adelie Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics volume 1 issue 5 6 1951 pp 311 314 South Pole s first building blown up after 53 years OurAmazingPlanet com 2011 03 31 ATS Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty www ats aq Rogan Finnemore Michelle 2005 What Bioprospecting Means for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in Von Tigerstrom Barbara ed International Law Issues in the South Pacific Ashgate Publishing p 204 ISBN 0 7546 4419 7 The international politics of Antarctica Page 119 and 124 La Antartida Autor Diego Ribadeneira p 26 Archivado el 4 de marzo de 2016 en la Wayback Machine Final Report of the Thirty first Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting PART III OPENING AND CLOSING ADDRESSES AND REPORTS FROM ATCM XXXI PDF Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty p 483 Retrieved March 30 2015 Historia 21 April 2017 The Antarctic Treaty US Arms control and disarmament agency Retrieved 1 September 2012 Rapp Ole Magnus 21 September 2015 Norge utvider Dronning Maud Land helt frem til Sydpolen Aftenposten in Norwegian Oslo Norway Retrieved 22 September 2015 formalet med anneksjonen var a legge under seg det landet som til na ligger herrelost og som ingen andre enn nordmenn har kartlagt og gransket Norske myndigheter har derfor ikke motsatt seg at noen tolker det norske kravet slik at det gar helt opp til og inkluderer polpunktet Portal Geography Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Territorial claims in Antarctica amp oldid 1093987869, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.